four areas of human development:  physical  cognitive  motor or skills development ...

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Human Growth and development

Human Growth and development

Four areas of human development:

PhysicalCognitiveMotor or skills developmentSocial development

Dont write down..on next slides comingPhysical DevelopmentGrowth and development of the bodys muscles, bones, energy systems, and the nervous system

Cognitive Individuals ability to interpret and process information Emotional development Development of persons self-concept or awareness of ones self

Motor or Skills Development Combination of cognitive and physical development Humans develop ability to perform a wide range of tasks

Social Development Development of relationships with peers, friends, relatives, adults, and others in the outside world

Age and Physical DevelopmentChronological Age

Age measured in years, months, and days

Skeletal Age Age indicated by physical maturity of skeleton Factors such as nutrition, disease, and injury can cause lag

Developmental Age

Age expresses in ones ability to perform tasks

Body Types and DevelopmentEndomorph, Ectomorph and Mesomorph

Stages of Human Growth and Development

Infancy ToddlerDouble birth weight in 6 months and triple it in a year Considerable muscular development Gains in ability to perform basic tasks Grasp, crawl, pull to stand, walk Most master walking by age two . running by age three

Why cant a 6 month old walk?Because it hasnt learned??NO!Babies walk when their muscles, bones and nervous system are ready to walkThe child will DEVELOP this skill when they are readyGrowth, maturation and development set LIMITS on what can be learned

Scooter trouble-Why?

Childhood From six to ten years the body stabilizes Uniform relationship between bone and tissue growth and development occurs Rapid stage of growth from four to six years Often age at which child is introduced to sportPubertyGrowth (physical and psychological) speeds up during this phase Growth spurt Marked changes in physical appearance

AdulthoodMost growth has taken place Other physical changes Weight gain, reduced oxygen capacity, rise in blood pressure, joint deterioration Diminished exercise, diet and nutrition issues, increased stress and responsibilitiesDifferent Rates of Growth forDifferent Body Parts1. Cephalo-caudal Sequence (head) (toe)Growth progresses fastest in the head, followed by the trunk, and then the extremities

2. Proximo-distal Sequence

Body movements that originate closer to the centre of the body seem to develop earlier than those that originate further from the centre

Ex. Babies can swing arms before they can hold a pencil

Your turnAll humans pass through these stages as the age and mature, though rates of development will vary. What are some factors that might affect ones rate of motor development?

You are University students dont just sit there!!!Factors Affecting Physical GrowthGlandular/Hormonal ActivityHeredityInjuryNutrition/DietPhysical ActivitySocio cultural FactorsPhysical Environment

Piagets 4 stages of Cognitive DevelopmentMake your own notes on all 4 (chapter 18)Know these 4 for the exam: 1. Sensorimotor 2. Preoperational Stage 3. Concrete Operational 4. Formal Operational

Cognitive development is defined as the changes that take place in a persons ability to interpret and process information, as well as alterations in their emotional development, and the introduction and establishment of a persons self concept

Stages of Movement/Motor Skills Development

Reflexive Responses to Rudimentary MovementsGeneral Fundamental SkillsSpecific Fundamental MovementsSpecialized (Sport Related Movements)

Need to copy Triangle Diagram..Gross motor tasks of sports all follow this triangle1. Reflexive Movements Infancy (ages 0 to 4months)Reflexes present at birth:Rooting reflex (turn head to stimulus)Finger graspSucking ReflexMoro Reflex (startle reflex, baby will spread arms, neck and legs when startled)

2.Rudimentary Movement Phase (birth-2 years) Basic stability, locomotor and manipulative activities (head and neck control/sitting)3 categories of movement skills..start of sportyeah!!!A. Stability..balancingB. Locomotor..moving..crawlingwalkingC. Manipulative handling objects..grasping..kicking..throwing

3. Fundamental Movement Phase 2-7Evolution of skills from rudimentary phaseNot yet sport relatedConfident running, jumping, throwing, catching4. Sport Related Movement PhaseApplication of prior skills to specific sportsA. General understands rulesDevelop conscience and value judgementsB. Specific sophisticated form of skill and accuracy/complex games/sense of independence and social responsibilityC. Specialized- select few/eliteSome never specialize

Your turn..with a partner/max three people in a group: Activity #1

Looking at the last phase (Sport related)Pick a sport of your choice and describe the modifications you would employ when coaching or teaching athletes in each of the 3 stages of sport related skill development

Fold 1 piece of paper into even squares and only hand in 1 sheet for marking. Include names. Pick partners wisely!!

Application mark

Lets get startedheadingsAsk yourself: How would I modifyEquipment?# Of Players?Environment?Strategy?Rules?Level /degree of competition?Degree of specialization? (Other activities)Time commitmentEmphasis (What is the most important goal?)

Activity #2 Next Communication MarkYou are going to ADAPT Sport Skills to Match Development Levels

If humans adapt 4 ways; physically, cognitively, in terms of the motor skills they acquire and socially..then coaches need to adapt training methods

Your task is to address these 4 areas

Adapting Sport SkillsYou will modify instructions to the indicated age level below. (ex. modify equipment rules)

Sport SkillsAge LevelModification1. Hitting a BaseballLevel 1Under 5 yearsUse a tee, as player of this age may have difficulty hitting a moving pitchUse light bat to allow for physical strengthWork with athlete t develop his or her swing without ballGradually introduce slow moving pitch wit larger ballSocial skill may be difficult to develop since skill is individual

For the next ones assume that all of the athletes have come through the ranks of the various age levels- that is a tennis player at Level 2 (age 5-7) has already participated at Level 1

Sport Skill

Age LevelModification Kicking a soccer ball

Level 1 (under 5)

Passing a hockey puck

Level 2 (5-7)

Easy marks continueSport SkillAgeModificationExecuting a sand shot in golfLevel 3 (7-9)

Jump shot in basketballLevel 4 (9-11)

Tossing a spiral in footballLevel 4 (9-11)Stages of Movement/Motor Skills Development

Reflexive Responses to Rudimentary MovementsGeneral Fundamental SkillsSpecific Fundamental MovementsSpecialized (Sport Related Movements)

1. Reflexive Movements Infancy (ages 0 to 4months)Forms a foundation for other abilitiesReflexes present at birth:Rooting reflex (turn head to stimulus)Finger graspSucking ReflexMoro Reflex (startle reflex, baby will spread arms, neck and legs when startled)

2.Rudimentary Movement Phase (birth-2 years)