a haccp rendszer alapelvei

Click here to load reader

Post on 07-Jan-2016

28 views

Category:

Documents

4 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Modul 01 - lecke 04. A HACCP rendszer alapelvei. Biztonságos élelmiszert mindenkinek. Biztonságos élelmiszer. Olyan élelmiszer, ami nem okozza a fogyasztó egészségének károsodását, ha azt a tervezett felhasználásnak megfelelően készíti és/vagy fogyasztja el. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

TRANSCRIPT

Basic principles of the HACCP systembasprinc *
Biztonságos élelmiszert mindenkinek
HACCP is the methodology to provide safe food for consumers all over the world. HACCP is a dynamic, versatile system which can be applied everywhere. This lecture will demonstrate that the principles behind the system are logical and easy to understand. Later on, we will discuss HACCP in more detail using definitions given by Codex Alimentarius.
basprinc *
Biztonságos élelmiszer
Olyan élelmiszer, ami nem okozza a fogyasztó egészségének károsodását, ha azt a tervezett felhasználásnak megfelelen készíti és/vagy fogyasztja el.
First, we have to understand what "safe food" means. A safe food does not cause harm when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use. This definition implies that the consumer has an active role in food safety. Sometimes the food has to be made safe during preparation; sometimes it is important to understand the intended use of a food. Mishandling and misuse can make even the safest food unsuitable for consumption. We will come back later to what harm means in the context of food safety. We will also explain how food should be handled and prepared to keep it safe.
basprinc *
Do
X,Y,Z
The traditional system of food safety assurance in industry was based on applying codes of GMP/GHP in food production and processing. Confirmation of safety and identification of potential problems were obtained by end-product testing.
Inspectors in food control agencies checked for compliance with GMP/GHP codes and also analysed the food for compliance with regulations and identification of unsafe food.
Since GMP and GHP are the bases of food hygiene, it was possible to achieve a great degree of assurance in food safety with this approach.
basprinc *
Ellenrz intézkedések elsbbsége
Igény a hiba esetén alkalmazandó helyesbít tevékenységek tervezésére
Szükség van a technológiai paraméterek monitorozására, hogy mindig képesek legyünk a biztonság ellenrzésére
If this is so, why is HACCP needed? There were many weaknesses in food safety assurance systems based on Codes:
a) Codes provide general requirements without considering the specificity of the food or process in question and its related potential hazards
b) Codes do not provide a mechanism for identifying those measures which are essential for safety
c) Codes do not provide for monitoring mechanisms to ensure that measures necessary for safety are implemented and are carried out correctly
d) The system does not make provision for corrective measures if the process gets out of control
e) Finally, the system does not provide proof that the products were prepared according to the established requirements
There are also problems related to relying on end-product testing for the detection of unsafe food.
basprinc *
Élelmiszer-minségbiztosítás
HACCP
There was a need to have a system where “safety” was designed and manufactured into the product (ISO/UNCTAD/GATT). HACCP starts already at the drawing board, potential hazards are anticipated and "designed and engineered out ", and safety has to be "built in". It continues with the selection of appropriate raw materials. Then, the processes need to be fully controlled. All these have to be performed in hygienic conditions ensuring minimum contamination of the food and opportunities for survival and growth of microorganisms.
basprinc *
Teendk leírása és a dolgozók oktatása
Alkalmazás és dokumentáció
In its simplest form, HACCP consists of identifying potential food safety problems, and determining the most efficient way to prevent, reduce or eliminate them. To assure that these preventive measures or control measures are executed regularly and consistently, they have to be described and the people who execute them have to be trained. HACCP involves careful record keeping, to document how the system was developed and to demonstrate that the process was under control during a given period of time. The results are also used to improve the system.
basprinc *
Veszélyelemzés
Helyesbít tevékenységek meghatározása
Dokumentáció létrehozása
HACCP alapelvei
HACCP consists of 7 principles; the minimum requirements in the mandatory application of the HACCP system. We will now review the meanings of the essential terms used in these principles.
A few important terms must be explained to assure a good understanding of what is meant by certain words or expressions. Some of the terms are not the official Codex definitions. The definitions as described in the Codex text will be given later, when this text is discussed in detail.
basprinc *
Veszély
Codex Alimentarius, 1997
The word “hazard” has a particular meaning in HACCP. It refers to something which is unacceptable because it may cause harm to the consumer. This “something” can be a biological, chemical or physical agent in a food. It can also be a feature or condition of a food. For instance, if a food permits the growth of an infectious agent (a “pathogen”), and if the food is not refrigerated properly, such a condition is a hazard.
basprinc *
Idegen anyagok
This overhead gives examples of hazardous agents. Examples of bacteria are: Salmonella, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum. Viruses include Hepatitis A, Norwalk viruses etc. Many moulds can produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins, patulin, T2 toxins. Well known parasites are Trichinella, Taenia, Toxoplasma etc. Recently, fishborne parasites have received attention. Besides the toxins produced by bacteria or fungi, some foods contain “natural” toxins. Examples are the toxins from the puffer fish, cassava, potatoes. The word “chemicals” refers to man-made substances which are used in animal husbandry (antibiotics, hormones, tranquilizers) or in crop farming (pesticides). Other chemicals are used in food processing as cleaning agents, lubricants etc. All of them can be hazardous only when they are above a certain level. Examples of foreign material are stones, plastic material, glass, pieces of bone.
basprinc *
Objects in the food (physical hazards) may cause choking.
Bacteria and some viruses may cause acute illnesses with symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and fever.
Some bacterial toxins provoke vomiting, while most fungal toxins can provoke chronic illnesses. In experimental animals it has been shown that the latter may cause kidney or liver damage and some may cause cancer.
Some bacteria and parasites may provoke chronic infections.
Both man-made chemicals and natural toxins can cause chronic diseases when high levels are ingested regularly.
These infections and diseases can sometimes be fatal.
basprinc *
Elfogadhatósági szint
Az egyes tényezk nem minden mennyiségben (méretben) és nem minden körülmény között okoznak egészségkárosodást
A tényezket (szennyez anyagokat) mindaddig elfogadjuk, míg a szintjük egy bizonyos maximum alatt marad
It is crucial to recognize that "hazardous" is related to levels, sizes or doses of the agent. The effect of the agent varies with the food in which it is found and the susceptibility of the person ingesting it. Some agents are more dangerous than others, and there is a great variety in the severity of the effect. However, there is always a level below which the presence of an agent is considered to be acceptable. For many bacterial pathogens, the level may be less than one per gram or per portion. For most chemicals, a maximum residue level has been established. For the establishment of acceptable levels for chemicals, risk assessment protocols have been in use; for microbes these are under development.
basprinc *
alacsony, elfogadható, mennyiségben van jelen az élelmiszerben, akkor meg kell elzni annak elfogadhatatlan szintre való növekedését
ha magas, elfogadhatatlan, mennyiségben van jelen, akkor biztosítani kell annak elfogadható szintre történ csökkentését
Potentially harmful agents are present in many raw materials, usually in very low levels. They become dangerous when their level, or the level of the toxins they produce, increases to a point where they may cause disease. Viruses and parasites do not multiply in food; the same is true for many natural toxins and chemicals. However, there are also situations where chemical reactions may continue to occur; for example, nitrosamine formation. To prevent this the conditions leading to increase should be kept under control. If an agent is at a high level and processing is meant to decrease the level to an acceptable one, the conditions during processing should assure that the acceptable level is actually reached.
basprinc *
Veszély-ellenrzés
Az elterjedés megelzése
Control measures should focus on several aspects of food production or preparation. Contamination of foods has to be prevented, and if this is not possible, measures should be taken to ensure its reduction. Measures should also be in place to keep pathogens from increasing to unacceptable levels. Separation of raw (untreated materials) from treated (rendered safe) material is an important control measure. Prevention of dissemination or spread of pathogens is also a very important aspect of good hygienic practice, as is the prevention of recontamination of "safe" products. The effectiveness of HACCP is based on the success of these 5 types of control measures.
basprinc *
az elfogadhatót J
az elfogadhatatlantól L
Codex Alimentarius, 1997
The concept of acceptable levels of potentially hazardous agents means that other levels may be unacceptable. The critical limit is the value which separates acceptability from unacceptability. It may refer to a temperature, a time, a pH, an aW, a level of cleanliness, but also to a level of the hazard of concern.
basprinc *
Azon körülményeknek az ellenrzése, melyek az elfogadhatatlan szinthez, vagy a nemkívánatos mikroorganizmus szaporodáshoz, túléléshez, a szennyezdés elterjedéséhez vezethetnek.
HACCP was developed in the food processing industry because it was known that controlling processing conditions gives a better assurance of the product’s safety than testing the final product. For example, it is more effective to control retorting time and temperature in canning, because even serious under-processing cannot normally be detected by microbiological testing of the end-product. Microbiological process control means having control over conditions which may lead to unacceptable events. Such events are unacceptable growth, survival, spread or contamination of/with undesirable microorganisms. The word “unacceptable” is important because some growth, survival and even spread or contamination can always occur.
basprinc *
Megbízható ellenrzési eljárás az eltérés detektálására
Idben történ korrigálás
Pasztörizálás
Pasteurization is a good example of processing for safety. When a product such as milk is heated for a sufficiently long period of time at a high enough temperature, levels of pathogens such as Salmonella and Mycobacterium bovis are reduced by a factor of more than 106. This assures the safety of the product. Heating time and temperature are monitored and when a deviation occurs, the milk is automatically returned to the raw milk section by a flow diversion valve. When controls are in place to prevent recontamination, no safety problem will occur. If the temperature shows a tendency to drop, timely adjustments have to be made and corrective actions should ensure that this situation does not repeat itself.
basprinc *
Olyan lépés az élelmiszer-elállítás folyamatában, ahol valamilyen tevékenységet folytatnak, vagy a körülményeknek hatása lehet a termék biztonságára és ahol szabályozást lehet alkalmazni egy vagy több faktoron keresztül a veszély megelzésére, kiküszöbölésére vagy elfogadható szintre csökkentésére
Critical Control Points (CCPs) are crucial to ensuring product safety. A CCP can be related to raw materials, processes and practices applied along the food chain. CCPs govern all factors which are basic to the prevention of foodborne diseases.
basprinc *
Ellenrzés
vagy megfigyeléssel annak megállapítására, hogy a CCP szabályozott e
“Monitoring” is checking, by testing, measuring, observing etc., whether a Critical Control Point is under control. Whenever possible, the monitoring results should be available in real time, so that corrective actions can be taken before the situation is "out of control". Microbiological tests are often not usable for monitoring, because it takes too long for the result to become available. Target values are used in monitoring. Even if the value is slightly higher or lower than the target value, it is still acceptable as long as it remains within critical limits; otherwise, the product is considered unacceptable and cannot be released.
basprinc *
Igazolás
A HACCP rendszer végrehajtásának és effektivitásának vizsgálata
Although there is not yet international agreement on what verification should encompass, it means checking whether HACCP is correctly implemented and effective.
basprinc *
Szaporodás - nem megfelel htés / melegen tartás
Data obtained during investigation of foodborne diseases show that a few factors are responsible for the majority of outbreaks, which were mostly caused by mistakes in the food service business. In some cases, the outbreak is due to contamination of food with pathogens. Unclean equipment is often the source of foodborne pathogens. Raw materials, which are eaten fresh or insufficiently cooked, are another source. In other cases, pathogens find their way into food through insects, rodents or other pests. Aerosols (minuscule water droplets) originating from drains or cleaning dirty surfaces with jet sprays etc., carry pathogens from unclean areas into foods. Condensation droplets falling down from cold pipes etc. do the same. Alsoinfected food handlers contaminate foods via their hands, noses etc.
Outbreaks can be caused by pathogen survival: foods carrying pathogens are insufficiently cooked or leftovers are insufficiently reheated.
Lastly, foods that are often insufficiently cooled or not held at hot enough temperatures, so that pathogens are allowed to multiply, are at the source of many epidemics of foodborne disease.
basprinc *
HACCP
Az élelmiszer-eredet megbetegedések megelzésére vonatkozó szabályok struktúrált alkalmazása
HACCP was based on preventing contamination by survival and growth of pathogens. Nowadays it includes also prevention of illness caused by chemical or physical objects. The following overheads are used to explain the basics of prevention of microbiological problems. It is not meant to explain in any detail processing techniques which can be used to control these microbiological hazards. It is a structured system, based on the principle that prevention is better than cure.
basprinc *
patogénekkel való szennyezdés/fertzdés
Not all growth, survival, spread, and contamination lead to foodborne disease. The presence of a few pathogens in a food does not always lead to disease. It is important to distinguish between what is acceptable and what is unacceptable. The HACCP concept is based on preventing unacceptable events, eliminating the conditions leading to these events, or reducing growth, survival, spread and contamination to acceptable levels.
basprinc *
Szükséges a szaporodáshoz
To understand how growth can be prevented or reduced, it should be remembered that to multiply, microbes need nutrients, water, an appropriate temperature and time.
In a food environment, nutrients are nearly always found on surfaces which are not cleaned and disinfected. Keeping surfaces clean helps control growth. Whenever possible, prep line surfaces or line-environments should be dry, to deprive the pathogens of water. Foods should be kept either hot or cold, because these temperatures hamper growth. When these conditions cannot be fulfilled, food should be consumed immediately after preparation, to limit growth time.
basprinc *
tényezk
Hmérséklet
Id
Mennyiség
Élelmiszer
The survival of microorganisms depends on the substrate in which they are found, the heating time and temperature, and the number present before any treatment was applied. The number of microorganisms killed is a direct function of time and temperature of the heat treatment. The quantity of food to be heated has to be taken into account when designing the equipment, and time and temperature required to obtain a safe food. Moreover, in a large quantity of food, there may always be some microorganisms surviving; this is why the notion of unacceptable survival has been introduced.
basprinc *
rövid idej hkezelés
E. coli túlélés,
több, mint 13 millió $-os kártérítés
This slide presents an example of insufficient control. A pathogenic strain of E. coli was in hamburger. Many Americans eat their hamburgers rare and heat the meat only for a short time. Moreover, fat protects the microorganism from heat applied during frying. In this case, some E. coli survived. Only small numbers of this particular pathogen are necessary to produce illness, particularly in children. Many children became ill, a few died and several had long-lasting after-effects. In one case, the parents of a child claimed 13 million dollars as compensation. This outbreak could have been prevented because these facts were known. Irradiation of meat for control of E. coli in products such as hamburger patties at a point in the processing chain before preparation for consumption (i.e. in the processing plant) was recently approved in the USA.
basprinc *
Veszélyelemzés
Helyesbít tevékenységek meghatározása
A HACCP-Codex alapelvei
HACCP consists of 7 principles; the minimum requirements in the mandatory application of the HACCP system. We will now review the meanings of the essential terms used in these principles.
A few important terms must be explained to assure a good understanding of what is meant by certain words or expressions. Some of the terms are not the official Codex definitions. The definitions as described in the Codex text will be given later, when this text is discussed in detail.
basprinc *
Nyersanyag
Tej
Milk is used as an example of a raw material because the hazards it may contain can be controlled by the dairy industry as well as at home.
The following example can also be applied to coconut milk, which is widely used in tropical countries.
basprinc *
Salmonella
Campylobacter
The raw material may contain a number of microbiological hazards such as Salmonella and Campylobacter.
basprinc *
Hkezelés
These microbiological organisms are destroyed by heat; this means that they can be eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels by heating the milk.
basprinc *
Forrás
In the home, milk is heated by boiling it in a pan, so this is the Critical Control Point.
basprinc *
Habképzdés
Reaching the boiling point assures that potential hazards which we have identified in the milk have been eliminated. Milk starts foaming at the boiling point. Thus, the critical limit is the formation of foam.
basprinc *
Vizsgálat
Habzás megfigyelése
Monitoring is easy: we observe the formation of foam. This allows us to monitor whether the critical limit has been met.
basprinc *
Igazolás
Habmaradék megfigyelése
Even if the pan is emptied, we can still observe whether the milk was sufficiently heated by looking for traces of foam on the inside of the pan. This is an example of verification. It comes after the fact.
basprinc *
Felhasználás
és a szaporodást, ami ismételt veszélyt jelentene )
HACCP looks also at the use of food. If the boiled milk is not consumed while it is still hot, it may become recontaminated. Pathogens may multiply, and provoke a foodborne illness.
In such a case, potential hazards of recontamination and growth have not been kept under control.
basprinc *
A HACCP hatékonysága
One very important aspect of HACCP has not yet been mentioned. HACCP is effective at assuring product safety only when it is applied at all levels of the food chain, from “farm to fork”. Food safety is a shared responsibility of farmers, manufacturers and consumers.
basprinc *
Összefoglalás
Biztonságos élelmiszer érhet el a HACCP rendszer „a termeltl a fogyasztóig” (from farm to fork; from farm to table/stable) alkalmazásával
Veszélyt jelent minden olyan tényez, ami elfogadhatatlan mennyiségben van jelen.
Az ellenrzés azt jelenti, hogy ellenrzés alatt áll (szabályozott)
A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) és a Good Hygienic Practice (GHP) a HACCP alapja
A veszélyek elre jelzése a kulcs azok megelzéséhez