drought management through rain water harvesting
Eco-efficient Urban Water Management
- Experience Sharing & Way Forward
Dr. K.J. Anandha kumar Associate Professor
National Institute of Disaster Management
Guiding & promoting water management
National Water Policy (2012)
Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewable Mission
National Ganga River Basin Project – World Bank
National Action Plan on Climate Change
National Water Policy 2012
Need for ecological considerations
Water use efficiency
Recycle & reuse of water
Management of Quantity & Quality and recognizes their interrelation.
Regulation of urban settlement, encroachment & developmental activities.
National Water Policy 2012- Urban Issues
Urban & Rural water supply should be preferably from surface water in conjunction with GW – discuss reason
Need to reuse urban water effluent
Implementation of RWH should include scientific monitoring – discuss reason
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005
Works for Water Conservation (%)
2013-14 (till Dec)
Water Conservation & Water Harvesting – 1.18 Lakhs
Renovation of traditional water bodies- 52,893
06-07 07-08 08-09 09-10 10-11 11-12 12-13
54 49 46 51 48 60 46 (P)
Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewable Mission
As per 2001 Census 28% of population in Urban areas By 2021 40% of population is extected to be in urban areas It was estimated that by 2011 65% of GDP from Urban areas. To meet the Millennium Development Goals, it was proposed to: facilitate investments in the urban sector strengthen the existing policies in order to achieve these goals.
National Ganga River Basin Project (MoE&F)– World Bank
The project is part long-term support for the Government of India's Mission Clean Ganga that seeks to rejuvenate India’s iconic river.
To support the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA)
(a) building capacity to manage the long-term Ganga clean-up and conservation program &
(b) for reducing point-source pollution loads in a sustainable manner.
National Water Mission on CC
Part of Eight Missions on CC
Efficiency of surface water use
Management & regulation of groundwater
Upgrading storage structures for fresh water & drainage system for waste water
Conservation of wet lands
Development of desalination technologies
Ministry of Water Resources
Fresh Water year 2003
Renovation & Restoration of Water Bodies 2004-05
Demonstration Studies by CGWB 2006-2007
Dugwell Recharge Scheme- (with NADARD)
Guidelines on RWH & Artificial Recharge (MAR)
Ministry of Urban Development
Measures for rainwater harvesting in urban areas of the country
Circulated the guidelines on “Artificial Recharge to Ground
Water” to all the State Govts. Town and Country Planning Organization (TCPO) prepared
and circulated Model building by-laws to all State Governments which includes measures such as rainwater harvesting (RWH) and reuse and recycle of waste water in urban areas
Rain water harvesting made mandatory in urban areas by
11 States (Andhra Pradesh, Arunanchal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Tripura , West Bengal and some cities)
Ministry of Rural Development Integrated Wastelands Development Programme
Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP)
Desert Development Programme (DDP)
Ministry of Agriculture National Watershed Development Project
for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA)
Ministry of Environment & Forests National Afforestation Programme (NAP)
Manual & Guide on Artificial Recharge (MAR) to Groundwater
CGWB has prepared Manuals
Guides on Artificial Recharge to Groundwater which provide
Investigation techniques for selection of sites
Planning & design of artificial recharge structures
Impact Assessment, economic evaluation & Operation and Maintenance of recharge facility.
It is of immense use to States/ U.Ts. in planning and implementation of recharge schemes for augmentation of ground water in various parts of the country.
OTHER STEPS TAKEN TO PROMOTE RAIN WATER HARVESTING by CGWB
TRAINING IN RAIN WATER HARVESTING
TECHNICAL GUIDANCE FOR RAIN WATER HARVESTING
FILMS PRODUCED BY CENTRAL GROUND WATER AUTHORITY
Disaster Management Act 2005 & Paradigm shift in disaster management
(Flood & Drought –related to Water)
C R I S I S
M A N A G E M E N T
R I S K
M A N A G E M E N T
Total Water on Earth
1320 Million Cubic Km
37.5 Million Cubic Km
Glaciers and Ice
Distribution of Fresh Water on Earth
All-India Summer Monsoon Rainfall (1871-2004) (Based on IITM Homogeneous Monthly Rainfall Data Set)
Stable without any trends
Risk to Disaster
H = Hazards - Potentiality of a physical event that may cause loss of life or property
R = Risks - Probability of harmful consequences or losses
V = Vulnerabilities - Factors or processes - physical, social, economic, and environmental - which increase susceptibility of an area or a community to impact of hazards
C = Capacities - Strengths and resources available within a community, society or organization that can reduce the level of risk, or the effects of a disaster.
H x V ÷ C ~
What is Rain Water Harvesting?
Process of capturing and storing rain water for its efficient utilization and conservation.
An effective tool to utilize a large quantity of fresh water which otherwise goes as runoff.
Rainwater harvesting has two components i.e. Collection of Rain Water for Surface Storage and Recharge to Ground Water Aquifers.
What is Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) (Artificial Recharge) ?
Process by which the ground water reservoir is augmented at a rate exceeding the rate of natural recharge.
Any man-made structure that facilitates augmentation of groundwater is MAR or an Artificial Recharge system.
Why Rain Water Harvesting and MAR ?
To augment the availability of water resources for meeting various demands.
To arrest the declining trend in water levels of an area.
To conserve and store excess surface water for future requirements, since these requirements often change with time.
To reduce runoff, which otherwise chokes the storm water drains in the urban areas
To prevent/ reduce flooding of roads and parks etc. To prevent depletion of ground water reservoir in
over exploited areas.
Raises ground water levels. Improves availability of water in wells/
tubewells during lean period Improves quality of existing ground water
through dilution. Saves energy in lifting of ground water- one
meter rise in water level saves about 0.40 KWH of electricity.
Improves vegetation cover Reduces soil erosion due to reduced runoff Improves health/living conditions in rural
Where ground water levels are declining on long term basis.
Where substantial amount of aquifer has been de-saturated.
Where availability of ground water is inadequate in lean months.
Where due to rapid urbanization, infiltration of rain water into subsoil has decreased drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished.
FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR PREPARATION OF MAR SCHEMES
HYDROGEOLOGY SOIL COVER NATURE OF AQUIFER SYSTEM DEPTH TO WATER LEVELS CHEMICAL QUALITY OF GROUND WATER
AREA CONTRIBUTING RUNOFF HOW MUCH IS THE AREA LAND USE PATTERN
HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL CHARACTERS HOW MUCH IS THE RAINFALL PATTERN OF RAINFALL
Hilly Urban Cities of India
As per CGWB’s - GW Scenario in major cities of India
Dehradun, Gangtok, Shillong, Shimla –
Contour bunds, Check Dams, Gully plugs, gabbion structures
Roof top rain Water Harvesting
Bank Filtration (BF)/ Radial Wells
BF is a process in which the subsurface at river or lake bank serves as a natural filter & biochemically removes potential contaminants
Scientific study shows - safe water quality
Pumping water from a well adjoining water body (river).
Pumping GW from Flood plain – Haridwar
(Ganga), Delhi (Yamuna Flood plain), Ahmedabad (Sabarmati) etc
Waste water treatment systems- Constructed Wetlands (CW)
CW is a type of engineered wetland which is typically employed for treatment of sewages and even for treatment of industrial effluents.
Eco-friendly alternative in developing countries
The research at IIT Bombay, has underscored the fact that the CW system can be effectively combined with advanced tertiary alternatives to recycle the treated effluent into production and sanitation applications.
Dual Water Supply – Dwarka Sub city, New Delhi
Domestic water need (2003) New societies Water for potable purpose (Drinking & cooking etc)
–IS:10500 (75 lpd/person) 1-1.5 hrs (Mor & Eve) Individual house
Water for flushing, washing etc –Permissible limit of IS:10500 (150 lpd/person) -3 hrs (Mor & Eve) overhead tank
Only applicable if quality is within Permissible IS:10500
Decision of a committee (DJB,CGWB,DDA,MCD)
Supply of Tertiary treated water New Delhi Municipal Council area
NDMC supplies tertiary treated water to NDMC areas
All the main parks –Lodhi Garden (36 Ha-360,000 m2), Nehru park etc
All the Government colony parks and garden of all Govt. quarters
This reduces the demand for Fresh water.
Need to monitor GW quality, if GWL is shallow
Other options which can be explored
Desalination of brackish water
Blending of brackish water with fresh water to reduce fresh water demand
Revival of surface water bodies (encroached around 700 in Delhi)
Improving efficiency/reduction in distribution losses/plugging leakage
ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER AT PRESIDENT’S ESTATE, NEW DELHI
Campus area: 1.3 Sq.Km.
Source of water:Rain water & Swimming
Av. Annual rainfall: 712.2 mm
Depth to water level: 6 – 13 m.bgl
Water available for recharge:
31300 cum from the Catchments
area of 2,99,000 sq.m
Two existing DugWells
One Recharge well One Recharge shaft
Two Trenches with recharge wells
Rise in Water Level during 2003: Maximum Rise upto 4 m
RAINWATER HARVESTING OF RUNOFF FROM
Dhaula Kuan Flyover Scheme • Catchments area : 13.75 Hectares
• Average Annual Rainfall : 712.2 mm
• Geological Formation : Weathered quartzite
• Water Availability : 39244 cum.
• Recharge structures : Shaft with Recharge well – 16
Pond with Recharge well –1
Pit with Recharge well –3
Thank You for patient hearing
Dr. K.J. Anandha kumar