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Eco-efficient Urban Water Management - Experience Sharing & Way Forward Dr. K.J. Anandha kumar Associate Professor National Institute of Disaster Management India

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Eco-efficient Urban Water Management

- Experience Sharing & Way Forward

Dr. K.J. Anandha kumar Associate Professor

National Institute of Disaster Management

India

POLICIES & PROGRAMMES

Guiding & promoting water management

National Water Policy (2012)

MGNREGA, 2005

Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewable Mission

National Ganga River Basin Project – World Bank

National Action Plan on Climate Change

Source: www.mowr.gov.in

National Water Policy 2012

Promotes

Need for ecological considerations

Rainwater Harvesting

Water use efficiency

Recycle & reuse of water

Management of Quantity & Quality and recognizes their interrelation.

Regulation of urban settlement, encroachment & developmental activities.

National Water Policy 2012- Urban Issues

Urban & Rural water supply should be preferably from surface water in conjunction with GW – discuss reason

Need to reuse urban water effluent

Implementation of RWH should include scientific monitoring – discuss reason

MGNREGA, 2005

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005

Works for Water Conservation (%)

2013-14 (till Dec)

Water Conservation & Water Harvesting – 1.18 Lakhs

Renovation of traditional water bodies- 52,893

06-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 10-11 11-12 12-13

54 49 46 51 48 60 46 (P)

Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewable Mission

As per 2001 Census 28% of population in Urban areas By 2021 40% of population is extected to be in urban areas It was estimated that by 2011 65% of GDP from Urban areas. To meet the Millennium Development Goals, it was proposed to: facilitate investments in the urban sector strengthen the existing policies in order to achieve these goals.

National Ganga River Basin Project (MoE&F)– World Bank

The project is part long-term support for the Government of India's Mission Clean Ganga that seeks to rejuvenate India’s iconic river.

To support the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)

(a) building capacity to manage the long-term Ganga clean-up and conservation program &

(b) for reducing point-source pollution loads in a sustainable manner.

National Water Mission on CC

Part of Eight Missions on CC

Efficiency of surface water use

Management & regulation of groundwater

Upgrading storage structures for fresh water & drainage system for waste water

Conservation of wet lands

Development of desalination technologies

Ministry of Water Resources

Fresh Water year 2003

Renovation & Restoration of Water Bodies 2004-05

Demonstration Studies by CGWB 2006-2007

Dugwell Recharge Scheme- (with NADARD)

Guidelines on RWH & Artificial Recharge (MAR)

Ministry of Urban Development

Measures for rainwater harvesting in urban areas of the country

Circulated the guidelines on “Artificial Recharge to Ground

Water” to all the State Govts. Town and Country Planning Organization (TCPO) prepared

and circulated Model building by-laws to all State Governments which includes measures such as rainwater harvesting (RWH) and reuse and recycle of waste water in urban areas

Rain water harvesting made mandatory in urban areas by

11 States (Andhra Pradesh, Arunanchal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Tripura , West Bengal and some cities)

Promotional Schemes

Other Ministrries

Ministry of Rural Development Integrated Wastelands Development Programme

(IWDP)

Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP)

Desert Development Programme (DDP)

Ministry of Agriculture National Watershed Development Project

for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA)

Ministry of Environment & Forests National Afforestation Programme (NAP)

Manual & Guide on Artificial Recharge (MAR) to Groundwater

CGWB has prepared Manuals

Guides on Artificial Recharge to Groundwater which provide

Guidelines on

Investigation techniques for selection of sites

Planning & design of artificial recharge structures

Impact Assessment, economic evaluation & Operation and Maintenance of recharge facility.

It is of immense use to States/ U.Ts. in planning and implementation of recharge schemes for augmentation of ground water in various parts of the country.

Source: www.mowr.gov.in

Source: www.mowr.gov.in

OTHER STEPS TAKEN TO PROMOTE RAIN WATER HARVESTING by CGWB

MASS AWARENESS

TRAINING IN RAIN WATER HARVESTING

TECHNICAL GUIDANCE FOR RAIN WATER HARVESTING

FILMS PRODUCED BY CENTRAL GROUND WATER AUTHORITY

Source: www.mowr.gov.in

Disaster Management Act 2005 & Paradigm shift in disaster management

(Flood & Drought –related to Water)

5. Response

1. Relief

2. Rehabilitation

3. Reconstruction

C R I S I S

M A N A G E M E N T

4.Preparedness

6. Mitigation

7. Prevention

Development

R I S K

M A N A G E M E N T

DISASTERS

Fresh Water

3%

Saline water

97%

Fresh Water

Saline water

Total Water on Earth

1320 Million Cubic Km

37.5 Million Cubic Km

Lakes ,rivers

and streams

Glaciers and Ice

caps

GroundWater

below 800m

GroundWater

upto 800m

77%

11% Each

1%

Distribution of Fresh Water on Earth

All-India Summer Monsoon Rainfall (1871-2004) (Based on IITM Homogeneous Monthly Rainfall Data Set)

Stable without any trends

Risk to Disaster

H = Hazards - Potentiality of a physical event that may cause loss of life or property

R = Risks - Probability of harmful consequences or losses

V = Vulnerabilities - Factors or processes - physical, social, economic, and environmental - which increase susceptibility of an area or a community to impact of hazards

C = Capacities - Strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster.

H x V ÷ C ~

METHODS OF WATER MANAGEMENT

What is Rain Water Harvesting?

Process of capturing and storing rain water for its efficient utilization and conservation.

An effective tool to utilize a large quantity of fresh water which otherwise goes as runoff.

Rainwater harvesting has two components i.e. Collection of Rain Water for Surface Storage and Recharge to Ground Water Aquifers.

What is Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) (Artificial Recharge) ?

Process by which the ground water reservoir is augmented at a rate exceeding the rate of natural recharge.

Any man-made structure that facilitates augmentation of groundwater is MAR or an Artificial Recharge system.

Why Rain Water Harvesting and MAR ?

To augment the availability of water resources for meeting various demands.

To arrest the declining trend in water levels of an area.

To conserve and store excess surface water for future requirements, since these requirements often change with time.

To reduce runoff, which otherwise chokes the storm water drains in the urban areas

To prevent/ reduce flooding of roads and parks etc. To prevent depletion of ground water reservoir in

over exploited areas.

Advantages:

Raises ground water levels. Improves availability of water in wells/

tubewells during lean period Improves quality of existing ground water

through dilution. Saves energy in lifting of ground water- one

meter rise in water level saves about 0.40 KWH of electricity.

Improves vegetation cover Reduces soil erosion due to reduced runoff Improves health/living conditions in rural

areas.

FEASIBLE AREAS:

Where ground water levels are declining on long term basis.

Where substantial amount of aquifer has been de-saturated.

Where availability of ground water is inadequate in lean months.

Where due to rapid urbanization, infiltration of rain water into subsoil has decreased drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished.

FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR PREPARATION OF MAR SCHEMES

HYDROGEOLOGY SOIL COVER NATURE OF AQUIFER SYSTEM DEPTH TO WATER LEVELS CHEMICAL QUALITY OF GROUND WATER

AREA CONTRIBUTING RUNOFF HOW MUCH IS THE AREA LAND USE PATTERN

HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL CHARACTERS HOW MUCH IS THE RAINFALL PATTERN OF RAINFALL

Hilly Urban Cities of India

As per CGWB’s - GW Scenario in major cities of India

Dehradun, Gangtok, Shillong, Shimla –

Suggested RWH

Contour bunds, Check Dams, Gully plugs, gabbion structures

Roof top rain Water Harvesting

Shimla – ATI – Old RWH system

Bank Filtration (BF)/ Radial Wells

BF is a process in which the subsurface at river or lake bank serves as a natural filter & biochemically removes potential contaminants

Scientific study shows - safe water quality

Pumping water from a well adjoining water body (river).

Pumping GW from Flood plain – Haridwar

(Ganga), Delhi (Yamuna Flood plain), Ahmedabad (Sabarmati) etc

Waste water treatment systems- Constructed Wetlands (CW)

CW is a type of engineered wetland which is typically employed for treatment of sewages and even for treatment of industrial effluents.

Eco-friendly alternative in developing countries

The research at IIT Bombay, has underscored the fact that the CW system can be effectively combined with advanced tertiary alternatives to recycle the treated effluent into production and sanitation applications.

www.saphpani.eu

Dual Water Supply – Dwarka Sub city, New Delhi

Domestic water need (2003) New societies Water for potable purpose (Drinking & cooking etc)

–IS:10500 (75 lpd/person) 1-1.5 hrs (Mor & Eve) Individual house

Water for flushing, washing etc –Permissible limit of IS:10500 (150 lpd/person) -3 hrs (Mor & Eve) overhead tank

Only applicable if quality is within Permissible IS:10500

Decision of a committee (DJB,CGWB,DDA,MCD)

Supply of Tertiary treated water New Delhi Municipal Council area

NDMC supplies tertiary treated water to NDMC areas

All the main parks –Lodhi Garden (36 Ha-360,000 m2), Nehru park etc

All the Government colony parks and garden of all Govt. quarters

This reduces the demand for Fresh water.

Need to monitor GW quality, if GWL is shallow

Other options which can be explored

Desalination of brackish water

Blending of brackish water with fresh water to reduce fresh water demand

Revival of surface water bodies (encroached around 700 in Delhi)

Improving efficiency/reduction in distribution losses/plugging leakage

Construction of Recharge Structure

Activities at site (SSB)

Lodhi Garden

ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER AT PRESIDENT’S ESTATE, NEW DELHI

SALIENT FEATURES

Campus area: 1.3 Sq.Km.

Source of water:Rain water & Swimming

pool water

Av. Annual rainfall: 712.2 mm

Depth to water level: 6 – 13 m.bgl

Water available for recharge:

31300 cum from the Catchments

area of 2,99,000 sq.m

Recharge Structures:

Two existing DugWells

One Recharge well One Recharge shaft

Two Trenches with recharge wells

Rise in Water Level during 2003: Maximum Rise upto 4 m

RAINWATER HARVESTING OF RUNOFF FROM

FLYOVERS

Dhaula Kuan Flyover Scheme • Catchments area : 13.75 Hectares

• Average Annual Rainfall : 712.2 mm

• Geological Formation : Weathered quartzite

• Water Availability : 39244 cum.

• Recharge structures : Shaft with Recharge well – 16

Pond with Recharge well –1

Pit with Recharge well –3

Thank You for patient hearing

Dr. K.J. Anandha kumar

[email protected]