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Antioch University, January 2005 Rights, Responsibilities and the Root Causes of Poverty Holistic Approaches to Sustainable Development

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Rights, Responsibilities and the Root Causes of Poverty Holistic Approaches to Sustainable Development. Development Background. 1940’s: Emergency response to WWII victims - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Rights, Responsibilities and the Root Causes of Poverty

Holistic Approaches to Sustainable Development

Page 2: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Development Background1940’s: Emergency response to WWII victims

1948: Universal Declaration on Human Rights in 1948– economic development does not bring about peace and respect for human rights.

1950’s: Disaster relief and “needs” programs

1960’s: “Modernize” so-called backward economies. It is possible, necessary and duty of the world to make that happen.

Page 3: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Development & Human Rights

1970’s: Basic needs, multi-sector programs

1980’s: Infrastructures, structural adjustments, e.g. micro enterprise developments

1990’s: Human resource development• New human rights instruments (e.g. Convention of the

Child)

• Development-related international conferences (women in Beijing, nutrition in Rome)

Page 4: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Search for root causes of poverty

ZaireRwandan refugee camps

Page 5: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Development

vs. and/or

Human rights

Page 6: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Eurocentric DevelopmentSome say development and human rights discourse is Western-created and imbued with Western superiorityDevelopment way is wrong and those doing the defining and funding are privileged, male, Western outsiders.Mismatch with what local people are doing with their lives

Page 7: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Human Rights debates“Negative rights”–states to protect certain rights that violate human dignity

Examples: Freedom from torture, degrading treatment and arbitrary detention; freedom of speech, association and religion

“Positive rights”– states to promote certain social outcomes.

Examples: Rights to education, adequate standards of living, highest obtainable standard of health.

Page 8: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

DebatesPresumed Western origin of human rightsQuestions about the meaning and even existence of rights, e.g. rights or aspirations?Issue of direct application of human rights standards to non-state actors e.g. corporationsAre human rights universal or is the entire development and human rights ideology Eurocentric?

Page 9: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Which comes first – removing poverty and misery or

guaranteeing political liberty and civil rights?

--Amartya Sen

Page 10: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Burmese Aung San Suu Kyi,the struggle for democracy and human rights in Burma is a struggle for life and dignity…people of my country want two freedoms that spell security: freedom from want and freedom from war”

Page 11: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Rights-based approach (RBA)

People are poor not only, because they lack assets and skills, but because they suffer

from social exclusion, marginalization and

discrimination.

Page 12: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

 Hierarchy of Causes of Poverty:Immediate Causes

These are causes that are directly related to life and survival and include:

•Disease, •Famine,

•Environmental disasters, •Conflict

Page 13: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Intermediate CausesThese causes affect people’s well-being and opportunities for development and livelihood

security, where the majority of current development efforts are targeted.

• Low livelihood (agric or income) productivity; • Limited livelihood opportunities;• Lack of skills; • Inadequate access to food;• Inadequate care for women and children;• Lack of basic services, e.g., health, education, water and sanitation, education

Page 14: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Underlying Causes:

Underlying Causes of Poverty are related to the systemic and structural underpinnings of under-

development.

Underlying Causes operate at the societal and higher levels, e.g. regional, global

Page 15: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Underlying Causes are most often the result of a combination of:

Political

Economic

Social

(&/or)

Environmental Factors

Page 16: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Levels of Cause in Relation to Response

Immediate – Emergency ReliefIntermediate – Development Assistance &

Needs FocusUnderlying – Needs & Rights Focus

Page 17: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Interrelated Outcomes

Poverty Eradication& Social Justice

Slightly modified diagram developed by CARE Somalia staff2004

Poverty Eradication& Social Justice

Slightly modified diagram developed by CARE Somalia staff2004

Poverty Eradication& Social Justice

Slightly modified diagram developed by CARE Somalia staff2004

Poverty Eradication& Social Justice

Poverty Eradication& Social Justice

Slightly modified diagram developed by CARE Somalia staff2004

Social positions = rights, gender, discriminationHuman conditions = needsEnabling Environment = governance, partnership, institutional context

Page 18: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

RBA Poverty eradication and social justice by:

Improving the human condition, e.g. basic needs, livelihood securityImproving social positions, e.g. control of their lives, end inequality discriminationCreating a sound enabling environment, e.g. responsive public, private, civic and social institutions, inclusive of constituents

Page 19: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

World Bank, 2000“Poverty as multidimensional poverty, beyond

low income, encompassing lack of access to health and education as well as vulnerability, voicelessness and

powerlessness.”

Page 20: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Three considerations of basic rights:

1. Direct importance to human living2. Instrumental importance to ensure people

are heard and supported3. Constructive in conceptualization of

“needs”

Page 21: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Rights-based approachFocuses on claims and duties and mechanisms that can promote respect and adjudicate the violation of rights, end states vs. programs.Those served are rights-holders, not simply beneficiaries or participantsMoves from charity toward structural change, from needs-based to rights-based, e.g. nutrition storyIncludes duty-holders such as iNGO’s, corporations, individuals, NGO’s

Page 22: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Unifying Framework for Poverty Eradication & Social Justice

ENABLING ENVIRONMENT

(Improving Governance)

HUMAN CONDITIONS(Increasing Opportunity)

Access to Resources& Services

Accumulationof Capital& Assets

Productivity,Livelihoods,& Income

Human Capabilities

SOCIAL POSITIONS(Improving Social

Equity)

DistributionCapital

& Assets

SocialInclusion

Rights,Responsibilities,

& Dignity

GenderEquity

Civil Society

ParticipationGovernance for Equity & Opportunity

Private Sector

Accountability

EnvironmentalStewardship

InternationalArena

InternationalArena

InternationalArena

Unifying Framework for Poverty Eradication & Social Justice

Unifying Framework for Poverty Eradication & Social Justice

ENABLING ENVIRONMENT

(Improving Governance)

ENABLING ENVIRONMENT

(Improving Governance)

HUMAN CONDITIONS(Increasing Opportunity)

HUMAN CONDITIONS(Increasing Opportunity)

Access to Resources& Services

Accumulationof Capital& Assets

Productivity,Livelihoods,& Income

Human Capabilities

SOCIAL POSITIONS(Improving Social

Equity)

SOCIAL POSITIONS(Improving Social

Equity)

DistributionCapital

& Assets

SocialInclusion

Rights,Responsibilities,

& Dignity

GenderEquity

Civil Society

ParticipationGovernance for Equity & Opportunity

Private Sector

Accountability

EnvironmentalStewardship

InternationalArena

InternationalArena

InternationalArena

InternationalArena

InternationalArena

InternationalArena

InternationalArena

Page 23: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

What does it mean for development?

• Process as important as actual products• Facilitation and advocacy integrated with

direct service delivery and capacity-building• Respect and dignity in cultures• Focus on end states• Importance of working on both Needs &

Rights

Page 24: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Unifying Framework for Poverty Eradication & Social Justice

ENABLING ENVIRONMENT

(Improving Governance)

HUMAN CONDITIONS(Increasing Opportunity)

Access to Resources& Services

Accumulationof Capital& Assets

Productivity,Livelihoods,& Income

Human Capabilities

SOCIAL POSITIONS(Improving Social Equity)

DistributionCapital

& Assets

SocialInclusion

Rights,Responsibilities,

& Dignity

GenderEquity

Civil Society

ParticipationGovernance for Equity & Opportunity

Private Sector

Accountability

EnvironmentalStewardship

InternationalArena

InternationalArena

InternationalArena

FailingGovernance

Systems

4 Key Underlying Causes of Poverty

Unmet Rights to Access to Resources& Services

GenderInequity

SocialExclusion

Unifying Framework for Poverty Eradication & Social Justice

ENABLING ENVIRONMENT

(Improving Governance)

HUMAN CONDITIONS(Increasing Opportunity)

Access to Resources& Services

Accumulationof Capital& Assets

Productivity,Livelihoods,

& Income

Human Capabilities

SOCIAL POSITIONS(Improving Social Equity)

DistributionCapital

& Assets

SocialInclusion

Rights,Responsibilities,

& Dignity

GenderEquity

Civil Society

ParticipationGovernance for Equity & Opportunity

Private Sector

Accountability

EnvironmentalStewardship

InternationalArena

InternationalArena

InternationalArena

FailingGovernance

Systems

4 Key Underlying Causes of Poverty

Unmet Rights to Access to Resources& Services

GenderInequity

SocialExclusion

Page 25: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Warning! These are NOT meant to be prescriptive!• Include these in contextual analysis to

determine if they are key leverage points. If not, identify the key leverage UCP in your

context

Page 26: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Four Categories for Underlying Cause Learning

Unmet Rights to Access to Resources& Services

GenderInequity

Social Exclusion

FailingGovernance

Systems

Page 27: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

How does a holistic focus change development work?

•How we work on immediate and intermediate levels will likely change•Increasingly move to facilitation role•Increase our use of advocacy•Target multiple levels (micro-macro)•Also: add our voice to theirs, access legitimacy from eyes of marginalized populations,facilitator not doer or neutral, downward accountability to stakeholders, clarity and openness.

Page 28: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

How Does a RBA Focus Change CARE’s Work?

1. We will continue to work at the Immediate and Intermediate levels –

• How we conduct this work will likely change2. We will increasingly move to a facilitation role

3. Increased use of advocacy4. Need to target multiple levels (micro-macro)

Page 29: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

What will we need to address RBA?

1. Need advanced research skills2. Need dedicated resources for capacity building

in analysis, design, m&e, and reflective practice3. Need to develop true collaborative relationships

with southern research institutions, southern NGOs, and other legitimate social change partnerships

Page 30: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

Moving Forward…Is the RBA focus on human rights and development truly a second order fundamental change or in

a systems view, is it a short-term fix, diversion, that ultimately

results in homeostatis?(Show systems loop.)

Page 31: Development Background

Antioch University, January 2005

ReferencesPeter Uvin, “Human rights and development”, 2004Cathy McCaston, Unifying Framework, CARE USA 2004Microsoft CorporationAmartya Sen