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DESCRIPTIONAcademic Vocabulary. Today’s Agenda: How do words get learned and stay learned? What do we mean by “academic vocabulary”? 3. Implicit and explicit vocabulary instruction 4. Classroom practices that grow vocabulary. Presenter: Amy Benjamin - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Presenter: Amy BenjaminYou may access any of today’s visuals at: www.amybenjamin.com
Today’s Agenda: 1. How do words get learned and stay learned?2. What do we mean by “academic vocabulary”?3. Implicit and explicit vocabulary instruction4. Classroom practices that grow vocabulary
• Rich• Gradual• Cumulative• Recursive
The visuals for today’s presentation are available for your classroom use.Feel free to access them at www.amybenjamin.com
Goals: 1. Vocabulary growth in authentic situations2. Improved ability to derive meaning of unfamiliar words3. Positive attitude about words and language
• Aggressive• Purposeful• Pervasive
• Aggressive• Purposeful• Pervasive• Persistent
Implicit: Natural language acquisitionthrough immersion
Explicit: Planned instruction on targeted words:
Etymology (word histories) Morphology (word parts
Estimation: 3% to 20% of instructional time spent on vocabulary
“Lotus Effect” Learning:
Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl
Bulwark—a wall built for defense
Estuary– wide mouth of a river where it empties into the sea
Incandescence—brightness given off by a hot object
Mangrove—a tropical tree
Poultice—herbal medicines applied to a wound or sore
“Rose Effect” Learning:
Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl
Mangrove: a tropical tree that grows in clusters very close to a body of water
What do we notice about mangrove trees?(other than “mangrove”) What might I google to get a picture
of a mangrove tree?Did you ever see mangrove trees? where?
“Rose Effect” Learning:
Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl
Poultice: a mix of herbs or other plants, crushed and placed inside cloth, to be applied to a wound as a home remedy
Poultices can be made of herbs, garlic, carrots, potatoes, ginger, lemon, etc.
“ Watering Can Effect” Learning:
Study Guide: Chapter 2 of The Pearl
adj: incandescent eyes
Related words: candle candidate kindle
Sentence: Under an incandescent sliver of the moon, the trees appeared life-like..
Synonyms andNear Synonyms:
What if ad executives taught vocabulary?
repetitionassociation with emotionassociation with an imagehumorstorynovelty
apprentice: (n) one bound by legal agreementto work for another for a specified time in return for his training in a trade, an art,or a business
scheme: (n, v) a systematic plan of action
Definition contains unfamiliar language
Definition can be too simplistic and therefore misleading
Usually, no context
Not all of the information about a word is captured in a definition
“Charlotte, are you thirsty?
Would you like some juice?
What kind of juice do you
want? Do you want apple
juice? That’s the yellow juice
that you liked at Nana’s. No?
Do you want the purple juice? The grape juice?
OK. Do you want your juice in the sippy cup or
the Big Girl juice box? OK, now hold it carefully.
Two hands. Don’t squeeze it! It’ll spill all over the
place. Very carefully.Sip it through the straw.
II. New word for a simple but new concept
Categories of Word Knowledge:
New word/ new, complex concept
Concept may be understood on progressively deeper level
Of Limited Value…Lists aloneContext aloneDefinitions aloneDictionaries and Glossaries alone
Of Durable Value…Words in clustersLeisure readingMultiple exposures in various contextsChances to speak, hear, writeManipulation of forms of wordsClassify and categorize word listsWord games, puzzles
Rules of ThumbNew learners need SIX (meaningful) exposures to a new word during the initial lesson and at leastTHIRTY additional exposures during the ensuing month.
The chances of learning a word after a single exposure in context are 10-15%.
We learn most words through non-conscious effort, inpursuit of information of interest.
Explicit Teaching: Etymology Illuminates Meaning
Gr: nostos: return home
Visuals illuminate meaning
Explicit Teaching: Personal connections Illuminate Meaning
Have you ever been homesick?
Stories illuminate meaning
Explicit Teaching: Teaching morphology facilitates use
Have you ever felt nostalgic for elementary school?
Teaching collocation facilitates use:
I’m nostalgic for…I’m nostalgic about…feel nostalgic….
Connecting to related words facilitates use: sentimental, memories, forgotten, reminds me of, evokative,
Tier 3: glossary word:Multisyllabic
Specific to a subject area Latin or Greek-based
topography, photosynthesis, isoceles triangle, sedimentary, oxygenated, cartographer
Tier 2: Words of education, business, government, religion:
Components: Prefix, root, suffix Latin-basedelevation, formation, protrude, expansive, isolated, remote
Tier 1: Basic conversational words: Friends & family1 or 2 syllables
Learned naturally, through exposure
hills, grass, rocks, land, sky, clouds, fly, climb,green, high…
Vocabulary List: The Tell-Tale Heart
Foresight: Thoughtful regard for the future
Dissimulation: Hidden under a false appearance
Vexed: Troubled, distressed, caused agitation
Sagacity: Sound judgment
Hearkening: Giving careful attention
Awe: A mixed feeling of reverence, fear, and wonder
Distinctness: Unmistakable, clearly defined
Over-acuteness: Very keen
Concealment: A means of hiding
Waned: Grown gradually less
Scantlings: Small quantities or amounts
Complete sentence of at least ____words: Must contain an action verb and a visual image.
Visual:Draw or find a picture:
My guess: Dictionary Definition:
Understanding the words we meet in reading
Definition in my own words:
“A noble spirit embiggens the smallest man.” -Jebediah Simpson
Should I spend time teaching this word explicitly?
1. How useful is this word? Will students be likely to encounter it again soon? Is it necessary for comprehension?
2. Will teaching this word explicitly equip the students with word-learning skills that can be applied to other words?
3. Am I enthusiastic about this word? Can I make it interesting?
Prior Knowledge: How well do I know these words?
The Academic Word List (AWL):
Background: The Academic Word List consists of 570 word families that are not in the most frequent 2,000 words of English but which occur frequently over a very wide range of academic texts.These 570 word families are grouped into ten subsets that reflect word frequency. A word like analyze falls into Subset 1, which contains the most frequent words, while the wordadjacent falls into Subset 10 which includes the least frequent (among this list of high incidence words).
The AWL is not restricted to a specific field of study. That means that the words are useful for learnersstudying in disciplines as varied as literature, science, health, business, and law. This high-utility academic word list does not contain technical words likely to appear in one,specific field of study such as amortization, petroglyph, onomatopoeia, or cartilage. Two-thirds of all academic English derive from Latin or Greek.
Understandably, knowledge of the most high-incidence adademic words in English can significantly boost a student’s comprehension level of school-based reading material. Students who are taught these high-utility academic words and routinely placed in contexts requiring their usage are likely to be able to master academic material with more confidence and efficiency, wasting less time and energy in guessing words or consulting dictionaries than those who are only equipped with the most basic 2000-3000 words that characterize ordinary conversation.
The following link gives you a two-page version of the list:
Source: Coxhead, Averil. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34, 213-238.
Academic Word List: Subset 1analyze approach area assess assume authority available benefit concept consist context constitute contract data define derive distribute economy environment establish estimate evident factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal legislate major method percent period principle proceed process policy require research respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theory vary
Academic Word List: Subset 2 achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate aspect assist category chapter commission community complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct consume credit culture design distinct equate element evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive potential previous primary purchase range region regulate regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select site strategy survey tradition transfer
Vocabulary-Content-Sentence (VCS)Daily Practice:
analyze approach area assess assume authority available benefit concept consist context constitute contract data define derive distribute economy environment establish estimate evident factor finance formula function income indicate individual interpret involve issue labor legal legislate major method percent period principle proceed process policy require research respond role section sector significant similar source specific structure theory vary
Write a sentence about something we are learning this week, employingone of these words. You may change the form of the words to fit yoursentence. Your sentence must be at least 8 words long.
achieve acquire administrate affect appropriate aspect assist category chapter commission community complex compute conclude conduct consequent construct consume credit culture design distinct equate element evaluate feature final focus impact injure institute invest item journal maintain normal obtain participate perceive positive potential previous primary purchase range region regulate regulate relevant reside resource restrict secure seek select site strategy survey tradition transfer
alternative circumstance comment compensate component consent considerable constant constrain contribute convene coordinate core corporate correspond criteria deduce demonstrate document dominate emphasis ensure exclude fund framework illustrate immigrate imply initial instance interact justify layer link locate maximize minor negate outcome philosophy physical proportion publish react register rely remove scheme sequence shift specify sufficient technical technique technology valid volume
Academic Word List: Subset 3 alternative circumstance comment compensate component consent considerable constant constrain contribute convene coordinate core corporate correspond criteria deduce demonstrate document dominate emphasis ensure exclude fund framework illustrate immigrate imply initial instance interact justify layer link locate maximize minor negate outcome philosophy physical proportion publish react register rely remove scheme sequence shift specify sufficient technical technique technology valid volume
access adequacy annual apparent approximate attitude attribute civil code commit communicate concentrate confer contrast cycle debate despite dimension domestic emerge error ethnic grant hence hypothesis implement implicate impose integrate internal investigate mechanism occupy output overall parallel parameter phase predict prior principal professional project promote regime resolve retain series statistic status stress subsequent sum summary undertake
Academic Word List: Subset 4
Academic Word List: Subset 5 academy adjust alter amend aware capacity challeng clause compound conflict consult contact decline discrete draft enable energy enforce entity equivalent evolve expand expose external facilitate fundamental generate generation image liberal license logic margin mental medical modify monitor network notion objective orient perspective precise prime psychology pursue ratio reject revenue stable style substitute sustain symbol target transit trend version welfare whereas
Academic Word List: Subset 6 abstract acknowledge accuracy aggregate allocate assign attach bond brief capable cite cooperate discriminate display diverse domain edit enhance estate exceed explicit federal flexible furthermore gender ignorance interval lecture migrate minimum ministry motive neutral nevertheless overseas precede presume rational recover reveal scope subsidy trace transform transport underlie utilize
Academic Word List: Subset 7 adapt adult advocate aid channel chemical classic comprehensive comprise confirm contrary convert decade definite deny differentiate dispose dynamic equip eliminate empirical extract file finite foundation grade guarantee hierarchy identical ideology infer innovate insert intervene isolate media mode paradigm phenomenon priority prohibit publication release reverse simulate sole submit successor thesis topic transmit ultimate unique
Academic Word List: Subset 8 abandon accompany accumulate ambiguous appendix appreciatearbitrary automate bias chart clarify commodity complementconform contemporary contradict crucial currency denote detect deviate displace eventual exhibit exploit fluctuate guideline highlight implicit induce inevitable infrastructure inspect intense manipulate minimize nuclear offset paragraph practitioner predominant prospect radical random reinforce restore revise schedule tense terminate theme thereby uniform vehicle via virtual visual widespread
Academic Word List: Subset 9accommodate analogy anticipate assure attain behalf cease coherent coincide commence compatible concurrent confine controversy converse device devote diminish distort duration erode ethic format inherent insight integral intermediate manual mature mediate medium military minimal mutual norm overlap passive portion preliminary protocol qualitative refine restrain revolution rigid scenario sphere subordinate supplement suspend temporary trigger unify violate vision
Academic Word List: Subset 10 adjacent albeit assemble collapse colleague compile conceive convince depress encounter forthcoming incline integrity intrinsic invoke levy likewise nonetheless notwithstanding ongoing panel persist pose reluctance so-called straightforward undergo whereas whereby
Elevated language used in class by teachers; students givenmotive and opportunity to use elevated vocabulary in speech andwriting.
Students have more opportunities to read for a variety of purposes,including self-selected material.
Academic Word List
“Focus 40” words from the Academic Word Listselected by grade level teachers: 1 word per week
2-3 words related to or associated with each of the “Focus 40”; each subject area teacher decides on related words
Subject-specific words, such as those found in a glossary
A Plan for School-wide Vocabulary Instruction
of two- thirds Latin-based and one third Arabic-based words.
Catalan of roughly half Spanish and half French words..
consistent in your daily practice.
of African elements.consists
consistsThe U.S. government of three branches: legislative, judicial, executive.
of nine Justices.The Supreme Court
Cake batter should have a smooth
consistency before you bake it.
To learn to play a musical instrument, you must be
of life on other planets is intriguing.
begins with the union of two cells.
concept to learn, at first.
a world of justice and opportunity.
conceptThe of the Pythagorean theorem is still used today..
speaking, Einstein’s Theory of Relativity could some day help us time travel.
He was unable to grasp the
concept of derivatives in math.
Quantum physics can be a difficult
Academic Vocabulary Concordance
the teacher’s attitude as rude and therefore unprofessional.
that she might .need alternative methods of instruction.
perception of the viewer.
and observations of the scientist must be objective.
Perceiving a potential problem because of the river’s current, the captain changed course.
of its role in the people’s lives is the basis of its philosophy.
perceive a problem with the safety rules not being properly posted.
The angle of a plane can depend on the
The student’s unwillingness to comply with directives led the teacher to
When doing origami precise
folding is essential.
The measurements are required for figuring out the dimensions of the angle.
precision tools require high maintenance.
Synthetic diamonds require
preciseThe Boeing 787 is the result of engineering.
how to assemble the bicycle.The owner’s manual illustrates
GPS satellites afford precise geographic locations.
It occurs later.It happens as a result.An event’s effect.
Bring into the mix— Creating a new oneness— Integrate the parts.
Employ and applyPut to immediate use.Get the plan to work.
It’s easier to understand parts of speech than you think. Simply use the cues above. Not all wordsfollow the same morphology. It’s interesting to see how words morph into different forms.