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- 1.Change Management Under supervision:Dr , prof : Eglal .Cairo University . prepared by Wesam Ahmed Thabet. Wafaa Rashwan Ahmed.
2. Presentation Outline Introduction. Define the change management. The change agents. Types of change . Change management aims and targets. Change management principles. Kotters eight steps to successful change. Change process and change theory. Change management process. Resistance to Change. Forces that influence change. Managing the Change. 3. Objectives: 4. IntroductionThereare some rules for effectivemanagement of change. Managing organizational change will be more successful if you apply some simple principles. Achieving personal change will be more successful too if you use the same approach where relevant. 5. Change management entails thoughtfulplanning and sensitive implementation, andabove all, consultation with, andinvolvement of, the people affected by thechanges. If you force change on peoplenormally problems arise. Change must berealistic, achievable and measurable. 6. These aspects are especially relevant tomanaging personal change. Before startingorganizational change, ask yourself: What dowe want to achieve with this change, why, andhow will we know that the change has beenachieved? Who is affected by this change, andhow will they react to it? 7. How much of this change can weachieve ourselves, and what parts of thechange do we need help with? Theseaspects also relate strongly to themanagement of personal as well asorganizational change. 8. Change Management Definitions Change management is an approach to shifting/transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. 9. Change Management Kotter defines change management as the utilization of basic structures and tools to control any organizational change effort. Change managements goal is to maximize an organizations benefits and minimize the change impacts on workers and avoid distractions (resistance to change). 10. Change Management Thesystematic approach and application ofknowledge, tools and resources to deal withchange.Change management meansdefining and adopting corporate strategies,structures, procedures and technologies todeal with changes in external conditionsand the work environment. 11. Change Management Coetsee (1999) states "managements ability to achievemaximum benefits from change depends in part onhow effectively they create and maintain a climate thatminimizes resistant behavior and encouragesacceptance and support. 12. Change AgentsPersons who act as catalysts and assume theresponsibility for managing changeactivities. OR/a person skilled in the theory &implementation of planned change to dealappropriately with these very real humanemotions & to connect & balance allaspects of the organization that will beaffected by that change. 13. There are two types of change agents:1- The first is a person who is called as aconsultant to the group to assist themduring the change process because thistype of agent comes from outside theorganization; he or she is called anexternal change agent. 14. 2- The second type of changeagentis one who comes from within the organization or group who will be affected by the change. This type is called an internal change agent.These two types of change agents are formal change agents that is they were officially appointed to be in charge of change & they have been given the authority to plan, implement & probably evaluate the change. Just as these can be an informal leader there can also be an informal change agent. 15. Becoming an effective change agentCreate a healthy work environment.Develop a vision for change and have total in-depthview.Performance Management: Ability toreward/confront. And differentiates a successfulchange effort from an un successful one .Power: to legitimize change. 16. Havethe control over own attitude and the waymanage the change. Effective Communications methods. Devise an effective education, training and/or skillsupgrading scheme for the organization. Counter resistance from the employees and alignthem to overall strategic direction of theorganization. Provide personal counseling (if required) to alleviateany change-related fears. Monitoring of the implementation and fine-tuning asrequired. 17. There are two types of changein an organization:planned change and emergent change .Planned change: refers to initiatives thatare driven top-down in an organization. emergent changerefers to a situation in which change canoriginate from any level in the organization. 18. Change management aimsand targets.The aims:Helping organizations become exciting places to work, where people work collaboratively, feel valued, and committed to organizational success.Developing teams which are energetic, and where everyone consistently achieves standards of excellence. 19. Helping managers become transformational leaders, skilled at developing, motivating and empowering their people.Designing and running learning events which are participative, experiential and engaging, and which lead to genuine, long term, change back at work.Change in order to solve a problem, change to make work procedures more efficient , and change to reduce unnecessary work. 20. Helping people at all levels to grow, develop their self esteem, become more confident, and increase their self awareness. 21. There are three possible targets(the persons knowledge, the persons attitude,the persons behavior)1-A change in knowledge is the result ofsuccessful learning which can beaccomplished through the teaching learningprocess. 22. 2- A change in attitudemay result from a change in knowledge when previous beliefs are found to be false or incomplete, in addition may result from a conscious effort to alter an attitude through value clarification or various types of therapy. This change in attitude often follows a behavior change because the persons attitude & behavior must be consistent . 23. 3- A change in behaviormay result from increased knowledge or from an improvement in skill acquired during the teaching learning process. A change in behavior follow a change in attitude or a change expectations whether self or other imposed or may be the result of the normal growth & development process. 24. Change management principlesAt all times involve and agree support from people within system (system = environment, processes, culture, relationships, behaviors, etc., whether personal or organizational).Understand where you/the organization is at the moment.Understand where you want to be, when, why, and what the measures will be for having got there. 25. Plan development towards above No.3 inappropriate achievable measurable stages.Communicate, involve, enable and facilitateinvolvement from people, as early and openlyand as fully as is possible.Resistance is recognized as a natural andexpected response to change. 26. John P Kotters eight steps to successful changeIncrease urgency - inspire people to move, makeobjectives real and relevant.Build the guiding team - get the right people inplace with the right emotional commitment, andthe right mix of skills and levels.Get the vision right - get the team to establish asimple vision and strategy, focus on emotional andcreative aspects necessary to drive service andefficiency. 27. Communicate for buy-in - Involve as many people as possible, communicate the essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to peoples needs.Empower action - Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from leaders - reward and recognize progress and achievements. 28. Create short-term wins - Set aims that are easy to achieve. Manageable numbers of initiatives. Finish current stages before starting new ones.Dont let up - Foster and encourage determination and persistence - ongoing change - encourage ongoing progress reporting - highlight achieved and future milestones. 29. Make change stick - Reinforce the value ofsuccessful change via recruitment, promotion, newchange leaders. Weave change into culture. The Heart Of Change (2002) 30. Change theories1. Lewins force-filed Change Model theory (1951).2. Lippitt`s phase model theory (1958).3. Havelock`s model theory(1973).4. Rogers`s theory(1983). 31. Lewins force-filed ChangeModel theory (1951). Lewin provides a social-psychological view ofthe change process. He sees behavior as adynamic balance of forces working in opposingdirections . Driving forces facilitate change because theypush persons in the desired direction . Restraining forces impede change because theypush persons in the opposite direction. Status quo level is the person balanced state orstate of equilibrium between 2 forces. 32. Process of change (phases)Lewins theoryThree-Step ChangeModel 33. Unfreezing the Status Quo 34. Unfreeze Theexisting equilibrium. Motivated persons bygetting them ready for change and increase willingto change . Build trust and recognition for the need to change. Active participate in identifying problems andgenerate alternative solutions. Is the development through problem awareness of aneed for change. 35. MovingWorking toward change by identifying the problem or the need for change, exploring the alternatives, defining goals & objectivities planning how to accomplish the goal & implementing the plan for change.Get persons to agree that the status quo is not beneficial to them. 36. RefreezingAre the integration of the change into onespersonality & the consequent stabilization ofchange then reinforce the new patterns ofbehavior.(positive change)New level of equilibrium .Frequently personal return to old behavior afterchange effort case .(negative change) 37. Lippitt`s phase model theory(1958). This theory extended lewin`s theory , focusedmore on what the change agent must do than onthe evolution of change itself. Communication skills ,rapport building ,andproblem solving strategies underlie this theoryseven phases. 38. Lippitt`s phase model theory (1958). Diagnosethe problem : involve key persons in data collection and problem solving. Assessmentof the motivation and capacity for change : what are the financial and human resources and constrains? Are the structure and function of the organization conducive to change? What are the suitable solutions and which are preferred? 39. Assessment of the change agent `s motivation andresources : this assessment is important .Consider the change agent`s own commitment tochange ,energy level ,future ambitions , andpower bases. Selectingprogressive change objective: Develop the action plan, evaluation criteria , andspecify strategies. Choosing the appropriate role of the change agent: Act as cheerleader, experts , consultant, or groupfacilitator. 40. Maintenanceof the change : communication, feedback, revisions andcoordination are essential component of thisphase. Termination of the helping relationship: The change agent withdraws from the selectedrole gradually as the change becomeinstitutionalized and stabilized. 41. Havelock`s model theory(1973). This theory is also modification of lewin`s , Havelockdescribes an active change agent as one who uses aparticipative approach. Six steps: Building a relationship . Diagnosis the problem. Acquiring the relevant resources. choosing the solution. gaining acceptance. Stabilization and self renewal. 42. Rogers`s theory(1983). Rogers takes a border approach than previoustheories . His 5 steps innovation-decision processdetails. Making unit passes from first knowledge of aninnovation to confirmation of the decision to adoptor reject a new idea. 43. Rogers`s theory(1983).knowledge : the decision making unit isintroduced to the innovation and begins tounderstanding. Establish the persons awareness. Persuasion: a favorable or unfavorable attitudetoward the innovation forms. Decision Evaluation : activities lead to a decisionto adopt or reject the innovation. Implementation: the innovation is put to use . Conformation and Adoption: reinforcement thatthe decision was correct. 44. Change managementprocess Thechange management process is thesequence of steps or activities that a changemanagement team or project leader wouldfollow to apply change management to aproject or change. change management processes contain thefollowing three phases: 45. Phase1 - Preparing for change (Preparation,assessment and strategy development). Phase 2 - Managing change (Detailed planningand change management implementation). Phase 3 - Reinforcing change (Data gathering,corrective action and recognition). 46. Change management processAssessment) 1) - Preparing for change( Identifying the problem : opportunity thatnecessitates change(symptoms) Data collection and : gathering structural,technological, and people information andeffects of these elements on the process Data analysis : summarizing the data ( adv.,dis adv., risks, and consequences) Strategic determination: identifying possiblesolutions, barriers, strategies 47. con-Decide if the change is necessary.-Make others aware of the need for the change.Swat analysis and basic 4 forces models:(environmental forces ,organizational forces ,task demand , personal need.) 48. 2) Managing change (Planning and implementation) State goal and specific measurable objectivesand also the time allotted. Establishing the who, how, what, and when ofchange. Allocating resources, budget and evaluationmethods. Plan for resistance management. 49. Identify areas of support & resistance.-Include every one in the planning that will beaffected.-Establish target dates for implementation.-Develop appropriate strategy for alteration.-Be available to support others through theprocess.Evaluate the change then modify if necessary. 50. 3) Reinforcing change (Evaluation)- Determining effectiveness of change.- Achieved objectives and benefits ---- qualitativeas well as financial and the documented evidencesof being achieved.- Stabilize the change: - taking measures toreinforce and maintain the change. 51. Change strategies 52. Empirical-Rational Assumes that people are rational (guided byreason) and receptive to change when givenadequate facts, and will follow their self-interest . Successful change is based on thecommunication of information and thesuggestions of incentives. Knowledge is the major source of power. E.g ---- Teaching a smoking group itsdanger and consequences .. Not follow..giving up. 53. Normative-Re educative People are social beings and will adhere to culturalnorms and values. Change strategy here focuses squarely on culture what people believe about their world, their workand themselves and the ways in which peoplebehave so as to be consistent with these beliefs.Successful change is based on redefining andreinterpreting existing norms and values, anddeveloping commitments to new ones . 54. Power-Coercive Thisstrategy assumes that persons with less powerwill always comply with the plans and directions. Result of an individuals need to please asupervisor, or fear of losing their job. and generally do what they are told or can be madeto do. Successful change is based on the exercise ofauthority and the imposition of sanctions. 55. Environmental-Adaptive Peopleoppose loss and disruption but they adaptreadily to new circumstances. Successful Change is based on building a neworganization and gradually transferring people fromthe old one to the new one. This strategy seeks to shift the burden of change frommanagement and the organization to the people. Itexploits their natural adaptive nature and avoids themany complications associated with trying to changepeople or their culture. 56. Strategy SelectionConsiderations Degree of Change. Radical change or transformation argues for an environmental- adaptive strategy (i.e., wall off the existing organization and build a new one instead of trying to transform the old one). Population.Large populations argue for a mix of all four strategies. 57. Degree of Resistance. Strong resistance argues for a coupling of power-coercive and en- vironmental-adaptive strategies. Weak resistance or concurrence argues for a combination of rational-empirical and normative-re-educative strategies 58. Time Frame. Short time frames argue for a power-coercive strategy. Longer time frames argue for a mix of rational-empirical, normative- re-educative, and environmental-adaptive strategies.Expertise. Having available adequate expertise at making change argues for some mix of the strategies . 59. Forces that influence changeinternalExternalOriginate from inside Health care.operation. That may economicsresult from externalTechnology. changes &include restructuringChanging priorities.Changing.Need for increase. demographics.productivity.opportunities. 60. ContdInternalExternalStaffing pattern changes. .Shifts in philosophy.Need for cost.containmentWork process changes.Need for quality of work..life 61. ContdInternal External.feed back..motivational biases. value. 62. Resistance to Change. Resistance to Change is consider one from factors inOrganizational Change: Efforts by employees to block the intendedchange is referred to as Resistance to Change. Resistance to Change has been defined as: ...behavior which is intended to protect anindividual from the effects of real or imaginedchange" - Alvin Sander, 1950 Values, educational level, cultural and socialbackgrounds, as well as past experience with changewill have an impact on the degree of resistance. 63. Resistance to Change Resistance is a natural and inevitable reaction inan organization. You can expect it. Resistance is sometimes hidden, so it may benecessary to take active steps to find it. There are many reasons for resistance; it isimportant to understand it. We manage resistance by working with people,and helping them deal with their concerns. There are many ways to build acceptance. It isimportant to be flexible. But persist! 64. Resistance to Change The key to successful management of organizational change lies in the people. They are the agents for successful transformation of the organization.So lets have a look at whereResistance to Change comes from and how to best manage it 65. Resistance to change lackof trust. perception that change is not necessary. perception that change is not possible. relatively high cost. fear of personal failure. loss of status or power. threats to values and ideas . social, cultural or organizational disagreements. resentment of interference. 66. Why people resist change:Resistance to change can be a defense mechanism caused by frustration and anxietyIndividuals may not be resisting the change as much as they are resisting a potential loss of status, pay, comfort, or power that arises from expertiseIn many case there is not a disagreement with the benefits of the new process, but rather a fear of the unknown future and about their ability to adapt to it, e.g. fear that one will not be able to develop new skills and behaviors that are required in a new work setting. 67. Change Management Howcan I best accomplish Organization-wide Change? The high-level view: Get senior management agreement (i.e. conflicting goals can killthe project!). Identify a champion who can articulate the reasons for andadvantages of the change. Translate the vision for change into a realistic plan and then carryout the plan. Involve people from every area of the organization. Communicate. Communicate. Educate. Educate. Get organizational buy-in to the change. Modify organizational structures so that they will sustain thechange. 68. Change Management Summary Organizational Change Management is all of theactions required for an organization to understand,prepare for, implement and take full advantage ofsignificant change. The goals of Change Management are: The successful design, implementation, measurement and maintenance of an organizations change initiative Enhancement of their on-going capacity for managing change 69. Situation You are a new head nurse in ICU unit , when youassessed the unite work ,you were finding that allnurse in the unit used to follow the function methodwhen giving patient care. However staff nurses areenough for the numbers of patients, so you foundthat must be change this method to improve thequality of care but large number of nurses disagreefor this suggestion. How can you manage? Which strategies do youuse? 70. ?Questions?