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English Grammar English Grammar in Use in Use present simple ; present continuous; past simple; past continuous; future 情情情情 1: & 情情情

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English Grammar English Grammar in Usein Use

present simple ; present continuous;

past simple; past continuous;

future

情景语法 1:一般 & 进行时

Present continuous

Present continuous

(Ann is in her car. She is on her way to work.)

• She is driving to work.

• TOM: I'm reading an interesting book at the moment. I’ll lend it to you when I've finished it.

Remember…

Often the action is happening at the time of speaking:

not ‘I work’

not ‘'she has a bath’

not ‘'it doesn't rain’

1. Please don't make so

much noise. I'm working.

2. 'Where's Margaret?' 'She's

having a bath.'

3. Let's go out now. It isn't

raining any more.

Remember…

Often the action is happening at the time of speaking:

not ‘do you enjoy’

4. (at a party) Hello, Jane. Are you enjoying the party?

5. I'm tired. I'm going to bed now. Goodnight!

Remember…

But the action is not necessarily happening at the time of speaking:

but perhaps she isn't learning Italian exactly at the time of speaking

2. Catherine wants to work in Italy, so she is learning Italian.

1. Some friends of mine are building their own house. They hope it will be finished before next summer.

Alex drives a bus. Alex is a bus

driver

present simplepresent simple

Alex is a bus driver, but now he is in

bed asleep. So: He is not driving a

bus. (He is asleep.) but He drives a

bus. (He is a bus driver.)

Remember…

something is true in general ; something happens all the time or repeatedly

1.Nurses took after patients in hospitals.

1.Nurses took after patients in hospitals.

2. I usually go away

at weekends.

2. I usually go away

at weekends.

3. The earth goes round

the sun.

3. The earth goes round

the sun.

1 You don’t seem very happy today.

2 What are you doing? I'm thinking.

3 Who does this umbrella belong to?

4 The dinner smells good.

5 Is anybody sitting here?

6 I'm having dinner.

Mozart He lived from 1756 to 1791. He started composing at the age of five and wrote more than 600 pieces of music. He was only 35 years old when he died.

past simple

past simple

At 10.30, they were playing tennis.

(Yesterday Karen and Jim played

tennis. They began at 10 o'clock and

finished at 11.30. )

past continuous

past continuous

past

simple 1.I work in a travel agency now. Before that I worked in a shop.

2. We invited them to our party but they decided not to come.

3. The police stopped me on my way home last night.

4. She passed her examination because she studied very hard.

past

continuous 1. This time last year I was living in Brazil.

2. What were you doing at 10 o'clock last night?

3. I waved to her but she wasn't looking.

I ______ (see) Sue in town yesterday but she ______ (look) the other way.

I ______ (see) Sue in town yesterday but she ______ (look) the other way.

saw ... was looking

I ______ (meet) Tom and Ann at the airport a few weeks ago. They ______ (go) to Berlin and I ______ (go) to Madrid. We ______ (have) a chat while we ______ (wait) for our flights.

I ______ (meet) Tom and Ann at the airport a few weeks ago. They ______ (go) to Berlin and I ______ (go) to Madrid. We ______ (have) a chat while we ______ (wait) for our flights.

met ... were going ... was going ... had ... were

waiting/waited

I ______ (cycle) home yesterday when suddenly a man ______ (step) out into the road in front of me. I ______ (go) quite fast but luckily I ______ (manage) to stop in time and ______ (not/hit) him.

I ______ (cycle) home yesterday when suddenly a man ______ (step) out into the road in front of me. I ______ (go) quite fast but luckily I ______ (manage) to stop in time and ______ (not/hit) him.

was cycling ... stepped ... was going ... managed ... didn't hit

He is playing tennis on Monday afternoon.

He is going to the dentist on Tuesday morning.

He is having dinner with Ann on Friday.

(This is Tom's diary for next

week.)

In all these examples, Tom

has already decided and

arranged to do these things.

present tenses (I am doing / I do)

for the future

present tenses (I am doing / I do)

for the future

Remember…

Use the present continuous to say what you have already arranged to do. (Do not use the present simple I do):

not 'I go'

not 'what do you do'

1. A: What time is Cathy arriving tomorrow?

B: At 10.30. I'm meeting her at the station.

2. A: What are you doing on Saturday evening?

B: I'm going to the theatre.

Remember…

Use the present continuous to say what you have already arranged to do. (Do not use the present simple I do):

3.I'm not working tomorrow, so we can go out somewhere.

4.Ian isn't playing football on Saturday. He's hurt his leg.

(Ann is in her car. She is on her way to work.)

• She is driving to work.

I will & I’m going to

I will & I’m going to