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Page 1: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule
Page 2: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

(a&SŒrsufESmzHk;) a=umuf±GHŒjcif;rS vGwfuif;a&; atmifqef;pk=unf (a&SŒrsufESmzHk;twGif; pmrsufESm) “ppfom;r[kwfayr,fh EdkifiHtwGuf trsKd;rsKd;tepfemcH/ trsKd;rsKd;pGef‹pm;vkyf=uwJh vlawGvnf; &SdwmyJ? tJh'ga=umifh ppfom;rS ppfom;qdkwJh pdwf"mwfudk ajymif;=u&r,f? igwdk‹[m vufeufudkifawG jzpf=uaomfvnf; rw&m;rvkyf/ EdkifiH&JŒ &efolawGr[kwf/ EkdifiH&JŒ rdwfaqGawGjzpfw,fqdkwmudk oabmayguf&r,f?” (atmifqef;) “atmifqef;pk=unfonf trSefw&m;udk ajymqdkaeI‚if;/ jrefrmESifh urBmh tajccHt,ltrsm;udk a&mifjyef[yfaeI‚if;/ olrtm; E_wfqdwfatmif rðyvkyfEdkifyg?” (Am;pvAf[mAJvf) “atmifqef;pk=unfonf trsKd;om;,Ofaus;r_tarGtESpf. taumif;qHk; t*FgvuQ%mrsm;[k olru ,lqxm;onfrsm;udk *±kðyvmap&ef óud;pm;I olrudk,fwkdifvnf; ,if;t*FgvuQ%m&yfrsm;ESifh xyfwlxyfr# jzpfap&ef óud;yrf;tm;xkwfonf?” (EdkbJvfaumfrwDOuUX/ 1991) (tzGifhpmrsufESm) a=umuf±GHŒjcif;rS vGwfuif;a&; (tzGifhpmrsufESm) atmifqef;pk=unf a=umuf±GHŒjcif;rS vGwfuif;a&; ESifh tjcm;pmwrf;rsm; a'gufwmatmifcif wnf;jzwfonf? La Haule Books (xkwfa0olrsm;. pmrsufESm) ra=umufr±GHŒESifh vGwfvyfrSefuefpGm a&;om;ajymqdkydkifcGifh&aprnfh EdkifiHa&;pepfukd awmifhwaeol jrefrmwdkif;&if;om;taygif;tm; &nf!$ef;ygonf? This collection copyright © Aung San Suu Kyi, 1993 The moral right of the author has been asserted. ISBN 0 86120 049 7

Page 3: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

This first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule Jersey Channel Islands United Kingdom The Buddhist symbol on the title and spine is the abhayamudra, the "gesture of fearlessness" Printed in England by Biddles Ltd., Guildford (rmwdum) rmwdum pma&;ol. trSm 1 pwnf;. trSm 2 Am;pvAf[mAJvf. pum;OD; 5 a':oef;at;a&;om;aom ‘pk’ESifh rdwfqufjcif; 7 aemfa0;EkdifiH EdkbJvfaumfrwDOuUX rdef‹cGef; 43 tydkif; - u 1984 ckESpf – 1993 ckESpftwGif; a&;om;aom pmwrf;rsm;ESifh taxGaxGrdef‹cGef;rsm; 1? atmifqef; 54 2? 'Drdkua&pD&SmyHkawmf 97 3? a=umuf±GHŒjcif;rS vGwfuif;a&; 113 4? ‘Adkvf’. t"dy`m,ftppftrSef 120 5? &nfrSef;csufrsm; 127 6? awmfvSefa&;. tv,fA[dkwGif 132 7? ukvor*~ vl‹tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifodk‹ tdwfzGifhay;pm 138 8? jynfolvlxku vGwfvyfa&;udk vdkcsifonf 141 9? EdkbJvfqk&Sifudk,fpm;ajymaom rdef‹cGef; 145 10? EdkbJvfaumfrwDodk‹ ay;pm 151 11? vl‹tcGifhta&;Oya'tzJG‹rSay;aom qktwGufrdef‹cGef; 153 12? pydeftdkvHypfrdef‹cGef; 155 13? ppfrSefaomvHkòcH&modk‹ 159 tydkif; - c

Page 4: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

1988 ckESpf =o*kwfvrS 1989 ckESpf Zlvkdifvtxd ajym=um;cJhaom rdef‹cGef;ESifh owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrsm; 14? a&$wd*HkapwDawmftaemufrkcfvlxkpnf;a0;yJG 172 15? 'Drkdua&pD&&Sda&;ESifh jynfolrsm;. tcef;u¾ 182 16? owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGtrSwf-3 187 17? wkdif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&; 198 18? 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;nDnGwfa&; 203 19? Zlvkdifckepf&ufae‹ 212 20? wyfrawmf[m b,fol‹twGufvJ 219 21? e0wESifh &ifqkdifaqG;aEG;a&; 227 22? owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGtrSwf-6 235 23? jynfolvkdcsifwm atmifqef;vrf;pOf 253 24? rdef‹cGef;aumufEkwfcsufrsm; 266 pma&;ol. trSm

pma&;jcif;/ rdef‹cGef;ajymjcif;/ pum;ajymjcif; paom vkyf&yfrsm;. t"du&nf&G,fcsufwckum; vltcsif;csif; em;vnfr_wdk;yGm;ap&ef jzpfonf[k usr ,lqygonf? jrefrmhvlr_a&;/ EdkifiHa&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDta&;wdk‹udk urBmu ydkrdkI od&Sdem;vnfap&ef &nf&G,fI Tpmtkyfyg aqmif;yg;rsm;udk a&;om;cJhjcif; jzpfygonf?

EdkifiHwEkdifiHudk trSefwu,ftusKd;ðyEkdifrnfh pD;yGm;a&;/ EkdifiHa&;/ vkyfief;pOfrsm; taumiftxnfaz:Edkif&ef jynfoljynfom;taygif;wGif yGifhvif;jywfom;pGm oHk;oyfa0zefydkifcGifhESifh todtjrif/ tawG;tac:rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm aqG;aEG;zvS,fydkifcGifhrsm; &Sd&rnf[kvnf; usr ,Hk=unfygonf? 1988-89 ckESpfrsm;twGif; usrajym=um;cJhaom rdef‹cGef;rsm;ESifh owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrsm;. OD;wnfcsufonf 'Drkdua&pDoabmw&m;rsm;ESifh 'Drkdua&pDpepfudk wnfaxmifvdkolwdk‹. tawG;tac:/ tjrifwdk‹udk trsm;jynfol a0zefoHk;oyfEdkifiHa&;yif jzpfygonf?

aqmif;yg;rsm;/ rdef‹cGef;rsm;/ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrsm;udk pkaygif;I pmtkyfxkwfa0vdkufjcif;jzifh jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;ESifh 'Drkdua&pDa&;rsm;udk em;vnfoHk;oyfvdkolrsm;twGuf taxmuftuljzpfEkdifrnf[k ar#mfvifhygonf?

Tpmtkyfudk xkwfa0Ekdif&ef tm;ay;ulnDcJholwdk‹tm; aus;Zl;wifvsuf&Sdygonf? rsm;jym;vSaom tvkyfwm0efrsm;=um;rS apwemjynfh0pGmjzifh t"dubmomjyefoltjzpf‚if;/ pmwnf;jzwfoltjzpf‚if; aqmif&GufcJhonfh a'gufwmatmifcif(vef'ef) udk txl;aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif; azmfjytyfygonf?

atmifqef;pk=unf

pmwnf;. trSm (1)

vGefcJhaom &SpfESpfcef‹ 1985 ckESpfu jzpfonf? ESif;xlxyfpGmusaeonfh xdkESpf aqmif;&moDwae‹wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh yxrqHk;t}udrf usaemf awG‹qHkcJh&onf? xkdpOfu t*FvefwGif &efukefwuUodkvfrS

Page 5: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

vkyfazmfudkifzufa[mif; orkdif;q&m-q&mrrsm; a&muf&Sdaecdkufjzpfojzifh atmufpzdk‹'fwuUodkvfwGif wae‹ pka0;=uonf?

xdkae‹Yyif a':atmifqef;pk=unfwdk‹ ZeD;armifESHu olwdk‹tdrfwGif vBuf&nfyJG jyifqifxm;ojzifh usaemfwdk‹ orkdif;tkyfpk oGm;=uonf? usaemfESifh usaemfhZeD;tygt0if tm;vHk; {nhfonf &Spfa,muf &Sd.? a':pkudk,fwkdif vkyfxm;aom udwfrkef‹rsm; pm;aomufI waysmfwyg; &SdvSonf? usaemfonf a':pk.cifyGef; a'gufwmrdkufu,ftJ&pfESifhom pum;ajym&onfursm;+yD; a':pkrSmrl trsKd;orD;0kdif;wGif vufrvnfEdkifatmif {nfhcH&if; pum;vufqHk usaeonfu rsm;.?

a':pkwdk‹tdrfrSm tawmfav;us,f0ef;onf[k qdkEkdifaomfvnf; ukvm;xdkifrsm;/ pm;yJGrsm;ESifh pmtkyfpifrsm;uvJGI usaemf bmr# rawG‹rd? vifr,m;ESpfa,mufpvHk; ±dk;±dk;ukyfukyfESifh pmayvdkufpm;olrsm; jzpfonf[lIom usaemfhpdwfxJY rSwfcsufcsrdonf?

(2) xdkae‹ awG‹qHk+yD;aemufydkif; usaemfESifh a':pkwdk‹ZeD;armifESH vHk;0 tquftoG,f r&Sdoavmuf

jzpfoGm;onf? 1988 ckESpfa&mufrS jrefrmjynf 'Drkdua&pDta&;awmfyHkwGif a':pk aZmufcsI vkyfudkifaeonfrsm;udk owif;pmrsm;wGif zwf&onf? vlóuHrsm;ESifh ygvmaom AGD'D,dktacGrsm;wGifvnf; a':pkudk awG‹&onf?

usaemfonf rqvacwfudk pufqkyf±GH&Sm+yD; rqv'%fudkvnf; rcHEkdifonfhtqHk; EkdifiHjcm;xGufvmcJholjzpfonf? a':pkrSmrl vGwfvyfae&mrS trdEkdifiHodk‹jyef&if; rdrd. ,Hk=unfcsuftwdkif; 'Drkdua&pDxGef;um;a&;twGuf wkdufyJG0if ±kef;uefaeoljzpfonf?

a':pkudk ±kd;om;ajzmifhrwf odrfarG‹aom tdrf&SifrwOD;tjzpfom od&Sdxm;cJhojzifh a&&SnfwkdufyJGwGif cHEkdif&nf&Sdyghrvm;[k tpwGif usaemf oHo,jzpfrdonf? odk‹aomf a':pk OD;aqmifonfh 'Drkdua&pDwdkufyJG tcsdef=umvmonfESifhtr# xdkoHo,pdwfwdk‹ vGifhpifuG,faysmufukefawmhonf?

(3) a':pk t*Fvdyfbmomjzifha&;om;I cifyGef;onf a'gufwmrdkufu,ftJ&pf wnf;jzwfxkwfa0aom "Freedom From Fear" pmtkyfudk 1991 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif zwfvdkuf&onf? xdkpmtkyfudk jrefrmbmom jyefqkdxkwfa0oifhonf[k usaemf awG;rdonf? xdkpmtkyfudk wu,fwrf; jrefrmjyef&mwGif usaemf t"dutcef;rS yg0ifvm&rnf[k xdkpOfu rxifrSwfcJhyg? usaemf aemufqHk; jrefrmjyefqdk a&;om;xkwfa0cJhonfh tawG‹tóuHrSm 1971 ckESpfu jzpfonf? ESpfaygif; 20 ausmfcef‹ jrefrmjyefxkwfa0onfh tavhtx jywfvyfaecJhojzifh tpwGif a':pkpmtkyfudk jrefrmjyef&ef r0Hhr&J jzpfrdaomfvnf; jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;wkdif; zwf±_oifhonfhpmtkyf[k ,Hk=unfonfhtwGuf twwfEdkifqHk; tm;xkwfjyefqdkcJh&onf? txl;ojzifh jrefrmpmzwfy&dowftwGuf &nfpl;xm;onfhtavsmuf t*FvdyfpmtkyfESifhrwlbJ wrlxl;jcm;aerSm trSefjzpfonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;zcif[k vlwkdif;vdkvdk i,fpOfuwnf;u od&Sdxm;cJh=uaomfvnf; AdkvfcsKyf. tawG;tac:t,ltqrsm;udk av;av;eufeuf em;vnfoabmaygufrdol tvGefenf;yg;vdrfhrnfxifonf? xdkvlenf;pkxJwGif a':pk txif&Sm;qHk;jzpfrnfrSm ajym&efrvdk[k ,Hk=unfonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. tawG;tac:t,ltqrsm;ay:wGif tajccHI rdrdudk,fydkif ,Hk=unfcsufrsm;udk wnfaqmufxm;aom a':pk. tawG;tac:udk jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;wkdif; od&Sdem;vnf oabmayguf&ef vdktyfonf? jrefrmEkdifiHwGif 1962 ckESpfrS 1988 ckESpftxd jynfolvlxk ,Hk=unftm;xm;avmufonfh EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsKd; ay:ayguf&ef tcGifhtvrf; r&SdcJhyg? 1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHk

Page 6: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

ay:aygufvmonfhtcgwGifrS udk,fusKd;pGef‹I wkdif;jynftwGuf tepfemcHvkyf=urnfh i,f&G,faomacgif;aqmifrsm; ay:aygufvmjcif;jzpfonf? xdktxJwGif a':pkonf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. EkdifiHa&;tarGudk qufcHrnfholtjzpf‚if;/ +idrf;csrf;aomenf;jzifh wkdif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;udk &,lEkdifrnfholtjzpf‚if;/ wyfrawmfom;wdk‹u ±dkaoav;pm;&oltjzpf‚if;/ trsm;jynfol. ,Hk=unfudk;pm;r_ &,lxm;oltjzpf‚if;/ trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;udk vkyfaqmifEkdifrnfholtjzpf‚if; ay:xGufvmygonf?

(4) uG,fvGefol orkdif;ynm&Sif Adkvfrª;b&Sif a&;om;I 1950 ckESpfu yxrqHk;t}udrf yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhonfh “jrefrmEdkifiHawmforkdif;” pmtkyfwGif jrefrmha&S;a[mif;orkdif;ynm&Sif}uD; ygarmuQ *sD/ tdyfcsf/ vkpf u “Armr[kwfaom EkdifiHom;rsm;tay: uG,fvGefol atmifqef; xm;&Sdaom oabmxm;rsm;udk usaemf rsm;pGmav;pm;rdyg.? jrefrmEdkifiH pnf;vHk;a&;udk "m;jzifhr[kwfbJ EdkifiHhacgif;aqmifyDopGm av;av;eufeuf t"dy`m,f&Sd&Sd óud;yrf;&mwGif ‘usefppfom;’ vGefonfrSpI atmifqef;onf yxrqHk;aom Armjzpfonf[k usaemf ,lqygonf”[k ‚if;. trSmpmwGif rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf? a':pkonf zcifvkyfol. ajc&mtwkdif; vkdufEkdifrnf[k usaemf ,Hk=unf.? odk‹aomf jrefrmEkdifiHY 'Drkdua&pDxGef;um;&ef a':pkwOD;wnf; tepfemcHóud;yrf;I &rnfr[kwf/ vlwkdif;u rdrdwkd‹. udk,fusKd;oufoufudkom =unfhraebJ/ trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDta&;wdk‹twGuf wwfEkdifoI wm0efodod ulnDrSom jrefrmEdkifiHwGif 'Drdkua&pDxGef;um;I ppfrSefaom wkdif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;udk &&SdEkdifrnfjzpfonf? pmtkyfyg toHk;tE_ef;rsm;udk ae‹pOfoHk; jrefrmpum;ESifh teD;pyfqHk;jzpfap&ef &nf&G,fxm;ojzifh Oyrm “u|efr-u|efawmf” [laom pmvHk;aygif;udk roHk;bJ “usr-usaemf” jzifh tpm;xdk; oHk;pJGxm;onf? rl&if; jrefrmpum;wGif rdrdudk,frdrd “ig”[lI &nf!$ef;aomfvnf; tm%m&Sifbk&ifrsm;acwfwGif “u|ef” [laom a0g[m& acwfpm;vmcJhI “ig” [laom rlvtoHk;tE_ef;rSm bk&m;pmrsm;wGifom usefaeawmhrnf jzpfonf? pmtkyfjzpfajrmufa&;twGuf tzufzufrS ulnD=uonfh vef'efòrd‹rS t&SifOwW&/ OD;pdefausmfv_difESifh tjcm; jrefrmjyefqkdulnDolrsm;tm; txl;v_dufvSJpGm aus;Zl;wif&Sdygonf? jrefrmjyefqdk&mY wpHkw&m c|wf,Gif;r_&Sdrnfqdkv#if usaemfhwGifom wm0ef&Sdygonf?

a'gufwmatmifcif vef'ef

7-9-93

Am;pvAf [mAJvf. pum;OD; Am;pvAf[mAJvf (Vaclav Havel) onf txl;±dkav;pm;jcif;cH&aom jyZmwfESifh pma&;q&mjzpf+yD; ,cktcgwGif csuf (Czech) EkdifiH. orwjzpfonf? csmwm-77 [k xif&Sm;aom vl‹tcGifhta&;v_yf&Sm;r_udk 1977 ckESpfY pwifwnfaxmif&mwGifvnf; yg0ifcJhonf? Tv_yf&Sm;r_a=umifh csufudkpvdkAm;uD;,m; (Czechoslovakia) wGif 'Drdkua&pDudk usifhoHk;vmEkdifjcif; jzpf.? wygwDtm%m&SifpepfatmufwGif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm axmifcscH&jcif;/ aetdrfwGif tus,fcsKyfjzifh zrf;qD;cH&jcif; ponfh tawG‹tóuHrsm; &SdcJholjzpfojzifh Am;pvAf [mAJvfonf atmifqef;pk=unftay:wGif txl; pmemaxmufxm;/ ±dkaoav;pm;ol jzpfonf? olrudk 1991 ckESpfY EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkay;&ef tqkdðyolrsm;xJwGif ‚if;yg0ifonf?

Page 7: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

* * * a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkudk &&SdcJh+yDjzpfonf? vGwfvyfr_ESifh vl‹*k%foduQmtwGuf tm%m&Sifpepftm; qef‹usifonfh olr. wkdufyJGudk ,cktcg tjynfjynfqkdif&mu todtrSwfðyvdkufjcif;yifjzpfonf? olronf TqkESifh tvGefyif xdkufwefolwOD;jzpfonf? olronf &Sif;vif;jywfom;cdkifrmpGm ajymqdkoljzpfonf? olrtm; E_wfqdwfoGm;ap&ef &nf±G,fI EkdifiHjcm;odk‹ t+rJwrf; oGm;a&mufaexkdifyg&ef qJGaqmifurf;vSrf;vmonfudk olru vufrcHbJ jiif;y,fxm;ygonf? tus,fcsKyf uscHae&onfhb0wGif opPmw&m;udk apmifhxdef;vsuf&Sdonf? tm%mrJholwdk‹. pGrf;tm;udk olru tvGefxif&Sm;pGm Oyrmjyaeygonf? EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qktwGuf olrtm; tqdkðycJh&onfudk usaemf av;eufpGm *k%f,lrdonfhtavsmuf olrtm; a&G;cs,fvdkufonfudk aumif;csD;=obmay;=uolrsm;wGif usaemftygt0if jzpfonf? jrefrmjynfY 'Drdkua&pDESifh vl‹tcGifhta&;&&Sd&ef OD;wnfaom wkdufyJGwGif b0udk ðryfESHxm;jcif;jzifh a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf olr. wkdif;jynfY w&m;r#wr_&Sd&eftwGufomru rdrdwdk‹. yef;wkdifudk rdrdwdk‹udk,fwkdif vGwfvyfpGm a&G;cs,fvdkol tm;vHk;twGufyg &J&ifhpGm ajymqkdaejcif;jzpfygonf? urBmwcGifvHk;wGif vGwfvyfr_&&Sda&;twGuf óud;yrf;tm;xkwf&ef vdktyfaeor# umvywfvHk; a':atmifqef;pk=unf. xkwfazmfajymqdkcsufuJhodk‹aom ajymqdkr_rsm;onf tjcm;olrsm;udkyg v_H‹aqmfodrf;oGif;vmvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf? vGwfvyfa&; awmifhwonfh [pfaºuG;oHonf Oa&mytv,fydkif;rS xGufay:vmonfjzpfap/ ±k&Sm;rSjzpfap/ tmz&durSjzpfap/ odk‹r[kwf tm&SrSjzpfap woHwnf;xGufaeygonf? ‚if;rSm vlom;tm;vHk;udk vl‹*k%foduQmESifhtnD qufqHyg&efESifh vlom;tm;vHk;wGif ar#mfvifhcsuf&Sd&ef vdktyfonf[laom [pfaºuG;oHyifjzpfygonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf trSefw&m;udk ajymqdkaeI‚if;/ olr. pum;rsm;onf jrefrmESifh urBmhtajccHt,ltqudk a&mifjyef[yfaeI‚if;/ olrtm; E_wfqdwfatmif rðyvkyfEkdifyg? “vlom;. oaE<yg *k%foduQm/ vlom;ESifh cJGcGGmIr&aom nDr#aom tcGifhta&;rsm;udk todtrSwfðyonfh t,ltq/ vlwkdif;wGif trSm;trSef a0zefydkif;jcm;Ekdifaom todOm%fESifh qifjcifwHkw&m;&Sdonfudk vufcHxm;aom t,ltq/ vlvlcsif; nDtudkarmifESrozG,f arwWmxm;&ef t}uHðyaom t,ltq ponfh tawG;tac:t,ltqwdk‹onf rdrdwdk‹. wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;ESifh rnfuJhodk‹ qef‹usifbufjzpfEdkifrnfudk jrefrmEdkifiHol EkdifiHom;rsm;taeESifh em;rvnfEdkifatmif jzpf&ayonf”[k a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk,fwkdif a&;om;xm;ygonf? &J&ifhowWd&Sdaom TtrsKd;orD;tm; EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk csD;jr‡ifhjcif;onf w&m;r#wr_udk óud;pm;&SmazGae=uol usaemfwdk‹tm;vHk;twGuf olru ajymqdkaeonfudk &Sif;vif;pGm jyovdkufjcif;yif jzpfygonf? a':oef;at;a&;om;aom ‘pk’ESifh rdwfqufjcif; a':oef;at; ynmawmfoiftjzpf t*FvefEkdifiHY a&muf&SdaepOf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh awG‹qHkcJhonf? xdk‹aemuf olronf a':cif=unf. rdwfaqGjzpfvm+yD; atmifqef;pk=unfESifh b0wavsmufvHk;wGif cspfcif&if;ESD;oljzpfonf? a':oef;at;udk xdkacwfu tqdkawmf ‘bdvyfjyefoef;’ [k vlodrsm;cJh.? q&mrtjzpf‚if;/ wm0efxrf;aqmif+yD;aomtcgwGif urBmhukvor*~Y yxrqHk; tr_xrf;aom jrefrmtrsKd;orD; jzpfvmonf? ukvor*~wGif ESpfaygif; (25) ESpf=um tr_xrf;+yD;aemuff t+idrf;pm;,lum ,cktcg =op}wD;,m;EkdifiHY aexdkifvsuf&Sdonf?

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Page 8: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

p=wmpfabmufòrd‹ (Strasbourg) Y (12) EkdifiHyg0ifaom Oa&myygvDrefonf 1991 ckESpf Zlvkdifv (19) &ufae‹wGif wnf+idrfoduQm&Sdaom txl;pnf;a0;yJGusif;yum jrefrmEkdifiHrS a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:r_twGuf 1991 ckESpf qmcga&mh (Sakharov) qkudk csD;jr‡ifhvdkufygonf? ,cifESpfrsm;u awmiftmz&durS e,fqifref'Jvm; (Nelson Nandela)/ qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkrS temwdkvDrmcsefudk (Anatoly Marchenko) ESifh csufudkqvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiHrS tvufZENm;'kAfcsuf (Alexander Dubcek) wdk‹tm; tvm;wl *k%fðycJhygonf? ygvDrefOuUXjzpfol bm±Gifc&uf(pf)ydk (Baron Crespo) u cef‹nm;x,f0gaom pydefbmompum;ESifh ¹rGuf=um;vdkufaom a=unmcsufudk usrwdk‹ em;=uyfrsm;xJrS bmomjyefu t*Fvdyfpum;ESifh jyefajymvdkufonfrSm ‘usaemfwdk‹onf Tqkudk &J&ifhaom tm&SolwOD;tm; csD;jr‡ifhvdkufygonf? TtrsKd;orD;. trnfonf vGwfvyfjcif;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDtwGuf t=urf;rzufaomenf;ESifh wdkufyJG0ifjcif;wdk‹ESifh xyfwlxyfr#yif jzpfygonf’? rdef‹cGef;t+yD;Y OuUX}uD;onf tcrf;tem; pifjrifhay:Y zcifESifhtwl xkdifaeaom uifrf (a':atmifqef;pk=unf. om;i,f armifxdefvif;) tm; qkvufrSwfudk tyfESif;vdkufjcif;jzifh wdkawmif;aomfvnf; pdwfv_yf&Sm;zG,ftwdjzpfaom tcrf;tem;udk ed*Hk;csKyfvdkufygonf? rdwfaqGoli,fcsif;rsm;u ‘pk’ [lI ac:avh&Sdaom olronfum; Tqkudk ukd,fwdkifvma&muf vufrcHEkdif&Smyg? olonf jrefrmppftpdk;&. tusOf;uscHwOD;taeESifh &efukefòrd‹Y txdef;odrf;cHb0 ‘oHk;’ ESpfajrmuf oufwrf;udk pwif&ifqkdifvsuf &Sdygonf? Tzrf;qD;csKyfaESmifjcif;ESifh T*k%fðycsD;jr‡if;jcif;wdk‹udk jzpfay:vmapcJhaom pk. b0vrf;a=umif;udk pOf;pm;oHk;oyf&if; usrudk,fudkusr (Tae&mwGif "gwfyHkrsm; xnfhygonf) ("gwfyHkatmufrSpmom;rsm;) tay: - rdcifudk,fpm; om;i,fuifrf (xdefvif;)u vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:r_qkdif&m qmcga&mhqkudk 1991 ckESpf Zlvkdifv 10 &ufae‹wGif vufcH&,lpOf atmuf - ,ck axmif'%fuscHae&aom OD;=unfarmifESifhtwl 1989 ckESpfY awG‹&pOf +Adwdo#0ef}uD;csKyf twWvD. trSwf (10) a'gif;eif;vrf; vef'efòrd‹aetdrfwGif 1947 ckESpf ZEM0g&DY awG‹qHkpOf (0JrS ,m) OD;bab/ rpPwmuvDref‹twWvD/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ OD;wifxGwf/ avmh'fyDopfavm&ifh (a':oef;at;aqmif;yg; tquf) ar;cGef;trsKd;rsKd; xkwfaerdygonf? ‘'gawG[m b,fvdkub,fvdk jzpfay:cJhwmygvdrfh/ 'Dvdktajctaeqdk;awG/ zdpD;csKyfcs,fr_awGudk cHEkdifpGrf;ay;wJh }uHŒcdkifwJhpdwf"mwf&JŒ t&if;tjrpf[m bmygvdrfh/ b,fursm; xGufay:vmygvdrfh/ b,favmuf =umOD;r,frodatmif qufvufxdef;odrf;cHae&OD;rSmeJ‹ jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;ZmwfuGif;xJ olr pGrf;aqmifcJhor#udk ppftpdk;&u wrifwum wdkufzsufaewmawGudk olr b,fvdkrsm; jrifygvdrfh?’ olronf xdkZmwfuGif;xJodk‹ 1988 ckESpfY EdkifiHa&;ygwDw&yf wnfaxmifpOfu 0ifa&mufcJhygonf? olrtm; zrf;qD;vdkuf+yD; (10) vcef‹t=umwGif usif;ycJhaom 1990 ckESpf a±G;aumufyJGY xdkygwDu tjywftowf tEdkif&cJhygonf? usr. txiftjrift&/ pk. tEkdifrcH t±_H;ray;pdwf"mwfESifh trsm;ESifhrwl wrlxl;aom oabmobm0wdk‹. ckdif+rJaom Zpfjrpfonf arhaysmufI r&Edkifaom olr. zcif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. owd&wrf;wzG,f&m t&nftcsif;rsm;ESifh olr. xl;jcm;aomrdcif a':cif=unf. ðypkysKd;axmifr_wdk‹yif jzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. b0Zmwfvrf;onf jrefrmhordkif;. wpdwfwydkif;jzpfI trsm;uod+yD;/ rSwfwrf;wif+yD; jzpfygonf? (aemufqHk;rSwfwrf;w&yfudk ol‹orD;udk,fwkdif ðypkcJhygonf?) +Adwdo#vufatmufcH jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;odk‹ *syefwyfrawmfESifhtwl a&SŒOD;rS csDwufrnfh &JabmfoHk;usdyfacgif;aqmiftjzpf *syefwdk‹xHrS ppfynmoif=um;cJhyHk/ *syefwdk‹vufatmufcHtjzpf aecJh&aom

Page 9: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

twkta,mifvGwfvyfa&;umv aemufydkif;Y jrefrmjynfudk jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf&ef 0ifa&mufvmaom r[mrdwfwyfrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcJhyHk/ aemufqHk; ppf+yD;acwfY vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;awmif;qdkcsufudk +Adwdo#wdk‹ vdkufavsm&onftxd tywfwukwf óud;yrf;v_yf&Sm;cJhyHk ponfwdk‹udk pma&;q&mtrsm;u tao;pdwf a&;om;wifjy+yD; jzpfygonf? a':cif=unf. twKy`wWdudkrl aphaphiSiS rSwfwrf;wifxm;jcif; r&Sdyg? AdkvfcsKyfESifhywfoufI usr owd&aeaom tcsuftcsKdŒrSm txl;atmufarhvGrf;qGwfzG,f jzpfygonf? jrefrmEkdifiH vGwfvyfa&;udpPrsm;udk twWvD (Attlee) tpdk;&ESifh aqG;aEG;&ef udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹udk acgif;aqmifum AdkvfcsKyfa&mufvmaom 1947 ckESpf ZEM0g&DvrSm t*FvefEkdifiHY tqdk;qHk;aqmif;umv. &moD'%fudk tvl;tvJcHae&csdef jzpfygonf? vef'efòrd‹v,fY ESif;pdkifESif;cJrsm;onf &Sif;vif;I rxm;Edkifavmufatmif xlxyfpGmyHkae+yD; udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ wnf;cdk&m a':csuf(pf)wm[dkw,f (Dorchester Hotel) oGm;vrf;udkyif ydwfqdk‹vkrwwf jzpfaeygonf? ppf+yD;pacwf òcd;+cHpGmaexkdifa&;pepfonf tm;vHk;tay: oufa&mufr_&Sdojzifh jrefrmrsm;vnf; tjcm;vef'efwGif aexkdifol vltrsm;enf;wl ae‹pOf em&Daygif;rsm;pGm v#yfppf"mwftm; jzwfawmufcH&onfh'kuQudk aumif;aumif;}uD; &ifqkdifae=u&ygonf? [dkw,fcef;rsm;wGif rD;aoG;rD;/ xif;rD;wdk‹ESifh [kef;[kef;awmufaeaom rD;vif;zdk}uD;rsm; r&Sdyg? ao;i,faom "mwfrD;vif;zdkuav;rsm;om &Sdygonf? tae&txdkif& roufomvSaom tcsdefjzpfaomfvnf;/ ar#mfvifhjcif;ESifh pdwf"mwfwufºuGjcif;wdk‹ jrifhrm;aecsdefvnf; jzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfonf vef'ef&Sd jrefrmrsm;tm;vHk;ESifh awG‹qHkEkdif&ef *±kwpdkuf pDpOfcJh.? vef'ef&Sd jrefrmrsm;qdkonfrSm ynmoifaeolrsm;/ tvkyfvkyfudkif aexdkifaeolrsm;/ c&D;oGm;&if;vm&if; c%wðzwf &yfem;aeolrsm;ESifh usruJhodk‹ cyf=um=um tvnftywfa&mufaeaom {nfhonfrsm; jzpf=uygonf? pdk[dk&yfuGuf (Soho) &Sd jrefrmxrif;qkdifwqkdifwGif AdkvfcsKyftm; *k%fðyonfh {nfhcHyJGusif;y=uygonf? tawmftwef jynfh=uyfaeaom {nfhy&dowfudk E_wfcGef;qufpum; ajym+yD;aemuf AdkvfcsKyfu usrwdk‹wOD;csif;ESifh cifrif&if;ESD;pGm pum;ajymygonf? AdkvfcsKyf. &eH‹oif;aom *k%fowif;rsm; usrwdk‹xH a&mufcJhonfrSm twef=umyg+yD? vltrsm; todtrSwfðy&aom ol. t&Sdeft0g/ awmufajymifvSaom ol. wnf=unfajzmifhrwfr_/ twdkuftcHrsm;tm; udkifwG,f&mY vdrRmyg;eyfyHk/ *syefacwftwGif;u *syefrsm;ESifh ppf+yD;cgeD;ESifh ppf+yD;acwfY t*Fvdyfrsm;tygt0if/ olESifh qufqHvkyfudkif&olrsm;ESifh tqifhtjrifhqHk; tm%mydkifrsm;. av;pm;jcif;udk &,lEkdifyHk/ olvdkvm;onfh vGwfvyfa&;aqG;aEG;yJGrsm;tm; taumiftxnfazmfEkdifonfh tqifhwdkifatmif jrefrmEkdifiHudk o,faqmifvmcJhaom ol. v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ponfh udpPtaygif;udk tm;vHk; odESifh=u+yD; jzpfygonf? TtrsKd;om;ol&Jaumif;}uD;onf usrwdk‹ wOD;csif;pD. euf±_dif;aom ±dkaoav;pm;r_ukd &&Sd+yD; jzpfygonf? ol. ±dk;om;I [efyefrygaom cifrifr_onf usrwdk‹. toJESvHk;rsm;udkyg odrf;óuH;vdkufygawmhonf? AdkvfcsKyfESifh udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹0ifrsm; tvkyfwm0efrS tm;vyfaom naersm;wGif usrudk AdkvfcsKyfwdk‹wnf;cdkaeaom [dkw,f{nfhaqmifY xrif;pm;&ef zdwfac:avh&Sdygonf? xrif; pm;aomuf+yD;aomtcg "mwfrD;vif;zdk cyfrSdefrSdefav;udk 0dkif;&Hum ppfrjzpfrDu ta=umif;rsm;/ *syefrsm;xHrS ppfynmoif=um;pOfu ta=umif;rsm;/ tem*wftwGuf ar#mfvifhcsufxm;Edkifaom ypPKy`efumv ta=umif;rsm; ponfwdk‹udk aqG;aEG;=uygonf? ppftwGif; jrefrmjynfta=umif;ESifh ppf+yD;pumvY +Adwdo#tpdk;&u AdkvfcsKyf. awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk vufcHvmap&ef v_yf&Sm;±kef;uefcJh&yHk ta=umif;wdk‹udkum; rsm;pGm ajymavhajymxr&Sdyg? tzJG‹wzJG‹vHk;twGuf udk,fa&mpdwfyg oufomap&ef tyef;ajzcsdefyif jzpfygonf? ppftwGif;umvwGif usru e,l;a'vD&Sd tdENd,jynfvHk;qkdif&m toHv$ifhXmeY tvkyfvkyfaecJhygonf? xdkXmerS bmompum ("gwfyHkrsm;) AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh a':cif=unf 1942 ckESpfwGif xdrf;jrm;vufxyfpOfu

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tay: AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhrdom;pk? a&SŒwef;wGif xdkifaeolrSm atmifqef;pk=unf atmuf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u pkpkudk ayG‹csDxm;pOf (a':oef;at;aqmif;yg;tquf) trsKd;rsKd;jzifh *syefrsm; odrf;ydkufxm;aom tm&Se,fajrrsm;odk‹ toHv$ifhygonf? xdk‹aemuf qefz&efppPudk (San Francisco) odk‹oGm;I ,ck AGDtdkat (VOA) ac: xdkpOfu tar&duefjynfaxmifpk ppfjyef=um;a&;±Hk;Y tvm;wltvkyfrsKd; vkyfygonf? jrefrmjynfrSa&mufvmaom rdwfaqGrsm;ESifh rawG‹&onfrSm ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm =um+yDjzpfI uJGuGmae=u&pOftwGif; jzpfa=umif;&,fwJhukefpifatmif ajym&eftcsdefyif ravmufEkdifyg? xdk"mwfrD;vif;zdk rSdefrSdefav;udk 0dkif;&Hae=uonfh vlpkxJ yg0ifolrsm;rSm AdkvfcsKyfESifh ol. udk,f&Hawmf/ ukd,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹0iftcsKdŒ/ bDbDpDY tvkyfvkyfaeaom jrefrmwOD;ESifh &Hzef&Hcg usruJhodk‹aom {nfhonfrsm; jzpf=uygonf? &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifwOD;jzpf+yD;/ *syefacwfumvtwGif;u trnfcHt& vGwfvyfaom jrefrmEdkifiH. ppfoHrª;tjzpf wdkusKdwGif wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhaom Adkvfp}uFmvnf; xdkvlpkxJwGif yg0ifonf? pum;tenf;i,fpJaomtcsdefrsm;Y olu *syefwGif aepOfu wwfcJhaom tvGrf;taqG;oDcsif;rsm;qdk+yD;/ usrwdk‹u jrefrmoDcsif;rsm; qkd=uygonf? AdkvfcsKyfu ol. rdom;pk/ ZeD;ESifh om;orD; oHk;a,mufta=umif;/ ti,fqHk;rSm rdef;uav;jzpfa=umif;wdk‹udk ajymavh&Sd+yD;/ ‚if;wdk‹twGuf vufaqmifrsm; 0,fay;yg[k usrudk ajymygonf? odk‹ESifh udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ tvkyfudpPrsm; +yD;pD;I vef'efrS jyefoGm;aomtcg ol. rdom;pk0if wOD;csif;pDtwGuf usr 0,fay;vkdufaom vufaqmifrsm; AdkvfcsKyfESifh twlygoGm;ygonf? pktwGuf t±kyf}uD;wck 0,fay;vdkufygonf? ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm=umaomtcg xdkt±kyf}uD;udk pku rysufrpD; aumif;rGefpGm xdef;odrf;xm;vsuf&Sdao;onfudk awG‹&I usr auseyftHhtm;oifh&ygonf? udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ rjyefrD &uftenf;i,ftvdkwGif rdrdwdk‹ +yD;pD;vkyfaqmifEkdifcJhaom udpPt00ESifh ywfoufI bDbDpDjrefrmydkif; tpDtpOfrS toHv$ifh&ef pmwrf;wapmifudk AdkvfcsKyf jyifqifxm;ygonf? toHv$ifhrnfhae‹wGif usrwdk‹u AdkvfcsKyfESifh ol. udk,f&Hawmfwdk‹tm; bDbDpD pm;aomufqkdifYqHk+yD; ae‹vnfpm twlpm;&efjzpfygonf? xdkae‹vnfpmpm;yJGrSm aysmf&$iftm;&zG,fr[kwfcJhyg? xrif;pm; pm;yJGonf qdwf+idrfae+yD; AdkvfcsKyf. rsufESmrSm +cdrf;awmhrnfhrdk;uJhodk‹ tHk‹r_dif;ae.? bDbDpDjrefrmydkif;tpDtpOf Xmerª;jzpfol (t*FvdyftrsKd;om;wOD;) u t*Fvdyfvdk bmomjyefxm;aom AdkvfcsKyfrdef‹cGef;. tpdwftydkif;tcsKdŒudk jzwfawmufjyifqifcJh+yD;/ rl&if; jrefrmpmwrf;udkvnf; tvm;wl jyifqif&rnf[k t=uyfudkifaeygonf? bDbDpDrS xkwfv$ifhaom rdef‹cGef;rsm;yg EdkifiHa&;ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufI xm;&Sdaom pnf;rsOf;uef‹owfcsufrsm;ESifh udkufnD&efjzpfonf[k &Sif;vif;jyygonf? Ttjzwftawmufrsm;udk vufcHvkduf&rnfavm/ toHv$ifhtpDtpOfudkyJ zsufodrf;vdkuf&rnfavmESifh AdkvfcsKyfrSm pdwf'dG[jzpfae.? AdkvfcsKyf. rdom;pktwGuf vufaqmifrsm; ,lvmaom usru pm;aomufcef;odk‹ tenf;i,f ta&mufaemufusygonf? usra&mufoGm;+yD;aemufydkif; wjznf;jznf; wif;rmr_ESifh pdwfrcsrf;ajrŒr_rsm; avsmhyg;oGm;um ae‹vnfpmpm;yJG pwifygawmhonf? xdk‹aemuf AdkvfcsKyfu jrefrmEkdifiHol EkdifiHom;rsm;xH toHv$ifhtpD&ifcH&ef xGufoGm;ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; óudwiftoday;jcif;

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r&SdbJESifh ol. pmwrf;udk rðyvkyfoifh[k ol ,lqaom wnf;jzwfr_rsm; ðyvkyfjcif;a=umifh rnfr# rauseyfrESpfòrd‹jzpf&a=umif;udk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;}uD; odomapcJh.? Tonfum; AdkvfcsKyf. toGifwyHk? udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹. tvkyfvnf; +yD;qHk;I jyefcsdefvnf; eD;vmav+yD? AdkvfcsKyftm; {nfhcH=unfh±_cJhaom t*Fvdyfrsm;ESifh vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;twGuf {nfhcHyJG}uD; usif;yygonf? {nfhy&dowfvnf; tawmfrsm;ygonf? +Adwdo#ygvDreftrwfrsm;/ udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹. tvkyfudpPt00 tqifajyacsmarG‹ap&ef wm0ef,lcJhaom tqifhjrifht&m&Sd}uD;rsm;/ owif;pmt,f'Dwmrsm;/ owif;axmufrsm;/ pma&;q&mrsm;/ jrefrmjynfESifh jrefrmjynf. tem*wfwGif pdwf0ifpm;=uolrsm;ESifh vma&mufEdkifaom jrefrmrSefor#wdk‹ toD;oD;yg0if=uygonf? {nfhcHyJGrwdkifrDnu AdkvfcsKyfu usrudk {nfhcHyJGY oDcsif;qdk&ef ajymygonf? usru vkyf±dk;vkyfpOf [kwfrnfrxif[kajymum jiif;cJh.? {nfhcHyJGae‹Y *syefrsm; 0ifvmonftxd jrefrmjynfwGif tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&Sdtjzpf tr_xrf;cJhaom t*FvdyfrdwfaqGa[mif;wa,mufxH usr tvnfoGm;cJh.? ol. tdrf&Sd&mt&yfrS vef'efodk‹ tjyefc&D;rSm aES;auG;vSI usrESifhtwl ygvmaom rdwfaqGrsm; {nfhcHyJG ta&mufaemufusrnfpdk;um &ifwrr jzpfae.? {nfhcHyJGrrDvdkufu AdkvfcsKyfwdk‹ESifh aemufqHk;awG‹&rnfhtcGifhta&; vGwfoGm;rnfxifum usrwdk‹ ylyefae=ujcif;jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; uref;uwef; t0wftpm;vJ+yD; a&mufoGm;aomtcg AdkvfcsKyfu apmifhaeygonf? tcsrf;ajy rkef‹tenf;i,f pm;aomuf+yD;aemuf AdkvfcsKyfu usrudk pifjrifhay:wifxm;aom pEN,m;&Sd&modk‹ ac:oGm;+yD;/ ‘jrefrmtrsKd;orD;av;wa,mufu oDcsif;qdk{nfhcHygrnf’ [k y&dowftm; a=unmvdkufygonf? usrvnf; oDcsif;qdk&ygawmhonf? xdknu qdkcJhaom oDcsif;rsm;rSm t*FvdyfoDcsif;wyk'f/ jyifopfoDcsif;wyk'fESifh jrefrmoDcsif;wyk'fwdk‹jzpfygonf? ,ck jyefvnfawG;=unfhaomtcg aemufqHk;wyk'fudkom qdkcJhoifhonf[k usr xifrdygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; xdkoDcsif;udk jrefrmrsm;uom em;vnfESpfouf=urnf jzpfygonf? xdkoDcsif;rSm usrwdk‹tm;vHk; od=uaom v_difxdwfacgifwif. ‘pdefjcL;=umanmif’ abmv,fjzpfygonf? y&dowfu ,Ofaus;pGm =obmay;=uygonf? xdk‹aemuf AdkvfcsKyfu usrudk pifjrifhay:rS qif;&ef vmac:+yD; usr. tqdkudk ol rnfr#oabmusESpfoufa=umif; ajymygonf? ("gwfyHkvmonf) tay: atmifqef;OD;/ a':cif=unf/ atmifqef;vif;ESifh pkpk (xkdifaeol) 1948 ckESpf atmuf pkpk ajcmufESpforD;t&G,f 1951 ckESpf (aqmif;yg;tquf) udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ txl;av,mOfESifh vef'efòrd‹ajrmufydkif;&Sd ppfzufqdkif&mavqdyfrS xGufcGmoGm;csdefY wwdkif;jynfvHk; ESif;pdkifESif;cJrsm;ESifh zHk;v$rf;xm;qJyif jzpfygonf? E_wfquf&ef tqifhjrifh t*Fvdyft&m&Sdrsm; tzJG‹}uD;wzJG‹ a&mufaeygonf? usrwdk‹ jrefrmtcsKdŒvnf; udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ tjcm;olrsm;ESifhtwl [kef;[kef;awmufaeonfh rD;vif;zdk}uD;. tyl&SdefESifh aEG;aeaom {nfhóudcef;r}uD;Y oGm;a&mufpka0;aeygonf? usrwdk‹tm;vHk; 0dkif;xkdifpum;ajym=uygonf? c%=umaomtcg AdkvfcsKyfu t*Fvdyfrsm;t=um;rS xvm+yD; usrwdk‹ESifh pum;ajymygonf? usrudk òyH;+yD; ‘usaemfwdk‹ESifh Armjynfudk

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vdkufcJhygvm;’ [k ajymygonf? xdk‹aemuf usrwdk‹taygif;tazmfwpk ESif;cJrsm;t=um;&yf+yD; udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ av,mOf&Sd&modk‹av#mufI xGufcGmoGm;aeonfudk ai;ar#mf=unfh&if; vufrsm;a0S‹&rf; E_wfquf=uygonf? aqmif;ae‹uav;. vGrf;zG,fhtoGifESifh rdwfaqGrsm;ESifh cJGcGm&jcif;/ txl;ojzifh AdkvfcsKyfESifh cJGcGm&jcif;wdk‹a=umifh usrwdk‹wawG 0rf;enf;woo jzpfae=uygonf? AdkvfcsKyfcrsm wdkawmif;vSaom b0oufwrf;av;r#om usefawmhonfudkum; usrwkd‹ rnfuJhodk‹r# rrSef;qrdcJh=uyg? *syefacwfESifh ppf'%fwdk‹a=umifh ysufpD;,kd,Gif;aeaom wkdif;jynfudk jyefvnfxlaxmifI jrefrmjynfwGif acwfopfxGef;aprnf [lonfh AdkvfcsKyf o,faqmifoGm;aom ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;rSm EdkifiHa&;òydifbufwOD;. ya,m*a=umifh xdkESpfwGifyif òyduJGcJh&ygawmhonf? bk&ifcH. tvkyftr_aqmiftzJG‹ tpnf;ta0;usif;yaepOf tcef;twGif;odk‹ vlowform;rsm; twif;0ifa&mufvmum ppfaoewfrsm;jzifh tv,fwGifxkdifaeaom AdkvfcsKyfudk OD;pGmypfcwf+yD; tjcm;yk*~Kdvf &SpfOD;udkyg vkyf}uHowfjzwfoGm;ygonf? ESpfpOfESpfwkdif; wEkdifiHvHk; owdw&,lusKH;r&jzpf&aom tmZmenfae‹/ 19 Zlvdkif 1947 ckESpf jzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. usef&pfol ZeD; a':cif=unfonf rdrdtwGufomru wrsKd;om;vHk;twGufyg a=uuJGzG,f&m Ttjzpfqdk;}uD;aemufydkif;Y olrb0udk jyefvnfysKd;axmif&ygawmhonf? jrefrmjynf vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;aemuf rdcifESifh uav;apmifha&Smufa&;Xme/ xdk‹aemuf vlr_0efxrf;Xmewdk‹. t}uD;tuJtjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmif.? rtm;rvyf tvkyfwm0efrsm;txJ epfðryfaepOfyif uH=urRm.'%fudk aemufwzefcH&jyef.? 'kwd,om;jzpfol atmifqef;vif;crsm &efukefaetdrf+cH0if;twGif;&Sd a&uefabmif±dk;ay: upm;aepOf vdrfhusum a&epfaoqHk;oGm;&Smonf? atmifqef;vif;onf ‘pk’ txl;cspfjrwfEdk; tm;udk;aomtudkjzpfI pktzdk‹ xdktjzpfqdk;}uD;a=umifh pdwfwkefv_yfxdcdkufcJh&r_onf tawmfESifh aysmufuG,foGm;jcif; r&SdEkdifcJhyg? ‘pk’onf olr. tudkudk rnfonfhtcgr# rarhEkdifouJhodk‹ olr. zcifudkvnf; rnfonfhtcgr# rarhEkdifcJhyg? zcif. b0Zmwfa=umif;/ pmayta&;tom;/ wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;tm; aqmf=ocsufrsm;ESifh (32) ESpfwm oufwrf;twGif; jzpfajrmufcJhaom tHh=ozG,f&m pGrf;aqmifcsufrsm;udk avhvmjcif;rSm ‘pk’twGuf tqufrjywfEdkifaom pJGvrf;csufw&yfjzpfygonf? a':cif=unfonf om;orD;rsm;tm; i,fpOfuyif olwdk‹. zcifay;cJhaom tarGtESpfudk t+rJowd&aeap&ef óud;yrf;cJh.? AdkvfcsKyf. &Jabmf&Jzufrsm;ESifh olxlaxmifcJhaom wyfrawmfrS tzJG‹0ifrsm;u AdkvfcsKyf. rdom;pktay: xm;&Sdaom oHa,mZOfrSm ysufuGufoGm;jcif; r&SdcJhyg? xdk‹a=umifh ‘pk’ u wyfrawmfom;rsm;vufay: }uD;jyif;vmcJhonf[k yuwd&Sd&if;twkdif; ajymEkdifygonf? t&nftcsif;ºuG,f0/ tawG‹tóuHrsm;jym;/ &mxl;&mcHjrifhrm;aom jrefrmvl}uD;vlaumif; trsm;tjym; a':cif=unfESifh &if;ESD;cifrifpGm qufqHjcif;onfvnf; om;orD;rsm;tay: =oZmoufa&mufr_&SdcJh.? ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm EdkifiHawmf0efxrf;wOD;tjzpf ajymifajrmufpGm wm0efxrf;&GufcJhaom w&m;ol}uD;csKyf OD;jrifhodef;qdkv#if woufwm &if;ESD;cifrifaom rdwfaqGaumif;wOD;jzpfygonf? ±dkaoav;pm;r_/ =unf!dkr_/ cspfcifr_ paom t&Sdeft0grsm;u olESifh olr. rdom;pkwdk‹tay: v$rf;òcHxm;ygonf? a':cif=unfonf rdrd. om;orD;rsm;tm; jrefrmhvlr_a&;ESifh udk,fusifhoDv. wefzdk;udk tav;xm;+yD;/ Ak'<bmomw&m;udk ,Hk=unfudkif;±_dif;&ef oGefoifqHk;rcJh.? usr. tjrift& 0wfpm;/ oGm;vm/ aexdkifr_t&yf&yfESifh pyfvsOf;I vltrsm;jrifuGif;wGif‚if;/ tdrfwGif;todkif;t0dkif;wGif‚if;/ ‘pk’ onf jrefrmh,Ofaus;r_t& pHwifavmufygonf? Oyrmwck ay;&rnfqdkv#if rdrdxuf wESpf/ w&uf/ wreuf}uD;olrSefor#udk udk,ftrlt,m/ E_wftrlt,mt& ±dkaoav;pm;or_jyjcif;jzpfaom vl}uD;rsm;a&SŒrS jzwfoef;oGm;aomtcg cg;nGwfjcif;/ vl}uD;rsm;xHyg;wGif usKHŒusKHŒ,Hk‹,Hk‹ aexkdifjcif;/ ,Ofaus;av;pm;aom toHaetoHxm;ESifh pum;vHk;rsm;udk a&G;cs,foHk;jcif;/ ponfwdk‹rSm ‘pk’ twGuf t±dk;pJGaeaom trltusifhrsm;jzpfygonf? TuJhodk‹ xif&Sm;vSaom jrefrmqefr_wdk‹a=umifh ‘pk’ udk jrefrmrsm;u cspfjrwfEkd;=u+yD; EkdifiH&yfjcm;wGif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm aexkdifaomfvnf; ‘pk’ . jrefrmyDor_rSm arS;rSdef,drf;,dkifoGm;onf[lI r&SdcJhyg? jrefrmEdkifiHvlxk}uD;tm; pJGaqmifI ‚if;wdk‹. twufºuGqHk;/

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tlv_dufonf;v_duf axmufcHr_udk ‘pk’ &,lEkdifjcif;. t"duta=umif;&if; wcsufrSm olr. jrefrmyDor_yif jzpfygonf? 1960 ckESpfwGif OD;Ektpdk;&onf a':cif=unftm; tdENd,EkdifiHqkdif&m jrefrmoHtrwf}uD;tjzpf cef‹tyfvdkufygonf? xdk&mxl;ae&mwGif 1962 ck OD;ae0if;u ppftm%modrf;ydkuf+yD; aemufydkif;Yyif a':cif=unf qufvufwm0efxrf;aqmifEkdifjcif;onf olrtm; ±dkaoav;pm;r_twdkif;twm rnfr# }uD;rm;a=umif;udk jyoygonf? tvkyfoufwrf;+yD;qHk;I t+idrf;pm;,laomtcg a':cif=unfonf tif;vsm;uefabmif&Sd rdrdtdrfY jyefvnfaexdkifygonf? tif;vsm;uefabmifwavsmufwGif jrefrmEkdifiHa&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;avmurS txifu&yk*~Kdvftrsm;tjym; aexkdif=uygonf? ,ck ‘pk’ vnf; xdktif;vsm;uefaetdrfwGifyif tus,fcsKyfb0ESifh txdef;odrf;cHae&ygonf? e,l;a'vDòrd‹odk‹ rdcifESifhtwl a&mufvmpOfu ‘pk’ onf uspfqH+rD; wkwfwkwf&Snf&Snf}uD;rsm;ESifh (15) ESpft&G,f uav;rav;jzpfygonf? a,±_ESifhar&D uGefbifhausmif; (Convent of Jesus and Mary) ESifh av'D&S,f&D&rfaumvdyf (Lady Shri Ram College) wdk‹Y qufvufynmoifygonf? olr. tdENd,rdwfaqGtodkif;t0dkif;rSm us,fjyef‹vmygonf? r[wWr*ENDESifh *s0g[mvmae±l;wdk‹. wdkif;jynfudk pl;prf;avhvm em;vnfEkdif&ef ‘pk’ tzkd‹ tcGifhaumif;jzpfygonf? ‘pk’ . zcifvnf; Twdkif;jynfudk a&mufzl;+yD; ae±l;ESifh awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;um &if;ESD;cifrifaom em;vnfr_ &&SdcJhygonf? ‘pk’ . rdcif oHtrwftjzpf cef‹tyfjcif;cH&csdefwGif ae±l;u 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifqJjzpfygonf? ‘pk’ A[kokw tawG‹tóuH us,fjyef‹ap&ef olr.rdcif pDpOfay;aom udpPrsm;teuf *syefyef;tvSjyifenf;/ tEkynmoifjcif;ESifh jrif;pD;oifjcif;wdk‹ yg0ifygonf? tdENd,EkdifiH orRw}uD;. udk,f&HawmfwyfzJG‹avhusifh&m jrif;pD;uGif;Y tdENd,t&m&Sd}uD;rsm;. om;orD;rsm;/ EkdifiHwum oHtrwfrsm;. om;orD;rsm;ESifh yef'pfae±l;. ajr;/ tif'D&m*END. om;jzpfol qefa*s;wdk‹ESifh ‘pk’ awG‹qHkavh&Sdygonf? eHygwf (24) tuUbmvrf; (24 Akbar Road) &Sd aetdrfwGif pEN,m; qufoif&ygonf? xdkoHtrwfaetdrfonf }uD;rm;I tvGefcef‹nm;wifhw,faom yef;O,sOfysKd;xm;onfh +cH0if;us,f}uD;twGif; wnf&Sdygonf? tqifhtjrifhqHk; tdENd,t&m&Sd}uD;rsm;twGuf owfrSwfxm;aom tdrfrsKd;jzpf+yD; tpdk;&u +Adwdo#vufxufuuJhodk‹yif vSyaumif;rGefpGm xdef;odrf;xm;ygonf? a':cif=unfudk txl;av;pm;aomtm;jzifh xdkaetdrfudk ay;xm;jcif;jzpfygonf? ‘pk’ txl;ESpfoufrufarmaom 0goemrSm pmzwfjcif;yif? olr. pmtkyfpmayjrwfEdk;r_udk tm;ay;cJhaom OD;tkef;udk ‘pk’ tpOf cspfcifaus;Zl;wifpGm owd&avh&Sdygonf? owif;pmq&mwOD; jzpfcJhaom OD;tkef;onf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh tu|rf;0ifcJholwOD;jzpf+yD; ppf+yD;acwfY vef'efwGif zqyvtzJG‹csKyf udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ wm0efxrf;aqmifygonf? aemifwGif armfpudkòrd‹awmfodk‹ jrefrmEkdifiHqkdif&m oHtrwf}uD;tjzpf cef‹tyfjcif;cH&ygonf? olonf ‘pk’ tm; zwfoifh ("gwfyHkvmonf) ("gwfyHk) tay: yef'pfae±l;ESifh a':cif=unf atmuf a':cif=unfESifh pk a'vDòrd‹wGif (aqmif;yg;tquf) zwfxdkufonfh jrefrmESifh t*Fvdyfpmtkyf pm&Sif;&Snf}uD;rsm; ay;olrsm;teuf wOD;tygt0ifjzpfygonf? ‘pk’ . todynm tawG;tac:ydkif; zHG‹òzd;wdk;wufr_udk ydkIowdðyrd+yD; pdwf0ifpm;cJholrSm tvGefemrnf}uD;cJhaom

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&efukefwuUodkvf tdk;a0r*~Zif;. wcsdefu t,f'DwmjzpfcJh+yD; ‘pk’ . zcifESifhtwl wuUodkvfwGif&SdcJhaom OD;!dkjryif jzpfygonf? aemufydkif;wGif OD;!dkjrudk pme,fZif;orm;wOD;ESifh tvGefemrnf&aom pmtkyfrsm;pGmudk a&;om;onfh pma&;q&mwOD;tjzpf vlodrsm;vmygonf? olu wjcm;olrsm;xufyifydk+yD; ‘pk’ zwf&ef t*FvdyfESifh jrefrmpmtkyfaygif;rsm;pGmudk vrf;n$efay;cJhygonf? OD;!dkjr vufaqmifay;cJhaom tvGeftzdk;wefonfh [m;Auf*EW0if pmtkyfwJG wpHkvHk; (Harvard Classics) udk tvGefwefzdk;xm;+yD; r=umc% zwfcJha=umif;vnf; ‘pk’ u ,ckxd owd&aeygonf? Tpmtkyfrsm;u ‘pk’ udk pmayavmuwHcg; zGifhay;cJhygonf? ‘pk’ . pmzwf0goemrSm tdENd,ra&mufrDuyif tjrpfwG,f+yD;jzpfygonf? e,l;a'vDòrd‹ qifajczHk;tpGeftzsm;&Sd ara&mfvD (Mehrauli) &yfuGufwGif *±kwpdkufxdef;odrf;xm;Ekdifjcif; r&SdonfrSm =um+yDjzpfI ysufpD;,dk,Gif;aeonfh tmaomu0d[m& trnfwGifaom Ak'<bmomXmewck&Sdygonf? xdkXme jyefvnf&SifoefvmEkdifap&ef a'vD&Sd Ak'<bmom0ifrsm; txl;ojzifh Ak'<bmomudk;uG,faom EkdifiHrsm;rS oHtrwfrsm;. tultnDudk a':cif=unf &,lcJhygonf? Tvkyfaqmifr_a=umifh a'vD&Sd Ak'<bmom0ifrsm;ESifh tdENd,EkdifiH tjcm;a'orsm;rS Ak'<bmom0iftcsKdŒtwGuf jyefvnftouf0ifvm+yDjzpfaom tmaomu0d[m&onf ESpfpOfusa&mufaom Ak'<bmomyJGawmf}uD;rsm; usif;y&m/ bk&m;0wfðy&m urRÏmef; bm0empD;jzef;&mXme jzpfvmygonf? trsKd;om;a&;udpPrsm;qdkif&m/ udk,fa&;udk,fwmudpPrsm;qkdif&m tcrf;tem; }uD;i,ftrsm;tjym;wdk‹wGif ‘pk’ yg0ifulnDcJh.? a':cif=unfonf jrefrm/ xdkif;/ uarBm'D;,m; EkdifiHom; Ak'<omoembkef;awmf}uD;rsm;tm; rSefrSefyifhzdwf qGrf;uyfw&m;emavh&Sd.? ‘pk’ . tudkvnf; ausmif;ydwf&ufrsm;twGif; t*FvefrS a&mufvmaomtcg TudpPrsm;wGif yg0ifaqmif&Gufygonf? tarESifh orD;udk jrefrmrsm; cspfcifav;pm;onfhtwdkif; a':cif=unf. vkyfazmfudkifzuf oHwrefrsm;ESifh yef'pfae±l;rS tpcsDI tdENd,tpdk;&tzJG‹0iftaygif;wdk‹uvnf; cspfcifav;pm;=uygonf? tdENd,wGif &&SdcJhaom tawG‹tóuHrsm;onf ‘pk’ twGuf tifrwef ta&;yg pdwftm;xufoefzG,f&mjzpfcJhygonf? ,ckwdkif olr tdENd,EdkifiHtay: xm;&SdaomarwWmESifh oHa,mZOfwdk‹rSm ckdifrmvsuf&Sdygonf? xdktcsdefu a'vD&Sd +Adwdo#r[mrif;}uD;rSm qmayg(vf)*dk;bl(of)(Sir Paul Gore-Booth) aemiftcg avm('f)*dk;bl(of)/ (Lord Gore-Booth) jzpfygonf? ,cif jrefrmEkdifiHwGif oHtrwftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhpOfu olESifh ol. ZeD; yuf}wD&Sm (Patricia) wdk‹onf a':cif=unfESifh aumif;pGmodu|rf;cJh.? xdkcifrif&if;ESD;r_rSm tdENd,Y jyefvnfqef;opf&Sifoefvmygonf? odk‹ESifh ‘pk’ atmufpzdk‹'fwuUodkvfodk‹ ynmoif&ef oGm;aomtcg ayg(vf)ESifh yuf}wD&Smwdk‹u rdbudk,fpm; =unfh±_apmifha&Smuf&ef wm0ef,lcJh.? ‘pk’ onf olwdk‹. rdom;pk0ifwOD;uJhodk‹/ olwdk‹ om;ESpfa,mufESifh orD;ESpfa,mufwdk‹. nDtr&if;csmwOD;uJhodk‹ jzpfvmygonf? xdkrdom;pktdrfwGifyif ‚if;wkd‹. rdwfaqGrsm;tjyif ‚if;wdk‹zdwf=um;{nfhcHaom EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh tpdk;&t&m&Sdrsm;udk ‘pk’ odu|rf;cGifh&cJhygonf? xdkyk*~Kdvfrsm;. toGiftjyif/ trltusifh/ tajymtqdkESifh xl;jcm;aom "avhp±dkufuav;rsm;udk ‘pk’ pdwf0ifpm;pGm avhvmcJh.? xdkyk*~Kdvfrsm;rSm olr 0if&awmhvkqJjzpfonfh us,f0ef;vSaom urBmavmurS yk*~Kdvfrsm;yif r[kwfygvm;? aEG&moDausmif;ydwf&ufrsm;twGif; ‘pk’ onf rdcif&Sd&m e,l;a'vDodk‹ jyefavh&Sd.? odk‹aomf wESpfwGif usrESifh tJ(vf)*sD;,m;(pf)òrd‹ (Algiers) wGif vmaeygonf? usronf e,l;a'vD ukvor*~jyef=um;a&;XmerS t,f(vf)*sD;&D;,m;EkdifiH (Algeria) . òrd‹awmfodk‹ ajymif;a±$Œum tvm;wlXmewckzGifh&ef wm0efay;jcif; cH&ygonf? t,f(vf)*sD;&D;,m;onf 1962 ckESpfwGif csm;(vf)'D*dk;(vf) (Charles de Gaulle) tpdk;&ESifh atAD,efpmcsKyf (Treaty of Evian) udk vufrSwfxkd;+yD; vGwfvyfa&;&cJhonfrSm r=umao;yg? jyifopfxHrS vGwfvyfa&;&&ef &SpfESpf=um ±kef;uefr_aemufydkif; wjznf;jznf; emvefxlqJEdkifiHjzpfygonf? xdk‹a=umifh t,f(vf)*sD;,m;(pf)òrd‹wGif ae&mxkdifcif; tvGef&Sm;yg;aejcif;/ ysufpD;,kd,Gif;aeaom &yfuGufa'orsm; aygrsm;aejcif;/ tajctaeaumif;rGefaom

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[dkw,frsm;enf;yg;aejcif;ESifh 0efaqmifr_vkyfief;rsm; vGefpGmrS uef‹owfxm;jcif;wdk‹rSm tHh=ozG,f&mr[kwfyg? zGifhvSpfpoH±Hk;rsm;/ ukvor*~±Hk;rsm;ESifh 0ifa&mufvmqJ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;omru tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,ef;vlrsKd;rsm;uyg tdrfae&mrsm;ESifh vkyfief;cGifae&mrsm;&&Sd&ef oJoJrJrJ vHk;yrf;&SmazGae&ygonf? tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,m;wGif =umjrifhpGm tajccsaexdkifcJhaom jyifopfvlrsKd;ajrmufjrm;pGmrSm Twkdif;jynfrS xGufcGmoGm;=u+yD;jzpfaomfvnf; tjcm;vlopfrsm;rSm 0ifvmrpJjzpfygonf? xdkolrsm;rSm ppfr_xrf;rnfhtpm;/ y&[dwvkyfief;trsKd;rsKd;wdk‹wGif 0ifa&mufwm0efxrf;aqmif&ef a±G;cs,faom jyifopftrsKd;om;vli,frsm;/ ausmif;q&m/ q&mrrsm;/ axmufyHha&; pDrHudef;tvkyform;rsm;ESifh tvnftywfoufoufvmolrsm; jzpf=uygonf? ‘pk’ a&mufvmcsdefrSm [Gm&DblrD'D,ef (Houari Boumedienne) u tmrufbifbJvm; (Ahmed Ben Bella) tm; pHerlemxm;avmufatmif ("gwfyHkvmonf) ("gwfyHk) tay: pkESifh a':oef;at; t,fvf*sD;&D;,m; a&muf&SdaepOf atmuf yef;csDq&m *sJ&,fu,fvD a&;qJGxm;aom a':oef;at;. yHkwlqDaq;yef;csDum; (aqmif;yg;tquf) aoG;xGufoH,dkr_uif;rJhaom tm%modrf;yJGðyvkyfum ðzwfcst+yD; &uftenf;i,ftwGif; jzpfygonf? zdwf=um;cH&aom {nfhcHyJGrsm;pGmodk‹ oGm;&rnfxuf ‘pk’ u tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,ef;vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh awG‹qHkum ‚if;wdk‹wdkif;jynftwGif; jzpfysufaeor#udk avhvm&ef ydkrdkI pdwfxufoefygonf? ‘pk’ rSm zwf±_usufrSwf&ef pmtkyfwaowWmvnf; ygvmygonf? ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm vGwfvyfa&;±kef;uefr_'%fudk cHcJh&olrsm;tm; ulnDaxmufyHh&ef pDrHudef;rsm;udk uGyfuJaeaom tzJG‹tpnf;wckESifh usrwdk‹ qufoG,fygonf? pDrHudef;w&yf. wm0efcHjzpfol vli,fwOD; vma&mufI ‚if;wdk‹vkyfief;ta=umif; &Sif;jyygonf? vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJGwGif usqHk;cJhaom &Jabmfrsm;. usef&pfolZeD;rsm;twGuf aetdrfrsm; aqmufvkyfae=u&m tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,ef;vlrsKd;rsm;omru EdkifiHwumrS vli,frsm;yg 0ifa&mufulnD&ef zdwfac:óudqdka=umif; ajymygonf? ‘pk’ vnf; xdkaqmufvkyfa&;pcef;wGif &ufowWywftawmf=um oGm;a&mufaexdkifum vkyftm;ay;cJhygonf? tvkyfoGefoif}uD;=uyfolrSm ±k&Sm;vlrsKd;jzpf+yD; vkyfazmfukdifzufrsm;rSm tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,m;/ jyifopf/ vufAEGef/ a[mfvefESifh *smreD paom wkdif;jynfrsm;rS vli,frsm;jzpfygonf? tpm;taomufESifh ae&mxdkifcif; ay;aomfvnf; vkyfcray;yg? ‘pk’ . rdwfaqGrsm;onf olrtm; umAD;vD; (Kabyle) awmifwef;rsm;odk‹ vufxyfr*FvmyJGwyJG wufa&muf=unfh±_&ef ac:oGm;zl;onf? usrwdk‹ESpfOD;twl q[m&oJuEWm&tpyf&Sd òrd‹av;wòrd‹wdkifatmifvnf; c&D;&SnfxGufcJhygonf? aEG&moDtyl&Sdef jyif;xefvGef;vSojzifh xdkxufvGefI roGm;EkdifcJhyg? aemuf tvnftywfc&D;w&yftaeESifh a&mracwfu aqmufvkyfwnfcJhaom òrd‹ysuf}uD;&Sd&modk‹ oGm;cJh.? xdkòrd‹ysufwGif;&Sd v[mjyifZmwf±Hk}uD;. ausmufjym;cif;xm;aom wvif;jyifay:wGif bifbJvm;. opPmcHrsm;u ‘bifbJvm; touf&Snfygap’ [k pmvHk;}uD;rsm;ESifh

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a&;xm;ygonf? ‘pk’ armfa&mfudkodk‹ c&D;wacgufxGufcJh+yD; pydefEdkifiH awmifbufurf;ajcudkvnf; ajccsrdonfqdkoavmufawmh a&mufcJhygonf? xdk‹aemuf jyefvnfpmzwf+yD; ausmif;ydwf&uftqHk;wGif ausauseyfeyf}uD;ESifh atmufpzdk‹'fodk‹ jyefoGm;EkdifcJhygonf? bJG‹&+yD;aemuf ‘pk’ onf vydkif;r# pmoifydk‹csjcif;ESifh ordkif;q&m [,l;wifum (Hugh Tinker) ESifhtwl okawoevkyfjcif; ponfwdk‹udk aqmif±Guf+yD;aomtcg e,l;a,muf&Sd usrESifh vmIaeygonf? tJ(vf)*sD;,m;wGif av;ESpfr# wm0efxrf;aqmif+yD;aemufydkif; usr ukvor*~XmecsKyfodk‹ jyefa&mufaeygonf? rdom;pkrdwfaqGwOD;jzpfol z&ifhxa&*g (Frank Trager) u ‚if;tjynfjynfqkdifa&;&m ygarmuQtjzpf aqmif±Gufaeaom e,l;a,mufwuUodkvfY ‘pk’ bJG‹vGefoifwef;wuf&ef pDpOfygonf? ygarmuQxa&*gonf tar&duef axmufyHha&;tpDtpOfwckjzifh jrefrmjynfwGif ESpftwef=um aecJhzl;ygonf? olonf ta&SŒawmiftm&SESifh ta&SŒzsm;EkdifiHrsm;wGif us,fjyef‹pGm c&D;vSnfhvnfzl;um/ xdka'orsm;. udpPt00wdk‹wGif pdwf0ifpm;olwOD;jzpfygonf? ola&;aom bm;rm;/ ya'o&mZfEdkifiHrS orwEkdifiHodk‹ trnfcHpmtkyfxGufcJhonfrSmvnf; r=umao;yg? olonf ‘pk’ . wdk;wufr_udk *±kwpdkufavhvmygonf? usrwdk‹ae&m òrd‹v,f ref[wfwif (Midtown Manhatten) rS e,l;a,mufwuUodkvfodk‹ oGm;&aombwfpfum;c&D;rSm tawmf&Snf+yD; um;rl;wwfaom ‘pk’ twGuf yifyef;cufcJygonf? bwfpfum;rSwfwdkifrS yef;+cHwckudkjzwf+yD;/ 0g&Sifwef&ifjyif (Washington Square) odk‹ oifwef;wuf&ef ‘pk’ oGm;&aomvrf;Y usufpm;avh&Sdaom vl=urf;rsm;. tEW&m,fuvnf; &Sdygao;onf? ukvor*~±Hk;odk‹ usrwdk‹aetdrfrS ajcmufrdepfavmufom vrf;av#muf&ygonf? odk‹jzifh avmavmq,f ‘pk’ ukvor*~wGif tvkyf0if+yD; aemufrS pmqufoif&ef pdwful;ay:ygonf? tvkyfav#mufv$mrsm;/ axmufcHpmrsm;/ awG‹qHkar;jref;jcif;rsm;ESifh jzpf±dk;jzpfpOf =uef‹=umr_ESifh tcuftcJrsm;udk ausmfvGef+yD;aomtcg ‘pk’ ukvor*~0efxrf;wOD; jzpfoGm;ygawmhonf? oHk;ESpf=umr# ‘pk’ ukvor*~wGif tvkyfvkyf+yD; aemufqHk;ESpfESpfwGif tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh bwf*sufðypka&;qkdif&m t}uHay;aumfrwDudk taxmuftulðy&aom ukvor*~±Hk;tzJG‹wGif wm0efxrf;aqmifygonf? aumfrwD0ifrsm;onf rdrdwdk‹EkdifiHrsm;. udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf cef‹tyfxm;&jcif; r[kwfbJ/ b¾ma&;qkdif&mudpPrsm;wGif u|rf;usifolrsm;tjzpf cef‹tyfjcif;cH&olrsm;jzpfygonf? ukvor*~ESifh t&HtzJG‹tpnf;rsm; tm;vHk;tjyif urBmhusef;rma&;tzJG‹/ pm;eyf&duQmESifh v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;tzJG‹rsm;uJhodk‹aom txl;at*sifpDrsm;. pDrHudef;tpDtpOfrsm;ESifh bwf*sufrsm;udk xdkaumfrwDu avhvmrSwfcsufcsjyifqif+yD; oabmwlnDr_&&ef wifjy&ygonf? tvkyfrsm;cufcJaomfvnf; ukvor*~vkyfief;rsm;. ukefusp&dwfudk tao;pdwfpDppf&jcif;ESifh xufjrufxl;c|efaom tzJG‹0ifrsm;wdk‹a=umifh pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;vSygonf? xdktzJG‹0ifrsm;ESifh ‘pk’ aumif;pGm odu|rf;vmygonf? ukvor*~0efxrf;rsm;onf naeydkif;ESifh owif;ywfukefydkif; tm;vyfcsdefrsm;Y y&[dwvkyfief;rsm;wGif vkyftm;ay;avh&Sd=uygonf? ref[wfwif&Sd usrwdk‹aetdrfrS bwfpfum;ESifhoGm;v#if q,frdepfcef‹oma0;aom bJ(vf)A,l; (Belleview) qdkonfrSm e,l;a,mufaq;±Hk}uD;wck. tpdwftydkif;jzpfygonf? òrd‹}uD;&Sd tqif;&JqHk;/ ukr&aom a&m*gpJGuyfaeolrsm;ESifh cdkudk;&mrJhrsm;twGuf jzpfygonf? b0udk &ifrqkdifEkdifawmhbJ udk,fpdwfESpfjzmòydvJvkrwwf jzpfaeolrsm;udk xdkaq;±Hkodk‹ ac:vmavh&Sdygonf? vlrrmrsm;tm; pmzwfjyay;&ef/ tazmfðy&ef tpDtpOfrsm;wGif yg0if&ef trsKd;orD;/ trsKd;om;rsm; t+rJ ("gwfyHkvmonf) ("gwfyHk) pk &efukefaetdrfodk‹ jyefvnfa&muf&Sdaeonfh ESpfrsm;wGif ±dkuful;xm;onf? (aqmif;yg;tquf)

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tvdk&Sdaeygonf? xdktpDtpOfwGif ‘pk’ yg0ifI tywfpOf em&Daygif;rsm;pGm vkyftm;ay;ygonf? Tum; olr rdcif. y&[dwvkyfief; tpOftvmt& aqmif±Gufjcif;jzpfygonf? xdktcsdefu jrefrmEkdifiHrS OD;oef‹onf ukvor*~twGif;a&;rª;csKyf jzpfygonf? ['fpifjrpfudk vSrf;Ijrif&aom ol.tdrf}uD;onf &D;Am;a';(vf) (Riverdale) t&yfwGif&Sd+yD; usrwdk‹aetdrfrS um;ESifh wem&Dcef‹ oGm;&ygonf? OD;oef‹tdrfY wnfcif;usif;yaom we*FaEGae‹ xrif;pm;yJGrsm;rSm usrwdk‹tzdk‹ tvGefpdwf±$ifvef;zG,f&m jzpfygonf? tjcm; jrefrmrdwfaqGrsm;vnf; vm=u+yD; usrwdk‹tóuduf jrefrmtpm;tpmrsm; au|;arG;avh&Sdygonf? OD;oef‹. ajr;wOD;OD;. arG;ae‹uJhodk‹aom txl;ae‹rsm;wGif jrefrmrsm;tjyif EkdifiHwumrS ukvor*~ t+rJwef;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udkyg zdwf=um;{nfhcHygonf? tpm;tpmrSmrl tpOft+rJ taumif;qHk;jrefrmxrif;[if;rsm; jzpfygonf? OD;oef‹rdom;pku aEG;axG;ysLiSmum {nfh0wfausvSygonf? usrwdk‹url {nfhonfawG odyfrrsm;aom xrif;pm;yJGrsm;udk ydkrdkI ESpfoufaomfvnf;/ xdktcgrsm;Yyifv#if vlr_a&;/ EkdifiHa&;/ urBmhtajctae/ OD;oef‹udkifwG,fae&aom jy\emrsm; ponfwdk‹udk pdwfygvufyg 0dkif;0ef;aqG;aEG;Ekdifjcif;r&Sdyg? OD;oef‹. tdrf&SiftaeESifh aqmif±Guf&aom wm0eft00a=umifh xdkuJhodk‹ pum;0dkif;aqG;aEG;yJGrsm; rjzpfEkdifcJh[k xifygonf? jrefrmEdkifiHrS ukvor*~ t+rJwef;udk,fpm;vS,fjzpfol OD;pdk;wif. zdwf=um;{nfhcHyHkrsm;rSmrl tenf;i,fuGmjcm;ygonf? olvnf; &D;Am;a';(vf)Yyif OD;oef‹. a*[mavmuf }uD;us,fcrf;em;jcif;r&Sdaom tdrfwvHk;Y aeygonf? taxGaxGnDvmcH}uD; usif;ycsdefjzpfaom pufwifbmv 'kwd,tywfrS 'DZifbmvv,fcef‹twGif;qdkv#if OD;pdk;wifonf tvkyfudpPrsm;/ jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ESifh tjcm;udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹rsm;udk {nfhcHau|;arG;&jcif;jzifh rtm;rvyfjzpfaeavh&Sdygonf? tjcm;tcsdefrsm;wGifrl e,l;a,muf&Sd jrefrmrsm;udk ol. tdrfodk‹ Ak'<bmomyJGawmf tcgor,rsm;Y zdwfac:avh&Sdygonf? usrwdk‹onf ol. ZeD;ESifh om;orD;rsm;udk cifrifESpfoufygonf? OD;pdk;wifonf oabmxm;}uD;oljzpfonfhtavsmuf jrefrmrsm;udk odk;rsm;/ qdwfrsm;[lI cJGjcm;+yD; rqufqHyg? qdwfrsm;qdkonfrSm OD;ae0if;vufatmuf jrefrmEdkifiH. tajctaeudk a0zefolwdk‹jzpf+yD;/ omreftm;jzifh oH±Hk;t&m&Sdrsm;. yxm;jcif;udk cH&wwfygonf? OD;pdk;wiftdrfYum; tajctwifaqG;aEG;jiif;ckefEkdifygonf? wcgw&H tjiif;tckefrSm jyif;xefaomfvnf; trsm;tm;jzifh aAGr,lwrf;/ cifrifaom oabmaqmifygonf? wcsdefwGif ukvor*~taxGaxGnDvmcH usif;yqJtcsdeftwGif; usrESifh ‘pk’ udk OD;pdk;wiftdrfodk‹ xrif;pm;zdwfygonf? jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹0iftcsKdŒu usrwdk‹ESifhawG‹vdka=umif; ajymygonf? OD;pdk;wifonf tpOf,Ofaus;azmfa±GolwOD; jzpfaomfvnf; Tzdwf=um;yHkrSmrl xl;jcm;aeojzifh ‘wckckawmh wckckyJ’ [k usr xifrdygonf? ol. &D;Am;a';(vf)aetdrfodk‹ usrwdk‹ ae‹v,favmuf a&mufoGm;ygonf? yef;rsm;/ &GufvSyifrsm;/ teufESifh a±$a&mifjc,f jrefrm,Gef;xnfrsm;ESifh jynfhaeaom av;axmifhyHk {nfhcef;}uD;twGif;&Sd qdkzmrsm;ESifh ukvm;xdkifrsm;udk tcef;ab;udkuyfI a±$Œxm;+yD;/ aumfzDyef;uefwif pm;yJG}uD;rsm;udk xdkifckHrsm;a&SŒwGif pDxm;.? qdkzmrsm;ESifh ukvm;xkdifrsm;ay:wGif taxGaxGnDvmcHwuf&ef a&mufaeaom jrefrmoHtrwf}uD;rsm; woDwwef;}uD; xdkifae=u.? usrwdk‹ESifh rawG‹zl;ao;aom olrsm;tm; rdwfqufay;+yD; ‘pk’ udk tcef;wzufpGef;Y vl}uD;ESpfa,muft=um;wGif xkdifapygonf? usrudkrl udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹udk OD;aqmifol Adkvfrª;}uD;armifvGif&Sd&mESifh ra0;vSaom vlESpfOD;t=um;Y xdkifapygonf? OD;pdk;wif. ZeD;u opfoD;azsmf&nfrsm; vdkufIurf;jcif;/ tmvl;a=umf paom oGm;&nfpmrsm;udk pm;yJGrsm;ay:csjcif; ponfh 0wW&m;rsm; +yD;pD;onfESifh txl;{nfhonfawmfrsm;ESifh xdkufwefatmif csufðywfxm;aom xrif;yJGudk t+yD;owfpDrH&ef uyfvsuftcef;xJodk‹ xGufoGm;ygonf? tm;vHk; tv†my/ ov†my pum;rsm; ajym=uygonf? OD;pdk;wifonf ,Ofaus;pGm òyH;aeaomfvnf; tae&cufaeyHk&ygonf? a&muf&Sdaeaom vlpkvla0;u ‘pk’ tay:wGif pD&ifcsufwrsKd;rsKd;cs&ef pdkif;jyif;aeonfrSm xif&Sm;ygonf? b,fvdkpD&ifcsufrsKd; csrnfudkawmh usr rawG;Ekdifjzpfaeygonf? udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹t}uD;tuJu

Page 18: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

OD;aqmifwdkufcdkufygawmhonf? ‘pk’ rnfuJhodk‹ ukvor*~Y tvkyfvkyfaeygoenf;/ rnfonfhEdkifiHul;vufrSwf udkifaqmifxm;ygoenf;/ olrrdcifonf oHtrwf}uD; r[kwfawmhojzifh ‘pk’ taeESifh oHwrefrsm;qdkif&m EdkifiHul;vufrSwf jyeftyf&rnf jzpfygonf? ,ckxd jyefrtyf&ao;qdkonfrSm rSefygovm;? oHwrefrsm;qkdif&m EdkifiHul;vufrSwfudk qufvufudkifxm;jcif;rSm Oya'ESifhrnDa=umif; olr odrnfjzpfygonf? tvGefrS enf;vrf;rusaom udpPjzpfojzifh tjrefqHk;jyifqif&ef vdkygonf? wpkwa0;vHk;u OD;vGifajymor#udk rsufESmvdkrsufESm& atmufusKdŒaomtoGifjzifh axmufcHoHrsm;ðyum ‘pk’ udk 0kdif;=unfhae=uygawmhonf? ‘pk’ u taerysuf wnf+idrfpGm&Sdaejcif;rSm usrtwGuf tawmfpdwfoufom&mjzpfapygonf? olru Áa¹EN&Sd&Sd avat;at;ESifh jyefajzygonf? EdkifiHul;vufrSwftopf&&ef vef'ef&Sd jrefrmoH±Hk;Y olr av#mufxm;onfrSm tcsdeftawmf=umoGm;+yD jzpfaomfvnf; ,ckwdkif tajzr&ao;a=umif;/ rnfuJhodk‹aom ta=umif;a=umifh Tr# xl;xl;jcm;jcm; =uef‹=umae&onfudk rajymEkdifa=umif;/ e,l;a,mufodk‹ olr ynmoif&ef vmcJh&mY &Sdvufp EkdifiHul;vufrSwfudkyif udkifaqmifcJh&a=umif;/ pm;0wfaexdkifa&;twGuf tvkyf&Sm&ef vdkaeonfhtcsdefY uHtm;avsmfpGm ukvor*~Y tvkyf&&SdcJha=umif;/ jrefrmEdkifiHom;jzpfa=umif; taxmuftxm;jy&ef EkdifiHul;vufrSwfrSm vdktyfcsufjzpfa=umif;/ vaygif;rsm;pGmuyif av#mufxm;cJhaom EdkifiHul;vufrSwfudk vef'efoH±Hk;rS ydk‹ay;&ef apmifhaevsufyifjzpfa=umif;/ EkdifiHul;vufrSwf topfa&mufonfESifh ta[mif;udk 0rf;ompGmjyeftyfrnfjzpfa=umif;/ EdkifiHjcm;Y tvkyfvkyfudkifEkdif&ef EkdifiHul;vufrSwf (oHwrefqdkif&myJjzpfap/ ±dk;±dk;yJjzpfap) wrsKd;rsKd; vkdtyfonfudk tcef;wGif;&Sd OD;av;tm;vHk; em;vnf=urnf[k olr ,lqa=umif;/ ‘pk’ u ,Ofaus;odrfarG‹aom toHaetoHxm;ESifh wdusaumif;rGefaom jrefrmpum;vHk;rsm;udkoHk;I ajymoGm;ygonf? vef'efrS jrefrmoHtrwfu xum ‘pk’ taeESifh EdkifiHul;vufrSwftopf&&ef av#mufxm;cJhonfrSm vaygif;rsm;pGm &Sd+yDjzpfa=umif;udk twnfðyum xHk;pHtwdkif; av#mufv$mudk &efukefodk‹ydk‹xm;a=umif; ajymygawmhonf? tb,fha=umifh vaygif;rsm;pGm =um+yDjzpfaomfvnf; ta=umif;rjyefao;onfudk ol rod&a=umif;vnf; ajymygonf? trSeftm;jzifh jrefrmjynfY Todk‹enf;wl aESmifhaES;=uef‹=umr_rsm;udk jzpfay:apaom ±_yfaxG;ayGvDvSonfh AsL±dku&uf,EW&m;ESifh tvkyftudkifryDjyifr_rsm;ta=umif;udk tcef;wGif;&Sd usrwdk‹tm;vHk; od&Sd+yD;jzpfygonf? xdktcgrS tjcm;oHtrwfrsm;uvnf; ‘pk’ taeESifh rdrdvkyfcJhyHkrSvJGI tjcm;a&G;cs,f&mvrf;r&SdcJh[k oabmwl=uygawmhonf? udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹t}uD;tuJ. rsufESmxm;um; rwifrusjzpfvm.? awmif;yefouJhodk‹aom avoHESifh tputajctaeudk vHk;aphywfaph em;rvnfcJha=umif;/ &efukefjyefa&mufaomtcg EkdifiHul;vufrSwf±Hk;u vkyfp&m&Sdonfrsm;udk vsifjrefpGmvkyf&ef oludk,fwkdifn$ef=um;vdkufrnfjzpfa=umif; ajymygonf? Tyk*~Kdvf}uD;rsm;rSm ‘pk’ xuf touftm;jzifh }uD;=uolrsm;jzpf=uaomfvnf; aumif;aomt&nftcsif;tm;jzifh }uD;olrsm;r[kwf[k usr xifrdygonf? usrvnf; csufaumif;,lum ‘EdkifiHul;vufrSwfawG vHk;vHk;rvdkawmhwJhae‹ jrefjrefa&mufygapvdk‹ usrwdk‹ ar#mfvifh&rSmyJ’ [k ajymvdkufygonf? xdk‹aemuf usrwdk‹ ae‹v,fpmpm;=uygonf? t+rJwrf;udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹xJwGif jrefrmjynftajctaersm;udk usrwkd‹ yGifhyGifhvif;vif; aqG;aEG;I&aom rdwfaqGwOD; yg0ifygonf? xdkrdwfaqGum; “pk. a0zefcsufrsm; odyf&JvGef;onf[k ,lqaomtcgrsm;Y ‘pk’ u ,Hk=unfcsuft& owWd&Sd±Hkru/ tquftEG,ft&vnf; owWd&Sdwmudk;”[k aemufajymifavh&Sd.? olr qdkvdkonfrSm ‘pk’ onf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh a':cif=unfwdk‹. orD;jzpfojzifh awmfawmfESifh ESdrfvdk‹&rnfr[kwf/ usrtxifrSmawmh ‘pk’ onf aoG;om;t&xuf pdwf"mwft& olr rdbESpfyg;. orD; yDoygayonf? ukvor*~±Hk;Y oHk;ESpf=um wm0efxrf;aqmif+yD;aemuf ‘pk’ onf qufvufwm0efrxrf;awmhbJ om;orD;rsm;ESifh odkufodkuf0ef;0ef;&Sdrnfh tdrfaxmifonfb0udk a&G;cs,f&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufygonf? odk‹ESifh

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b0opfw&yf pygawmhonf? TtcsdefrSpaom jzpfpOfrsm;rSm trsm;od+yD;jzpfygonf? cifyGef;jzpfol rdkufu,ftJ&pfonf ESpftawmf=umuyif [dr0EWmEdkifiHav;jzpfaom blwefY bk&ifhom;orD;rsm;. pmjyq&mtjzpf‚if;/ tpdk;&bmomjyefXme t}uD;tuJtjzpf‚if; wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhygonf? ‘pk’ vnf; blwefY wESpfcef‹ aecJhygonf? blwefonf ukvor*~tzJG‹wGif;odk‹ r=umao;rDurS 0ifcJhojzifh ‘pk’ onf csufcsif;yif blwefEkdifiHjcm;a&;±Hk;Y ukvor*~udpPrsm;qkdif&m t}uHay;t&m&Sdtjzpf tvkyf&ygonf? ‘pk’ wdk‹ ZeD;armifESHonf om;OD; tvufZENm;tm; rsufESmjrif&ef t*Fvefodk‹ jyefvmygonf? rdkufu,fum; vef'efwuUodkvfY yg&*lbJG‹oifwef; pwif+yD;/ rsm;r=umrD atmufpzdk‹'fY ynm&SiftvkyfcGifxJ0ifvdkufygonf? 'kwd,om; uifrfudk 1977 ckESpfwGif zGm;jrifygonf? ‘pk’ vnf; uav;rsm;tm; ðypkysKd;axmifjcif;/ &efukef&Sd rdcifxH tvnftywfoGm;jcif;wdk‹jzifh at;aq;pGm aecJhygonf? rdom;pkudk =unfh±_xdef;odrf;&if; ‘pk’ pmayrsm; pIa&;om;ygonf? pmzwf0goemoefonfhtavsmuf olronf t*FvdyfESifh jyifopfbmompmtkyf tajrmuftjrm; pkaqmif;xm;ygonf? rdkufu,f. wdAufpmaya&;&m okawoersm;ESifhqdkifaom pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;vnf; wae‹xufwae‹ rsm;jym;vmygonf? odk‹ESifh olwdk‹. atmufpzdk‹'faetdrfrSm pmtkyfrsm;ESifh jynfhv#Haeygonf? uav;rsm;vnf; pmzwf0goemygolrsm;tjzpf }uD;jyif;vmygonf? ‘pk’ onf olr zcif. txky`wWda&;&ef pwifpOf;pm;ygonf? *syefbmompum;udk ZJG}uD;pGmjzifh pl;pl;pdkufpdkufoifygawmhonf? jrefrmjynfta=umif; a&;xm;aom t*FvdyfESifh jrefrmpmtkyfrsm;/ *syefjynfta=umif; a&;xm;aom t*FvdyfESifh *syefpmtkyfrsm; wjznf;jznf; pkaqmif;rdvmonf? zcif txky`wWdpmtkyfðypk&ef okawoepwifygonf? vef'ef&Sd ta&SŒwdkif;ESifh tmz&duqdkif&mausmif;Y yg&*lbJG‹,l&efvnf; pwifpDpOfygonf? xdktcsdefu olr. vkyfudkifv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;onf vHk‹v}uD;jcif;ESifh oEMdÏmefcdkifjcif;udk jyoonf[k qdk&ayrnf? 1985 ckESpfwGif *syefESifhqufpyfaom olr zcif. b0tpdwftydkif;ESifhywfoufI okawoeðy&ef wdkusKdwuUodkvfu urf;vSrf;aom ynmoifqkukd ‘pk’ vufcHvdkufygonf? *syef-jrefrm tpnf;t±Hk;0ifrsm;udk awG‹qHkum/ ‚if;wdk‹rSwqifh olrzcifESifh odu|rf;cJhaom touf&SifqJ&Sdaeonfh *syefrsm;ESifh tquftoG,fðycJhygonf? awG‹qHkolwkdif;u olrtm; xdkpOfu tjzpftysufrsm;ta=umif; wckr[kwfwck ajymjy=uygonf? *syefrsm;ta=umif; A[kokwwdk;yGm;vm+yD; tquftoG,f ("gwfyHkrsm; vmonf) ("gwfyHk) pk vufxyfxdrf;jrm;aomae‹/ ZEM0g&Dv 1 &ufae‹ 1972 ckESpf tay: - blwefEkdifiH awmifay:c&D; 1971 ckESpf atmuf – cifyGef; rdkufu,ftJ&pfESifhtwl/ armfvòrdifòrd‹wGif 1973 ckESpf om;OD; tvufZENm; (jrifhqef;atmif) ESifhtwl 1973 (aqmif;yg;tquf) rsm;vnf; us,fjyef‹vmygonf? xdktcsdefY rdkufu,fonf tdENd,jynfajrmufydkif; qif;rvm;òrd‹&Sd tdENd,EkdifiH tqifhjrifhpmayavhvma&;XmeY okawoeynm&SifwOD;tjzpf a&muf&Sdaeygonf? om;}uD;u atmufpzdk‹'fwGif ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;tjzpf aecJh+yD;/ om;i,fu ‘pk’ ESifh wdkusKdòrd‹odk‹ ygvmygonf? 1986

Page 20: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

ckESpfwGif usrudk wdkusKdwuUodkvf tjynfjynfqdkif&m &dyfomY olwdk‹ESifhtwl vmae&ef ‘pk’ u zdwfac:ygonf? usrvnf; oHk;vcef‹oGm;aejzpfygonf? *syefrsm;ESifh‚if;/ bmom&yftrsKd;rsKd;avhvm&ef *syefynmoifqkrsm; &&Sdxm;aom EdkifiHwumrS ynm&Sifrsm;ESifh‚if; ‘pk’ cifcifrifrif &if;&if;ESD;ESD;&Sdygonf? *syefY jzpfajrmufr_tawmf&Sdonf[k ‘pk’ ,lqygonf? aemufESpfESpfwGif qif;rvm;&Sd rdkufu,fxHodk‹ ‘pk’/ om;i,fESifh t*FvefrS om;}uD;yg a&mufvmum rdom;pktm;vHk; jyefqHk=uygonf? rdkufu,f tvkyfvkyfaeaomXmeY ‘pk’ vnf; okawoeynm&Siftjzpf cef‹tyfjcif;cH&ygonf? 1987 ckESpfwGif usr tdENd,Y &Sdonfjzpf&m okawoe&Sd olwdk‹wkdufcef;Y wvcef‹ aysmfaysmfyg;yg; oGm;vnfEkdifcJhygonf? Xmewnf&Sd&m taqmuftOD;}uD;onf vGwfvyfa&;r&rD tcsdefumvu +Adwdo#bk&ifcHcsKyfrsm;ESifh ‚if;wdk‹. ±Hk;tzJG‹rsm; aEG&moDwGifaexkdif&mtdrfawmfjzpfygonf? xdkESpfwGifyif a':cif=unfonf rsufaphrSwdrfukd cJGpdwfuko&eftwGuf vef'efodk‹a&mufvmygonf? cJGpdwfr_rsm; atmifatmifjrifjrif&Sdojzifh aq;ukor_a=umifh roufrom&Sd&aomfvnf; a':cif=unftwGuf pdwf&$ifvef;csrf;ajrŒzG,ftcsdefjzpfygonf? ‘pk’ onf qif;rvm;rS olr. tvkyfudk &yfxm;cJhum rdcifudk ðypk&ef a&mufvmygonf? tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif aexkdiftvkyfvkyfaeom olrtudkvnf; q,f&ufcef‹ tvnfa&mufvmygonf? usrvnf; vef'efY &Sdonfhtavsmuf a':cif=unfudk ae‹wkdif;vdkvdkyif awG‹jzpfygonf? tjcm;rdwfaqGa[mif;rsm;/ rdwfaqGopfrsm;vnf; vmIowif;ar;=uum &,f&,farmarm a&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpfrsm;ta=umif; ajymvdkuf=uESifh &$ifvef;csrf;ajrŒzG,fjzpfygonf? a':cif=unf wnf;aeaomwdkufcef;onf opfoD;rsm;/ yef;rsm;ESifh jrefqefpGm a&m*gaysmufuif;usef;rmap&ef qkawmif;ydk‹oaom u'frsm;ESifh jynfhaeygonf? ‘pk’ onf tdrfaxmifrðyrDu‚if;/ tdrfaxmifðy+yD;aomtcgY‚if; jrefrmjynf&Sd rdcifxH rSefrSeftvnfoGm;cJhygonf? a':cif=unfonf om;ajr;rsm; }uD;jyif;vmonfudk jrifcJh&+yD; rsufaphrcJGrDESpfwGif rdrd.&efukeftdrfY uav;rsm;. &Sifðyr*FvmyJGudk udk,fwkdif}uD;=uyf+yD; usif;ycJhygonf? vef'efwGif ESpfESpf=umae+yD;aemuf a':cif=unfonf rsufpdrsm; tawmf tajctaeaumif;vm+yDjzpfI jrefrmjynfokd‹ &$ifvef;pGmjyefoGm;ygonf? vef'efudk tvnfa&mufpOfu rnfr#pdwfcsrf;ajrŒcJha=umif;/ ("gwfyHkvmygonf) tay: - pk/ om;i,f uifrf (xdefvif;)ESifh rdcif}uD;wdk‹ tmZmenfae‹tcrf;tem; wufa&mufpOf 1986 ckESpf atmuf – om;rsm;udk 1987 ckESpfwGif &SifðypOfu (0JrS,m) uifrf (&SifawZ)/ OD;yO…if;/ a&$=uuf,ufq&mawmf-ysHvGef/ OD;yO…if;/ tvufZENm; (&Sifynm) (aqmif;yg;tquf) ‚if;wdk‹ESifh awG‹qHkcJh&onfudkvnf; yDwdjzpf&a=umif; pojzifh rdwfaqGtrsm;tjym;udk pma&;today;ygonf? odk‹aomf &efukefjyefa&mufIrS q,fvrjynfhrD aemufESpf 1988 rwfvukefydkif;wGif jyif;xefaom avjzwfjcif;'%fudk cH&ygonf? pk/ rdkufu,fESifh om;ESpfa,mufonf tdENd,rS atmufpzdk‹'fodk‹ 1987 pufwifbmvtwGif; jyefa&mufvmcJh=u+yD; wuUodkvfynm&Sifrsm;avmuwGif jyefvnfaeom;usptcsdefY a':cif=unf avjzwfa=umif;owif; a&mufvmygonf? ‘pk’ vnf; csufcsif;yif &onfhav,mOfjzifh rdciftm; ðypk&ef &efukefodk‹ vdkufoGm;ygonf? 1988 ckESpf jrefrmjynftwGif; tjzpftysufrsm;udk trsm;od+yD;jzpfygonf? ESpfOD;ydkif;u qENjyausmif;om;rsm; aoewfypfcwfjcif; cH=u&pOfupI jy\emrsm;/ ay:aygufrnfhtvm;tvmrsm; &SdcJhygonf? aemifwGif qENjyyJGrsm; ydkrdk}uD;xGm;vmum t=urf;zufr_rsm;vnf; jzpfay:vmavonf? ‘8-8-88’ ae‹onf jynfolaygif;ajrmufjrm;pGm csDwufqENjy=u+yD; 'Drdkua&pDawmif;qdkaomae‹ jzpfygonf? TqENjycsDwufyJGrsm;udk ESdrfeif;&ef tpdk;&wyfrsm;u ypfcwfowfjzwfcJhI usqHk;'%f&m&olrsm;ta&twGufrSm aemifwESpf=umwGif yDuif;òrd‹ wD,Htmrif&ifjyifY aoa=uysufpD;rnfh

Page 21: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

w±kwfjynfolOD;a&xuf rsm;pGmydkrdkygonf? ‘pk’ acgif;a&SmifaeI rjzpfawmhyg? Tvufopf t=urf;zuftm%m&Sifpepfudk wkdufzsuf&ef jynfolvlxkudk acgif;aqmifay;Edkifrnfh olr.zcifum; r&Sdawmh+yD? tazhorD;yDopGm olr yg0ifv_yf&Sm;&ayawmhrnf? ‘pk’ onf wnfaxmif+yD;p trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf. taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;taejzifh jrefrmEdkifiHw0Srf; pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;ygonf? Tpnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;rsm;. &nf&G,fcsufrSm tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;rsm; zGifhvSpf&efomru OD;ae0if;. zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faom ppftm%m&Sifpepf (aemufykdif;wGifawmh t&yfom;ta&òcH ppftpdk;&) vufatmufwGif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm aecJh&I pJGuyfaeaom a=umuf&GHŒpdwfrsm;rS jrefrmEkdifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm; ±kef;xGufvGwfajrmufEkdifapjcif;iSm vrf;jyE_d;aqmf&efjzpfygonf? ‘pk’ u t*Fvdyfa&m/ jrefrmyg bmompum;ESpfrsKd;vHk;wGif Ekdifeif;u|rf;usifygonf? jrefrmbmompum;udk toHk;ðyum olr.zcifuJhodk‹yif jrefrmjynfolvlxk. &ifxJtawG;xJodk‹a&mufatmif pGrf;aqmifygonf? olr. tawG;tjrifrsm;ESifh aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;udk urBmodk‹wifjy&eftwGuf t*Fvdyfbmompum;udk oHk;ygonf? xdkif;r_dif;zG,f&mb0Y ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm epfðryfaecJh+yD; r=umcifurS qENjy&ef Edk;=um;vmcJh=uaom jrefrmjynfolvlxkudk v_H‹aqmfpnf;±Hk;ay;&ef jrefrmbmompum;onf ta&;tygqHk;jzpfygonf? Todk‹ jynfolvlxkudk v_H‹aqmfpnf;±Hk;&eftwGuf ‘pk’ onf udk,fpdwfESpfyg;vHk; tvGefyifyef;pGm tm;xkwf&onfhtjyif ra&rwGufEdkifavmufatmif tEW&m,frsKd;pHkESifh pGef‹pm;r_rsm;udkvnf; óuHawG‹&ygonf? txl;ojzifh ppftpdk;&u xkwfjyefxm;aom trdef‹t& vl av;OD;xufydkI pka0;jcif;onf Oya'ESifhqef‹usif+yD; ppfwyfu tiftm;oHk;um vlpkcJGcGifh&Sdygonf? wcgwGif ppftpdk;&. trdef‹xkwfjyefxm;csufESifhtnD[k xifygonf? =unf;wyfrS Adkvf}uD;wOD;u ‘pk’ ESifh olr. pnf;±Hk;a&;tzJG‹0ifwdk‹udk a&SŒqufoGm;v#if ypfcwfrnf[k +cdrf;ajcmuf+yD; aoewfrsm;jzifhcsdefum vrf;c&D;udk ydwfqdk‹ygonf? ‘pk’ u tvGefwnf+idrfpGmjzifh olr.tazmfrsm;udk ab;odk‹z,fI apmifhae&efrSm+yD; olru vrf;udk wOD;wnf;om qufIoGm;ygonf? olru vdktyfv#if toufwacsmif;udkompGef‹&efESifh ,if;rSmvnf; olr. toufomjzpfap&rnf[k ,wdjywfqHk;jzwfcJhjcif;jzpfygonf? Tvkyf&yfonf tvGef&J&ifh+yD; atmifjrifr_vnf; &cJhygonf? ta=umif;rSm xdkaemufqHk;tcsdefydkif;uav;rSmyif ab;rS Adkvfrª;wa,mufu =um;0ifI ypfcwfrnfudk wm;qD;cJhygonf? wcgw&H ‘pk’ u olrrdcif a':cif=unf. pnf;urf;pepfuspGm oGefoifxdef;a=umif; vrf;n$efr_atmufwGif olr }uD;jyif;vmcJh&yHkrsm;udk ajymjywwf+yD; Todk‹aom yJhjyifoGefoifr_rsm;a=umifhyifv#if b0wGifawG‹óuH&aom rxifrSwfonfh tcuftcJ/ 'kuQrsm;udk ausmfv$m;atmifjrifEkdifjcif;jzpfygonf? qdkcJh+yD;aom tjzpftysufrsm;rSmvnf; TuJhodk‹aom tcuftcJ t=uyftwnf;rsm;pGmxJrS wckomjzpfygonf? Ttjzpftysufta=umif;udk =um;&/ zwf&onfhtcg usrtaeESifh a':cif=unfudk wzefjyefvnf owd&apygonf? tcgaygif;rsm;pGm olrvnf; vuf±Hk;&nf/ jzwfxdk;Om%fESifh qHk;jzwfcsuf/ xdk;xGif;Om%f/ rdrdtvdkodk‹ygatmif qJGaqmifpnf;±Hk;wwfr_ESifh vltrsm;ESifh ajyjypfatmif qufqHwwfr_wdk‹udk toHk;csum tusOf;t=uyfxJrS vGwfatmif qdk;0g;aom ab;tEW&m,frS z,f&Sm;Ekdifatmif }uHaqmifEkdifcJhygonf? a':cif=unfu usrwdk‹udk olr awG‹óuHcJh&aom tjzpftysufrsm;pGmudk ajymjywwf+yD; ‘pk’ vnf; Ttjzpftysuftm;vHk;udk odxm;+yD;jzpfygonf? a':cif=unfonf tvkyfwm0efrS t+idrf;pm;,l+yD;aemufrSmyif trsm;ESifhqufqH&mY tvGefodkodyfjcif;/ rSefuefpGmqHk;jzwfjcif;wdk‹ &SdcJhygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;rSmrl trsm;od+yD;jzpfonfhtwkdif; vuf±Hk;&nfa&m/ ESvHk;&nfyg jynfh0&atmif woufwmvHk; óud;yrf;cJhygonf? ‘pk’ . oabmobm0ESifh }uHŒcdkifaompdwf"mwfwdk‹. Zpfjrpfudk avhvmpl;prf;&mwGif usr. &nf&G,fcsufrSm Oyrmtm;jzifh ajr}uD;udk trSDðyum tvGefxl;qef;&Sm;yg;aom tzl;tyGifhuav;wck jzpfay:vm&ouJhodk‹yif rdbESpfOD;udk t&if;cH+yD; Txl;jcm;ajymifajrmufaom &ifaoG;wOD;jzpfxGef;vm&yHkudk qufoG,f=unfh&efjzpfygonf?

Page 22: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

‘pk’ ESifh udk,fusifhw&m;ajzmifhrwfjcif;/ wnfhrwfaom &nf&G,fcsufyef;wdkif&Sdjcif;/ ravsmhaom ZJGvHk‹vESifh pl;pl;pdkufpkduf &nfrSef;csufukda&mufatmif }uHaqmifwwfjcif; paom t&nftaoG;rsm;onf tcuftcJESifh &ifqkdif&aomtcgrsm;wGif pdwf"mwfusavhr&Sdjcif;/ b,ft&mudkrqdk taumif;bufrS =unfhwwfjcif;/ olwyg;. qkdvdk&if;udk em;vnfwwfjcif;/ zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ESifh &efrlr_rsm;ESifh awG‹óuH&aomtcg Áa¹ENrysufjcif;/ oEdMXmefcdkifjcif; ponfwdk‹ESifhvnf; twlwJGvsuf&Sdaeygonf? olr atmufpzdk‹'fwGif ynmoif=um;cJhaomESpfrsm;/ tdrfaxmif&Sifrb0ESifh olr. om;ESpfa,mufudk ðypkysKd;axmif&r_/ tiftm;csdeJ‹olrsm;ESifh ouf}uD;&G,ftdkrsm;tay: *±kpdkufapmifha&Smufwwfr_/ olr. us,fjyef‹aom oli,fcsif;rdwfaqGtodkif;t0dkif;/ ydkrdkwdk;yGm;vmaom olr. pdwf0ifpm;r_rsm;/ olr. tqdkt& olrcifyGef;onfudk pHerlemðyI tm;ustwk,l+yD; ynmxl;c|efatmif avhvmvdkufpm;r_/ aemufydkif;ESpfrsm;wGif &&SdcJhaom tawG‹tóuHrsm;tm;vHk;wdk‹udk pkaygif;vdkufaomtcgwGif &v'frSm &ifhusufr_/ vdkufavsmnDaxGqufqHwwfr_/ tvGefta&;ygaom pdefac:r_rsm;udk vdkvm;pGm udkifwG,fEkdifpGrf;&Sdvmr_wdk‹yif jzpfygonf? twdkajym&v#if ‘pk’ onf tzdESdyfcHae&aom jynfolw&yfvHk;. ar#mfvifh&m/ tm;xm;&m jzpfvmygonf? ,ckvuf&SdtajctaewGif olrtwGuf tcsdefonf &yfwef‹vsuf &SdaeouJhodk‹ xif&aomfvnf; olr. t&nftaoG;rsm; ydkrdkpl;&Sawmufajymifvmr_udkrl rwm;qD;Edkifyg? olrudk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f&aom vlwpkudk,fwkdifuyif olrudk txifr}uD;bJ raeEdkif=u[k ,lqygonf? jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;tay: v$rf;òcHvsuf&Sdonfh “a=umuf±GHŒjcif; qdkaom r_dif;xk}uD;” udk òzdcJGypf&ef olr. óud;yrf;csufrsm;rSm tvGefrGefjrwfvSaom &nfrSef;csufw&yfjzpf+yD;/ T&nfrSef;csuf atmifjrifatmif wkdufyJG0if&eftwGuf olrwGif um,pGrf;&nf/ Om%pGrf;tm;/ jzLpifaom udk,fusifhw&m;wdk‹ESifhvnf; jynfhpHk+yD;jzpfygonf? ta&;awmfyHkatmifygap?

* * * pkESifh olr. rdom;pkwdk‹ta=umif;udk txufygtwdkif; usra&;cJhonfrSm

tcsdeftawmf=umoGm;+yDjzpfygonf? TtcsdeftwGif; usrwdk‹. jrefrmjynfolrsm; rnfodk‹aomtajctaersm; óuHawG‹ae=u&ygovJ?

‘pk’ wa,mufa&m b,frSmvJ? jrefrmjynfol/ jynfom;rsm; aumif;pm;a&;twGuf óud;yrf;aeonf[k toHaumif;v$ifhaeaom EdkifiHawmf +idrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzJG‹ (e0w) u olwdk‹tajymESifhnDatmif bmawGrsm; vkyfae=uygovJ?

0rf;enf;p&maumif;avmufatmifyif usrwdk‹ jrefrmjynfolvlxk. b0rsm;rSm yifyef;qif;&Jr_ESifh emusifr_rsm; jynfhESufvsuf&SdaeqJjzpfygonf? omrefvlwa,muftwGuf vlaer_tqifhtwef;rSmvnf; edrfhus+rJomjzpfygonf? e0w u aps;uGufwGif vloHk;ukefrsm; ydkI aygrsm;vmygonf[k qdkaomfvnf; ukefaps;E_ef;rsm;rSm wuf+rJwufvsufom jzpfaeygawmhonf? jrefrmwjynfvHk;udk a=umuf&GHŒjcif;u v$rf;rdk;xm;qJjzpfygonf? wyfrawmf axmufvSrf;tzJG‹0ifrsm;uvnf; xHk;pHtwkdif; ae&mtESH‹&Sdaeygonf? rnfolr# wOD;tay:wOD; r,Hk=unf&J=uyg? Oya'ESifhrnDaom wzufowftrdef‹pD&ifcsrSwfjcif;rsm;/ w&m;r#wr_r&Sdjcif;ESifh wyfrawmfuom }uD;pdk;cs,fvS,fjcif;wdk‹vnf; qufIjzpfyGm;aeygonf? tm%mcsKyfudkifxm;aom wyfrawmftwGif; t*wdvdkufpm;r_rsm;ta=umif;udkvnf; vlwkdif;todyifjzpfygonf? rnfonfha0zefr_udkrS cGifhrðy/ vufcH=uyg? vGwfvyfpGmajymqdkcGifhqdkonfrSmvnf; vHk;0r&Sdyg?

e0w u ‚if;wdk‹. uef‹owfcsKyfcs,fr_aygif;rsm;pGmxJrS tenf;i,fudk tav#mhay;oa,mif [efjyaomfvnf; ‚if;wdk‹tay:wGif vlxku ,Hk=unfvmatmif rvkyfEkdifyg? xkdif;/ w±kwfESifh jrefrmwdk‹ arSmifcdkul;jcif;vkyfief;ukd w&m;0ifcGifhðy+yD; vrf;rsm; zGifhay;vdkufjcif;onfvnf; qif;&Jom;rsm;. b0rsm;udk rnfodk‹r# racsmifvnfapyg? ppftpdk;&u w±kwf/ xdkif;EkdifiHwdk‹ESifh ydkrdkcifrif;&if;ESD;pGm qufqHjcif;jzifh

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ppfvufeufrsm; 0,f,lEkdif&efESifh zufpyfpDrHudef;vkyfief;rsm; vkyfudkifEkdif&ef }uHaqmifcsufrsm;rSmvnf; jrefrmjynfoljynfom;taygif;wdk‹. tem*wftwGuf &ifav;zG,fjzpfonfhtjyif jrefrmEkdifiHtwGuf qif;&JwGif; ydkIeufapygonf? EkdifiHtwGif;rS obm0o,HZmwrsm;udk rwefwq aps;rsm;avsmhIa&mif;+yD; &onfhaiGjzifh vlenf;pkwkdif;&if;om;rsm;ESifh jzpfaeaom rqHk;Ekdifonfh jynfwGif;ppfyJGrsm;wGif toHk;ðy&eftwGuf vufeufrsm; 0,f,l=uygonf?

e0w u olwdk‹ajymor#udk acgif;ndwfrnfholrsm;[k ,lq&aom EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,ftcsKdŒudk a&G;cs,fac:,l+yD; trsKd;om;nDvmcHw&yf usif;yaeygonf? olwdk‹u “ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfudk t&if;cHaom tajccHOya'w&yfudk a&;qJG&ef” óud;yrf;aeonf[k ajymygonf? olwdk‹a&G;cs,fac:,lxm;aom “[kwfuJh” [kom ajzrnf[k ,lq&onfh ygwDudk,fpm;vS,frsm;xJrSyif tcsKdŒu aemiftem*wfwGifvnf; ppfwyfu ,ckvdkyif EdkifiHa&;wGif OD;pD;OD;aqmifðyaom tcef;u¾rS yg0ifEdkif&ef tqdkðyonfudk uef‹uGufcJh=uygonf? pl;prf;avhvmolrsm;u TtrsKd;om;nDvmcHudk vuf&Sdtm%m&Sifrsm;taeESifh tm%mudk tcsdeftuef‹towfr&Sd qkyfudkifxm;Ekdifatmif tuGufqifxm;aom vkyf&yfwckomjzpfonf[k owfrSwf=uygonf?

e0w tpdk;&onf ‚if;wdk‹. vl‹tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufusL;vGefaom vkyf&yfrsm;twGuf uJh&JŒ±_wfcsr_ trsKd;rsKd;cH&ygonf? ukvor*~ taxGaxGnDvmcHu 1991 ESifh 1992 ckESpfrsm;wGif xkdodk‹aom a0zefuef‹uGufonfh qHk;jzwfcsufpmwrf;rsm; xkwfjyefcJhygonf? 1992 ckESpfwGif xkwfjyefaom a=unmcsufwGif ukvor*~ taxGaxGnDvmcHu owfowfrSwfrSwf trnfESifhwuG xkwfazmfum a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifhtwl tjcm;xdef;odrf;cHae&onfh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;tm; v$wfay;&ef awmif;qdkcJhygonf?

ukvor*~ vl‹tcGifhta&;aumfr&SiftzJG‹u *sDeDAmòrd‹Yusif;yaom aqG;aEG;yJGwGif EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;tm; v$wfay;&ef t}udrf}udrfawmif;qdkcJh+yD; twdkuftcHtzJG‹. txif&Sm;qHk;acgif;aqmifjzpfaom a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk e0w u qufIzrf;qD;xm;jcif;udkvnf; ±_wfcscJhygonf? Taumfr&Sifu jrefrmjynftwGif;Y qufvufjzpfyGm;aeaom ydkIqdk;0g;vmonfh vl‹tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufusL;vGefr_rsm;/ Oyrm &Gmrsm;udk &GmvHk;u|wf t"rRajymif;a&$Œapjcif;/ jynfolrsm;udk twif;t=uyf ppfwyftwGuf ay:wmrsm;tjzpf ckdif;apum tpmrau|;bJxm;jcif;/ ppfa=umif;ta&SŒrS rdkif;&Sif;&mwGif vlrsm;udk toHk;csjcif;/ ppfyJGrsm;rS zrf;qD;aom ppfoHk‹yef;rsm;udka&m/ EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;udkyg vlrqefpGm n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;rsm;tygt0if tjcm;ajrmufjrm;vSpGmaom vl‹tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm;udk oGm;a&mufavhvm+yD; jyefvnfwifjytpD&ifcH&eftwGuf txl;udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹rsm;tm; ESpf}udrfapv$wfcJhygonf?

e0w tpdk;&onf tjynfjynfqdkif&m tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;. wav;wpm;qufqHr_udk qHk;±_H;cJh+yD; ,ckrSom ðyjyifxm;aom toGifwrsKd;tm; urBmhEkdifiHrsm;udk wifjy&ef óud;pm;aeygonf? tcsnf;ESD;ygwnf;? a,muFsm;/ rdef;r/ uav;rsm;ygrusef bkef;awmf}uD;rsm; tm;vHk;wdk‹rSm +idrf;csrf;pGm 'Drdkua&pDvGwfvyfcGifhESifh vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk awmif;qdkcJh=uolrsm;jzpf+yD; xdkjrefrmjynfolvlxktaygif;tm; &uf&ufpufpuf owfjzwfjcif;ukd rnfonfhtcgrS arhEkdif=urnfr[kwfyg? ,ckwkdif jyif;xef=urf;wrf;&ufpufaom enf;rsKd;pHkjzifh twdkuftcHrSefor#udk ESdrfeif;acsr_ef;ae&mwGif txl;ojzifh vlrqefaom n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_rsm; toHk;ðyae=uonfudk vl‹tcGifhta&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;ESifh tpdk;&rsm;u pHkprf;od&SdcJh=u+yD; ±_wfcsuef‹uGufcJh=uygonf? e0w . todomtxif&Sm;qHk;aom tjypfwckrSm 1990 jynfhESpf arvwGif usif;ycJhaom a&G;aumufyJGwGif tjywftowftEdkif&cJhonfh ‘pk’ wnfaxmifcJh+yD; EkdifiHa&;ajryHkay:udk wifcJhaom trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfxHodk‹ tm%mvJ$ajymif;a&;udpPudk ra&&ma0;uGmvSonfh tem*wfqDodk‹ a&$Œqdkif;xm;jcif;yifjzpfygonf?

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urBmhEkdifiHrsm;tv,fwGif e0w ppftpdk;&. *k%foduQmrSm usqif;cJh&oI ‘pk’ rSmrl ol. EdkifiHwGif;Yomru wurBmvHk;.tjrifwGif *k%f&SdefjrifhwufausmfaZmvsuf&Sdaeygawmhonf? olrudk tus,fcsKyfESifhzrf;qD;xm;+yD; vljrifuGif;rS z,f&Sm;xm;onfh=um;uyif olr. trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyfu 1990 arva&G;aumufyJGwGif v$wfawmfae&mtrsm;qHk; tEkdif&cJhygonf? urBmhae&mtESH‹tjym;u olrudk *k%fxl;rsm;/ qkrsm; tajrmuftjrm; tyfESif;cJhygonf? xkdtxJrS tjrifhrm;qHk; qkwckrSm olr. t=urf;rzufaom 'Drkdua&pD/ +idrf;csrf;a&;/ vGwfvyfa&;ESifh olr. jynfaxmifpkom;rsm;twGuf vl‹tcGifhta&;&&Sdatmif &yfwnfcsuf/ óud;yrf;csufrsm;twGuf 1991 ckESpfwGif *k%fðycsD;jr‡ifhjcif;cHcJh&aom EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkyif jzpfygonf? EdkbJvfaumfrwD. obmywdu qkay;yJGwGif rdef‹=um;cJhaom rdef‹cGef;wGif “olronf ,cktcgY jrefrmEdkifiHwGifomru useftm&SwcGifESifh tjcm;aom urBmhae&mtESH‹tjym;wkd‹wGif ay:aygufaeaom t=urf;zufr_wdk‹udk qef‹usifwdkufzsufa&;ESifh vGwfvyfaom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf; jzpfay:vma&;wdk‹twGuf v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;. txdef;trSwfoauFwwckyifjzpfygonf” [k ajymoGm;ygonf?

1993 ck ESpfOD;ydkif;u awmiftmz&durS c&pf,mefbkef;awmf}uD; bda&Smhwl;wl;ESifh wdbufbkef;awmf}uD; 'vdkifvm;rm;wdk‹tygt0if tjcm;EdkbJvfqk&Sifrsm;yg0ifonfh tzJG‹wzJG‹u a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk v$wfay;&ef txl;wdkufwGef;cJhygonf? odk‹aomf t&mrxifcJhygay? xdktzJG‹u owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGwck ðyvkyfcJhygonf? e0w ESifh urBmw0Srf;odk‹ toHv$ifhcJhygonf? olwdk‹u “a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf urBmw0Srf;wGif vGwfvyfjcif;. txdrf;trSwfoauFwjzpf+yD; jrefrmjynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;udkvnf; pdwf"mwfwufºuGatmif v_H‹aqmfEdkifqJyifjzpfygonf? olrudk vGwfvyfcGifh jyefay;&ef oifhygonf” [k ajymcJhygonf?

tif;vsm;uefab;rS olr. aetdrftwGif; wOD;wnf; tcsdef=um&SnfpGm csKyfaESmifr_cHae&onfrSm ,ckqdkv#if ig;ESpfwmumvtwGif; 0ifa&mufvm+yDjzpfaom ‘pk’ ta=umif;udk usr awG;aerdygonf? Todk‹aom qdk;0g;vSonfh tajctaersKd;udk &ifqdkifEkdifatmif b,ft&mursm; olrudk pGrf;aqmifay;aeygvdrfh?

olr taumiftxnfazmf }uHaqmifvsuf&Sdonfh &nfrSef;csufrSm txl;rGefjrwfvS+yD; rvJGraoG rkcsatmifjrif&vdrfhrnf[laom rnfodk‹r# ,kdifESJ‹zsufqD;ypfI r&Edkifonfh ckdifrmaom,Hk=unfcsufwck olrwGif &Sdygvdrfhrnf?

'Drkdua&pDESifh jrefrmjynfoltaygif;twGuf vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;&&Sdatmif óud;yrf;csufrsm;tay:wGifvnf; ‘pk’ u olr. rdom;pkxHrS tqHk;pGefaom ,Hk=unfr_/ em;vnfr_ESifh axmufcHtm;ay;r_rsm;udk &xm;ygonf? ‘pk’ xHwGif yifudk,fpGrf;&nfowWdrsm; &Sdxm;+yD;jzpfygonf? pl;&Sxufjrufaom pdwfpGrf;tm;ESifh todOm%f/ tvdrRmrsm;vnf; jynfhpHk+yD;jzpfygonf? pnf;pepfvnf;us+yD; olr.b0udk ynmA[kokw&SmazGjcif;ESifh Ak'<bmomw&m;awmfrsm;udk avhvmusifh}uHjcif;tm;jzifh jznfhqnf;wwfygonf?

olr.zcif AdkvfcsKyf. pGrf;aqmifcsufrsm;/ jrefrmjynfolvlxktay:xm;aom AdkvfcsKyf. arwWmapwemESifh vlxkw&yfvHk;uvnf; AdkvfcsKyfudk av;pm;cspfcifpGm owd&vsuf&Sdaea=umif;rsm;udk ‘pk’ t+rJpOf;pm;aevdrfhrnf[k usr xifygonf?

olru trsKd;om;jyefvnfpnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_ &&Sda&;ESifh +idrf;csrf;pGm twlwuG yl;aygif;+yD; oabmxm;uJGvJGr_rsm;udk ajz&Sif;Ekdifa&;twGuf t"dy`m,f&Sdaom aphpyfaqG;aEG;yJGrsm; ay:aygufvmEdkifatmif e0w tpdk;&ukd ,cifuvnf; zdwfac:cJh+yD; ,ckxdvnf; zdwfac:aeqJjzpfygonf?

‘pk’ onf usrwdk‹. jrifuGif;rsm;rS aysmufaeaomfvnf; usrwdk‹. tawG;rsm;xJrS rnfonfhtcgrS uG,faysmufoGm;vdrfhrnfr[kwfyg? jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;a&m/ jynfywGifa&mufaeol jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;rsm;yg tm;vHk;u ‘pk’ udk owd&ae+yD;/ ‘pk’ ta=umif;udk awG;awmvsuf&Sdae=uygonf? urBmuvnf; ‘pk’ vGwfajrmufvmrnfhae‹udkvnf; apmifhar#mfvsuf/ jrefrmjynfolvlxkudk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rS

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vGwfajrmufatmif vrf;jyac:aqmif&rnfh olr. uH=urRmudk olr jznfhqnf;cGifh&awmhrnfh xdktcsdeftcgudk apmifh=unfhae=uygonf? ‘pk’ onf jynfolvlxkESifhtwl &Sdaeygonf? ‘pk’ onf jynfolvlxkbufrSom &yfwnfygonf? jrefrmjynfolvlxk. ,Hk=unfr_ESifh ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;udk ‘pk’ u jznfhpGrf;ay;rnfqdkonfudk pdk;pOf;r#yif oHo,rjzpfrdyg?

‘pk’ vGwfajrmufvmrnfhae‹udkom usrwdk‹tm;vHk; ar#mfvifhw}uD; apmifhpm;aerd=uygawmhonf?

roef;{ 1993 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv

aemfa0;EkdifiH EdkbJvfaumfrwDOuUX rdef‹cGef;

1991 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (10) &ufae‹Y atmfpvdkòrd‹awmfwGif usif;yaom 1991 ckESpf EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk csD;jr‡ifhyJGtcrf;tem;Y aemfa0;EkdifiH EdkbJvfaumfrwDOuUX ygarmuQ z&efppfpD*smpwuf (Francis Sejersted) ajym=um;aomrdef‹cGef;

* * * bk&ifrif;jrwf/ zdbk&m;}uD;/ tpdk;&tzJG‹0ifrsm;/ oHwrefrsm;ESifh trsKd;orD;/ trsKd;om;rsm; cifAsm;/ ,ae‹ Tae&mwGif usaemfwdk‹ pka0;=uonfrSm atmifqef;pk=unf. xif&Sm;aom

vl‹tcGifhta&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDaqmif&Gufr_rsm;udk *k%fðy&efESifh olrtm; 1991 ckESpftwGufjzpfaom EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkudk csD;jr‡ifh&efyif jzpfygonf? cHpm;csuf trsKd;rsKd;/ tzHkzHkjzpfay:&onfh tcgor,jzpfygonf? +idrf;csrf;a&;qk&Sifudk,fwkdif rvma&mufEkdifbJ jzpfae&ygonf? usaemfwdk‹ todtrSwfðyaeaom óud;yrf;r_}uD;rSmvnf; qHk;cef;a&muf&ef vdkygao;onf? olronf olr.,Hk=unfcsuftwkdif; jzpfajrmuf&ef wkdufyJG0ifaeqJyifjzpfygonf? olr. pGrf;&nfowWdESifh wm0ef,laqmif&Gufr_rsm;a=umifh olronf jrefrmjynfY ,Hk=unfcsuf. tusOf;om;b0Y a&muf&Sdaeygonf? olr rvma&mufEkdifonfhtwGuf usaemfwdk‹ pdk;&drfa=umifh=updwfrsm; jzpfay:vmaomfvnf; olr.rdom;pk cHpm;ae&aom pdk;&drfylyefr_ESifhpmv#if ajymyavmufrnfr[kwfyg? olr.rdom;pkjzpfaom cifyGef;onf rdkufu,ftJ&pfESifh om;rsm;jzpf=uaom tvufZENm;ESifh uifrfwdk‹tm; tvGefyif udk,fjcif;pmemrda=umif; Ttcrf;tem;wGif ajymvdkygonf? usaemfwdk‹onf oifwdk‹ESifhtwl cHpm;=u&+yD; oifwdk‹.ZeD;ESifh rdcifjzpfoludk,fpm; atmfpvdkodk‹ vma&mufI EdkbJvfqk vufcH,lonfudk usaemfwdk‹ rsm;pGmaus;Zl;wif&Sdygonf?

usaemfwdk‹. pdk;&drfa=umifh=ur_rsm;onf ,Hk=unftm;xm;r_/ ar#mfvifhr_wdk‹jzifhvnf; a&maxG;Ijzpfay:aeygonf? +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh aphpyfjzefajza&;udk&,l&ef wkdufyJG0ifóud;yrf;&mwGif usaemfwdk‹ pHerlemtjzpf xm;&rnfhyk*~Kdvfrsm;onf usaemfwdk‹&,l&ef óud;yrf;aeonfh t&mrsm;. oauFwtjzpf&yfwnf+yD; usaemfwdk‹wGif&Sdor# taumif;qHk;pGrf;&nfudk v_yf&Sm;wufºuGapaom yk*~KdvfrsKd;wdk‹udk tm;xm;=u&ygonf? atmifqef;pk=unfonf Todk‹aomyk*~Kdvfyif jzpfygonf? olronf av;eufpGmwm0ef,lr_ESifh ("gwfyHkvmonf) ("gwfyHk) tay: - EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkwHqdyf atmuf – EdkbJvfqk&Siftm; csD;jr‡ifhtyfESif;onfhvufrSwf

Page 26: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

(aqmif;yg;tquf) ZJGowWdcdkif+rJr_wdk‹udk OD;wnfcsufESifhenf;vrf;wkd‹ wom;wnf;jzpfaompdwful;tjrifjzifh aygif;pyfay;xm;ygonf? ,if;tjrif. ta&;}uD;qHk;aomt*Fgtpdwftydkif;rsm;rSm 'Drkdua&pDESifh vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk ±dkaoav;pm;r_/ tkyfpkrsm;t=um; aphpyfjzefajzr_/ t=urf;rzufr_ESifh wOD;jcif;taejzifh‚if;/ pkaygif;I‚if; pnf;urf;user_ ponfwdk‹yif jzpfygonf? olrtm; pwif pdwf"mwfwufºuGv_yf&Sm;apaom yk*~Kdvfrsm;onf y"getm;jzifh r[wWr*ENDESifh olr.zcif jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_acgif;aqmif atmifqef;wdk‹yifjzpfa=umif; olrudk,fwkdif &Sif;vif;pGm &nfn$ef;xm;ygonf? t=urf;rzufa&; tawG;tac:orm;}uD;ESifh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;wdk‹t=um; uJGjym;jcm;em;csufrsm; trsm;tjym;&Sdaomfvnf; tajccHwlnDcsufrsm;udk awG‹&Sd&ygonf? ‚if;wdk‹ESpfOD;pvHk;wGif ppfrSefaomvGwfvyfa&;pdwfxm;/ ppfrSefaomed0gww&m;ESifh atmifqef;pk=unfu ol‹zcifESifhywfoufI a&;om;&mwGif toHk;ðyonfhpum;twdkif; “euf±_dif;vSaom ±dk;om;r_” wdk‹udk awG‹&Sd&ygonf? atmifqef;tzdk‹ acgif;aqmifr_onf wm0efjzpfI rdrdacgif;aqmifrnfh jynfolvlxk. ,Hk=unfr_ESifh ±dkaoav;pm;r_wdk‹udk&,lI wm0efxrf;aqmif&mwGif ed0gww&m;&SdrS wm0efausyGefrnf jzpfygonf? *ENDESifh zcifjzpfolwdk‹xHrS tm;xm;erlem,lp&m pdwf"mwfa&;&mrsm;udk &,lcJhaomfvnf; atmifqef;pk=unfwGifvnf; vGwfvyfaomtawG;tac:rsm;&Sd+yD; ,if;wdk‹onf olr.EdkifiHa&;0g' jzpfvmygawmhonf? t"durl&if;rSm olr.zcifY olr jrifawG‹&aom “euf±_dif;vSaom ±dk;om;r_” yif jzpfygonf? olr.tawG;tac:wGif vl‹tcGifhta&;udk tv,fA[dkY ae&may;xm;onfrSm vl‹*k%foduQmudk umuG,f&ef wu,fwrf;vdktyfonfhoabmudk a&mifjyef[yfaeyHk&ygonf? vlom;onf vGwfvyfaomvl‹tzJG‹tpnf;wGif aexdkifcGifh&SdonfomrubJ ±kdaoav;pm;cHydkifcGifhvnf; &Sd&rnfjzpfygonf? Tt,ltqtay:wGif tjrifhqHk;ar#mfrSef;csuf pdwful;tjrifESifh wnf+idrfaomvufawG‹0g'wdk‹udk xl;jcm;pGmaygif;pyfxm;aom vrf;pOfw&yfudk olru csrSwfwnfaxmifxm;ygonf? olrtzdk‹ TonfrSm oDtdk&Dt,ltqr#om r[kwfyg? Todk‹aom t,ltqudk vufawG‹EdkifiHa&;Y usifhoHk;Ekdifonfudk jyo&mwGif olronf rsm;pGmtaxmuftulðyol jzpfaeygonf? +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh aphpyfjzefajza&;rl0g'udk vufawG‹taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif vHk;0r&Sdrjzpfaom vdktyfcsufw&yfrSm a=umuf±GHŒjcif;uif;rJhr_yif jzpfygonf?Ttcsufudk atmifqef;pk=unf odem;vnfygonf? olr.pmwrf;wckwGif tm%ma=umifhr[kwfbJ a=umuf±GHŒr_a=umifhom vlom;wkdif; azmufjyef=ujcif;jzpfonf[k pwifa&;om;azmfjyxm;ygonf? olr. wdkif;jynfrS tm%m&Sifpepftm; &nf&G,fI a0zefxm;jcif;yifjzpfygonf? ‚if;wdk‹u OD;aqmifvrf;jyðy&rnfjzpfaom jynfolvlxkudk ‚if;wkd‹u a=umuf&GHŒaeojzifh ‚if;wdk‹udk,f‚if;wdk‹ azmufjyefapcJhjcif;yifjzpfygonf? Tonfa=umifh ‚if;wdk‹onf raumif;r_oHo&m vnfae=u&ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; olr.tawG;tac:wGif a=umuf&GHŒr_uif;rJh&ef E_d;aqmfcsufonf OD;pGmyxrtaejzifh trsm;ESifhoufqdkifaom E_d;aqmfcsufjzpfygonf? usaemfwdk‹tm;vHk; a=umuf&GHŒjcif;uif;rJh=u&ef awmif;qdkjcif;jzpfygonf? olrudk,fwkdifvnf; a=umuf&GHŒr_uif;rJha=umif;udk vufawG‹jycJhygonf? olronf aoewfrsm;jzifh csdefxm;onfudk wudk,fwnf; qef‹usifcJholjzpfygonf? Todk‹aomowWdudk rnfonfht&mu cHEkdifygrnfenf;? olrtm; rypf&ef aemufqHk;trdef‹ay;vdkufol Adkvfrª;. pdwfxJwGif rnfodk‹&Sdygoenf;? olr.owWdudk av;pm;Ivnf; jzpfEkdifonf/ =urf;wrf;aom tiftm;jzifh rnfonfht&mudkr# atmifjrifEkdifrnfr[kwfonfudk ,if;Adkvfrª; oabmaygufoGm;Ivnf; jzpfEkdifygonf? t=urf;zufr_. tqdk;0g;qHk;aom&efolonf t=urf;zufr_yifjzpfI ,if;udkwkdufzsuf&mwGif a=umuf&GHŒr_uif;rJhjcif;onf txufjrufqHk; vufeufjzpfygonf? olr. tm;uszG,f&m &JpGrf;owWda=umifh atmifqef;pk=unfonf *ENDESifh zcifjzpfol atmifqef;uJhodk‹ tmedoif}uD;rm;aom oauFw

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trSwftom;tjzpfodk‹ a&muf&Sdvmjcif;jzpfygonf? atmifqef;onf ‚if;.óud;yrf;r_rsm; r+yD;jywfao;rD aoewfypfcH&jcif;jzpfygonf? Todk‹vkyfaqmifjcif;jzifh atmifqef;tm; jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;rS z,f&Sm;Ekdifrnf[k vkyf}uHowfjzwf&efpDpOfolrsm;u ,lqcJhygv#if rSm;,Gif;aom,lqcsufomjzpfygonf? atmifqef;onf vGwfvyfaom jrefrmjynftwGuf pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_. oauFwjzpfvm+yD; vGwfvyfaomvl‹tzJG‹tpnf;udk wnfaqmufEkdif&ef ,ck wkdufyJG0ifóud;yrf;aeolrsm;tm; pdwf"mwfwufºuGaponfh yk*~Kdvfvnf; jzpfvmygawmhonf? Todk‹ pHerlemxm;p&m/ pdwf"mwfwufp&mtjyif jynfolvlxkpdwfESvHk;wGif atmifqef;&,lxm;onfhae&ma=umifh ‚if;aoqHk;+yD; ESpfaygif; (40) ausmft=umwGif atmifqef;pk=unfonf EkdifiHa&;pwifvkyfudkif&ef vdktyfaomtajccHudk &&SdEkdifcJhygonf? olronf zcif.tarGtESpfudk qufcHcJh+yD; ,cktcg olrudk,fwkdifyif jrefrmjynfwGifomrubJ tm&SwdkufwcGifvHk;ESifh tjcm;urBmhae&m tESH‹tjym;wGif t=urf;zufr_udk awmfvSefI vGwfvyfaom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf; wnfaxmif&ef óud;yrf;csuf. oauFwjzpfaeygonf? atmifqef;pk=unf. &JpGrf;owWdESifh jrifhrm;aom ar#mfrSef;csufwdk‹onf usaemfwdk‹wGif&Sdaom taumif;qHk;pGrf;&nfudk ay:xGufvmaprnf[k usaemfwdk‹uJhodk‹aom omrefyk*~Kdvfwdk‹u cHpm;=u&onf[k usaemf,Hk=unfygonf? tem*wfwGif ,Hk=unfr_&Sdaeao;&eftwGuf olruJhodk‹aomyk*~KdvfrsKd;udk usaemfwdk‹ vdktyfonf[k cHpm;rdygonf? ,if;tcsufonf olr óud;yrf;r_. pGrf;tm;}uD;aom oauFww&yfjzpf+yD; olrudk rw&m;vkyfwkdif; usaemfwdk‹ESvHk;om;wGif tjrwfwEdk; apmifha&Smufxdef;odrf;xm;onfht&mudk csKd;azmufcH&ouJhodk‹yif cHpm;=u&ygonf? aetdrfwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHae&ol TtrsKd;orD;onf ar#mfvifhcsufa&mifjcnfjzpfygonf? olr xdkae&mY&Sdaejcif;jzifh aumif;r_ukodkvf. tiftm;udk usaemfwdk‹ ydkI ,Hk=unfudk;pm;vm=uygonf? atmifqef;pk=unfudk 1945 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;ygonf? olr.zcif vkyf}uHowfjzwfcH&pOfu olronf (2) ESpforD;jzpfygonf? zcifudk rSwfrdEdkifaomt&G,fr[kwfyg? rdcifjzpfolrSm oHwrefjzpfojzifh atmifqef;pk=unfonf i,fpOfumvu‚if;/ aemufydkif;umvrsm;wGif‚if; EdkifiHjcm;Y aexdkifcJhygonf? 1967 ckESpfwGif olronf atmufpzdk‹'fwuUodkvf pdef‹[l‹pfaumvdyfrS EdkifiHa&;ynm/ '\eduaA'/ abm*aA' bmom&yfrsm;jzifh bJG‹&cJhygonf? 1969 ckESpfrSpI e,l;a,mufòrd‹ ukvor*~XmecsKyfwGif (2) ESpfr# tvkyfvkyfygonf? 1972 ckESpfwGif olronf wdbufa&;&m +Adwdo#ynm&Sifjzpfol rdkufu,ftJ&pfESifh vufxyfygonf? blwefEkdifiHwGif acwWaexdkif+yD;aemuf atmufpzdk‹'fwGif 1975 ckESpfavmufY jyefvnfaexdkifygonf? olronf uav;i,f (2) a,muf&Sdaom tdrf&Sifrwm0eftjyif ynma&;bufwGifvnf; qufvufóud;pm;+yD; jrefrmhorkdif;ESifh pmayukd t"duxm;avhvmygonf? olronf *syefjynf usKdwdkwuUodkvfESifh tdENd,EkdifiH tqifhjrifhokawoeXmewdk‹wGif {nhfonfawmfynm&Siftjzpf avhvmcJhygonf? 1988 ckESpf jrefrmjynfodk‹ jyefvmaomtcgwGif vef'efwuUodkvf ta&SŒwdkif;ESifh tmz&duavhvma&;XmewGif avhvmjcif;udk &yfem;vdkuf&ygonf? Todk‹aom jyifytjzpftysuffrsm;u 1988 ckESpfY olr pwifrnfh tcef;u¾udk &nfn$ef;cJhjcif;r&Sdyg? odk‹aomf olronf aumif;pGm tqifoifh jyifqifxm;+yD;olyif jzpfygonf? jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹. uH=urRmESifhywfoufI tpOfojzifh olr &ifav;aecJh&aom om"ursm;&Sdygonf? olronf wae‹wGif jrefrmjynfodk‹ jyef&zG,f&m&Sdonf/ ,if;odk‹aomtcgwGif cifyGef;onf. axmufcHtm;ay;r_vdka=umif; olru ajymcJhonfudk olr.cifyGef;u ajymcJhzl;ygonf? olr avhvmqnf;yl;aom udpP&yfrsm;wGifvnf; jrefrmEdkifiH. acwfopforkdif;udkom ydkI t"duxm;avhvmonfudk awG‹&ygonf? zcifESifh jrefrmhorkdif;wGif zcifjzpfol yg0ifcJhaom tcef;u¾udk avhvmjcif;tm;jzifh olr. EkdifiHa&;wm0ef,lr_ESifh zcif. t±dkuft&m qufcH&rnf[laom oabmudkvnf; ydkrdkckdifrmvmapygonf?

Page 28: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

*syefodk‹oGm;aomtcgY zcifjzpfol. ajc&mtwkdif; vdkufaeouJhodk‹ jzpfoGm;&ygonf? 'kwd,urBmppftwGif; atmifqef;onf *syef&Sd ppfpcef;wckwGif ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfudk wnfaxmifjcif;yif jzpfygonf? jrefrmjynfudk *syefu usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmonfhtcgwGif atmifqef;wdk‹tzJG‹vnf; twlvdkufygvmcJhygonf? odk‹aomf r=umrDwGif ‚if;wdk‹onf +Adwdo#udkvdkeDtpdk;&udk wdkufcdkufae&mu *syefudk awmfvSefykefuef+yD; r[mrdwfrsm; jrefrmjynfudk jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf&mwGif tultnDay;=uygonf? ppf+yD;onfhtcgwGif ‚if;uOD;aqmifI +Adwdo#wdk‹ESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;EkdifcJhojzifh aemufqHk; vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdygonf? vGwfvyfaom jrefrmEkdifiHb0odk‹ a&muf&SdvmaomjzpfpOfudk avhvm&efESifh EkdifiHa&;udkxdef;uGyfxm;onfh tjrifhqHk;ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;udk em;vnfoabmayguf&ef ta&;w}uD;vdktyfaeonf[k atmifqef;pk=unfu cHpm;aeyHk&ygonf? tdENd,ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHwdk‹. udkvdkeDacwftawG‹tóuHudk E_dif;,SOfxm;onfh ajymifajrmufaom pmwrf;wapmifwGif jrefrmjynf,Ofaus;r_ ±dk;&mtarGtESpf. xl;jcm;aom vuQ%m&yfrsm;udk olru a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygonf? orkdif;onf ta&;}uD;.? rdrdonf rnfonfh±dk;&mtpOftvmwGif yg0ifonfudk rdrdbmomqHk;jzwfjcif;tm;jzifh rdrdrnfoljzpfonfudk qHk;jzwf&ma&mufonf? atmifqef;pk=unfonf trsKd;om;,Ofaus;r_ ±dk;&mtarGtESpf. taumif;qHk;t*FgvuQ%mrsm;[k olru ,lqaomt&mrsm;udk *±kðyvmap&ef óud;pm;I olrudk,fwkdifvnf; ,if;t*FgvuQ%m&yfrsm;ESifh xyfwlxyfr#jzpfap&ef óud;yrf;tm;xkwfygonf? Todk‹ av;eufaomtodynmjzifh rdrd.tcef;u¾udk eufeJpGm oabmaygufjcif;onf EkdifiHa&;óud;yrf;r_wGif tvGef}uD;rm;aom tiftm;yifjzpfygonf? xl;jcm;onf[kqdkEkdifaomfvnf; 1988 ckESpfY atmifqef;pk=unf jrefrmjynfodk‹jyefoGm;&onfh ta=umif;rSm EkdifiHa&;tajctaea=umifh r[kwfbJ rdciftdk}uD; aexdkifraumif;jzpfaeaoma=umifhyif jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; EdkifiHa&;rkefwkdif; pwifwdkufcwfae+yDjzpfygonf? qENjyyJGrsm;/ &JESifh&ifqkdif xdyfwdkufawG‹r_rsm; jzpfyGm;cJh+yD; vlaygif; (200) cef‹ aoqHk;cJh&+yD;jzpfygonf? aeraumif;ol rdcif}uD;tm;ðypkaepOf r+idrfroufjzpfr_rsm; qufvufjzpfyGm;ygonf? ,if;odk‹aom tajctaewGif “'kwd,ajrmuf trsKd;om;vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_” [k olrudk,fwkdifac:qdkaom wdkufyJGwGif wufwufºuGºuG yg0if&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufjcif;yifjzpfygonf? jrefrmjynfwGif ppfwyfu 1962 ckESpfY tm%modrf;,lygonf? 1988 ckESpfwGifjzpfyGm;aom qlylr_rsm;rSm ydkrdkwdk;yGm;vmaom zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk wefjyefjcif;yif jzpfygonf? xdkESpf aEG&moDtajctae ra&&mao;onfhtcsdefwGif atmifqef;pk=unfonf tpdk;&xH tdwfzGifhay;pm a&;om;I ygwDpHka&G;aumufyJGusif;yonftxd wkdif;jynfudk OD;aqmifoGm;&eftvdk‹iSm ±dkaoav;pm;&aom/ oduQm&Sdaomyk*~Kdvfrsm;yg0ifonfh twdkifyifcHaumfrwDudk zJG‹pnf;cef‹tyf&ef wifjycJhygonf? xdkpmwGif pnf;urf;pepf&Sd=u&efESifh tiftm;oHk;r_udk ESpfbufpvHk;u a&Smif=uOf&ef vdktyfa=umif; tav;xm;Iazmfjy+yD; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;udk v$wfay;&ef awmif;qdkxm;ygonf? &uftenf;i,f=umaomtcgwGif &efukefòrd‹ a&$wd*HkapwDa&SŒwGif axmif/ aomif;csDwufa&mufaom vlxkpnf;a0;yJGY olr rdef‹cGef;ajymqdkI vl‹tcGifhta&;/ 'Drkdua&pDESifh t=urf;rzufa&;tay:wGif rlwnfaom EkdifiHa&;tpDtpOfw&yfudk wifjyygonf? vufeufudkifwyfzJG‹rsm;onf &ufowWywftawmf=um wkef‹qdkif;ae+yD;rS pufwifbmv (18) &ufae‹wGif ydkI wif;=uyfpGmcsKyfudkifjcif;jzifh wefjyefvdkufygonf? “EkdifiHawmf +idrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzJG‹” (e0w) udk zJG‹pnf;um tpnf;ta0;yJGrsm;udk ydwfyifwm;jrpfvdkuf+yD; ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'udk usifhoHk;I tr_ppfjcif;r&SdbJ tjypf'%fay;ygawmhonf? EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;udkrl ydwfyifwm;jrpfjcif;r&Sdyg? (tpnf;ta0;rsm;rvkyf&ef ydwfyifxm;+yD;jzpfI ydwfyif&efrvdkawmh[k ,lqxm;[ef&Sdygonf)? e0wzJG‹pnf;+yD; &ufowWwywft=umwGif atmifqef;pk=unfESifh tjcm; twdkuftcHtcsKdŒu trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf (tift,f'D) udk wnfaxmifvdkufygonf? olronf EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif tm;oGefcGefpdkuf qufvufyg0ifum

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tpnf;ta0;rsm; ydwfyifxm;onfudk‚if;/ ppfwyfu +cdrf;ajcmufonfudk‚if; vGefqefI vlaygif;rsm;pGm wufa&mufaom EkdifiHa&;pnf;a0;yJGrsm;udk wjynfvHk;wGif usif;yEkdifcJhygonf? olr EkdifiHa&; pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;&mwGif xl;jcm;xif&Sm;aom vuQ%mw&yfrSm tpOftvmt& wOD;ESifhwOD; rwnfh=uaom wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;tm;vHk;udk qJGaqmifEkdifjcif;yifjzpfygonf? olr.*k%foduQma=umifh ppftpdk;&onf tawmf=umwGef‹qdkif;aecJh+yD;rS 1989 ckESpf ZlvdkifvrSmyif olrtm; aetdrfwGif xdef;odrf;vdkufjcif;jzpfayonf? 1990 ckESpf arvwGifusif;yaom a&G;aumufyJGwGif trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf t}uD;tus,ftEdkif&&Sd+yD; v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fOD;a& (80) &mcdkifE_ef;ausmf tEkdif&&SdoGm;ygonf? TonfrSm atmifqef;pk=unf. atmifyJGyifjzpfonf[k vlwkdif;u oabmwl=uygonf? e0w onf rnfonfhtwGuf vGwfvyfaoma&G;aumufyJGudk usif;ycGifhðyygoenf;? ‚if;wdk‹u qef‹usifzuf&v'fwrsKd; xGufvmrnf[k ar#mfvifhxm;yHk&ygonf? ‚if;wdk‹ tm%mqufvuf&,l&eftwGuf w&m;Oya't& vkyfydkifcGifhay;rnfh a&G;aumufyJG&v'fudk ar#mfvifh=u[efwlygonf? Todk‹aom tpdk;&rsKd;. t=uyftwnf;rSm rdrd.vdrfvnfajymqdkcsufwGif rdrdyg jyefydwfrdaejcif;yifjzpfygonf? rnfodk‹yifjzpfap e0w onf a&G;aumufyJG&v'fudk vufcH&efjiif;qefvdkufygonf? a&G;aumufyJGudk zsufodrf;vdkuf&onfh oabmyifjzpfygonf? odk‹aomf e0w url w&m;0ifonfhoabm ydkrdkenf;yg;aomfvnf; qufvuftkyfcsKyfaeygonf? w&m;0ifr_r&Sdjcif;a=umifhyif ydkI&ufpuf=urf;wrf;pGm vkyfaqmifae=u&ygonf? vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm; t}uD;tus,f qufvufazmufzsufaeonfudk tifrepfwD (Amnesty) urBmhvl‹tcGifhta&;tzJG‹u tpD&ifcHxm;ygonf? e0w tpdk;&onf ,ae‹urBmwGif tzdESdyftcsKyfcs,fqHk;aom tpdk;&tjzpfodk‹ a&muf&SdoGm;+yDjzpfygonf? vGefcJhaom q,fpkESpfrsm;wGif vl‹tcGifhta&;qkdif&m vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk todtrSwfðyonfhtaejzifh aemfa0; EdkbJvfaumfrwDonf +idrf;csrff;a&;qktcsKdŒudk csD;jr‡ifhcJhygonf? +idrf;csrf;a&;. tajccHvdktyfcsufonf vlom;tm;vHk;. b0&Sifoefr_ESifh ±dkaoav;pm;cH&r_qkdif&m tcGifhta&;wdk‹ukd todtrSwfðyjcif;jzpfonf[laom ,Hk=unfcsufjzifh csD;jr‡ifhcJhjcif;jzpfygonf? Todk‹csD;jr‡ifh&jcif;. tjcm;&nf&G,fcsufw&yfrSm tajccHtm;jzifh vl‹tcGifhta&;t,ltqonf taemufwkdif;t,ltqom r[kwfbJ ,Ofaus;r_tm;vHk;wGifvnf; &Sdonfudkjyovdkaom &nf&G,fcsufyifjzpfygonf? Tta=umif;ESifhpyfvsOf;I atmifqef;pk=unf. “'Drkdua&pD&SmyHkawmf”pmwrf;rS pmydk'fwydk'fudk udk;um;wifjyygrnf?

w&m;r#wr_r&Sdaom ae&ma'owGif pdwfcs&aom+idrf;csrf;r_vnf; r&SdEkdifyg? +idrf;csrf;a&;[lonfrSm twdkuftcHtm;vHk; E_wfqdwfaejcif;jzpfonf[lI‚if;/ vHkòcHa&;[lonfrSm rdrdwdk‹tm%mwnf+rJa&;udk aocsmatmifðyvkyfjcif;jzpfonf[lI‚if; t"dy`m,faumuf,l=uaom oabmxm;usOf;ajrmif;olwdk‹uomv#if vl‹tcGifhta&;onf +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;wdk‹. tajccHjzpfonf[laom tcsufudk jiif;qdk=urnfjzpfygonf? jrefrmwdk‹onf +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;oabmudk at;jraomt&dyfESifh wJGzufxm;=uygonf?

“opfyif.t&dyfonf at;jrayonf xdkxuf rdb.t&dyfonf ydkI at;jr. xdkxuf q&morm;.t&dyfonf ydkIyif at;jr. xdkxuf rif;.t&dyfrSm ydkIyifom at;jrayonf? odk‹aomf tat;jrqHk;rSm Ak'<jrwfpGmbk&m;. t&dyfyif jzpfayonf?”

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xdk‹a=umifh jynfolvlxkudk +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;[lonfh at;jraom t&dyftm0goay;Ekdif&eftwGuf tkyfcsKyfolwdk‹onf Ak'<&Sifawmf. tqHk;tr=o0g'rsm;udk vdkufem&rnfjzpfygonf? ,if;=o0g'rsm;xJwGif opPmw&m;&Sdjcif;/ w&m;"rR apmifhpnf;jcif;ESifh *±k%mxm;jcif;wdk‹onf t"dujzpfygonf? Todk‹aom t&nftcsif;rsm;ay:wGif tajcðyaom tpdk;&udk &&Sd&ef&nf&G,fI jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹u 'Drkdkua&pDwkdufyJG0ifae=ujcif;yif jzpfygonf?

jynfwGif;Y EdkifiHa&;tzdESdyfcHae&ojzifh EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk&Sifudk,fwdkif rvma&mufEkdifonfrSm Tt}udrfonf yxrt}udrf r[kwfyg? [pfwvm. wckaom tusOf;pcef;wGif zsm;emaeol umvf;AGef atmfpDtufpuD (Carl Von Ossietzky) onfvnf; 1936 ckESpfu rvma&mufEkdifcJhyg? tif'a&qmcga&mAfh (Andrei Sakharov) ESifh vufbdk0ifpm (Lech Walesa) wdk‹onfvnf; xdkenf;wlyifjzpfcJh&ygonf? atmfpDtufpuDonf emZDtpdk;&rðywfusrD aoqHk;oGm;&+yD; qmcga&mhAfESifh bdk0ifpmwdk‹rSmrl ‚if;wdk‹. óud;yrf;r_rsm; atmifyJGcHonfudk awG‹jrif=u&ygonf? atmifqef;pk=unfonfvnf; olr. óud;yrf;r_atmifyJGcHonfudk jrif&rnf[k usaemfwdk‹ ar#mfvifhygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; +idrf;csrf;a&;qk&Sifudk,fwkdif a&mufrvmEkdifonfrSm Tt}udrfonf aemufqHk;jzpfcsifrS jzpfrnf[laom tvm;tvmudkvnf; usaemfwdk‹ od&Sdxm;&rnfjzpfygonf? usaemfwdk‹aexdkif&m urBmrsKd;wGif +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh aphpyfjzefajza&;udk wcgwnf;ESifh r&Edkifonfudkvnf; owdðy=u&rnf jzpfygonf? usaemfwdk‹. pHowfrSwfcsufrsm;udkvnf; edrfhusoGm;atmif ðyvkyfEkdifrnfr[kwfyg? xdkodk‹rvkyfbJ ydkrdkaumif;rGefaomavmuudk vdktyfygu usaemfwdk‹ ydkI Edk;=um;zswfvwf&ef a=umuf&GHŒr_rS ydkI uif;&Sif;&ef ,ckESpfqk&SifajymouJhodk‹ “euf±_dif;aom ±dk;om;r_” &Sd=u&ef usaemfwdk‹ óud;pm;=u&rnfjzpfygonf? TonfrSm usaemfwdk‹tm;vHk; wOD;pDðyvkyf&rnfh udpPjzpfaomfvnf; tm%m&mxl;tqifh&Sdolrsm; usifhoHk;&ef txl;vdktyfygonf? atmifqef;pk=unfuJhodk‹yif ±dk;om;ESdrfhcsr_ESifh a=umuf&GHŒjcif;uif;r_udk jy=uyg? ydkI aecsifzG,faumif;aom urBmavmu ay:aygufvmrnf jzpfygonf? (wrsufESmpm a':pk"gwfyHkvmonf) (wrsufESmvHk;wGif wyf&rnfhacgif;pOf}uD;) tydkif;-u 1984 ckESpf – 1993 ckESpftwGif; a&;om;aom pmwrf;rsm;ESifh taxGaxGrdef‹cGef;rsm; (aemufxyfwrsufESm aqmif;yg;) atmifqef; t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh 1991 ckESpfwGif yHkESdyfxkwfa0aom pmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 3-37 udk jrefrmjyefonf?

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usr rSwfrdEkdifaom t&G,fra&mufrDuyif usr.zcif uG,fvGefoGm;ygonf? xdk‹a=umifh “azaz[m b,fvdkvlpm;rsKd;ygvdrfh” [laom odcsifpdwfjzifh zcif. b0vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;ESifhywfoufaom pmaytaxmuftxm;rsm;udk usr pwifpkaqmif; avhvmzwf±_jcif;yifjzpfygonf? atmufwGif azmfjyyg txky`wWdpmwrf;udk a&;om;&mY yHkESdyfxkwfa0jcif; taxmuftxm;rsm;udk t"dutajccHxm;ygonf? ta=umif;t&mESpf&yfESifhywfoufIomv#if usrwdk‹rdom;pkESifh azazhtm; aumif;pGmodu|rf;cJholrsm;xHrS od&Sd&aomtcsuftvufrsm;tay:wGif tawmftoifh tajccHxm;ygonf? aoG;om;eD;uyfpGm awmfpyfolwOD;. txky`wWdudk a&;&onfrSm rvG,fulyg? "rR"dXmefusus a&;Ekdifrnfr[kwf[k tpGyfpJGcH&Edkifygonf? wu,fwrf;wGifvnf; txky`wWda&;olwdk‹onf rdrdwdk‹ &SmazGpkaqmif;&&Sdaom taxmuftxm;rsm;jzifh rdrdwdk‹. udk,fydkifqHk;jzwfOm%fudk yHkpHoGif;ay;cJhaom tjzpftysuf/ tawG‹tóuHrsm;. =oZmoufa&mufr_rS uif;vGwfEkdifrnfr[kwfyg? usrtaejzifh usrzcif. ±kyfyHkv$mudk usrjrifonfhtwkdif; rSefuefpGm ay:vGifap&ef óud;yrf;a&;om;xm;ygonf[kom ajymEkdifygonf?

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atmifqef;udk jrefrmEkdifiH tnma'o&Sd ewfarmufòrd‹uav;Y 1915 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv 13 &ufae‹wGif zGm;jrifygonf? rEWav;òrd‹awmf&Sd jrefrmbk&iftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk ysufokef;ap+yD; jrefrmwEkdifiHvHk; +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;vufatmufodk‹ usqif;apcJhaom wwd,t*Fvdyf-jrefrmppfyJGt+yD; ESpfaygif; (30) t=umwGifjzpfygonf? ewfarmufe,fole,fom;rsm;onf jrefrmbk&ifrsm;. tr_udkxrf;aqmifonfh tpOftvm&Sdolrsm;jzpf.? atmifqef;. rdcifrsKd;±dk;xJwGif &mxl;}uD; rif;r_xrf;tcsKdŒ yg0ifcJhygonf? zcifjzpfol OD;zmonf v,form;rsKd;±dk;rSjzpf+yD; avmuDa&;&mwGif vdrRma&;jcm;r&Sd/ pum;rajym wHk%Sdbma0 aewwfolwOD;jzpfygonf? Om%f&nfaumif;I pmayzufwGif xl;c|efaomfvnf; pum;enf;vGef;ojzifh OD;zmonf rdrd. toufarG;0rf;a=umif;tvkyfjzpfaom a&SŒaetvkyfY atmifjrifjcif;r&SdcJhyg? xkd‹a=umifh xufjrufoGufvufvSaom rdcif a':pkomv#if rdom;pkpm;0wfaea&;udk t"duwm0ef,l&ygonf? a':pk. OD;av;awmfolonf +Adwdo#wdk‹udk a&S;OD;pGm awmfvSefqef‹usifcJhaom jrefrmtkyfpkwpkudk acgif;aqmifcJhygonf? aemufqHk;Y “Adkvfva&mif” ac: “OD;rif;a&mif”tm; +Adwdo#wdk‹u zrf;qD;owfjzwfvdkufygonf? “ukvm;wdk‹u|efrcH” [laom pdwfxm;&SdcJhonfh xdk&J&Jawmuf rsKd;cspfyk*~Kdvf}uD;um; atmifqef;rdom;pkESifh e,fole,fom;rsm; *k%f,lpHxm; tm;uszG,f&mjzpfvmygonf? nDtudkarmifESr (6) OD; [uav;b0uyif uG,fvGef=uolrsm;tygt0ifqdkv#if arG;csif; - 9 OD;] teuf taxG;qHk;jzpfol atmifqef;onf oludk,fwkdifa&;cJhaom rSwfwrf;t& npfywfcsLcsm tpm;=uL;I vHk;0 ESpfvdkzG,fr[kwfaom uav;wOD;jzpfygonf? pum;ajymvnf; aemufusvSojzifh rdom;pku ‘pGef‹t’ aeovm;[lIyif ylyifcJh&.? odk‹aomf atmifqef;uav;onf y&d,m,fr&Sdjcif;/ tvGef±dk;om;ajzmifhrwfjcif;/ qif;&Jolrsm;tm; oem;=uifemwwfjcif; paom cspfpzG,fpdwf"mwfrsm;jzifh jynfhpHkonf[k ol‹tm; i,fpOfu aumif;pGmodcJholrsm;ESifh ol‹rdom;pk0ifrsm;u aumufcsufcs=uygonf? atmifqef;rdom;pkrSm Om%f&nfaumif;+yD; ynmzufwGif xGef;aygufolrsm;tjzpf emrnfaumif;&xm;ygonf? atmifqef;. tudk (3) OD;rSm toufi,fi,fav;wGif ausmif;pwuf=u.? odk‹aomf atmifqef;rSmrl tarygwufrS ausmif;wufrnfqdkum uwfzJhae.? pdwf"mwf}uHŒcdkifvSygonf[k qdk&rnfjzpfaom a':pkonf om;axG;av;udk tvGefn‡mwmavh&Sd+yD; ol‹pdwfygrSom ausmif;wufygapawmh[k tvdkvdkufxm;cJh.? odk‹jzifh (8) ESpfom;t&G,fa&mufaomtcgrS atmifqef; ausmif;wuf&ef qHk;jzwfygawmhonf? tudkjzpfol atmifoef; &Sifomra%abmifodk‹ 0ifaomtcgY bkef;}uD;ausmif;ae oHCmwdk‹b0udk oabmusIayvm;/ &Sifavmif;rsm;pD;onfh uóud;wefqm qif&ifxm;aom jrif;jzLav;udk oabmusIvm;rod/ atmifqef;u olvnf; &Sifðycsifygonf[k qdkvmygawmhonf? vdrRmyg;eyfaomtaru tcGifhaumif;udk csufcsif;,lI &SifrðyrD pma&;pmzwfwwf&ef vdkrnf[k axmufjyvdkufygonf?

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ausmif;pwufonfqdkonfESifh atmifqef;onf xl;c|efaom ausmif;om;wOD;jzpfa=umif; ay:vGifvmygonf? pmóud;pm;I pnf;urf;±dkao+yD; twef;xJwGif tpOfxdyfwef;u &SdaecJhygonf? atmifqef;. yxrausmif;rSm ewfarmuf OD;aombdw bkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;yifjzpfygonf? avmukwW&mynmomru acwfopfynm&yftcsKdŒudkyg oif=um;ay;aom xdkpOftac: avmu"mwfausmif;rsKd;jzpfygonf? odk‹aomf ewfarmufausmif;wGif t*Fvdyfpm oif=um;ay;jcif;r&Sday? xdktcsdefu txufwef;ynmoif=um;&mY vdktyfcsufwckjzpfaom t*Fvdyfpmudk tudk}uD;rsm;u oifxm;+yD;jzpfonfhtwdkif; atmifqef;uvnf; wwfatmifoifrnf[k pdwfydkif;jzwfxm;vdkuf.? odk‹jzifh atmifqef;vnf; a&eHacsmif; trsKd;om;ausmif;odk‹ touf (13) ESpft&G,fY ajymif;oGm;ygonf? om;axG;av;udk tdrfrS cJGcGmroGm;apvdkaom a':pkxHrS a&eHacsmif;ausmif;wufcGifh&&ef atmifqef; tpmiwfcHqENjyyJGav;wckudk qifEJ$cJh&ygao;onf? a&eHacsmif;a&mufaomtcg ausmif;wGif q&mwOD;tjzpf tvkyfvkyfaeaom tudk}uD; OD;b0if;. xdef;a=umif;apmifha&Smufr_atmufwGif aecJh&onfrSm atmifqef;twGuf vGefpGmrS uHaumif;ygonf? OD;b0if;onf nDi,fav;. ynma&;/ pm;0wfaea&;/ taxGaxGaumif;rGefwdk;wufa&;wdk‹udk pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd/ qifqifjcifjcif txl;*±kpdkufcJh.? nDjzpfoluvnf; ynma&;zufwGif tm;aumif;a=umif; qufvufjyoum touf (15) ESpft&G,fY owWrwef;pmar;yJGwGif Ak'<bmompmoifausmif;rsm;ESifh trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;Y yxrpJGolrsm;tm; csD;jr‡ifhaom OD;a&$bdk a&$wHqdyfESifh ynmoifaxmufyHha=u;qkudk &&SdcJh.? trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;rSm 1920 ckESpf &efukefwuUodkvf tufOya'qef‹usifoydwfrS xGufay:vmjcif;jzpfygonf? xdktufOya'onf tcGifhxl;cHvlenf;pkav;udkom txufwef;ynmoif=um;cGifhay;&ef &nf&G,fonf[k qef‹usifolrsm;u ,lqcJhygonf? trsKd;om;ausmif;rsm;onf jrefrmvli,fwdk‹tm; olwdk‹. udkvdkeDvufatmufcH b0tajctaeudk EdkifiHa&;todw&m;t& cHpm;em;vnfap+yD;/ xdkb0rS vGwfajrmufvdkpdwfrsm; toJESvHk;twGif;rS jzpfay:vm&ef usKdcsufay;vdkufaom ae&mrsm;ozG,fjzpfygonf? rdrd. EkdifiHudk vlrsKd;jcm;wdk‹tkyfcsKyfr_atmufrS vGwfajrmufatmif aqmif&GufvdkaomqENonf a&eHacsmif;trsKd;om;ausmif; rwufrDumvuyif atmifqef;.pdwfwGif udef;atmif;aecJhyHk&ygonf? uav;b0u +Adwdo#wkd‹tm; ykefuefarmif;xkwf&ef enf;trsKd;rsKd;udk }uHpnfpOf;pm;cJhyHk/ wcgw&H jy'g;&SifvHk;uJhodk‹aom wefcdk;od'<d&SifypPnf;rsm; tultnDjzifh jrefrmjynfvGwfajrmufa&;udk &,l&ef pdwful;,OfcJhyHkta=umif;udk ol. udk,fa&;txky`wWdaqmif;yg;wGif a&;om;xm;ygonf? trsKd;om;ausmif;Y aepOftwGif; EkdifiHa&;avmuY emrnf}uD;aomyk*~Kdvfrsm;. rdef‹cGef;rsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;vm+yD; pum;&nfvkyJGrsm;wGifvnf; yg0ifqifEJ$cJh.? ol. a[myHkajymyHkrSm tm;wufp&mr[kwfaomfvnf; udkifwG,f&rnfhta=umif;t&mESifhywfoufI aocsmaphpyfpGm jyifqifxm;jcif;/ ,Hk=unfcsuftjynfht0&Sdjcif;wdk‹a=umifh ta[maumif;/ tajymaumif;[lI emrnf&cJh.? ausmif;*sme,f pmwnf;tjzpfvnf; aqmif&GufcJh.? xdkuJhodk‹ pmoifcef;jyifyvkyfief;rsm;wGif yg0ifaomfvnf; wa,mufwnf; tawG;e,fxJ epfðryfaewwfjcif;/ aeyHkxkdifyHkaxmifhrusKd;jcif;wdk‹a=umifh atmifqef;udk vl‹*Gpm vlxl;vlqef;tjzpf ausmif;aezufrsm;u jrif=uygonf? 1932 ckESpfwGif wuUodkvf0ifpmar;yJGY jrefrmpm/ ygVdbmom*k%fxl;rsm;jzifh “at” tqifhrS atmifjrifum &efukefwuUodkvfodk‹ ynmqufoif&ef a&mufoGm;ygonf? atmifqef; &efukefwuUodkvfodk‹ a&mufvmonfhESpfonfum; q&mpHolykefudk +Adwdo#tpdk;&u acsr_ef;um acgif;aqmifrsm;udk ao'%fay;cJh+yD; wESpf=umumvuyifjzpfygonf? awmifolv,form;rsm; cHpm;ae&aom twd'kuQrsm;rS ay:aygufvm&aom ykefuefr_udk +Adwdo#tpdk;&u &Sifbk&ifjzpfvdkaom t,lonf;olwa,muf OD;aqmifonfh awmolawmifom;ykefuefr_r#omjzpfonf[k ao;odrfap&ef ESdrfI azmfjycJhygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; jrefrmrsm;taejzifh udk,fxdvufa&muf yg0ifqifEJ$cJhol rrsm;jym;aomfvnf;

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xdkykefuefr_tay: tawmfyif *±k%mxm;=uygonf? q&mpHudk pJGaqmifEkdifpGrf;&SdolwOD;tjzpf rjrifolrsm;uyif olykefwdk‹. rsKd;cspfpdwfESifh owWdajymifajrmufr_a=umifh pdwfv_yf&Sm;wufºuGcJh&+yD; tpdk;&. &ufpuf=urf;wrf;wkH‹jyefr_rsm;a=umifh ta&;edrfhoGm;&aom olykefwdk‹udk rsm;pGm oem;=uifemcJh=u.? +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfr_ tapmydkif;umvwGif usifhoHk;aom +idrf0yfat;csrf;a&;vrf;pOfrSm tawmftwef atmifjrifr_&SdcJhaomfvnf; vlrsKd;jcm;}uD;pdk;r_ukd jrefrmrsm;u auseyfpGmvufcHjcif;r&Sdyg? udkvdkeDtpdk;& ydkrdkcdkif+rJvmonfESifh tkyfcsKyfolvlrsKd;jcm;wdk‹. y v$m;armufrmaom trltusifhrsm;ESifh wkdif;jynftwGuf ppfrSefaom aumif;usKd;udpP&yfwdk‹udk vspfvsL±_r_rsm;onf wkdif;oljynfom;wdk‹. rESpfoufrauseyfpdwfrsm;udk qGay;ouJhodk‹ jzpfvmygonf? yxrOD;pGmay:xGef;cJhaom trsKd;om;a&;&m tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;onf Ak'<bmomESifh jrefrmh±dk;&m,Ofaus;r_ wnfwHhckdif+rJ&efESifh oef‹&Sif;pif=u,f&efudkom aqmif&Guf=uonf? odk‹aomf acwfynmwwf jrefrmvli,fta&twGuf rsm;jym;vmonfESifhtr# EkdifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufrsm;yg ay:aygufvmygonf? 1906 ckESpfwGif wnfaxmifaom Ak'<bmom uvsm%,k0toif; (0dkiftrfbDat) onf EdkifiHa&;&mrsm;udk pwifudkifwG,faom tzJG‹tpnf;jzpf+yD; &efukefwuUodkvfoydwfudk atmifjrifpGm pnf;±Hk;v_H‹aqmfcJhygonf? trsKd;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ t&Sdeft[kef&vmaomtcg ‘0dkiftrfbDat’ onf 1920 ckESpfY ‘*sDpDbDat’ toGifodk‹ ul;ajymif;oGm;ygonf? yxrOD;qHk; ay:aygufvmaom trsKd;om;r[mrdwftzJG‹[k ac:Edkifygonf? jrefrmhtrsKd;om;a&;&mv_yf&Sm;r_udk wkduf&nfcdkuf&nfoGif;ay;vdkufaom yk*~KdvfrSm q&mawmfOD;OwWrjzpfonf? q&mawmf. pdwftm;xufoefaom vGwfvyfa&;awmif;qdkr_wdk‹a=umifh EkdifiHw0Srf;wGif rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwfjyif;jypGm wufºuGvmygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; pkaygif;nDnmaom vGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ay:aygufaprnfh tiftm;rsm;rSm EdkifiHa&;tuJGtjym;rsm;a=umifh vGifhpifoGm;&.? 1922 ckESpfwGif (21) OD;ygwDonf *sDpDbDatrS cJGxGufoGm;+yD;aemufwGif xyfrHuJG=ujyefojzifh 1920 ckESpfrsm; ukefqHk;cgeD;wGif tzJG‹tpnf; (3) zJG‹jzpfoGm;ygawmhonf? 1930 ckESpfrsm;. tpydkif;umvwGifrl +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfr_atmufwGif jrefrmEdkifiHESifh tdENd,EkdifiHwdk‹ yl;wJGxm;oifh/ rxm;oifh [laom “cJGa&;-wJGa&;” udpPtay: jrefrmEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm; pdwf0ifpm;pGm tjiif;yGm;=uonfudk awG‹&ygonf? xdkEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;teuf tcsKdŒrSm q&mpHolykefwdk‹tm; +Adwdo#tpdk;&u ckH±Hk;wifppfaq;&mY olykefrsm;bufrS ckcHumuG,fay;cJhojzifh xifay:ausmf=um;vmolrsm;jzpfygonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif +idrfIacgif;iHk‹cHonfhumvrSmvnf; qHk;cef;odk‹ OD;wnfvmum xkd;ESufwdkufckdufjcif; oabmaqmifaom enf;AsL[mrsm;oHk;pJG&ef wGef‹qkwfvdrfhrnfr[kwfaom trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwf&Sdonfh rsKd;qufopfrsm;vnf; EdkifiHa&;ZmwfcHkay:odk‹ a&muf&Sdvmygonf?

touf (18) ESpft&G,f atmifqef;onf cyf±dkif;±dkif; tnmom;uav;yifjzpfygonf? rdrdwdk‹udk,frdrdwdk‹ vl‹rvdkif[k txifa&mufae=u+yD; a=umh&Sif;0HhºuGm;pGm 0wfqifaexkdif=uaom &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm; todkif;t0dkif;wGif rsufESmxm;±_odk;odk;ESifh t0wftpm; ydkoDywfoD0wfqifaom atmifqef;onf tHr0if*Gifrus jzpfae.? xdk‹tjyif ol‹xufodrfarG‹yg;eyfaom ausmif;aezufrsm;. a0zefaemufajymifr_udkvnf; *±krpdkufa=umif; apmpD;pGmay:vGifapcJh.? atmifqef; wuUodkvfa&mufp yxrESpfywfwGif ausmif;om;or*~rS pum;&nfvkyJGw&yf usif;yygonf? xdkpum;&nfvkyJGt+yD;Y atmifqef;onf y&dowft=um;rSxum ol‹tudkatmifoef; wifoGif;aom “bkef;awmf}uD;rsm; EkdifiHa&;rvkyfoifh” [lonfh tqdkudk axmufcHvdkufygonf? TonfrSm rdom;pkaoG;pnf;a&; oabmaqmifonfh tðytrlr[kwfyg? ,Hk=unfcsuft& vkyfaqmifvdkufjcif;jzpfygonf? atmifqef; t*Fvdyfpum;ajym&mwGif toHxGuf trSm;rSm;t,Gif;,Gif; udk‹,dk‹um;&m; acsmarG‹ajyjypfjcif;r&Sdaoma=umifh ol‹pum;rsm;rSm em;rvnfEdkifoavmufyif jzpf.? y&dowfu ajymifavSmifoa&mfatmf[pf=uojzifh tudkjzpfol tawmfyif tae&cufoGm;.? atmifqef;url a=umuf&GHŒI toHaysmufoGm;jcif;r&Sd/ uJh&JŒoHrsm;/ jrefrmpum;ESifhom ajym&ef ±dkif;±dkif;pdkif;pdkif;

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atmf[pfoHrsm;udk vspfvsL±_um tqifhtwef;rrDaom ol‹t*Fvdyfpum;udk ygVdtoHk;tE_ef;rsm;jzifh jznfhpGufI olajymvdk&mtm;vHk;udk +yD;qHk;atmif qufvufajymqkdoGm;ygonf?

xdkyxrpum;&nfvkyJG tjzpftysufonf aemiftwGuf tpOftvmw&yf csrSwfay;vdkufouJhodk‹ jzpfoGm;ygonf? y&dowfu uJh&JŒ±_wfcsaeonfh=um;uyif olajymvdk&mudk t*Fvdyfpum;ESifhajymjcif;/ okefokefr_efr_ef aewwfjcif;wdk‹a=umifh olonf tla=umifa=umifEkdifaom t±l;wa,muf[lIyif emrnf&cJh.? odk‹aomf atmifqef;onf ta0zefcH&rnfudk a=umuf±GHŒ+yD; olvkyfudkif&ef qHk;jzwfxm;aomudpPrsm;udk rvkyfbJaernfh vlrsKd;r[kwfyg? acwfòydifurBmwGif t*Fvdyfpum; ta&;ygyHkudk od&Sdem;vnfojzifh t*Fvdyfpum;udk ydkifydkifEkdifEkdifoHk;pJGEkdif&ef ol óud;pm;.? t*Fvdyfpmtkyfrsm;udk oJ}uD;rJ}uD;zwfjcif;/ tjcm;olrsm; ajymyHkqdkyHkudk em;axmifavhvmjcif;/ t*Fvdyfpmoifausmif;wGif ynmqnf;yl;cJhol rdwfaqG&if;wOD;xHrS tultnD,ljcif; ponfwdk‹jzifh bkef;}uD;ausmif;xGuf tnmom;wOD;twGuf xl;jcm;avmufaom t*Fvdyfpum;usifvnfr_udk ol &&Sdvm.?

xdkyxrpum;&nfvkyJGwGif atmifqef; axmufcHcJhaomtqdkrSm ol. a&&Snf,Hk=unfcsufw&yftm; azmfxkwfcJhjcif;jzpfonfudk owdrloifhygonf? xdk,Hk=unfcsufrSm oHCmawmfrsm; EdkifiHa&;wGif 0ifa&mufvkyfudkifjcif; rðyoifha=umif;yifjzpfygonf? ruG,fvGefrDwESpfausmfcef‹u ajym=um;cJhaom a&$wd*HkapwDawmf tv,fypP,HnDvmcHrdef‹cGef;Y “bmoma&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;udk a&mpyfygrl bmoma&;. oabmw&m;udk qef‹usif&ma&mufay.” [k ajymcJh.? &[efoHCmrsm;tm; “t&Sifbk&m;wdk‹u omoemawmfa&mif xGef;ajymifatmif tm;xkwfawmfrl=uyg – urBmolurBmom;wdk‹ arwWmw&m;yGm;rsm;I orpdwWESifh nD&if;tudk armif&if;ESruJhodk‹ aeEkdif=uygvdrfhrnf -- TuJhodk‹ aqmif&Gufr_onf omoemzufuom=unfhI jrifhrwfonfr[kwfyg/ wynfhawmfwdk‹. EdkifiHESifh vlrsKd;twGuf tjrifhjrwfqHk;aom EkdifiHa&;udk aqmif&Guf&mwGif a&mufygonfbk&m;” pojzifh av#mufxm;cJhygonf?

trsm;u EkdifiHowW0g yuwdtjzpfjzifhjrif=uaom atmifqef;rSm pifppfwGif bmoma&;Y av;eufpGm woufvHk;pdwf0ifpm;olyif jzpfygonf? a&eHacsmif;Y ausmif;wufaepOf zcifuG,fvGefoGm;ojzifh 0rf;enf;a=uuJGum &[ef;abmif0if&efyif pdwful;cJhygonf? wuUodkvfa&mufptcsdefuvnf; tDwvDvlrsKd; Ak'<bmombkef;awmf}uD; OD;avmueENudk =unf!dkav;pm;vSojzifh q&mawmfESifh twlvdkuf+yD; omoemðyvkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Guf&ef rdcifxH tcGifhawmif;zl;.? tcGifhum; r&cJhay? odk‹aomf avmukwW&mudpPrsm;udk atmifqef; qufvufI *±kwpdkuftav;xm;ygonf? EdkifiHa&;avmuxJodk‹ ajcpHkypf0if+yD;aemufydkif;Yyif olESifh t&if;ESD;qHk;rdwfaqGwOD;tm; ol. “opPmw&m;ESifh vHk;0tjypfuif;pifr_ &SmyHkawmfb0c&D;” ta=umif;ESifh um,uH/ 0pDuH/ raemuHt& ±dk;ajzmifhEkdif&ef owdðyóud;yrf;aea=umif;wdk‹udk pma&;I &Sif;jyzl;ygonf? acwfvli,f pdwfydkif;qdkif&m todw&m;acgif;yg;aeonfudk pdk;&drfrda=umif;/ avmu'%fv_dif;rsm;udk }uHŒ}uHŒcdkif &ifqkdifwGef;vSefEkdifpGrf;r&Sdygu xdktodw&m;rsm; vHk;0uG,faysmuf+yD; pdwf"mwfAv rJGjymusaomtjzpfodk‹ a&muf&SdoGm;rnfudk pdk;&drfylyefrda=umif; pojzifhvnf; a&;om;xm;ygonf? ausmif;om;EkdifiHa&;ESifh ocifrsm; udkatmifqef; ausmif;om;EkdifiHa&;wGif yg0ifr_rSm tpY cyfajz;ajz; rSefrSefomjzpfaomfvnf; 1935 ckESpfaemufydkif;Y t&Sdeft[kef jrifhrm;vm.? xdktcsdefwGif olonf udkEk/ udkvSaz (aemif AdkvfvuFsm)/ udkodef;az/ udkausmf+idrf;/ udk&m&SpfuJhodk‹aom yk*~Kdvfrsm;ESifhtwl pwifvkyfudkifae+yD; jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_wGif xif&Sm;vmrnfh xdkvli,frsm;ESifh atmifqef;wdk‹ vufwJGum ausmif;om;rsm; tawmfyif*±kðy&rnfh EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkwpkjzpfvmatmif pnf;±Hk;ygonf? udkatmifqef;wdk‹vlpkonf tm%mydkiftvdkawmf&drsm; v$rf;rdk;xm;aom wuUodkvfausmif;om;or*~udk xdk;xGif;0ifa&mufEkdif&ef óud;yrf;jcif;jzifh pwifv_yf&Sm;.? yxrwGif atmifjrifr_odyfr&SdcJhay? ‚if;wdk‹txJrS

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udkausmf+idrf;ESifh udkodef;azwdk‹om or*~tr_aqmifrsm;tjzpf ta&G;cs,fcH&onf? odk‹aomf aemufydkif;wGif xufoefaom trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwfESifh ZGJvHk‹vwkd‹. tusKd;tjrwfrsm; xGef;um;vm.? wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;. pdwfaepdwfxm;vnf; ajymif;vm.? v_yf&Sm;wufºuGaom jynfcspfpdwfv$rf;rdk;vm.? 1935-36 pmoifESpftwGif; ausmif;om;or*~tr_aqmif a&G;aumufyJGwGif t"duae&mtm;vHk; trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwf xufoefaomvli,frsm;u &&SdoGm;=u.? udkatmifqef;onf tr_aqmiftzJG‹0ifwOD;tjzpf ta&G;cH&+yD; or*~ r*~Zif;. t,f'Dwmvnf; jzpfvmygonf? or*~ r*~Zif; “tdk;a0” wGif “i&JacG;}uD; vGwfae+yD” [laom aqmif;yg;udk xnfhoGif;cJhjcif;onf us,fjyef‹pGm xda&mufr_&SdcJhonfh 1936 ckESpf wuUodkvfausmif;om;oydwfudk oG,f0dkufaomenf;jzifh v_H‹aqmfay;jcif;yif jzpfygonf? Taqmif;yg;onf wuUodkvft&m&SdwOD;tm; ykyfcwfwdkufcdkuf a&;om;xm;jcif;jzpfonf[k tm%mydkifrsm;u ,lqum aqmif;yg;&Siftrnfudk azmfxkwf&ef t,f'Dwmudkatmifqef;tm; awmif;qdkvmawmh.? udkatmifqef;uvnf; ,if;uJhodk‹ azmfxkwfjcif;onf owif;pmq&musifh0wfESifh udkufnDrnfr[kwf[kqdkum jiif;qefvdkuf.? tm%mydkifrsm;u ,ckuJhodk‹ jiif;qefr_udk tcGifhaumif;,l+yD; udkatmifqef;tm; ausmif;rSxkwfy,fvdkufawmh.? r=umao;rDuyif udkEkonfvnf; ausmif;tkyf}uD;tm; ypfypfcgcg a0zefr_jzifh ausmif;xkwfcHcJh&aoma=umifh ausmif;om;rsm;xJwGif rauseyfr_/ a'goxGufr_ ydkIrsm;jym;vmavonf? odk‹jzifh oydwfarSmuf&ef qHk;jzwf=uygawmhonf? wuUodkvfpmar;yJGrsm;ppfcsdef jzpfav&m TqHk;jzwfcsufrSm txl;av;eufonfh udpPw&yfjzpfygonf? oydwfowif;rSm csufcsif;yif [dkav;wausmfjzpfoGm;avonf? owif;pmrsm;ESifhwuG wEdkifiHvHk;u oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;udk =uifempGm axmufcH=uygonf? TuJhodk‹ trsm;axmufcHr_ukd &,lEkdifjcif;/ av;pm;avmufatmif pDrHuGyfuJEkdifjcif;/ pnf;urf;&Sdjcif; ponfwdk‹a=umifh ausmif;om;rsm;. vkyf&nfudkif&nfESifh ausmif;om;tiftm;. wefcdk;tmedoifudk vl}uD;ydkif; EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm; todtrSwfðyvm=u&onf? tpdk;&taejzifhvnf; oydwfarSmufolrsm;. rauseyfcsufrsm;udk av;eufpGm rpOf;pm;I rjzpfawmhyg? aemufqHk;Y Edkifvlrif;xufðywwfaom ausmif;tkyf}uD;rSm t+idrf;pm;,lvkduf&.? wuUodkvftufOya'wGif ausmif;om;rsm;xnfhoGif;vdkaom jyifqifcsufrsm;udk avhvm&ef aumfrwDw&yfudkvnf; zJG‹pnf;vdkuf&+yD; ta&;rygvSaom awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udkrl vdkufavsmvdkufavonf? vli,ftrsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;. EdkifiHa&;zHG‹òzd;wdk;wufr_wGif ta&;}uD;onfh rSwfwdkifwwdkifjzpfaom 1936 ckESpfoydwfa=umifh udkatmifqef;onfvnf; ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwOD;tjzpf vlodrsm;vmygonf? ol‹*k%foduQmvnf; t&SdefrSefrSefjrifhrm;vm+yD; &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;om;or*~ESifh oydwfarSmuf+yD;aemuf wnfaxmifcJhaom jrefrmEdkifiHvHk;qkdif&m ausmif;om;or*~wdk‹. tr_aqmiftzJG‹rsm;wGifvnf; wqifhxufwqifh ydkrdkta&;ygaom tr_aqmifae&mrsm;wGif wm0efxrf;aqmif&.? 1938 ckESpfwGif or*~ESpf&yfpvHk;. OuUXjzpfvmygonf? xdktcsdefY udkatmifqef; wuUodkvfrS 0dZ…mbJG‹&+yD;I Oya'0dZ…mwef;wGif wufa&mufae.? xdkuJhodk‹ Oya'wef;qufwufaejcif;rSm wuUodkvfwGif qufvufaexdkif v_yf&Sm;EkdifcGifh&&Sd&ef[laom ta=umif;vnf; yg0ifygonf? ajzmifhrwfwnf=unfjcif;/ ZJGvHk‹v}uD;jcif;/ tvkyfvkyfEdkifpGrf;&Sdjcif; ponfwdk‹a=umifh udkatmifqef;taejzifh av;pm;jcif;cH&aomfvnf; tjcm;ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;uJhodk‹ ,Ofaus;odrfarG‹I qufqHa&;ajyjypfjcif;r&Sdaom vl‹*GpmwOD;yif jzpfygonf? okefokefr_efr_efaewwfjcif;/ royf&yfjcif;/ pdwfrygv#if olwyg; tae&=uyfavmufatmif wHk%Sdbma0aewwfjcif;/ pdwfygjyefawmhvnf; olwyg; rcHEkdifavmufatmif pum;azmifzJG‹jcif;ESifh tjcm; axmifhrusKd;aom trltusifhwdk‹a=umifh udkatmifqef; r=umc%ta0zefcH&ygonf? oludk,fwkdifvnf; “&Hzef&Hcg vl‹,Ofaus;rsm;ESifh tom;ruscJhacs/ rsufaphaemuf jrifjyif;uyfvmonf? xdktcg vl‹,Ofaus;rsm;ESifh ig vl±dkif;[k ZmwdcJGypfcsifonfh ("gwfyHkvmonf) ("gwfyHk)

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atmifqef; jrefrmEdkifiHvHk;qkdif&m ausmif;om;or*~OuUX 1937 (aqmif;yg;tquf) pdwfrsm;&Sdvmonf” [k a&;om;cJhzl;.? odk‹aomf vl±dkif;rsm;udk atmifqef;jrifyHkrSm pdwful;,Ofqef.? ±dk;ajzmifhwnf=unf/ usef;rmoefpGrf;+yD;/ vGwfvyfcsrf;ompGmaexkdifolrsm;[k olu tr$ef;wifxm;jcif;yifjzpfygonf? 1938 ckESpfwGif udkatmifqef;onf 1930 ckESpf ukvm;-Armt"du±k%f;rSjrpfzsm;cHaom 'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;xJodk‹ 0ifa&mufv_yf&Sm;Ekdif&ef wuUodkvfrS xGufvdkufygonf? xdktpnf;t±Hk;onf trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwfjyif;jyI EkysKdwufºuGonfh tajccHvuQ%m&Sd+yD; tpnf;t±Hk;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf ouf}uD;EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifhrwl wrlxl;jcm;=uygonf? rsKd;cspfta&;awmfyHkY b0udkjr‡KyfESH&ef tmoDojyif;xefaeaom acwfopfynmwwfvli,frsm;u xdkouf}uD;EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;onf &Joifhonfavmufr&J/ jrefrmqefoifhonfavmufrqef/ tajccHrS ajymif;vJGr_rsm;vkyf&ef qEN&Sdoifhonfavmufr&Sd/ i,f&G,foifhoavmufvnf; ri,f&G,f[k ,lq=uygonf? 'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;0ifrsm;udk vlwkdif;u óuduf=uonfawmhr[kwfyg? tcsKd‹u olwdk‹udk uavuacs jy\em&Smaeaom vlrdkufvlqdk;av;rsm;[lI txifao;+yD;/ trnfa&SŒwGif ‘ocif’ wyfI ac:a0:jcif;udk }uD;us,fonf/ rvkyfoifhrvkyfxdkuf[k a0zef=uygonf? +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;orm;rsm;udk vufatmufcHjzpfaeaom Armwdk‹u ‘ocif’ [k ac:avhac:x&Sd&m/ Armrsm;onf u|efrsKd;r[kwf udk,fhudkudk,f tkyfpdk;Edkifonfh arG;&mygtcGifhta&;&Sdolrsm;jzpfa=umif;udk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; &J&Jwif;wif; az:jyonfhtaeESifh tpnf;t±Hk;0ifrsm;u ‘ocif’ bJG‹udk oHk;pJGjcif; jzpfygonf? twGif;oabmxm; rwdkufqkdifr_rsm;a=umifh 'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk; ESpfjcrf;uJGoGm;ygonf? ociftrsm;pkyg0ifonfhtydkif;udk acgif;aqmifolrSm jrefrmhpmayESifh EdkifiHa&;avmuwGif txifu&yk*~Kdvf}uD;jzpf+yD; rlvu tpnf;t±Hk;. em,ujzpfaom q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;jzpfygonf? udkatmifqef;vnf; ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; OD;aqmifonfh 'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;0ifwOD; jzpfvmygonf? ‘r_dif;ocif’ rsm;teuf udkEk/ udkvSazESifh udkodef;azwdk‹tjyif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; r[kwfcJhaomfvnf; jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;wGif xif&Sm;ta&;ygvmrnfh ocifoef;xGef;ESifh ocifpdk;wdk‹vnf; yg0ifygonf? r=umrD ocifatmifqef;onf 'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk; taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; jzpfvm+yD;aemuf tpnf;t±Hk;. a=unmpmwrf;udk pD&ifa&;om;cJhygonf? 1938-1939 ckESpfrsm;wGif ‘1300 jynfh ta&;awmfyHk’ [k trnfwGifrnfh ta&;tcif;rsm; jzpfay:cJhygonf? a&eHajrtvkyform;rsm; csDwufyJG/ awmifolv,form;rsm; csDwufyJG/ &J. eHygwfwkwf'%fjzifh Adkvfatmifausmf usqHk;cJh&aom ausmif;om;qENjyyJG/ xdkjzpf&yfa=umifh ay:ayguf&aom EkdifiHt0Srf; ausmif;om;oydwfrsm;/ Armwdk‹ESifh tdENd,tEG,f rlqvifrsm;t=um; jzpfyGm;cJhaom t"du±k%f;/ tvkyform;rsm;oydwf/ &J. vufcsufjzifh tmZmenf (17) OD; usqHk;cJhaom rEWav;qENjyyJG/ a'gufwmbarmftpdk;& ðywfusoGm;jcif; ponfwdk‹ woDwwef;}uD; jzpfay:cJhygonf? Tta&;tcif;rsm;a=umifh EdkifiHtwGif; róuHpzl; r+idrfrouf qlqlyGufyGufjzpfvm+yD; trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; t&Sdeft[kefjyif;xefvmonf? odk‹aomf Tr#pdwfv_yf&Sm;zG,fjzpf&yfrsm; t=um;uyif jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;. uyf}uD;ESpfyg;jzpfaom *dk%f;*%0g'ESifh remvdkrkef;wD;a&;0g'wdk‹. qdk;0g;aom t&Sdef=oZmrsm; v$rf;rdk;vm.? tkyfpkwtkyfpk/ vlwOD;csif;wdk‹taeESifh rdrdwdk‹omv#if txda&mufqHk;/ rsKd;cspfpdwftxufoefqHk;/ tawmfqHk;[lI *k%fwk/ *k%fòydifvkyfvdkaom pdwf±l;rsm;0ifum/ tjyeftvSef pGyfpJGykwfcwfr_rsm;/ cg;oD;r_rsm; ysHŒESH‹vmavonf?

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*dk%f;*%pdwfESifh remvdk0efwdkpdwfrsm;rS uif;&Sif;onf[ktrsm;u owfrSwfxm;aom vlenf;pkav;wGif ocifatmifqef; yg0if.? olonf vuf0J0g'rsm;zufodk‹,drf;I 1939 ckESpfwGif ay:aygufvmaom tcsKdŒu rmhufqf0g' avhvma&;tkyfpk[lI‚if;/ tcsKdŒu yxrOD;qHk; jrefrmuGefjrLepfuvyfpnf;[lIvnf;‚if;/ ac:a0:onfh tkyfpkudkwnfaxmifcJholwOD;jzpf+yD;/ xdktkyfpk. taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh.? odk‹aomf ocifatmifqef;onf uGefjrLepf0g'udkaomf‚if;/ tjcm;wif;=uyfaom 0g'rsm;udkaomf‚if;/ rqifrjcif tpGef;a&muftjrifjzifh ,Hk=unfvufcHjcif; r&SdcJhyg? us,f0ef;axGjym;aom qdk&S,fvpfoDtkd&D t,ltqtrsKd;rsKd;teuf ol‹tm; qJGaqmifEkdifaom oabmw&m;rsm; tawmftwef&SdcJhygonf? odk‹aomf ol. t"du&nfrSef;csufrSm ol‹wkdif;jynftwGuf vGwfvyfa&;ESifh pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&; pGrf;aqmifay;Edkifrnfh tawG;tac:rsm;/ enf;AsL[mrsm;udk avhvmoHk;pJG&efomjzpfygonf? 1939 ckESpf Oa&mywkdufwGif 'kwd,urBmppfrD; pwifavmifu|rf;+yD; rsm;r=umrD ‘udkvdkeD0g'tcuf/ vGwfvyfa&;tcsuf’ [kjrifum ‘xGuf&yf*dk%f;}uD;’ wnfaxmifEkdif&ef ocifatmifqef; ulnDay;cJhygonf? a'gufwmbarmf. qif;&Jom;ygwD/ 'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;/ ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh yk*~vduEdkifiHa&;orm;rsm; pkaygif;zJG‹pnf;vdkufaom xdk ‘xGuf&yf*k%f;}uD;’ onf ocifatmifqef;. wDxGifr_jzpfonf[k ocifEku owfrSwfcJh.? ‘xGuf&yf*dk%f;}uD;’ . jynfolvlxkudk wdkufwGef;aqmf=ocsufrSm ppf+yD;onfESifh vGwfvyfa&;ay;&ef oabmwlaom uwd&rSomv#if +Adwdo#ppfa&;óud;yrf;csufrsm;udk ulnDyHhydk;&rnf? +Adwdo#tpdk;&taeESifh xdkuJhodk‹ uwda=unmcsufrðyygu ppfa&;óud;yrf;csufrsm;udk tifwkduftm;wdkuf qef‹usif&rnf? wHk‹jyefonfhtaeESifh +Adwdo#tpdk;&onf trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;aeol trsm;tjym;udk zrf;qD;vdkufygonf? 1940 ckESpf ukefqHk;csdefY ocifacgif;aqmif tajrmuftjrm;ESifh a'gufwmbarmfwdk‹rSm axmifxJa&mufae=uay+yD? ocifatmifqef;udk zrf;qD;&ef 0&ef;trdef‹xkwfcJhaomfvnf; tcsdefrDowday;csuf&ojzifh olonf ajc&mazsmufum wdrf;a&SmifoGm;EkdifcJhonf? *syefESifh r[mrdwfzJG‹jcif; ocifatmifqef;onf vufeufudkifwdkufyJGqifEJ$&ef vdktyfaumif;vdktyfrnf[k ,lqcJhonfrSm umvtwef=umuyif jzpfygonf? uav;b0u wdkufcdkufawmfvSef&ef pdwful;,OftdyfrufcJhaomfvnf; vGwfvyfa&;udk tajccHOya'abmiftwGif;rS EkdifiHa&;enf;jzifh &,lEkdifrnfh tvm;tvmudk tpOfwpdkuf y,fxm;cJholr[kwfyg? wuUodkvfausmif;om;b0u tpdk;&0efxrf; (xdkpOfu tkdifpDtuf/ bDpDtuf) pmar;yJGajzqdkum ‚if;wdk‹. ynm&SifyDopGm EkdifiHa&;vkyfudkifr_ESifh rsKd;cspfpdwfxufoefr_wdk‹a=umifh oludk,fwkdifav;pm;aom tdENd,EkdifiHa&;orm;tcsKdŒ. erlemtwdkif; vkyfudkif&efudkvnf; ocifatmifqef; pOf;pm;cJhzl;.? trsm;od ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwOD; jzpfvm+yD;aemufydkif;Y &efukefwuUodkvf t*FvdyfpmygarmuQtm; ay;ydk‹aom pmwapmifwGif olonf ‘+idrf;csrf;aom awmfvSefa&;orm;’ om jzpfonf[k a&;om;cJha=umif; =um;od&ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; ta&;tcif;rsm;. 'Da&v_dif;onf ol‹tm; oabmxm;ajymif;vJapcJhonf? 1940 ckESpfu ol. awG;ac:yHkudk atmufygtwdkif; &Sif;jyxm;ygonf? “usaemfwOD;csif;taeESifhum; usaemfwdk‹. ta&;awmfyHktwGuf urBmh0g'jzef‹r_ESifh urBmhtultnDvdkonfrSm rSefaomfvnf; t"duvkyfief;rSm jynfwGif;wGifom&Sdonf? t"duvkyfief;rSm trsKd;om;a&;wkdufyJGtwGuf jynfolvlxkudk pnf;±Hk;&efjzpfonf[k ,lqcJhonf? usaemfhrSmvnf; t=urf;rsOf;tpDtpOfwck&SdcJhonf? ‚if;tpDtpOfrSm +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒpepfudk wjynfvHk;wGif qef‹usif&ef/ Tv_yf&Sm;r_udk urBmhtajctae ArmhtajctaeESifhtnD wqwqwdk;csJŒ&ef/ òrd‹aetvkyform;

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awmaetvkyform;wdk‹. a'otvdkufoydwfrsm;rSpI taxGaxGoydwfrsm;/ tcGeftcay;a&;oydwfrsm;txd wdk;csJŒqifEJ$&ef/ wufºuGvmaom 0g'jzef‹csdr_rsm;jzpfonfh vlxkqENjyyJGrsm; csDwufyJGrsm;rSpI jynfolwdk‹. tm%mzDqefa&;wdkufyJGtxd qufvufqifEJ$&ef/ pD;yGm;a&;t&wGifvnf; +Adwdo#ukefypPnf;rsm;udk oydwfarSmuf&mrSpI vlxkESifhcsDI tcGefray;a&;wdkufyJGtxd qifEJ$&ef ppfzuftkyfcsKyfa&;zufESifh ykvdyfzufuif;pcef;rsm; qufoG,fa&;vrf;a=umif;rsm;udk ajymufusm;enf;ESifh 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufI ArmjynftwGif; +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfr_pepfudk vHk;0oGufcsmyg'vdkufonftxd wdkufyJGqifEJ$&ef/ xdktcg urBmjzpfay:wdk;wufr_ESifh wòydifeuf aemufqHk;ydwf tm%modrf;yJGudk qifEJ$&ef tpDtpOfyifjzpfonf? +Adwdo#tpdk;&. vufeufudkifwyfrsm;/ txl;ojzifh +Adwdo#vlrsKd;r[kwfaom wyfrsm;onf usaemfwdk‹zufodk‹ ul;ajymif;vm=uvdrfhrnf[kvnf; usaemfwGufcJhonf? TtpDtpOfwGif *syefrsm; 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufr_udkvnf; rSef;qcJhonf? odk‹aomf Tae&mwGif usaemfrSm &Sif;vif;aomtjrif r&SdcJhay? xdktcgu usaemfwdk‹txJrS rnfolr# &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;r&SdcJh? odk‹aomf ,ckjzpfysuf+yD;oGm;onfhtcgwGifum; vltcsKdŒtaeESifh usefvlrsm;xufydkI odjrifcJh[ef [efaqmifaumif; aqmif=urnf?)” txufygt}uHtpnfrsm;rSm ol. “}uD;rm;aomtpDtpOf” omjzpfa=umif; ocifatmifqef; 0efcHcJhygonf? ol. &Jabmf&Jbufrsm;wGif xdkpDrHudef;udk axmufcHol rrsm;vSyg? xdkuJhodk‹raxmufcHjcif;rSm ocifatmifqef;tjrift& “usaemfwdk‹rSm "e&Sifaygufp Zmwd&Sdolrsm;jzpf&m pOf;pm;p&m ajymqdk&mwGif &J&ifhoavmuf/ jywfom;aom aqmif&Gufcsufudkvkyf&mY wGef‹qkwfavh&Sd=uavonf? jynfolvlxkudk E_d;qG&rnfhvkyfief; =um&SnfcufcJrnfudkvnf; pdwfr&Snf=uay? usaemfwdk‹trsm;pkrSm vlxkwdkufyJGta=umif; ajyma[m=uaomfvnf; vlxkwdkufyJG tusKd;tmedoifukd oabmrayguf=u” ponfwdk‹a=umifhyif jzpfygonf? odk‹aomf ocifatmifqef;onf trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm; ajymufusm;wkdufyJG qifEJ$Ekdif&ef vufeufrsm;&Sd&efvdkonf [laom xifjrifcsufudk tcdkiftrmqufvufqkyfudkifxm;ygonf? aemufqHk;wGif ‚if;wdk‹teufrS wOD;OD; jrefrmjynfjyifyodk‹oGm;+yD; tultnD/ taxmuftyHhESifh vufeufrsm;&Sm&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufygonf? “xdktcgu usaemfwOD;wnf;om ajratmufY aeae&aoma=umifh xdkodk‹oGm;&ef usaemfhudka&G;cs,fcJh=uavonf” [k ocifatmifqef; rSwfwrf;wifcJhygonf? 1940 ckESpf =o*kwfvwGif ocifatmifqef;ESifh ocifvSòrdif (aemiftcg Adkvf&efatmif[kxif&Sm;ol) wdk‹ jrefrmjynfrS [kdifvDtrnf&Sd oabFmESifhxGufcGmcJh&m w±kwfEkdifiH trGdKifòrd‹&Sd ‘tjynfjynfqkdif&ma'o’ jzpfaom ulvefpkodk‹ a&mufoGm;=uygonf? xdkae&mY olwdk‹ESpfOD; vtenf;i,fr# aomifwifae+yD; w±kwfuGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh qufoG,f&ef óud;pm;csufrsm;vnf; atmifjrifjcif;r&SdcJhyg? w±kwfuGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh tquftoG,frvkyfEkdifcJhaomfvnf; *syefudk,fpm;vS,fwOD; olwdk‹tm; csOf;uyf+yD; *syefwyfrawmft&m&SdwOD;jzpfol Adkvfrª;}uD;plZluDautD*sDESifhawG‹&ef wdkusKdokd‹ av,mOfESifh ydk‹vdkufygonf? xdkAdkvfrª;}uD;onf aemiftcgY ‘jrefrmjynf vGwfvyfa&;udk ulnD&efESifh w±kwfjrefrmvrf;r}uD;udk ydwfqdk‹&ef’ &nf&G,fcsufrsm;ESifh wnfaxmifaom rDemrDuDuef v#KdŒ0Suftoif;. acgif;aqmiftjzpf xif&Sm;rnfholjzpfygonf? jrefrmEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh *syefwdk‹t=um; tquftoG,f&Sdjcif;rSm topftqef;r[kwfacs? a'gufwmbarmfae&mY 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfvmaom OD;apmonf *syefaxmufyHhr_a=umifh csrf;omºuG,f0vmol[lI emrnfxGufcJhygonf? a'gufwmbarmfudk,fwkdifvnf; ‘xGuf&yf*kd%f;’ twGuf *syefwdk‹xHrS tultnD&SmcJhygonf? a'gufwmbarmf. tpdk;&twGif; 0ef}uD;wOD;jzpfcJhaom 0g&ifhEkdifiHa&;orm;}uD; a'gufwmodrf;armifurl *syefodk‹ tvnftywfoGm;a&mufcJh+yD; *syef-Arm cspf=unfa&;toif;udk a&SŒaqmifwnfaxmifcJhygonf? 1940 ckESpfv,fwGif Adkvfrª;}uD;plZluD; jrefrmjynfokd‹ tvnfa&mufpOfu a'gufwmodrf;armifESifh awG‹cJh.? TawG‹qHkqufoG,fr_rSwqifh *syefrsm;u trdGKifa&muf ocifESpfOD;tm; &SmazGawG‹&SdEkdifcJhjcif; jzpfygonf? ‘xGuf&yf*dk%f;’0ifrsm;teuf

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*syeftultnDvufcHoifh/ rcHoifhESifhywfoufI pdwfoabmxm;uJGjym;r_rsm; &SdaecJhygonf? uGefjrLepfrsm; (‚if;wdk‹teuf txif&Sm;qHk;rSm ocifpdk;/ ocifA[def;/ ocifoef;xGef;ESifh ocifodef;az) u txl;ojzifh zufqpf*syefESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;udk qef‹usif=uonf? ocifatmifqef;uawmh tultnDudk &onfhae&mrS,l+yD; tajctaersm; rnfuJhodk‹ ajymif;vJjzpfay:vmrnfudk apmifh=unfhoifhonf[k vufawG‹tusKd;jzpfrnfh enf;vrf;tjrif t,ltqudk pJGudkifcJh.? odk‹aomf ol.pum;twkdif;qdk&v#if olonf *syefwdk‹ESifhyl;aygif;jcif;a=umifh aemifjzpfay:vmrnfh tusKd;qufrsm;udk taotcsm &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; wGufqcJhyHkray:? wkdusKdwGif ocifatmifqef;ESifh Adkvfrª;}uD;plZluD;wdk‹ESpfOD; em;vnfr_,lEkdifcJh=u.? odk‹aomf ESpfOD;ESpfzufvHk;wGif xdefcsefxm;aom oabmrawG‹r_av;rsm; &SdcJhyHk&ygonf? Adkvfrª;}uD;plZluD;onf ocifatmifqef;. ajzmifhrwfwnf=unfr_ESifh rsKd;cspfpdwfwdk‹udk av;pm;aomfvnf; ‘ol. EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:rsm; r&ifhusufvSao;’ [k xifjrif.? Ta0zefcsufonf xdkpOfu taetxm;t& "rR"dVmefrus[k rqdkEkdifyg? ocifatmifqef; udk,fwkdifa&;cJhonfrSm olESifh ol‹&Jabmf&Jbufwdk‹ *syefrsm;tm; jrefrmEkdifiHudk 0ifa&mufodrf;ydkuf&ef zdwfac:ouJhodk‹ jzpf&onfrSm “zufqpfpepfudk vdkvm;Ir[kwf/ usaemfwdk‹. vlyg;r0r_a=umifh "e&Sifaygufp pdk;&drfr_a=umifhwkd‹om jzpfavonf?” olonf *syefjynfokd‹toGm;Y pdk;&drfa=umifh=updwfrsm; jzpfay:cJhonf? a&mufoGm;aomtcg olpdk;&drfcJhoavmuf rqdk;vSojzifh pdwfoufom&m&aomfvnf; pdwfrcszG,f/ rESpfoufzG,f udpPav;rsm; usefvsuf&Sdaeygonf? *syefvlrsKd;wdk‹. rsKd;cspfpdwf/ oef‹jyef‹pGmaexkdifyHkESifh udk,fhtvdkudk,frvdkuf/ òcd;òcd;+cH+cH aeEkdifaom t&nftcsif;wdk‹udk ocifatmifqef; av;pm;aomfvnf; ‚if;wdk‹. ppf0g'Dqefaom oabmxm;tcsKdŒ. ±dkif;pdkif;=urf;ºukwfr_udk ol rESpfòrd‹onfhtjyif *syefrsm; trsKd;orD;wdk‹tay:qufqHyHkrSm ol‹tjrifwGif tHh=oxdwfvef‹zG,f&m jzpfae.? 1941 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvwGif ocifatmifqef;onf w±kwfoabFmom;toGifjzifh jrefrmjynfokd‹ jyefa&mufvmavonf? olrSwqifh *syefwdk‹urf;vSrf;vdkufonfh oabmwlnDcsuft&/ awmfvSefykefuef&ef vufeufrsm;ESifh aiGa=u;axmufyHhrnf[k jrefrmwdk‹u em;vnfcJh.? xdk‹jyif vufa&G;pifvli,fwpkudk ppfoifwef;ay;rnf? xdkvli,frsm;udk jrefrmEkdifiHrS cdk;xkwfoGm;&efvdkayrnf? ocifatmifqef; jrefrmjynfY =umjrifhpGmraeyg? *syefodk‹ ocifvSazESifh tjcm;vli,foHk;OD;wdk‹ESifhtwl jyefoGm;ygonf? xdktkyfpkrSm ‘&JabmfoHk;usdyf’ . a&SŒajy;wyfOD; jzpfygonf? aemif ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf. r¾dKifozG,fjzpfvmrnfh T&JabmfoHk;usdyf0if yk*~Kdvfrsm;udk a&G;cs,f&mY tvG,fwul vdkufygEkdifr_ESifh ocifygwDtwGif;&Sd *dk%f;*%toD;oD;u auseyfvufcHEkdifr_wdk‹tay: rlwnfcJhojzifh tusOf;uscHae&aom trsKd;om;a&;acgif;aqmifrsm; rygjzpfonfhtjyif aemif tcsif;csif;t=um; pdwf0rf;uJGaprnfh rsKd;aphudk ysKd;vdkufouJhodk‹vnf; jzpfoGm;ygonf? &JabmfoHk;usdyfonf [dkifeefu|ef;Y yifyef;}uD;pGm ppfynmoif,l&ygonf? ‚if;wdk‹teuf ocifatmifqef;/ ocifvSaz (AdkvfvuFsm)/ ocifatmifoef; (Adkvfp}uFm) ESifh ocifxGef;tkyfwdk‹udk ppfXmeOD;pD;uGyfuJa&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;wdk‹udk txl;avhvm&ef a&G;cs,fvdkufygonf? ocifygwD tkyfpkwpkudk udk,fpm;ðyaom ocifxGef;tkyftm; EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifwifajr‡mufvdkuf.? odk‹aomfvnf; ocifatmifqef;onf &JabmfoHk;usdyf. acgif;aqmiftjzpf xifxif&Sm;&Sm; ay:xGufvmonf? ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf zJG‹aomtcgYvnf; wyfrawmf. òydifzufr&Sdacgif;aqmifjzpfvmavonf? ocifatmifqef;onf udk,fcE<mn‡uf+yD; tm;aumif;oefrmvSjcif;r&Sdaomfvnf; wdkufa&;cdkufa&;u|rf;usifum owWd&SdI tyifyef;cHEdkifaom ppfom;wOD;jzpfvm.? ol‹tm; vlr_qufqHa&;nHhzsif;onf[k pGyfpJGcsufrsm;&SdcJhaomfvnf; &Jabmfrsm; udk,fyifyef;/ pdwfyifyef;jzpfaecsdefrsm;wGif pdwf"mwfjyefvnfwufºuGvmap&ef tm;ay;jcif;/ ti,fqHk;&Jabmfrsm;udk txl;*±kpdkufjcif;/ ppfoifwef;om;b0. u&duxrsm;a=umifh‚if;/ *syefrsm;a=umifh‚if;/ emusnf;pdwfrsm;

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qlyGufvmcsdefwGif pdwfvdkufrmefygrvkyf&ef t}uHay;wkdufwGef;jcif;/ ponfwdk‹udk ol pGrf;aqmifEkdifcJhonf? vli,fppfoifwef;om;rsm;onf *syefenf;jyq&mtcsKdŒudk av;pm;cspfcif=uaomfvnf;/ *syefpdwfaeoabmxm;tcsKdŒudkrl rsm;pGmrESpfòrd‹&um;/ 1941 ckESpfukefydkif; jrefrmjynfwGif;odk‹ rcsDwufrDuyif ArmESifh *syefwdk‹t=um; uawmufuqjzpfr_rsm; pwifay:aygufcJhonf? ("gwfyHkvmonf) ("gwfyHk) tay: - Adkvfvufsm/ Adkvfp}uFm/ Adkvfatmifqef; 1941 ckESpf *syefjynf atmuf – AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh &JabmfoHk;usdyftzJG‹0iftcsKdŒ 1943 (aqmif;yg;tquf) [dkifeefoifwef;ausmif;qif;rsm;/ xdkif;EkdifiHae jrefrmrsm;ESifh rDemrDtzJG‹0ifrsm;yg0ifaom ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfukd 1941 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif befaumufòrd‹Y w&m;0ifzJG‹pnf;vdkuf.? plZluD;onf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;&mxl;jzifh wyfrawmft}uD;tuJjzpfvm+yD; atmifqef;onf AdkvfcsKyf&mxl;ESifh ppfOD;pD;csKyfjzpfvmygonf? tysHoifp wyfrawmftzJG‹0ifrsm;onf opPma&aomuf+yD; t&m&Sdrsm;u ol&Jaumif;qefaom ygVdtrnfrsm;udk cH,l=uygonf? plZluD;onf Adkvfrdk;óud;jzpfvm+yD;/ atmifqef;onf AdkvfawZjzpfvmonf? rdrdwdk‹trnfopfrsm;ESifh xif&Sm;vmrnfh &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifrsm;teuf AdkvfvuFsm/ Adkvfp}uFm/ AdkvfaZ,s/ Adkvfae0if;/ Adkvf&efEkdif/ AdkvfausmfaZm ponfwdk‹ yg0ifygonf? ‘AdkvfcsKyfawZ’ url ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifESifh ocifacgif;aqmiftjzpf wkdif;jynfuodcJhaom atmifqef;trnfudkom jyefvnfoHk;pJGum ‘AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;’ [lI jynfolwdk‹ tjrwfwEdk;xm;aom tmZmenfol&Jaumif;tjzpf xifay:vmygonf? ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf *syefrsm;ESifh &ifabmifwef;I jrefrmjynfwGif;odk‹ csDwufvmjcif;onf jrefrmrsm;twGuf *k%f,lzG,f/ aysmf&$ifzG,fjzpfygonf? usqif;aeaom rdrdwdk‹. trsKd;om;*k%foduQmudk jyefvnfjr‡ifhwifay;vdkufouJhodk‹ jzpfoGm;ygonf? odk‹aomf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ol. &Jabmf&JbuftcsKdŒu a&SŒwGifjy\emrsm;&Sdrnfudk odESifh=u+yD? befaumufrSm &SdaepOfuyif jrefrmjynfwGif;odk‹ *syefrsm;0ifvmaomtcg EdkifiHtwGif;&Sd trsKd;om;a&;acgif;aqmifrsm;. pDrHvkyfaqmifcsufjzifh vGwfvyfa&;a=unm+yD;EkdifiHY &ifqkdif&rnfh tajctaeudk pDpOf&ef óud;pm;cJha=umif; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; rSwfwrf;wifcJh.? xdkuJhodk‹raqmif&GufEkdifygu jynfolvlxkudk pnf;±Hk;v_H‹aqmfum ajratmufawmfvSefa&; pwifxm;jcif;jzifh usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmolrsm; ajcukyfr&Edkifatmif tajctaezefwD;&ef jzpf.? odk‹aomf jrefrmEkdifiHrSm uarmufurjzpfae+yD; EkdifiHa&;orm;trsm;pkvnf; axmifoGif;tusOf;cscHb0 a&mufae=u&m tpDtpOfESpfckvHk; vufawG‹usus taumiftxnfazmf&ef rjzpfEkdifyg? *syefrsm;vnf; jrefrmjynfudk 0ifa&mufodrf;ydkufvdkufygonf? *syefacwfum; txiftjrif}uD;cJhor# òyduJG&+yD; raocsra&&mr_rsm;ESifh 'kuQaygif;pHkjzpfaeaomumvjzpfygonf? +Adwdo#wdk‹xHrS vGwfvyfa&;&rnf[k ar#mfrSef;cJholrsm;onf tm&Swdkufom;csif;. zaemifhatmufom a&muf&a=umif; odvmaomtcg ta=uuJG}uD; a=uuJGcJh&.? trsm;u vGwfvyfa&;ay;rnfh u,fwif&Sifrsm;tjzpf óudqdkcJhaom edyGefppfom;rsm;onf vlóudufrrsm;aom +Adwdo#wdk‹xufyif qdk;0g;onfudk awG‹&awmh.? wae‹wjcm; pufqkyfzG,f&mjzpf&yfrsm; wkd;yGm;vmav ("mwfyHkvmonf) ("gwfyHk) atmifqef;ESifh ocifvSòrdif (Adkvf&efatmif) wdk‹ 1940 ckESpfwGif *syefjynfodk‹ a&muf&SdoGm;cJh+yD;aemuf 1941 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvwGif atmifqef;tm;

Page 41: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

jrefrmEkdifiHodk‹ v#KdŒ0SufpGm jyefvnfac:aqmifvmcJhol rdqk±kpl*D;ESifh 4-3-42 Y twlawG‹&pOf/ &efukef (aqmif;yg;tquf) onf? ‘uifaytd’ (ppfykvdyf) [laom trnfonf a=umufrufzG,f&ma0g[m&jzpfvmonf? vlrsm; tpterusef aysmufoGm;jcif;/ tESdyfpuftn‡if;qJcH&jcif;/ ac|;wyfqJGcH&jcif; ponfwdk‹rSm edpP"l0udpPr#omjzpfaom avmu}uD;wGifaewwfatmif ae=u&avonf? xdk‹tjyif r[mrdwfavwyf/ *syefavwyfwdk‹. AHk;}uJ'%f/ ppfwGif;&duQm&Sm;yg;r_'%f/ axmufvSrf;a&;owif;ay;rsm;'%f/ pdwf"mwfESifh ,Ofaus;r_t& zDvmqef‹usifaeolrsm;t=um; jzpfyGm;aom yÉdyuQrsm;/ bmompum;rwlolwdk‹t=um; jzpfwwfaom txiftjrifvJGr_rsm; ponfjzifh 'kuQtaygif;udkvnf; xyfavmif;cH&ygao;onf? jrefrmjynfa&muf *syefrsm;teuf w&m;r#wa&;/ vlom;csif;pmema&; pdwf"mwfrsm;t& usifh}uHaexkdifolrsm; &Sd=uaomfvnf;/ ‚if;wdk‹. aumif;rGefaomaqmif&Gufcsufrsm;onf ppf0g'Drsm;. vlrsKd;cJGjcm;a&;pepfa=umifh tcsnf;tESD;jzpf&ygonf?

rdrdwkd‹uwdopPm wnf=unfEkdif&ef jrefrmEkdifiHudk vGwfvyfa&;ay;oifhonf[k ,Hk=unfaom rDemrDuDuef tzJG‹0ifrsm;onf jzpfay:vmaomtajctaersm;a=umifh pdwfrcsrf;ajrŒ[efwlygonf? 1942 ckESpf/ &efukefòrd‹udk *syefwyfrsm;odrf;+yD;onfESifh Adkvfrdk;óud;onf A[dktpdk;&wnfaxmifum ocifxGef;tkyfudk OD;pD;OD;aqmifcef‹vdkufygonf? xdktpdk;& =um=umrcHyg? *syefwyfrsm; wdkif;jynfudk qufvufodrf;ydkufonfESifhtr# *syefppftkyfcsKyfa&; us,fus,fjyef‹jyef‹v$rf;rdk;vmum jrefrmEkdifiHudk ppf±_H;e,fajrwckuJhodk‹ udkifwG,fvmavonf? ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf. taetxm;onfvnf; ra&r&mESifh tm;uszG,f&mvHk;0r&Sday? wyfrawmfonf csDwufvm&mvrf;wav#muf pdwftm;xufoefpGm 0ifvmolrsm;ESifh azmif;yGae.? xdkppfom;opfrsm;udk xda&mufonfh wdkuf&nfckduf&nf&Sdaom wyfrsm;jzpfvmap&ef pepfwus/ pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd avhusifhay;&ayOD;rnf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;um; rdrdwyfrsm;udk trdef‹ay;tkyfcsKyfydkifcGifhr&Sd? olonf Adkvfrdk;óud;. vufaxmuft&m&Sdrsm;teuf tqifhjrifhqHk;r#omjzpf.? Adkvfrdk;óud;udk,fwkdifvnf; jrefrmjynf. tem*wfta&;rsm;wGif olESifh ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfwdk‹ rnfonfhtcef;u¾u yg0if&rnf[laom udpPESifhywfoufI ppftkyfcsKyfa&;qkdif&mrsm;ESifh jy\emwufaeyHk&.? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ol. &Jabmf&Jbufrsm;url ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfonf jrefrmt&m&Sdrsm;vufatmufwGifom &Sdoifhonf[k ,lq=uonf? xdkudpPESifhywfoufI AdkvfvuFsmu ol/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh tjcm;&JabmfoHk;usdyf0iftcsKdŒ Adkvfrdk;óud;ESifh&ifqkdifcJhpOfu Zmwfqefqef tjzpftysufta=umif;udk a&;om;cJhzl;.? &ifqkdifr_. &v'fum; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf. aoemywdcsKyftjzpf‚if;/ AdkvfvuFsmudk ppfOD;pD;tjzpf‚if; cef‹tyfvdkufjcif;jzpfygonf? ("mwfyHkvmonf) ("gwfyHk) AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf 1942 ckESpf

(aqmif;yg;tquf)

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf ol.taetxm;ESifhywfoufI‚if;/ jrefrmEkdifiHtajctaeESifh ywfoufI‚if;/ pdwful;,Of+yD; xifa,mifxifrSm;rjzpfcJhyg? vGwfvyfa&;±kef;uefr_um; qHk;cef;wkdif&ef rsm;pGmvdkao;onfukd olodem;vnfonfhtavsmuf wyfrawmf awmifhwif;ckdifrm&efESifh pnf;urf;&Sd&efudk tm±HkpdkufcJh.? Armhwyfrawmfudk ygwDEkdifiHa&;rS uif;uif;&Sif;&Sif;ae&efESifh t&yfom;tkyfcsKyfa&;zufwGif

Page 42: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

0ifa&mufpGufzufjcif; rðy&efudkvnf; olóud;yrf;cJh.? odk‹aomfvnf; EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;udk A[dkr¾dKifðyum zJG‹pnf;cJhaom wyfrawmftaeESifh EkdifiHa&;ESifh uif;uif;&Sif;&Sif; aeEdkifzdk‹&efrSm tcsdefrsm;pGmrS aESmif;oGm;+yDjzpfa=umif; ol {uefod&SdcJhrnfjzpfonf?

1942 ckESpf ZlvkdifvwGif Adkvfrdk;óud; jrefrmjynfrS xGufcGmoGm;ygonf? ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfukd ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmftjzpf jyefvnfzJG‹pnf;vdkuf+yD; atmifqef;onf Adkvfrª;}uD;&mxl;ESifh ppfaoemywdjzpfvmygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; topfzJG‹pnf;vdkufaom wyfrawmf. tqifhqifhY *syef‘t}uHay;t&m&Sd’rsm; wJGcef‹tyfxm;+yD; jrefrmt&m&Sdrsm;. vufawG‹tm%mrsm;udk wif;usyfpGm uef‹owfcsKyfcs,fxm;ygonf? =o*kwfvwGif *syefwyfrsm;. aoemywdcsKyf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;tD'gonf jrefrmhtkyfcsKyfa&;udk w&m;0iftwnfðyvdkufum a'gufwmbarmftm; EkdifiHawmft}uD;tuJtjzpf cef‹tyfvdkufygonf? tay:,Htm;jzifh jrefrmtpdk;&tm%monf jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹vufodk‹ ul;ajymif;oGm;onf[k jrifEkdifaomfvnf; pifppfrSmawmh *syeftkyfcsKyfa&; ajcukyf&oGm;jcif;yifjzpfygonf?

zufqpfawmfvSefa&;

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ol. &Jabmf&Jbufrsm;onf ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfESifh

csDwufvm&mwGif yifyef;qif;&J'%f tawmf}uD;yif cHcJh&.? trsm;tjym;onf iSufzsm;a&m*gpJGuyfI‚if;/ ajcukefvufyef;jzpfI‚if; aq;±Hkwuf&=u.? AdkvfcsKyfESifhtaygif;azmftcsKdŒvnf; &efukefaq;±Hk}uD;odk‹ a&mufvmavonf? xdkaq;±Hkudk rdrdwdk‹tvkyfwm0eftay: txl;opPmxm;aom q&m0ef/ q&mrwpku tcuftcJrsm;pGm=um;rS pDrHzGifhvSpfxm;jcif;jzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf rsufESmxm; wnfvGef;wif;vGef;+yD; ta&mw0if raewwfol[lI trsm;u odae=uygonf? xdk‹tjyif ol&Jaumif;wOD;tjzpf wae‹wjcm; emrnfxGufvmae&m olemðyq&mri,frsm;onf ol‹tem;uyf&rnfudkyif a=umuf±GHŒae=uygonf? odk‹aomf q&mr}uD;jzpfol rcif=unfudk,fwkdif AdkvfcsKyftm; ðypk&ygonf? rcif=unfonf pJGrufzG,f&m±kyf&nfESifh cspfpzG,ftrlt,m&Sd+yD; rdrd. olemðyvkyfief;udk apwemjynfh0pGmjzifh txl;wm0efodod aqmif&Gufjcif;a=umifh vlemrsm;ESifh vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;u av;pm;cspfcif=uygonf? q&mr rcif=unfonf AdkvfcsKyfudk ðypk&mY wif;oifhonfhae&mwGif wif;aomfvnf;/ ,k,=unfompGm pdwf&SnfpGm qufqHygonf? tvGefa=umufrufzG,faumif;ygonf[laom ppfaoemywd}uD;vnf; tpJG}uD;pJGoGm;ygawmhonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf &SufwwfI‚if;/ ol. b0&nfrSef;csuftay: wm0efodpdwfjyif;xefI‚if; trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh cyfcGmcGmaecJh.? tusifhoDvESifhywfoufI wif;wif;=uyf=uyf awG;ac:olwOD;jzpf&um; wdkusKdòrd‹Y plZluD;u trsKd;orD; tvdk&Sdygu pDpOfay;rnf[k urf;vSrf;aomfvnf; AdkvfcsKyf tHh=owkefv_yfoGm;ygonf? plZluD;taeESifh *syef,Ofaus;r_t& {nfh0wfausap&ef ajymcJhyHk&ygonf? odk‹aomf AdkvfcsKyfuawmh ol‹tm; ‘tusifhpm&dwW ysufjym;,kwfnHhoGm;atmif óud;pm;aeava&mhvm;’ [k oHo,pdwf0ifcJh.? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf ol‹pdwfudkol aumif;pGmodonfhtjyif yGifhvif;jywfom;pGm vkyfwwfolvnf; jzpfygonf? odk‹jzifh &Snf&Snfa0;a0; vlysKdvSnfhjcif;rsKd; rvkyfaebJ/ 1942 ckESpf pufwifbmv 6 &ufae‹wGif q&mr rcif=unfESifh vufxyfxdrf;jrm;vdkufygonf?

“a':cif=unfonf atmifqef;udk vufxyf&mY vlyk*~KdvfwOD;udkom vufxyfvdkufonfr[kwf/ uHta=umif;w&m;w&yfudkyg vufxyfvkdufjcif;jzpfonf” [k tajym&SdcJhygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;uvnf; ol. b0=uifazmftaeESifh &SdtyfaomowWdESifh aEG;axG;aom arwWmwdk‹udk ydkifqkdifEkdif±Hkomru oluG,fvGefoGm;+yD;aemuf ol. pHwifxm;r_rsm;udk *k%foa&&Sd&Sd/ }uHŒ}uHŒckdifckdif xdef;odrf;oGm;rnfh trsKd;orD;wOD;udk vufxyfvdkufjcif; jzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfwdk‹. tdrfaxmifa&;um; om,matmifjrifygonf?

Page 43: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

olwdk‹av;pm;jrwfEdk;vSaom vli,fAdkvfcsKyf tdrfaxmifðyoGm;ojzifh ueOD;wGif pdwfrcsrf;omjzpfcJhaom &Jabmfrsm;vnf; vsifjrefpGmyif oabmwlauseyfvmavonf? tdrfaxmifonfjzpfvm+yD;aemuf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. El;nHhaysmhajymif;aom toGifvuQ%mrsm; ydkrdkawmufajymifvmonf? olonf cifyGef;onfwOD;taeESifh‚if;/ zcifwOD;taeESifh‚if; =uifem,k,wwf.? ol. cufcJ/ tEW&m,frsm;aomb0udk twl&ifqkdif&ef pGrf;&nf/ em;vnfr_wdk‹ESifhjynfhpHkaom b0=uifazmf ol.tem;Y &Sdaejcif;onf ta&;}uD;aomvkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Guf&mY ol‹udk tm;jynfhaponf[k ,HkrSm;oHo,&SdzG,f r[kwfacs?

1943 ckESpf rwfvwGif atmifqef;tm; AdkvfcsKyftqifhodk‹ wkd;jr‡ifhcef‹tyfvdkuf+yD; *syefbk&ifrif;jrwfxHrS bJG‹wHqdyf&,l&ef *syefodk‹zdwf=um;ygonf? wdkusKdodk‹oGm;aomtzJG‹udk a'gufwmbarmfOD;aqmif+yD; xdktzJG‹wGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tjyif a'gufwmodrf;armifESifh ocifjrwdk‹ yg0ifygonf? ZEM0g&DvtwGif;u *syef0ef}uD;csKyfwdk*sKdonf jrefrmEkdifiH r=umrD vGwfvyfa&;&awmhrnf[k a=unmxm;+yD;jzpfygonf? jrefrmtzJG‹ jyefvmaomtcg oabmwlnDcsufpmwrf;wapmif o,f,lvmcJhygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. cyfjywfjywf pum;toHk;tE_ef;t& pmwrf;ygta=umif;t&mrsm;rSm “jrefrmEkdifiHonf 1943 ckESpf =o*kwfv (1) &ufae‹wGif vGwfvyfa&;&rnfjzpf+yD; u|Ekfyfwdk‹awG pmcsKyftcsKdŒudk csKyfqdk&ef pojzifh” jzpfygonf? pmwrf;udk tvGeftrif; ta&;xm;jcif;r&SdcJhyg? tpDtpOftwdkif; =o*kwfv (1) &ufae‹wGif jrefrmjynfudk vGwfvyfaom tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifEkdifiHtjzpf‚if;/ “r[mta&SŒtm&S omwlnDr# }uD;yGm;a&;e,fajr” . wef;wlnDwltzJG‹0ifEkdifiHtjzpf‚if; a=unmvdkufygonf? a'gufwmbarmftm; t"dywd[laombJG‹ESifh EkdifiHacgif;aqmif 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf cef‹tyfvdkuf+yD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;um; ppf0ef}uD;jzpfvmygonf? jrefrmhtrsKd;om;wyfrawmf[k trnfopfajymif;xm;aom Armhwyfrawmf xda&mufr_r&Sdap&ef *syefwdk‹ enf;y&d,m,frsKd;pHk oHk;pJGygawmhonf? yxrwGif wyfrsm;udk EdkifiHt0Srf;jzef‹}uJxm;onf? xdk‹aemuf ae&mtcsKdŒwGif pkòyHxm;jyefonf? ppf0ef}uD;XmeESifh wyfrsm;t=um; qufoG,fa&;cufcJap&ef jzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;um; rwkefrv_yf? *syefawG t}uHay;or#udk oabmwlvdkufum ol‹xifjrifcsufrsm;udk vlodray;bJ ol‹tpDtpOfESifhol qufvkyfoGm;ygonf?

wdkusKdrS jyefa&mufvmcsdefavmufwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf AdkvfvuFsm/ AdkvfaZ,s/ Adkvfae0if;ESifh AdkvfausmfaZmwkd‹tygt0if ol. t&m&SdtcsKdŒudkac:I awmfvSefa&;pwif&ef tcsdefudk wdkifyifaqG;aEG;ygonf? t&m&Sdrsm;u tajctae ydkrdkpdwfcs&onftxd apmifhqkdif;&ef t}uHay;ygonf? wzef ocifoef;xGef;ESifhwkdifyif&m ‚if;uvnf; awmfvSefa&;p&ef tcsdefrwefao;[k wifjyojzifh AdkvfcsKyfvnf; pdwfygvufygr&SdvSaomfvnf; apmifhqkdif;&ef oabmwlvdkufygonf? tjcm;uGefjrLepfrsm;/ txl;ojzifh ocifpdk;ESifh ocifodef;azwdk‹onf +Adwdo#wdk‹ qkwfcGmoGm;ojzifh olwdk‹ axmifrSvGwfonfh tcsdefrwdkifcifuyif *syefawmfvSefa&;w&m;a[mcJh.? *syefwyfrsm;csDwufvmonfESifh olwdk‹ESpfOD; awmcdkoGm;ygonf? ocifodef;azonf AdkvfcsKyfatmiffqef;ESifh Adkvfae0if;wdk‹udk a&$bdkY c%awG‹+yD; +Adwdo#wyfrsm;ESifh tquftoG,f&a&; óud;yrf;&ef tdENd,odk‹ xGufcGmoGm;ygonf? 1943 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmva&mufcsdefwGif awmfvSefa&;tpDtpOfrsm; tawmfyif c&D;a&mufae+yDjzpf&um;/ jrefrmEkdifiH awmawmifrsm;xJwGif ajymufusm;wyfrsm;zJG‹pnf;&ef óud;pm;aeaom Adkvfrª; pD*&if; ac: +Adwdo#wyfrawmft&m&Sdonf/ ‘ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmfrS atmifqef;qdkolonf tcgtcGifhóuHvmv#if ol.wyfrsm;ESifh *syefudk jyefwdkuf&efpDpOfaeonf’ [k tdENd,odk‹ owif;ydk‹cJhygonf? avmavmq,fwGifrl awmfvSefa&;tpDtpOfrsm; +yD;pD;onftxd AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf *syefwdk‹. oHo,pdwfrsm; aysmufuG,foGm;ap&ef tm;xkwf&ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; olonf vuf&SdvGwfvyfa&;onf twkta,mifr#omjzpfa=umif;/ ppfrSefaom vGwfvyfa&;&&Sd&ef ±kef;uef&rnfjzpfa=umif;udk ol. rdef‹cGef;rsm;wGif jynfolwdk‹tm; today;cJh.?

Page 44: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

1942 ckESpfukefydkif;wGif u&ifrsm;ESifh ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmftwGif;rS wm0efrJholwdk‹t=um; ay:aygufcJhaom yÉdyuQwdk‹rSpI aoG;xGufoH,dkr_ESifh vlrsKd;a&;t"du±k%f;rsm; jzpfyGm;vmonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd wdkif;&if;om;rsm;t=um; qufqHa&;aumif;rGefr_udk txl;tav;ay;cJh.? xdkuJhodk‹ qufqHa&;aumif;rSomv#if EkdifiHpnf;vHk;nDnGwfrnfjzpfa=umif; ol aumif;pGmoabmaygufcJh.? plZluD;twGuf ocifatmifqef;a&;qJGcJhaom ‘jrefrmEkdifiH pDrHudef;’ wGif ‘,QKtcgY +Adwdo#ya,m*a=umifh vlrsm;pkjzpfaom Armwdk‹ESifh &ckdif/ &Srf; paom awmifay:wkdif;&if;om;rsm;t=um;wGif wnf&Sdaeaom uGm[csufrsm; usOf;ajrmif;oGm;ap+yD; tm;vHk;wef;wlnDr#&Sdaom EkdifiHxlaxmif&ef’ vdktyfa=umif;udk tav;teufazmfjycJhygonf? u&if-Arm t"du±k%f;onf ol‹tm; rsm;pGm a'gre\ jzpfapygonf? 1943 ckESpfaemufydkif;wGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGef;ESifh AdkvfvuFsmwdk‹onf TvlrsKd;pkESpfpkt=um; +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh em;vnfr_&&Sdap&ef tyef;w}uD; aqmif&GufcJhygonf? ‚if;wdk‹. pkaygif;óud;yrf;r_rS oD;yGifhvmaomtusKd;um; u&ifacgif;aqmifrsm; jrefrmacgif;aqmifwdk‹tm; ,Hk=unfpdwfcsvmjcif;ESifh jrefrmhwyfrawmftwGif; u&ifwyf&if;wck zJG‹pnf;vdkufjcif;jzpfygonf?

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; tapmwvsif udkifwG,f&efvdkaeaom aemufudpPw&yfrSm uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh jynfol‹ta&;awmfyHkygwDtwGif;rS qdk&S,fvpfrsm;t=um; wae‹wjcm;}uD;xGm;aeaom tmCmwrsm;yif jzpfygonf? uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifrsm;rSm *syefacwfwav#mufvHk; awmcdkaecJhaom ocifpdk;/ opfawmESifh v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;0ef}uD;jzpfaeaom ocifoef;xGef;ESifh ocifA[def;wdk‹ jzpf=uygonf? OD;ausmf+idrf;ESifh OD;baqGwdk‹onfum; xif&Sm;aom qdk&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifESpfOD; jzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf ESpfzufacgif;aqmifrsm;t=um; ajyvnfap&ef txl;óud;yrf;cJhygonf? aphpyfjzefajza&;udk tjrefqHk;aqmif&Guf&ef vkdtyfaejcif;rSm EkdifiHa&;oabmxm;uJGvJGr_rsm;onf wyfrawmfxJodk‹ pdrfh0ifaeum &Jabmfrsm;. nDnGwfa&;ESifh awmfvSefa&;. atmifjrifa&;wdk‹udk +cdrf;ajcmufaeI jzpfygonf? xdk‹tjyif ocifpdk;onf zufqpfqef‹usifa&; pnf;±Hk;aqmf=o&mwGif wyfrawmfudk xdcdkufepfemapaom 0g'jzef‹csda&;ðyvkyfaeojzifh wyftwGif; rauseyfr_rsm; jzpf±Hkomru AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;vnf; a'goxGuf&ygonf? vaygif;rsm;pGm oabmxm;csif; zvS,f+yD;aemuf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf ocifpdk;/ ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifA[def;wdk‹ESifh 1944 ckESpf =o*kwfvwGif &uftenf;i,f=um v#KdŒ0Sufpnf;a0;ygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. zufqpfqef‹usifa&;tzJG‹ wnfaxmif&eftqdkukd aqG;aEG;=u+yD; tzJG‹. a=unmpmwrf;ESifh pkaygif;aqmif&Guf&rnfh pDrHudef;w&yfudk oabmwltwnfðyvkyfygonf? rsm;r=umrD uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh jynfol‹ta&;awmfyHkygwDacgif;aqmifrsm; twlpnf;a0;&ef pDpOfvdkuf+yD;/ xdktpnf;ta0;Y AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf “zufqpf"g;jyrsm;udk wkdufxkwf=uavmh” acgif;pOfyg a=unmpmwrf;udk zwfum awmfvSefa&;udk w&m;0if taumiftxnfazmfvdkufygonf? tzJG‹Y ocifpdk;onf EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifjzpf+yD; ocifoef;xGef;onf taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;wm0efESifh r[mrdwfrsm;ESifhqufoG,fa&; wm0efwdk‹udk ,lum AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf ppfa&;acgif;aqmifjzpfygonf? xdktcsdefY vli,fwyfrawmft&m&SdtcsKdŒonf pwifv_yf&Sm;&ef aZm}uD;um ocifacgif;aqmiftcsKdŒESifh wyfrawmf tqifhjrifht&m&SdtcsKdŒwdk‹udkom wkdifyifavh&Sdaom AdkvfcsKyf. qdwfqdwfaer_a=umifh rcsifhr&Jjzpfae=uygonf? ‚if;wdk‹onf awmfvSefa&;w&yfudk rdrdwdk‹zmom pwif&ef }uHpnf=uygonf? TudpPudk AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; odoGm;aomtcg ‚if;wdk‹tm; zufqpfqef‹usifa&;tzJG‹. v_yf&Sm;r_xJY wdusaom tcef;u¾rsm; pDpOfay;jcif;jzifh tajctaeudk ajyvnfapcJhygonf?

twGif;tiftm;pkrsm;. nDnGwfr_&,l+yD;aemuf awmfvSefa&;tpDtpOf t+yD;owfEkdif&ef r[mrdwfwyfrsm;ESifh rnfuJhodk‹aom oabmwlnDr_rsm; &Ekdifrnfudkom od&Sd&ef vdkygawmhonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh taygif;tazmfrsm;onf jynfytultnD &onfjzpfap/ r&onfjzpfap *syefudk awmfvSef&ef qHk;jzwfcsufcs+yD;jzpfaomfvnf; atmifjrifr_rsm; ydkIydkI &aeaom r[mrdwfwyfrsm;ESifh

Page 45: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;jzifh vufawG‹tusKd;tjrwfrsm; &&SdEdkifrnfjzpfa=umif; xif&Sm;vmygonf? trSefrSm EdkifiHt0Srf; jrefrmwyfrsm; *syefwdk‹udk pwifawmfvSefaom 1945 ckESpf rwfv 27 &ufae‹a&mufonfhwkdif +Adwdo#wdk‹ESifh &Sif;vif;aomoabmwlnDcsuf r&&Sdao;ay? xdkae‹rwdkifrD (10) &uftvdku AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf &efukefòrd‹Y ppfa&;jytcrf;tem;w&yfwGif yg0if+yD;aemuf ol. wyfrsm;ESifhtwl ppfavhusifhcef;qif;&ef[k ta=umif;jyum òrd‹awmfrS xGufcGmcJhygonf? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;pvif;. wyfr (14) onf {&m0wDjrpfudk rEWav;ajrmufydkif;rS jzwful;ae+yD;/ ocifoef;xGef;onf +Adwdo#wyfrawmft&m&SdwOD;ESifhqHk&ef awmifilodk‹xGufcGmoGm;ay+yD? rsm;r=umrD awmfvSefa&;a&pD;a=umif;um; w[kefwnf;pD;qif;vmayawmhonf? arv (15) &ufae‹wGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf vufaxmuft&m&SdwOD;ESifhtwl pvif;ESifhawG‹qHk&ef ‚if;. XmecsKyfodk‹ a&mufoGm;.? awG‹qHk&mwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf rdrdudk,frdrd jrefrmEdkifiH ,m,Dtpdk;&. udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf rdwfquf+yD;/ r[mrdwfppfOD;pD;wOD;tjzpf todtrSwfðy&ef &J&Jwif;wif; awmif;qdkvdkufygonf? +Adwdo#AdkvfcsKyf}uD;xHrS vdkufavsmr_trsm;qHk; &&SdEkdif&ef wzufuóud;pm;vsuf wzufuvnf; vufawG‹usus awG;jrifwwfa=umif;/ yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufvdka=umif;/ rdrdESifhqufqHolrsm; pdwfacG‹&avmufatmif ±dk;om;ajzmifhrwfa=umif;wdk‹udk AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; jyocJh&m pvif;. ESpfoufoabmusr_ESifh av;pm;r_wdk‹udk &&SdcJh.? pvif;. pum;t& “olESifhywfoufI usaemf rSwfrSwf&&}uD; owdðyr_onfuawmh/ ol. ±dk;om;ajzmifhrwfr_jzpfygonf? olonf tmoGufv#moGuf tóudufvdkuf tmrcHcsufay;jcif;rsKd;r&Sd? vG,fvG,fESifh uwdray;? odk‹aomf wckckvkyfygrnf[k oabmwlcJhv#ifawmh pum;wnfrnfhol[k usaemf jrifygonf?”

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;pvif;wdk‹ awG‹qHk+yD;aemuf/ jrefrmwyfrsm;ESifh +Adwdo#wyfrsm; yl;wJGI *syefwdk‹udk wdkufav&m *syefwyfrsm; tvsiftjref òyduJGoGm;ygonf? ZGefv (15) &ufae‹wGif &efukefòrd‹ atmifyJGppfcsDtcrf;tem;rsm; usif;y&mY +Adwdo#tifykdif,mwyfrsm;/ r[mrdwfwyfrsm;ESifhtwl jrefrmhwyfrawmfuvnf; yg0ifcJhygonf? *syefawmfvSefa&;um; +yD;qHk;oGm;ayonf? trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;aeaom jrefrmrsm;onf wlnDaom&nfrSef;csufatmifjrifap&ef 0g'a&;&m rwdkufqdkifr_rsm;ESifh yk*~Kdvfa&;qefaom oabmxm;rsm;udk ab;z,fcJhaom *k%f,lzG,ftaumif;qHk; tcsdefumvjzpfygonf? 1945 ckESpf =o*kwfvwGif us,fjyef‹aom vlr_a&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;udk udk,fpm;ðyaom yk*~Kdvfrsm;ESifh tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;yg0ifEkdif&ef zufqpfqef‹usifa&;tzJG‹udk wkd;csJŒzJG‹pnf;+yD; ‘zufqpfqef‹usifa&;/ jynfol‹vGwfajrmufa&;tzJG‹csKyf’ (zqyv) [lI trnfopfay;vdkufygonf?

+Adwdo#ESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;jcif;?

*syefwdk‹udk r[mrdwfrsm;ESifhaygif;I wdkufcdkuf&ef zufqpfqef‹usifa&;tzJG‹. urf;vSrf;csufudk

+Adwdo#wdk‹ vufcHcJhjcif;rSm/ ta&SŒawmiftm&S r[mrdwfwyfrsm;. ppfOD;pD;csKyf avmh'farmifhbufwif. EdkifiHa&;yg;eyf tar#mftjrif&Sdr_wdk‹a=umifh jzpfygonf? 1942 ckESpf jrefrmEkdifiHrS +Adwdo#odk‹ qkwfcGm+yD;aemuf tdENd,wGif ta0;a&muftpdk;&±Hk;pdkufcJhygonf? xdktpdk;&udk v$rf;rdk;aeaom t&m&Sdrsm;onf trsKd;om;a&;pdwf jyif;xefaom vli,frsm;u ‚if;wdk‹. =oZmudk pdefac:jcif;ESifh ‚if;wdk‹. tkyfcsKyfa&; 0±kef;okef;um;jzpfap&ef v_yf&Sm;cJhonfudk cHcJh&olrsm; jzpfayonf? Tt&m&Sdrsm;onf zqyvESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_rSefor#ukd vHk;0qef‹usifI +Adwdo#wdk‹ jrefrmEkdifiHudk jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf+yD;p ppftkyfcsKyfa&;umvtwGif; zqyvudk rw&m;oif; a=unmum/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk EkdifiHawmfopPmazmuftjzpf zrf;qD;&ef vdkvm;=uygonf? ydkrdkI t"dXmefuspGm ±_jrifEdkifaom taetxm;wGif &Sdaeaom armifhbufwifurl jrefrmEkdifiHudpPrsm;udk +idrf;csrf;pGm ajz&Sif;Ekdif&mwGif/ jrefrmvlxk}uD;u rdrdwdk‹vGwfajrmufa&;udk aqmifusOf;ay;cJhol[lI todtrSwfðyxm;aom yk*~Kdvf. yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_udk &,l&ef vdktyfrnfudk em;vnfonf? vlxk. pdwfaeoabmxm;ESifh uif;uGmaeaom

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ppftkyfcsKyfa&;acgif;aqmif t&yfom;t&m&Sd.ae&mwGif vsifjrefpGmyif 0g&ifhwyfrawmft&m&SdwOD;jzpfol AdkvfcsKyf&efpftm; cef‹tyfvdkufygonf?

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; ajz&Sif;&aom vwfwavmjy\emw&yfrSm ArmhrsKd;cspfwyfrawmf[k trnfajymif;xm;aom jrefrmhwyfrawmf. tem*wfta&; jzpfygonf? wyfrsm;udk au|;arG;a&;ESifh vufeufwyfqifay;a&;vkyfief;rsm;onf vGefpGmrS cufcJae.? r[mrdwfwdk‹ ppfatmifyJGcH+yD;aemuf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf armifhbufwifESifh awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;I ArmhrsKd;cspfwyfrawmf0ifrsm;onf rdrdwdk‹qENtavsmuf +Adwdo#vufatmuf&Sd jrefrmhwyfrawmfxJodk‹ 0ifvdku 0ifEkdifap&ef oabmwlvdkufygonf? ToabmwlnDcsuf. tao;pdwftcsufrsm;udk 1945 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif r[mrdwfppfOD;pD;XmeESifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ AdkvfvuFsm/ ocifoef;xGef;wdk‹yg0ifaom jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹wdk‹ uENDtpnf;ta0;Y qHk;jzwfcJh=uonf? uENDodk‹toGm; udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹0iftcsKdŒ umvuwWm;òrd‹wGif acwWc%&yfpOf ocifodef;azESifhawG‹qHk+yD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. tem*wfta&;udk aqG;aEG;=u.? oabmxm;tjrifwckt& vmrnfhEdkifiHa&;wkdufyJGwGif AdkvfcsKyfyg0if&ef vdktyfonf? “olonfom trsKd;om;a&;tiftm;pktaygif;udk nDnGwfaom wyfOD;w&yfjzpfvmap&ef pGrf;aqmif+yD; acgif;aqmifr_ay;Ekdifrnfh wOD;wnf;aom yk*~Kdvfjzpfonf?” ocifodef;azrSty tjcm;uGefjrLepfrsm; wifjyaom tjcm;tjrifwckt& AdkvfcsKyfonf EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifwOD;&Sdoifhaom t&nftcsif;aygif;pHkr&Sd/ vlr_qufqHa&;nHhzsif;ae+yD; EkdifiHa&;enf;y&d,m,fru|rf;usif/ xdk‹a=umifh EkdifiHa&;pGef‹v$wf+yD; wyfrawmfxJwGifom aeoifhonf? “aemufqHk;wkdufyJG}uD;” wGif tiftm;pktm;vHk;. pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;&&Sdap&ef jrefrmEkdifiH vdktyfaeaom trsKd;om;acgif;aqmifonf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;omv#if jzpfa=umif;udk ckdifckdifrmrm ,Hk=unfaom AdkvfvuFsmu uGefjrLepfwdk‹ t}uHay;csufudk t"dy`m,fzGifhyHk&mY “EkdifiHa&;e,fy,fudk olwdk‹om v$rf;rdk;xm;vdkI AdkvfcsKyfudk ab;z,fxm;+yD;/ olwdk‹tvdk&SdaomtcgrS AdkvfcsKyftaeESifh oG,f0kdufaomenf;rsm;ESifh taxmuftulay;&efjzpfonf?” AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf ESpfzufoabmxm;rsm;udk em;axmif+yD; udk,fydkifqHk;jzwfcsuf csvdkufonf? wyfrawmfrSxGufI EkdifiHa&;a&SŒwef;rS vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJGudk tpGrf;ukefqifEJ$awmhrnf?

1945 ckESpfESifh 1947 ckESpfrsm;twGif; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf tiftm;}uD;aom acgif;aqmifwOD;tjzpf‚if;/ vlxk. ,Hk=unfr_ESifh arwWmudk&&Sdaom vkyf&nfudkif&nf&Sd EdkifiHa&;orm;wOD;taeESifh‚if;/ xifay:vm.? ‚if;tm; ppfwyftwGif;om aeapvdkaomolwdk‹. a0zefcsufrsm;rSm cdkifvHkr_r&Sda=umif;udk twdtvif;jyEdkifcJh.? 1945 ckESpf arvwGif +Adwdo#tpdk;&onf puULjzLpDrHudef;jzifh jrefrmEkdifiH tem*wftay:xm;aom ‚if;wdk‹. tajccHrl0g'udk a=unmvdkufygonf? xdkpDrHudef;t& bk&ifcHonf EkdifiHudk oHk;ESpf=umwkduf±dkuftkyfcsKyf+yD; umvtm;avsmfpGm a&G;aumufyJGrsm;usif;yjcif;/ jrefrmaumifpDESifh Oya'ðytzJG‹wdk‹wnfaxmifjcif;wdk‹udk aqmif&GufoGm;rnf? Ttcsufrsm;onf 1935 ckESpf jrefrmEdkifiHtufOya'yg tcsuftvufrsm;xuf omvGefwdk;wufjcif;oabmudk raqmifyg? aumifpDESifh Oya'ðytzJG‹ jyefvnfwnfaxmif+yD;rS a&SŒwqifhwdk;I jrefrmEkdifiHudk 'dkrDeD,eftqifh&aprnfh tajccHzJG‹pnf;yHkOya'udk ygwDaygif;pHku a&;qJG&efjzpfygonf? odk‹aomf awmifwef;ESifh e,fpyfa'orsm;onf jynfrESifhaygif;pnf;vdka=umif; wdwdusus razmfjyv#if oD;jcm;a'orsm;udk TpDrHudef;YrxnfhbJ xm;rnfjzpfygonf?

puULjzLpDrHudef;yg tcsuftvufrsm; vHk;0vufcHEkdifzG,f r&Sda=umif;udk ppftkyfcsKyfa&;r+yD;qHk;rDuyif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ocifoef;xGef;wdk‹onf jrefrmjynfudk jyefvmrnfjzpfaom bk&ifcH qm&uf*sDeJvfa':refqrpftm; &Sif;vif;pGmtoday;+yD;jzpfygonf? zqyv acgif;aqmifrsm;onf ‚if;wdk‹ygwDom EdkifiHudk udk,fpm;ðyaoma=umifh/ ‚if;wdk‹onfom ppftkyfcsKyfa&;udk tpm;xdk;&ef ,m,DtrsKd;om;tpdk;&w&yf zJG‹cGifh&Sdoifha=umif; wifjycJhygonf? a':refqrpfonf pdwfapwemaumif;

Page 47: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

r&Sdolr[kwfyg? odk‹aomf ol‹tm; 0dkif;&Haeaom 0efxrf;t&m&Sdrsm;enf;wl ppf+yD;acwf jrefrmEdkifiH. ±_yfaxG;ayGvD tajymif;tvJjrefvSaom EkdifiHa&;Owkudk em;rvnfEdkifacs? zqyvtzJG‹csKyfonf jrefrmjynfoltrsm;pk. axmufcHr_&&Sdxm;onf[laom tcsufudk a':refqrpf ,Hk=unfvufcH&ef tcuftcJawG‹ae+yD; xdktcsdefY jrefrmEdkifiHwGif ta&;ygqHk;yk*~Kdvfonf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;jzpfa=umif;udk ol rjrifIrjzpfaomfvnf; xdktcsufudkvnf; vufcH&ef 0efav;ae.? xdk‹tjyif ppfwGif;umvwavsmuf rdrd. tpdk;&tay: opPmapmifhcJhaom 0g&ifh jrefrmEkdifiHa&;orm;}uD;rsm;udk csD;jr‡ifhvdkaom tHhzG,f&mr[kwfonfh qENonf ol.em;vnfr_udk csKdŒ,Gif;apygonf? 0g&ifhEdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;. u¾ acwfopfjrefrmEkdifiHY r&Sdawmh+yD[laomtcsufudk olrjrifEkdifIaomf‚if;/ rjrifvdkIaomf‚if; jzpfEdkifygonf? +Adwdo#tifydkif,m òydysufjcif;udk vufrcHEkdif[laom csmcsD. {u&mZf pdwf"mwfjyif;jyonfh cH,lcsufonf jrefrmEdkifiHukd taxmuftulrðycJhyg? csmcsDtm; 0ef}uD;csKyfae&mYqufcHol twWvDuvnf; jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;&Sd t,ltq/ oabmxm;toG,foG,fudk tuJjzwf&ef tcuftcJawG‹ae&m wdusaomrl0g'w&yf csrSwf&ef aES;auG;cJh.?

1945 ckESpf atmufwdkbmvwGif a':refqrpf &efukefodk‹ jyefvnfa&muf&Sdvmaomtcg t&yfom;tpdk;& jyefvnfzJG‹pnf;vdkufjcif;jzifh jrefrmEkdifiH vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyJG +yD;qHk;+yDjzpfa=umif;udk tav;teufjyovdkufygonf? odk‹aomf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh zqyvwdk‹. oabmxm;um; xkduJhodk‹ r[kwfyg? ‚ifwdk‹vdkvm;aom vGwfvyfa&;udk ‚if;wdk‹awmif;qdkcsufrsm;ESifhtnD +Adwdo#tpdk;&u ay;&efysufuGufygu/ vufeufudkifwdkufyJG xyfrHqifEJ$&rnfh tvm;tvmudk ‚if;wdk‹ ry,fcsxm;yg? yxrOD;qHk;wkdufyJGum; bk&ifcHaumifpDzJG‹pnf;a&;udpPESifhywfoufygonf? zqyvonf &mxl;ae&m (11) ae&mteuf (7) ae&mwGif ‚if;wdk‹trnf wifoGif;aomyk*~Kdvfrsm;udk cef‹tyf&ef twif;t=uyfawmif;qdk.? xdk‹tjyif bk&ifcHaumifpDudk ‚if;wdk‹ rlvu awmif;qdkcJhaom ,m,DtrsKd;om;tpdk;&yHkpHjzpfaprnfh tjcm;vdktyfcsufrsm;udkyg wJGIawmif;qdkvkdufygonf? ar#mfvifhxm;onfhtwkdif; +Adwdo#tpdk;&onf awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk jiif;y,fvdkufygonf? xdk‹aemuf a':refqrpfonf aumifpDESifh Oya'tzJG‹0ifrsm;tjzpf tv,ftvwfvrf;pOform;rsm;[k rdrd,Hk=unfolwdk‹udk cef‹tyfvdkufygonf? odk‹aomf xdkyk*~Kdvfrsm;teuf uyfyg;&yfyg; rif;ajr‡mifrsm;/ trsKd;om;a&;opPmazmuf udk,fusKd;&Smorm;rsm;[k jrefrmtrsm;u ,lqxm;oltcsKdŒvnf; yg0ifaeygonf? 1946 ckESpf ZEM0g&DvwGif trsm;oabmwl wnDwnGwfwnf; axmufcHr_jzifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk zqyvOuUX wifajr‡mufvdkufygonf? uENDoabmwlnDr_&Sdxm;ygaomfvnf; jrefrmhwyfrawmftwGif; 0ifa&muftr_xrf;jcif;r&Sdaom ArmhrsKd;cspfwyfrawmfom; trsm;tjym; usefaeygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf ppfr_xrf;a[mif;rsm;ESifh topf0ifvmolrsm;udkaygif;um ol‹jynfol‹&JabmftzJG‹udk wnfaxmifvdkufygonf? jynfol‹&JabmftzJG‹wyfom;rsm;onf ,leDazmif;0wfqifum yGifhyGifhvif;vif;yif ppfavhusifha&;rsm; ðyvkyfygonf? jynfol‹&JabmftzJG‹onf w&m;0iftm;jzifh jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;vkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Gufaeaom vlr_a&;tzJG‹tpnf;w&yfom jzpfaomfvnf; zqyv. vuf±Hk;wyfjzpfvmEkdifaom tajccHt&nftcsif;rsm; &Sdaeaoma=umifh tpdk;&twGuf pdwfrat;zG,fjzpfaeygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf bk&ifcH. rauseyfcsufrsm;udk odrfarG‹pGm wHk‹jyefvdkufygonf? a=unmcsufw&yfwGif wyfzJG‹. &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udkazmfjyum/ ‚if;wdk‹teuf wcsufrSm “olcdk;"m;jy paom &mZ0wfr_rsm; yaysmuf&efESifh &yf&Gm+idrf0yfydjym;a&;twGuf oufqkdif&mtpdk;&tzJG‹0ifrsm;/ tjcm;tzJG‹tpnf;/ wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&GufI jynfol‹umuG,fa&;twGuf ulnDapmifha&Smufay;&ef” jzpfygonf?

a':refqrpfvnf; rnfodk‹t"dy`m,faumuf&rnf rodjzpfaeygonf? bk&ifcHonf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh zqyvwdk‹udk udkifwG,f&mY rEkdifreif;jzpfae.? jrefrmacgif;aqmifESifhywfoufI ol pdwfrydkif;jzwfEkdif? v_dufv_dufvSJvSJ csD;usL;onfhtcgrsm;&SdouJhodk‹ Za0Z0g/ oHo,pdwfrsm;

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v$rf;rdk;onfhtcgrsm;vnf;&Sd+yD; em&DcsdefoD;yrm tawG;ESpfzuft=um; pdwfrwnfr+idrfjzpfae.? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf vGwfvyfa&;&,l&mY jynfolvlxkcHae&qJ twd'kuQrsm;udk ydkrdkqdk;0g;aprnfh vufeufudkifwdkufyJGudk rvdkvm;a=umif; t&dyft¹rGwfjyygonf? wcsdefwnf;wGif jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;&&eftwGuf vdktyfrnfqdkygu t=urf;zufenf;rsm;oHk;&efudk wGef‹qkwfaernfu r[kwfa=umif;udkvnf; xif&Sm;aponf? vlxkpnf;a0;yJG}uD;rsm;wGif‚if;/ qENjycsDwufaepOf ykvdyfvufxufjzifh usqHk;cJhaom awmifolv,form;rsm;. psmyeuJhodk‹aom pdwfv_yf&Sm;zG,f tcrf;tem;rsm;wGif‚if; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;. rl0g'rsm;udk ±_wfcs+yD; vGwfvyfa&;twGuf wwdkif;jynfvHk; qxufxrf;ydk; óud;pm;aqmif&Guf&ef E_d;aqmfaevsufuyif vltkyf}uD;rsm; +idrfoufpnf;urf;&Sdap&ef xdef;odrf;xm;Edkifa=umif; jyocJh.?

odk‹aomfvnf; a':refqrpfESifh ol. t}uHay;yk*~Kdvfwdk‹onf jy\emrsm;udk at;csrf;pGm ajz&Sif;Ekdif&ef AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_vdktyfonfudk vufcH&ef 0efav;ae=u.? zqyv. tiftm;udk prf;&ef tjcm;ygwDtzJG‹tpnf;rsm; wnfaxmifI &/ r& pOf;pm;=uonf? TuJhodk‹ tm;prf;&ef pdwfoefaom EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;um; &Sdygonf? t*Fvdyfpma&;q&m}uD;wOD; bk&ifcHaumifpD0ifrsm;ESifh ywfoufI a&;ouJhodk‹ xdkEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh ywfoufIvnf; a&;EdkifonfrSm ‚if;wdk‹ESifh zqyvt=um; uGmjcm;csufrsm;onf vGwfvyfa&;rl0g'rsm;tay: tajccHonfxuf tm%m&&Sda&;òydifqkdifr_tay:wGifom tajccHygonf? xdk‹tjyif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; trsKd;om;acgif;aqmiftjzpf xifay:ausmf=um;vmjcif;ESifh ol‹tm; jynfolwdk‹u udk;uG,fonf[kyif ajym&avmufrwwf cspfcif=unf!dkjcif;wdk‹a=umifh tcsKd‹todkif;t0dkif;rsm;wGif remvdkrkef;wD;pdwfrsm; jyif;jyaeygonf? a':refqrpfonf zqyvudk pdefac:Edkifaom tiftm;pkrsm; ay:aygufvmEkdifrnfh tvm;tvmrsm;udk okH;oyfae+yD; ol. t}uHay;yk*~KdvftcsKdŒu AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tm; EkdifiHawmfykefuefr_ pJGcsufjzifh zrf;qD;&ef em;ylem;qmwdkufaepOf bk&ifcHaumifpD0ifjzpfaeaom ocifxGef;tkyfonf AdkvfcsKyfudk vlowfr_ESifh pJGcsufwifvdkufygonf? ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf csDwufvmpOfu &Gmol}uD;wOD;tm; +Adwdo#tvdkawmf&dvkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Gufr_/ zdESdyf&ufpufr_ESifh t*wdvdkufpm;r_ pJGcsufrsm;wifum ppfcHk±Hk;zGifhI ppfaq;cJhygonf? ppfckH±Hk; csrSwfvdkufaom ao'%ftjypfudk AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk,fwdkif aqmif&GufcJhygonf? Ttr_ESifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk ±Hk;wifppfaq;rnfqdkygu ocifxGef;tkyfonf jzpf&yfvHk;pHkudk awG‹jrifcJhojzifh oufaoxGufqdkay;rnf[k urf;vSrf;vdkuf.?

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk csufcsif;zrf;qD;oifh/ rzrf;qD;oifhESifhywfoufI tpdk;&tzJG‹twGif; 0d0g'uJGjym;ae.? t&yfom;+Adwdo#t&m&SdtcsKdŒu zrf;qD;a&;wkdufwGef;=uonf? TuJhodk‹aqmif&Gufjcif;jzifh tajctaersm; ydkrdkI &Sif;vif;oGm;aprnf/ xºuGykefuefr_ jzpfay:aprnfh tvm;tvmudkvnf; z,f&Sm;Ekdifrnf/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk vlxku r=umrD arhaysmufoGm;rnfjzpfojzifh jy\emrsm;pGmvnf; &Sdrnfr[kwf[k axmufjy=uonf? Ttcsufrsm;udk &Jrif;}uD;u oabmrwlyg? ppftwGif;jypfr_rsm;ESifhywfoufI taxGaxGvGwf+idrf;omcGifhay;&ef &Sdaea=umif;/ zqyvESifh jynfol‹&JabmftzJG‹. acgif;aqmifjzpfoludk zrf;qD;jcif;onf ykefuefawmfvSefr_udk wm;qD;onfxuf/ xºuG&efv_H‹aqmfvdkufouJhodk‹om jzpfoGm;Edkifa=umif; wifjyygonf? jrefrmEdkifiH ppfXmecsKyfaoemywduvnf; &Jrif;}uD;.tjrifudk axmufcHum AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf todw&m;ESifh jynfhpHkoljzpfojzifh ykefuefxºuGr_w&yfudk pwifrnfol[k rxifa=umif; wifjyygonf? xdk‹tjyif ocifxGef;tkyf. ajym=um;csufrsm;tay: rlwnfI aqmif&Gufoifhroifhuvnf; qifjcifzG,f&mjzpfae.? ‚if;. &nf&G,fcsufrsm;onf oHo,ruif;zG,fjzpfonfhtjyif *syefacwftwGif; wm0ef0wW&m;r&SdygbJESifh ‚if;aqmif&GufcJhaom =urf;wrf;onfh vkyf&yfrsm;ta=umif;udk *k%f0ifhpGm a&;om;xkwfa0xm;aom pmtkyfuvnf; &Sdaeao;onf? a':refqrpfonf ocifxGef;tkyf. pGyfpJGcsufrsm;udk AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh

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aqG;aEG;&ef qHk;jzwfvdkuf.? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf Ttr_ESifhywfoufI vHk;0wm0ef,lum/ ppfcHk±Hk;awG‹&Sdcsuft& ao'%ftjypfay;cJh&a=umif; &Sif;jyygonf?

bk&ifcHvnf; wzef ra0cJGEkdif jzpf&jyefonf? wzufwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. ajzmifhrwfr_ESifh pdwfowdWwdk‹udk rsm;pGmav;pm;rd.? wzufwGifum; ol‹tkyfcsKyfa&;. t"dutwdkuftcHjzpfaeoludk vlowfr_pJGcsufwifum z,f&Sm;Edkifvkdufygu EkdifiHa&;tusKd;tjrwf rnfr#xkwfEkdifrnfudkvnf; awG;rd.? TudpPESifhywfoufI 0_dufa[m(vef'ef)tpdk;&u rdrdwdk‹omqHk;jzwf&ef tm%m&Sdonf[k uef‹owfcsufxm;jcif;rSm uHaumif;onf[lIyif ajym&rnfuJhodk‹jzpfygonf? 1946 ckESpf {+yDv/ a':refqrpf puFmylodk‹ tvnftywfa&mufpOf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk zrf;qD;&ef n$ef=um;aom oHóud;pma&mufvm.? bk&ifcHvnf; n$ef=um;csuft& aqmif&Guf&ef csufcsif;yif &efukefodk‹ jyefcJh.? 0&rf;rxkwfrDav;wGif trdef‹y,fzsufvdkufa=umif; oHóud;aemufwapmif a&mufvmavonf?

TudpPonf tkyfcsKyfa&;. ra&&mvSaom=oZmudk ydkrdkI ,kd,Gif;vmaponf? tkyfcsKyfolrsm;. ajcvSrf;tm;vHk;udk zqyvonf tpdk;&Xmersm;twGif;&Sd ‚if;wdk‹tm; axmufcHolrsm;xHrSwqifh odae.? +Adwdo#wdk‹onf AdkvfcsKyfudk z,f&Sm;vdkaomfvnf; rxd0Hh[laomowif;onf jyef‹ESH‹oGm;.? a':refqrpfvnf; tajctaeudk xdef;odrf;Ekdif&ef óud;pm;ygonf? puULjzLpDrHudef;udk vufawG‹taumiftxnfazmfI &rnfr[kwfa=umif; vef'eftpdk;&udk 0efcHtoday;+yD; zqyvvufcHEkdifrnfh urf;vSrf;csuftopfrsm;udk wifjyavonf? odk‹aomf tcsdefum; aESmif;cJhav+yD? 1946 ckESpf ZGefvwGif ylyifaomursm;aeaom bk&ifcH}uD; 0rf;udkufa&m*gpJGuyfaoma=umifh t*Fvefodk‹ jyef&ygonf? ZlvkdifvrwdkifrD twWvDonf a':refqrpfae&mwGif AdkvfcsKyf&efqfhudk cef‹tyf&ef qHk;jzwfvdkuf.? &efqfhtm; a&G;cs,fjcif;um; oifhavsmfvSygonf? olonf ppftkyfcsKyfa&;t}uD;tuJtjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifpOfu jrefrmjynftajctaeudk aumif;pGmodEkdifcJh+yD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tygt0if zqyvacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh oifhjrwfoljzpf.?

vGwffvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_

bk&ifcHajymif;vJjcif;onf zqyv. rl0g'rsm; ajymif;vJjcif;r[kwfaomfvnf; +Adwdo#tpdk;&.

csOf;uyfyHkcsOf;uyfenf; ajymif;vJjcif;udk azmfjyvdkufojzifh vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJGwGif EdkifiHa&;tcef;u¾topfw&yf zGifhvdkufjcif;jzpfygonf? bk&ifcHaumifpDa[mif;udk y,fzsufvdkuf+yD;/ 1946 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif OD;atmifqef;onf umuG,fa&;ESifh EkdifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; wm0efrsm;,lum bk&ifcH. aumifpDtopfwGif 'kwd,OuUXjzpfvmygonf? aumifpD0if (11) OD;teuf OD;atmifqef;tjyif zqyvtzJG‹0if (5) OD; yg&Sdavonf? aumifpD0ifrsm;onf pkaygif;wm0ef,l=u&.? trnftm;jzifh bk&ifcH. t}uHay;tzJG‹r#omjzpfaomfvnf; vufawG‹tm;jzifh aumifpDonf =umjrifhpGmuyif awmif;qdkcJhaom ,m,DtrsKd;om;tpdk;&yifjzpfygonf? OD;atmifqef;onf Tjzpfay:csuftopfrsm;udk owd&Sd&SdESifh taumif;zufu ±_jrifygonf? w&m;0ifwnfqJjzpfaeao;aom puULjzLpDrHudef;udk qef‹usifuef‹uGufonfh vlxkpnf;a0;yJG}uD;wGif wdkufyGJqHk;cef;wdkifra&mufao;a=umif; xkwfazmfajymqdkcJhygonf? ol &mxl;ae&m vufcHcJhjcif;a=umifh jy\emtm;vHk; ajyvnfoGm;+yD[k r,lqoifha=umif;ESifh aemifaqmif&Guf&ef tvkyfwm0efrsm;pGm&Sdao;a=umif; vlxktm; OD;atmifqef;u owday;vdkufygonf? jynfolvlxk. axmufcHtm;ay;r_onf olESifh zqyvtwGuf rnfr#ta&;}uD;a=umif; ajym=um;+yD;aemuf vlxkESpfoufjrwfEdk;aom ±dk;om;yGifhvif;r_jzifh udk,fa&;udk,fwmudpPESifhywfoufI atmufygtwdkif; rSwfcsufcsvdkufygonf?

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rsufvSnfhq&mvnf;r[kwf/ vlyJ? ewfvnf;r[kwf/ vlavmufyJ tpGrf;&SdrSmyJ? usKyftouf[m tifrwefrSi,fw,f? usKyf tckxrf;&wJh wm0ef[mvnf; wwdkif;jynfvHk;&JŒ wm0efudk a&SŒqHk;u xrf;ae&w,f? usKyfudk,fudk 'Dwm0efawG xrf;Edkifatmif t&nftcsif;jynfhpHkw,fvdk‹ r,lqbl;? +yD;awmh usKyf pdwfwdkwwfw,fqdkwmvnf; vltrsm; od=uwmyJ? 'g usKyf e*dkyJ? tvkyf±_yf+yD; taESmifht,Sufrsm;&if pdwfwdkwwfw,f? 'gudk ðyjyifEkdifor# ðyjyifzdk‹ óud;pm;r,f? odk‹aomfvnf; cifAsm;wdk‹vnf; pdwf&Snf&Snfxm;+yD; uae‹jywJh tiftm;rsKd;xuf qxufxrf;ydk; wdk;atmifvkyf+yD; usKyfwdk‹u cifAsm;wdk‹twGuf vkyfwJhae&mrSm tm;ay;r,fqdk&if usKyfwdk‹vdkcsifwJh vGwfvyfa&;/ vlxkaumif;pm;a&;awGudk &atmif ydkvkyfEkdifr,f? ydktusKd;&SdrSmyJ? 'ga=umifh vlxkawGudk qufawmifhxm;=uygtHk;vdk‹qdkwm xyfajymcJhcsifw,f?” jynfolvlxkonf OD;atmifqef;aemufrS rm;rm;rwfrwf&yfI awmifhxm;aomfvnf; ol‹udk

twdkuftcHvkyfr_ r&Sdawmh r[kwfyg? zqyv. tiftm;udk jyifyrS pdefac:aom EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;xuf zqyvtwGif;rS jy\emrsm; ydkI ay:aygufcJhygonf? woD;yk*~vopPmazmufoGm;ol tenf;i,fr#om&Sdaomfvnf; uGefjrLepfrsm;onf zqyvtzJG‹csKyfaemufrS nDnGwfpGm&Sdoa,mifESifh rdrdwdk‹ygwD tm;aumif;a&;twGuf aqmif&Gufae=uygonf? yk*~Kdvfa&;ESifh 0g'a&;t,ltq rwdkufqkdifr_a=umifh 1946 ckESpf rwfvwGif ocifpdk;. ‘tvHeD’ uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifodef;azwdk‹acgif;aqmifaom ‘tvHjzL’ uGefjrLepfrsm;[lI uGefjrLepfygwD ESpfjcrf;uGJoGm;cJhygonf? tvHeDuGefjrLepfrsm;onf t=urf;zufr_0g'rsm; pJGudkifjcif;a=umifh ‚if;wdk‹tm; ZlvdkifvwGif rw&m;toif;tjzpf a=unmvdkufygonf? ocifoef;xGef;onf zqyv. taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; jzpfvm+yD;/ ocifodef;azonf aumifpD0ifwOD;jzpfvmygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; ‘odef;/ oef;’ uGefjrLepfwdk‹onf ‘&efpf’ ra&mufrDu pwifcJhaom taxGaxGoydwf +yD;+idrf;oGm;ap&ef aumifpD. 'k-OuUXtaeESifh OD;atmifqef;. aphpyfa&;aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;udk taESmifht,Sufay;cJh.?

taxGaxGoydwf+yD;+idrf;a&; aqmif&Gufcsufrsm; ysufjym;ap&ef óud;yrf;r_rSm atmifjrifjcif;r&SdcJhacs? odk‹aomf Tóud;yrf;r_onf OD;atmifqef;ESifh zqyvwdk‹. =oZmòydysufap&ef twef=umuyif pwifcJhaom pnf;±Hk;v_H‹aqmfa&;vkyfief;rsm;. wpdwfwydkif;omjzpfygonf? tajctaeudk rajz&Sif;I r&awmhyg? qdk&S,fvpf OD;ausmf+idrf;udk ocifoef;xGef;ae&mY taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; cef‹tyfvdkuf+yD; atmufwdkbmvwGif uGefjrLepfrsm;udk zqyvtwGif;rS xkwfy,fvdkufygonf? Tvkyf&yfudk aemufvtwGif; usif;yaom tzJG‹csKyf. taxGaxGnDvmcHY twnfðyvdkufygonf? xkwfy,f&jcif;. ta=umif;rsm;udk &Sif;jyaom rdef‹cGef;Y OD;atmifqef;onf uGefjrLepfwdk‹tm; wkdif;jynf. nDnGwfr_ysufjym;ap&ef óud;yrf;onf/ rdrdwdk‹.ygwDa&;udk jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;xuf tav;ay;onf/ jrefrmhtajctaeESifh oifhavsmf/ roifhavsmfudk rqifjcifbJ tdENd,uGefjrLepfygwD. n$ef=um;csufrsm;udk rsufaphpHkydwfI vdkufemonf pojzifh ±_wfcsygonf? tr_aqmifaumifpDrS E_wfxGufvdkufaom ocifodef;azu OD;atmifqef;ESifh ol. vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;tm; awmfvSefa&;orm;xuf ðyjyifa&;orm;qefonf/ ‚if;wdk‹onf +Adwdo#. vSnfhjzm;r_udk tnHhcHcJh+yD;/ bk&ifcHESifhqufqH&mY aysmhvGef;onf/ ta0zefvnf; rcHEkdif[k ajymqdkygonf? zqyvESifh uGefjrLepfwdk‹ vrf;cJGoGm;=uaomfvnf; vuf0JnDnGwfr_udk txl;vdkvm;aom OD;atmifqef;onf rmufpfqdk&S,fvpf0g'ESifh uGefjrLepfygwD0iftcsKdŒtay: oHa,mZOfrukefyg? tvHeDuGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh tvHjzLuGefjrLepfrsm;t=um; aphpyfjzefajz&ef ol óud;pm;cJhygonf? odef;/ oef; uGefjrLepfrsm;udk zqyvtwGif;rS z,fxkwf+yD;aemuf jynfol‹&JabmfESifh qdk&S,fvpfwdk‹udk aygif;pnf;+yD; rufpftzJG‹csKyfwnfaxmif&ef OD;atmifqef; pOf;pm;cJhonf[k

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tqdk&Sdygonf? tr_aqmifaumifpDtopfonf ocifpdk;uGefjrLepfrsm;tay: csrSwfxm;aom ydwfyifcsufudk y,fzsufay;vdkufygonf? odk‹aomf tvHeDuGefjrLepfrsm;onf vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;vrf;pOfudk w&m;aoqkyfudkifxm;ojzifh 1947 ck ZEM0g&DvwGif ‚if;wdk‹tm; wzef rw&m;toif;a=unm&jyefonf? tjzL/ teD ra&G; uGefjrLepftrsm;tjym; txl;ojzifh jynfol‹&Jabmfa[mif;rsm;onf OD;atmifqef;udk qufvufI =unf!dkav;pm;=uygonf? ol‹taeESifhvnf; uG,fvGefoGm;onfhwkdif jyefvnfaygif;pnf;a&;udk vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; ypfy,fcJhjcif; &Sd[efrwlyg? odk‹aomf olonf jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;ESifh nDnGwfa&;xufydk+yD; rnfonfh0g'udkrS OD;pm;ray;cJhyg?

1946 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif zqyvonf tcsKyftjcm tm%mydkif jrefrmEkdifiHwnfaxmifa&;twGuf vdktyfaomudpPrsm; aqG;aEG;&ef +Adwdo#tpdk;&. zdwf=um;csufudk vufcHvdkufygonf? ESpfOD;ydkif;wGif vef'efodk‹ xGufcGmoGm;aomudk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹udk OD;atmifqef; OD;aqmifI tzJG‹xJwGif tr_aqmifaumifpD0ifrsm;/ EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh t&yfom;tpdk;&0efxrf;rsm; yg&Sdygonf? a'vDòrd‹Y &yfem;pOf usif;yaom owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGwGif OD;atmifqef;u vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;udkom vdkvm;a=umif;/ 'dkrDeD,eftqifhtwef; vufcHa&;udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;rnfr[kwfojzifh ar;p&myifrvdka=umif; ajym=um;cJhygonf? owif;pmq&mwdk‹. ar;cGef;w&yfudk ajz=um;&mY jrefrmwdk‹. awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk auseyfzG,f&mvdkufavsmjcif; r&Sdygu t=urf;zufenf;udkjzpfap/ t=urf;rzufaomenf;udkjzpfap/ enf;ESpfrsKd;vHk;udkjzpfap/ pOf;pm;&ef vHk;0wGef‹qkwfrnfr[kwf[k ajymcJh.? ed*Hk;csKyftaeESifh taumif;qHk;ukd ar#mfvifhxm;aomfvnf; tqdk;qHk;twGufvnf; tqifoifhjyifxm;a=umif; ajymoGm;ygonf? Tum; jrefrmEdkifiHrS rxGufcGmrD ESpfopful;rdef‹cGef;xJwGif tao;pdwfajymcJhaom tcsuftvufwdk‹xufydkrdkjcif; r&Sdyg? xdkrdef‹cGef;wGif yGifhyGifhvif;vif; azmfjycJhonfrSm +Adwdo#wdk‹onf at;csrf;pGmajz&Sif;a&;udk vdkvm;onf[k ol ,Hk=unfvdka=umif;/ oludk,fwdkifvnf; at;aq;aom enf;rsm;udkom ydkIESpfoufa=umif;/ odk‹aomfvnf; vdktyfonfh oabmwlnDcsufrsm; r&ygu vlxktaeESifh w&m;Oya'jyifyrS vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJG0if&ef tqifoifhjyifxm;&rnfjzpfa=umif; pojzifh jzpfygonf? trSefrSm OD;atmifqef;ESifh zqyvonf +Adwdo#wdk‹ESifh aqG;aEG;yJGrsm; ratmifjrifygu jzpfysufvmrnfh tajctaetwGuf jyifqifr_taeESifh vufeufrsm;pkaqmif;+yD;/ jynfol‹&JabmfwyfzJG‹rsm;udk toifhtaetxm;wGif &Sdaeap&ef pDpOf+yD; jzpfygonf?

“atmifqef;-twWvDoabmwlnDcsuf” xGufay:apcJhaom aqG;aEG;yJGrsm;twGif; OD;atmifqef;. u¾ESifhywfoufI yk*~vdutr_aqmif0ifwOD;jzpfol OD;wifxGÉfu atmufygtwdkif; a&;om;cJhygonf?

jynfol‹v$wfawmfa&G;aumfyJGrusif;yrDESifh tajccHOya'opf ra&;qJGao;rD jrefrmEkdifiH. tpdk;&wm0ef0wW&m;wdk‹udk jrefrmtpdk;&xHodk‹ vufawG‹t&‚if;/ Oya'oabmt&‚if;/ csufcsif;vJ$ajymif;ay;&efudk olu tm;xkwfcJhygonf? Oya'oabmt&vJ$ajymif;ay;jcif;udk olu r&,lEkdifcJhaomfvnf; vufawG‹tm;jzifh vJ$ajymif;ay;jcif;udkum; tESpfom&tm;jzifh ESpfzufoabmwlnDr_tay: rlwnfI &,lEkdifcJhygonf? Ttaetxm;udk ol. EdkifiHa&;twdkuftcHwdk‹u olacgif;aqmifcJhaom udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹. ±_H;edrfhr_uJhodk‹jzpfap&ef aumufauG‹ayGvDpGm t"dy`m,fzGifhvdku zGifhEkdifygonf? olonf tenf;qHk; vdktyfcsufrsm; awmif;qdk&mY ckdifrm.? xkdodk‹ ckdifrmjcif;a=umifh awmfvSefa&;jzpfay:vmEkdifonf[k olodojzifh wm0efrSm}uD;av;vS.? EdkifiHa&;ynm&SdwOD;yDopGm jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;. vdkvm;csufwdk‹udk tESpfom&tm;jzifh ay;onfudk olvufcHcJh.? vdkvm;csufum; vGwfvyfa&;odk‹ &Sif;vif;wdkawmif;aomvrf;rS csDwufEkdif&efESifh rdrdwdk‹wdkif;jynf. vufawG‹tpdk;&wm0efrsm;udk csufcsif;&&Sd&efwdk‹jzpfygonf? ESpfzuftvdkus oabmwlnDcsufudk vufcH+yD;aemuf

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ToabmwlnDcsuf. t"dy`m,foufr_udk vlxktm; ±dk;±dk;&Sif;&Sif;wifjyI vdktyfcsufrsm; jzpfajrmufap&ef acgif;aqmifr_ay;cJh.? ol. acgif;aqmifr_aemufrS vdkufygu wESpftwGif; vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&ap&rnf[k &J&ifhpGm uwday;cJh.? Tum; ayghayghqq uwdrsKd;r[kwfyg? ol. EkdifiHa&;vkyfief;/ ol. *k%foduQmESifh ol. b0wdk‹udk&if;I ay;vdkufaom/ cH,lcsuftay: tajccHaom uwdrsKd;jzpfygonf? Todk‹aqmif&Gufjcif;jzifh ol. acgif;aqmifyDor_udk tjynfht0 oufaojyvdkufygonf? oabmwlnDcsufudk vufrSwfxkd;&ef jiif;qdkcJhaom udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹0ifESpfOD;um;

0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif; OD;apmESifh 1938 ckESpf 'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk; ESpfjcrf;uJG+yD;aemuf tenf;pkocifrsm;udk ocifxGef;tkyfESifhtwl acgif;aqmifcJhaom ocifbpdefwdk‹jzpfygonf? jrefrmjynfokd‹ jyefa&mufaomtcg OD;apmESifh ocifbpdefonf a'gufwmbarmfESifh 0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif; aemufwOD;jzpfol qmay:xGef;wdk‹ESifhaygif;um trsKd;om;twdkuftcHwyfOD; wnfaxmifI OD;atmifqef;onf &mxl;wnf+rJa&;twGuf e,fcsJŒwdk‹zufodk‹ ul;ajymif;oGm;+yD[k ajymavonf?

EkdifiHa&;twdkuftcHwdk‹. pGyfpJGcsufrsm;a=umifh OD;atmifqef; xl;xl;jcm;jcm; pdwftaESmifht,SufrjzpfcJhyg? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;aphpyfa&;udkom aZmufcsI vkyfygawmhonf? TudpPudkajz&Sif;&ef vef'efoGm;udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ jrefrmjynfjyefa&muf+yD; &ufydkif;twGif;yif yifvHkY nDvmcHac:a&; pDpOfxm;+yD;jzpfygonf? nDvmcH. &v'fjzpfaom yifvHkpmcsKyft& ‘=um;jzwfjrefrmtpdk;&ESifh csufcsif;yl;aygif;vdkufjcif;tm;jzifh &Srf;/ ucsifESifh csif;wdk‹onf vGwfvyfa&;udk ydkrdkvsifjrefpGm &&Sdvdrfhrnf’ [lI todtrSwfðyvdkufygonf? yifvHknDvmcHum; ppftwGif;u wdkif;&if;om;rsm;t=um; oifhjrwf=unfjzLa&;twGuf ocifrsm;óud;yrf;csufrsm;ESifh tpysKd;cJhaom OD;atmifqef;. jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;&Sd vlrsKd;pkaygif;pHk pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;OD;wnfaom vkyfief;pOf. txGwftxdyfyifjzpfygonf? wzef OD;wifxGÉf. pum;t& ajym&v#if aqG;aEG;aphpyfa&;e,fy,fwGif ol (OD;atmifqef;) atmifjrifr_rsm; &&SdcJhjcif;rSm ol. roG,fr0dkufyGifhvif;r_ESifh yk*~vdut&nftaoG;wdk‹a=umifh jzpfygonf? xkde,fy,fwGif ol. t}uD;rm;qHk;aqmif&Gufcsufum; awmifwef;a'owkdif;&if;om;rsm;ESifh tjcm;vli,fpkrsm;. vHk;0O\Hk pdwfcs,Hk=unfr_udk &,lEkdifjcif;jzpfygonf? yifvHknDvmcH +yD;v#if+yD;csif; {+yDvwGif usif;yrnfjzpfaom a&G;aumufyJGwGif 0ifa&muf,Ofòydifrnfh zqyvudk,fpm; OD;atmifqef;onf yifyef;}uD;pGm EdkifiHtESH‹ pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;xGufcJhygonf? jrefrmEdkifiH jynfolvlxkESifh (32) ESpf r#om&Sdao;aom olwdk‹. EkysKd&G,facgif;aqmift=um; róuHpzl; xl;jcm;aom qufqHa&;taetxm;rsKd; ay:aygufcJhygonf? OD;atmifqef;oGm;av&m vltkyf}uD;rsm;onf ‘igwdk‹AdkvfcsKyf’ udk jrifvdkaZm/ em;axmifvdkaZm/ aoG;pnf;cdkifrmr_udk jyovdkaZmwdk‹ESifh zHkudkrr_/ aeyludkr&GHŒ/ vma&muftm;ay;=uygonf? ‘AdkvfcsKyf’ [laom a0g[m&rSm rlvwGif ol. wyfrawmf&mxl;udk &nfn$ef;jcif;r_omjzpfaomfvnf; aemifwGif ol‹tay:xm;&Sdaom cspfcifav;pm;r_udk a&mifjyef[yfvmaom a0g[m&jzpfvm.? OD;atmifqef;um; em;axmifaumif;atmif tajymta[majyjypfolwOD; r[kwfyg? ol. rdef‹cGef;rsm;onf +iD;aiG‹zG,f twwfynma&;&mudpPrsm;ESifh v$rf;rdk;aeonfvnf; jzpfEdkif.? [dkta=umif;a&muf 'Dta=umif;a&mufESifh vdkuf&cufonfvnf; jzpfEkdif.? vGefpGm&Snfvsm;onfvnf; jzpfEkdif.? odk‹aomfvnf; vlxkonf +idrfoufat;aq;pGm em;axmif+yD; ol‹pdwfoEWmefudk vdkufum ol. wHk;wdwdEkdifaom qHk;rowday;csufwdk‹udk oabmusESpfoufouJhodk‹ =um;&cufvSaom ol. &,f&$ifzG,fpum;av;rsm;udkvnf; oabmusESpfouf=uygonf?

OD;atmifqef;onf jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;ESifh pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;jy\emrsm;udk ajz&Sif;ay;Ekdifrnfh tawG;tac:rsm;ESifh enf;AsL[mrsm;udk tpOfwpdkuf &SmazGaeoljzpf.? Tvkyfief;wGif vlxkudk olESifhtwl yg0if&ef ac:aqmifEkdifcJhonf? umva'otajctaersm;t& vdktyfygu pdwfajymif;vJ&ef ol ra=umuf&GHŒyg?

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ol. ,lqcsufrsm;ESifh &nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk vlxktm; yGifhyGifhvif;vif; &Sif;jy+yD; ‚if;wdk‹. axmufcHr_udk awmif;qdkygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; vG,fvifhwul atmifjrifr_rsm;ESifh pdwful;,Oftdyfrufavmursm; taumiftxnfazmfvmrnf[lI vufvGwfpy,f uwdðycsufrsm; ray;acs? ol‹wdkif;jynftay: wnf=unfajzmifhrwfpGm ðyusifhoGm;rnf/ jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;ESifh pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;twGuf tpGrf;ukefaqmif&GufoGm;rnf/ vlxk. nDnGwfr_tiftm;om olESifh zqyvaemufY wnf&Sdaernfqdkygu vGwfvyfa&;ESifh pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;[laom ESpfyGifhqdkifyef;wkdifodk‹ OD;aqmifac:oGm;Ekdifrnf [lIom uwdðycJh.? jrefrmEkdifiH jynfolvlxkvnf; a&G;aumufyGJwGif zqyvudk,fpm;vS,faygif; ajrmufjrm;pGmudk a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufvdkufjcif;jzifh OD;atmifqef;. E_d;aqmfcsufwdk‹udk wkH‹jyefvdkuf.? yk*~vduudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh uGefjrLepfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; vufwqkyfpmavmufom a&G;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&ygonf? ‘apm/ pdef/ armf’ tkyfpkum; rdrdwdk‹aocsmayguf±_H;rnfudk odxm;=uojzifh a&G;aumufyJGrsm;udk oydwfarSmufcJh.? zqyvonf roifhawmfaom zdtm;ay;r_rsm; ðyvkyfcJhonf[k pGyfpJGcsufrsm;ESifh &ifqdkifcJh&.? odk‹aomf a&G;aumufyJGqkdif&m cHk±Hk;rsm;. awG‹&Sdcsufrsm;t& a&G;aumufyJG&v'frsm;onf vlxk.qENudk trSeftwkdif; a&mifjyef[yfcJhygonf?

OD;atmifqef;. b0aemufqHk;tydkif;wGif olonf ae‹pOfESifhtr# EkdifiHa&;&ifhusufr_ESifh EkdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&; usifvnfr_wdk‹wGif wkd;wufvmonfudk jrifEkdifygonf? EkdifiHawmfwnfaqmufa&; udpP&yfrsm;udk &ifqkdif&mY ol. yifudk,ft&nftaoG;rsm;ESifh wm0efodpdwf"mwfwdk‹ uGef‹jrL;vm.? TumvtwGif;Y wcsdefu qef‹usifzufjzpfcJhaom +Adwdo#rsm;pGmwdk‹. av;pm;r_udk &,lEdkifcJhonf? xdkyk*~Kdvfrsm;teuf wOD;u atmufygtwdkif; a&;om;cJhygonf?

atmifqef;. EkdifiHa&;ynm&Sif t&nftcsif;rsm; wkd;wufºuG,f0vmjcif;onf ol. yifudk,fp±dkufum; jzpfay:vmaom tajctaersm;t& }uD;xGm;vmEkdifpGrf;&Sda=umif;udk jyoygonf? ol‹b0. aemufqHk; (10) vwGif olonf vufawG‹tm;jzifh 0ef}uD;csKyftaetxm;Y &SdcJhygonf? xdkumvtwGif;Y olonf ol‹EkdifiH rnfr#us,f0ef;I vlrsKd;aygif; rnfr#pHk+yD;/ jy\emrsm; rnfr#±_yfaxG;ayGvDvSonfwdk‹udk pI *Ce% oabmaygufcJhygonf? tvkyfrsm;vGef;vSojzifh ol. usef;rma&;xdcdkufvmonfhtjyif &Hzef&Hcg tvkyfrEkdifreif; jzpfcJhygonf? odk‹aomf olum; a,muFsm;aumif;yDopGm Tjzpf&yfudk 0efcHojzifh olESifh ae‹pOf xdawG‹aeaom +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&Sdrsm;. av;pm;r_udk &&SdcJhygonf? ol‹tm; vkyf}uHowfjzwfjcif;onf aemifjzpfxGef;vmrnfh Oya'rJhumvrsm;wGif ol‹aemufvdkufrsm;udk pnf;urf;xdef;odrf;&ef pGrf;aqmifEkdifonfh wOD;wnf;aomyk*~Kdvfudk ol‹wkdif;jynf qHk;±H_;&jcif;yifjzpfygonf? ZGefvtapmydkif;wGif OD;atmifqef;onf wdkif;jynftwGuf jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;vkyfief;rsm; pDpOf&ef

&efukefòrd‹ jynfvrf;&Sd ‘qkd&efwdkADvm’ taqmuftOD;wGif pnf;a0;yJGrsm; qufwdkufusif;yygonf? nDvmcHtzGifhrdef‹cGef;wGif OD;atmifqef;onf tapmwvsifvdktyfaeaom vkyfief;rsm;udk rD;armif;xkd;jy+yD; vufawG‹usI/ avSeH"m;xpfr[kwfaom tpDtpOfrsm;vdktyfa=umif;udk tav;ay;ajymoGm;ygonf? avmb}uD;vGef;aom pDrHudef;rsm; rðyvkyfrd&efESifh rnfonfhudpPrsm; yxrOD;qHk; aqmif&Guf&efvdkonfudk qHk;jzwf&ef ta&;}uD;a=umif;udkvnf; ajymoGm;ygonf? xdk‹tjyif wkdif;oljynfom;wdk‹ vuftwGif;odk‹ tcsKyftjcmtm%m jyefIa&mufae&um; wkdif;jynfwGifjzpfay:or# tedXm±Hkrsm;twGuf e,fcsJŒpepfudk tjypfwifwdkufcdkufjcif;jzifh tcsdefESifhtiftm;wdk‹udk tv[\rðzef;=u&ef owday;oGm;ygonf? e,fcsJŒpepfudk wdkufzsuf&efoHk;cJhaom vufeufrsm;onf vGwfvyfaom EkdifiHwckudk wnfwHhckdif+rJI wdk;wufap&eftwGuf oifhavsmfaom ud&d,mrsm;jzpfonf[k tpOft+rJ rwGufqEkdifa=umif; ol jynfhjynfh00 em;vnfygonf? OD;atmifqef;onf jrefrmEkdifiHtaeESifh EkdifiHwum rdom;pktodkif;t0dkif;wGif

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rSefuefaomae&mrS yg0ifaqmif&GufEkdifrnfh tem*wfumvudk ar#mfrSef;um ppfrSefaom trsKd;om;a&;onf EkdifiHwumta&;udk taxmuftulðy&rnfjzpfa=umif; ol jrifygonf?

OD;atmifqef;onf aoG;xGufatmif rSefojzifh tcsKdŒvlrsm; rcHomaom pum;rsKd;ukd ajym&ef rwGef‹qkwfyg? 1947 ckESpf Zlvkdifv 13 &ufae‹wGif ajym=um;cJhaom ol. aemufqHk;rdef‹cGef;wGif jynfolwdk‹tm; rdrdwdk‹. csKdŒ,Gif;csufrsm;udk ðyjyif&ef/ pnf;urf;&Sd&ef/ ZJG0d&d,}uD;&efESifh trsm;tusKd;twGuf udk,fusKd;pGef‹&ef pojzifh aqmf=ocJh+yD; vGwfvyfa&;. tusKd;t&omrsm; jynfh0pGm rcHpm;EkdifrD ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm ±kef;uefóud;pm;&OD;rnfjzpfa=umif;udkvnf; owday;cJh.? ajzmifhrwfwnf=unf+yD; rdrdudk,fudk qef;ppfEkdifpGrf;&SdolyDyD OD;atmifqef;onf ol. tm;enf;csufrsm;udk ðyjyif&ef vdka=umif;udkvnf; rdwfaqGrsm;tm; 0efcHcJhygonf? ausmif;om;awmfvSefa&;orm; vli,fwa,mufwGif onf;cHcGifhv$wfEkdifaom tjypftemrsm;onf EdkifiH. txifu& acgif;aqmifwGifrlum; vufcHcGifhv$wfzG,fr[kwfay? tacsmudkif&ef vdkaeaom trltusifhrsm; &Sdaeao;.? tqifrajyvSaom a'go}uD;wwfjcif;udk xdef;csKyf&ayOD;rnf? vlr_qufqHa&;wGifvnf; rnfr#yif +iD;aiG‹zG,fjzpfap avmu0wfysLiSmap&ef avhusifh&ayOD;rnf?

tm%mvJ$ajymif;a&;tpDtpOfrsm;udk vsifjrefpGm wqifh+yD;wqifh wdk;wufI taumiftxnfazmfEkdifcJhygonf? arvwGif usif;yaom nDvmcHY zqyvtzJG‹csKyfonf rdrdwdk‹. vGwfvyfa&;ESifhywfoufaom rl0g'udk csrSwf+yD; jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH[lI ac:wGifrnfh vGwfvyfaom tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif orwEkdifiH. tajccHzJG‹pnf;yHk Oya'rl=urf;udk a&;qJG&ef aumfrwDudkvnf; zJG‹pnf;vdkufygonf? cufcJqif;&JpGm vHk;yrf;cJh&aom yef;wdkif vufwurf;r#om &SdawmhonfjzpfI OD;atmifqef;onf wif;rmr_rsm; avsmhum ydkrdkI aysmhajymif;csKdomvm.? ol.wyfrsm;udk *syefawmfvSefa&;wGif OD;aqmifcJhpOfu tH}uD;wcJcJESifh awG‹jrif&aom vli,fppfaoemywdcsKyf. yHkyef;o¿mefESifhum; ododomomjcm;em;vmygonf? ol. twGif;tjyifonf =unfvifwnf+idrfI aomuuif;pifouJhodk‹ jzpfaeygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; yifyef;EGrf;e,fjcif;onfvnf; euf±_dif;vSygonf? vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;aemuf EkdifiHa&;rS tem;,lum rdom;pkudpPrsm;/ pmaya&;om;jcif;udpPrsm;udkom tcsdefjynfhay;I vkyfaqmifvdkvm;a=umif; xkwfazmfajymcJhygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; TqENum; rjynfh0cJhyg? Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹ tr_aqmifaumifpD tpnf;ta0;xdkifaepOf tapmifht=uyfrsm;r&Sdaom pnf;a0;cef;xJodk‹ ,leDazmif;0wfvlwpk wGef;0ifvmI pufaoewfrsm;ESifh ypfcwf&m OD;atmifqef;/ ol. tudk}uD; OD;b0if; tygt0if aumifpD0if (6) OD;/ txufwef;tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&SdwOD;ESifh udk,f&Hawmfav;wOD; usqHk;cJh&ygonf?

vlowform;rsm; xGufajy;vGwfajrmufoGm;cJhaomfvnf;/ ‚if;wdk‹tm; OD;apmaetdrfodk‹ ajc&mcHvdkufEkdifcJhygonf? 0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif;onf t}uH}uD;olwa,mufjzpf+yD; ‘aumifav;wa,mufygyJ’ [lI ol owfrSwfavh&Sdaom OD;atmifqef; EkdifiHhacgif;aqmiftqifhodk‹ w&Sdefxdk;wufoGm;onfudk vufrcHEdkifcJhay? jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ESifh vef'efodk‹ xGufcGmroGm;rD vtenf;i,ftvdkavmufwGif umuD0wfpHk 0wfqifxm;olrsm;u aoewfjzifh ypfcwfojzifh OD;apmrsufaphwGif '%f&m&cJhygonf? OD;apmonf TudpPwGif OD;atmifqef;. jynfol‹&JabmfwyfzJG‹0ifrsm;Y wm0ef&Sdonf[k ,lqum uvJhpm;acsjcif;jzpfonf[k tcsKdŒu cef‹rSef;=uygonf? odk‹aomf EkdifiHawmfvkyf}uHr_ESifh ywfoufI ppfaq;awG‹&Sdcsufrsm;t& tvkyftr_aqmifaumifpDwckvHk;tm; okwfoifacsr_ef;&ef n$ef=um;cJhjcif;jzpfygonf? OD;atmifqef;ESifh vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;udk &Sif;vif;okwfoifvdkufjcif;jzifh olom jrefrmEkdifiHtpdk;&acgif;aqmif jzpfvmrnf[laom xl;qef;onfh ,Hk=unfcsufjzifh vkyf}uHr_}uD;udk OD;apm pDpOfcJh[efwlygonf? OD;apmtay: &mZ0wfjypfr_rsm; usL;vGef&ef tm;ay;ulnDr_twGuf tjypf&Sda=umif; pD&ifqHk;jzwf+yD; ao'%fcsrSwfvdkufygonf?

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OD;atmifqef; uG,fvGeftedpPa&mufoGm;aomfvnf; ol. b0udkay;I óud;yrf;cJh&aom vGwfvyfa&;udkom jrefrmEkdifiH &&SdcJhygonf? touf&SifusefcJhaom zqyv0ifrsm;teuf tqifhjrifhqHk;jzpfaom OD;Ekonf aphpyfaqG;aEG;a&;rsm;udk qHk;cef;wkdif qufvufaqmif&GufoGm;+yD; 1948 ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv (4) &ufae‹wGif vGwfvyfaom jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmfudk arG;zGm;cJhygonf?

ed*Hk;

acwfopfjrefrmEkdifiHorkdif; okawoDwOD;jzpfol tar&duefynm&Sif z&ifh/tif/xa&*g a&;om;cJhaom

atmufygpum;aumufEkwfcsufudk Tae&mY azmfjyu oifhawmfrnfxifygonf? r[mvlom;wOD;. vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;taejzifhom jzpf&yfpOfudk wifjyjcif;onf orkdif;udk vJGrSm;pGm jrifjcif;jzpfygonf? TpmtkyfwGifvnf; xdkuJhodk‹wifjyjcif;rsKd; twkdif;twmwcktxd yg0ifcJhygv#if xdktwdkif;twmtxd vJGrSm;aomtjrif &SdcJhonf[k qdkEkdifygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; xdkpOfu jrefrmjynftajctaet& ocifrsm; EkdifiHa&;&mxl;ae&m &&SdcJhcsdefrSpI vGwfvyfa&;t±k%fwufcsdefjzpfaom 1948 ckESpf ZEM0g&Dvwdkif (12) ESpfumvtwGif; pGrf;aqmifEdkifr_rsm;udk jzpf&yfpOftvHk;pHktay: v$rf;òcHcJhaom atmifqef;. acgif;aqmifr_±_axmifhrS pDppfjcif;um; rSefuefoifhavsmfonf[k xifrdygonf? tjcm;wzufrS=unfhv#ifvnf; txufazmfjyyg oabmw&m;um; rSefuefygonf?

jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ aemufcHum;udk tajcðyIom OD;atmifqef;. b0udk avhvmEdkifrnfjzpfygonf? xdkuJhodk‹ csOf;uyfenf;onf ol. udk,fa&;udk,fwmtydkif;udk vspfv#L±_&m a&mufEkdifygonf? odk‹aomf ol‹touf (20) ausmfausmf ausmif;om;EkdifiHa&;avmuxJ 0ifcJhpOfupI ol.b0ESifh vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_onf cJGjcm;I r&avmufatmif a&maxG;qufEG,faeonfhtjyif OD;atmifqef;um; ol. tZÆwWoEWefESifh uGmjcm;aom A[d'<toGifudk vlxka&SŒarSmuf bef;jyolrsKd; r[kwfcJhyg? ol. ±kyfyHkv$mwckvHk;udk òcHI=unfhygu jrifhrm;aom&nfrSef;csuf/ ckdifrmjywfom;aom pdwf"mwfwdk‹jzifh ol.EkdifiH vGwfvyfa&;&ap&ef acgif;aqmifr_ay;cJhaom oduQmorm"d}uD;rm;onfh vli,fwOD;udk jrif&ayrnf? ol. EkdifiHa&;twdkuftcHrsm;ESifh ol. EkdifiHudk tkyfcsKyfaeaom EkdifiHjcm;om;rsm;udk wdkufcdkufcJhojzifh ol‹tm; opPmazmuf[k jrifcJholwdk‹u OD;atmifqef;onf xifay:ausmf=um;r_vdkvm;ojzifh t=uifemuif;onf/ qifjcifwHkw&m;acgif;yg;onf/ ESpfzufc|efvkyfwwfonf[k pGyfpJGcJh=u.? xdkuJhodk‹aom pGyfpJGcsufrsm;udk ol. vkyfaqmifcsufrSwfwrf;tay: tajcðyI tuJjzwfEkdifygonf? tjcm;olrsm; ydkrdkIaumif;rGefaom acgif;aqmifr_ay;Ekdifonf[k ol ,Hk=unfoI aemufvdkufae&mrS wm0efudk apwemjynfh0pGm xrf;aqmifcJhygonf? olwOD;wnf;om wkdif;jynfudk nDnGwfr_ay;um vGwfvyfa&;yef;wdkifodk‹a&muf&ef acgif;aqmifr_ay;Ekdifrnfjzpfa=umif; xif&Sm;vmaomtcgrS olonf A[dkr¾dKifae&mudk ,lcJhygonf? ausmif;om;b0uyif ol. &if;ESD;aom EkdifiHa&;vkyfazmfudkifzufjzpfcJhol OD;ausmf+idrf;u rnfolurS AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tm; acgif;aqmifae&mudk ay;cJhonfr[kwfbJ/ ol. vkyf&nfudkif&nf ºuG,f0r_a=umifh acgif;aqmifae&mudk &&SdcJhjcif;jzpfa=umif; ajymqdkcJhygonf? OD;atmifqef;onf okefr_efjcif;ESifh pdwfv_yf&Sm;ojzifh aygufuJGjcif;rsm; &SdcJhaomfvnf; vGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_tusKd;iSm pkaygif;qHk;jzwfcsufrsm; cs&mwGif ol. yk*~Kdvfa&;&mcHpm;csufrsm;ESifh tvdkqENwdk‹udk rnfaomtcgr# tom;ray;cJhacs? vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyJGtqifhqifhY olonf &if;ESD;aom EkdifiHa&;vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;ESifh wkdifyifaqmif&GufI w&m;rSefa0zefcsufrsm;udk vufcHum

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toifhawmfqHk;jzpfrnfxifygu wm0efrsm;udk vJ$ajymif;cJGa0ay;ygonf? odk‹aomf udk,fusKd;&Smorm;rsm;/ wm0efrJhvkyf&yfrsm;ESifh vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_udk xdyg;Ekdifrnfh tvkyfysufuGufr_rsm;udk onf;rcHyg? olonf w&m;r#wr_ESifh 'Drkdua&pD0g'wdk‹udk ,Hk=unfvufcHum ol. ukd,fydkifqHk;jzwfcsuft&vkyfygu ydkrdkI aumif;rGefrnfjzpfaom tcsdeftcgrsm;Yyif vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;. tvdkus aqmif&GufcJhonfvnf; &SdcJh.? tr_aqmifaumifpDacgif;aqmiftaeESifh ol.tjrifudk tjcm;olrsm; vufcHap&ef tay:pD;ESifh aqmif&GufcJhjcif; r&SdcJhyg? tm;vHk;u vGwfvyf/ yGifhvif;/ jynfhpHkpGm aqG;aEG;+yD;rS qHk;jzwfcsufcs=uygonf? oludk,fwkdif yGifhvif;pGm 0efcHcJhonfhtwkdif; olonf trSm;t,Gif;uif;olr[kwfyg? odk‹aomf ol. pdwf&nfOm%f&nfum; tpOfojzifh }uD;xGm;wkd;wufEkdifpGrf;&SdcJhygonf?

OD;atmifqef;onf tpGef;a&muf w,loeform;rsm;ukd pJGaqmifEkdifpGrf;xuf rdrdwdk‹ ,Hk=unfav;pm;aom acgif;aqmifatmufwGif pdwf+idrf;at; udk,fcsrf;ompGmjzifh rdrdwdk‹b0udk ESifvdkaom omrefjynfolwdk‹udk pJGaqmifEkdifpGrf;&SdcJhygonf? jynfolwdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹ar#mfrSef;xm;aom acgif;aqmifaumif; t&nftaoG;rsm; OD;atmifqef;Y &Sdonf[k jrifcJh.? olum; udk,fusKd;xuf EkdifiHhtusKd;udk OD;pm;ay;cJhonf? ol. tm%mtxGwftxdyfa&mufaeonfh tcsdefwGifyif qif;qif;&J&J [efyefr&Sd aexdkifcJhonf? acgif;aqmifwdk‹. txl;tcGifhta&;rsm;udk rrufarmbJ acgif;aqmifr_wm0efrsm;udk vufcHcJhonf? xdk‹tjyif olonf EkdifiHa&;yg;eyfvdrRmr_ESifh EkdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&; u|rf;usifr_pGrf;tm;}uD;aomfvnf; ol. twGif;oabmxm;. euf±_dif;vSaom ±dk;om;r_um; rnfaomtcgr# wdrfaumoGm;jcif; r&SdcJhyg? jrefrmEkdifiH jynfolvlxktwGuf OD;atmifqef;onf rdrdwdk‹ vdkvm;awmifhwaecsdefwGif EdkifiH. *k%foduQmudk qnf&ef ay:aygufvmcJholjzpfygonf? ol. b0onf jynfolwdk‹ pdwftm;wufºuG twk,lzG,f&mjzpfouJhodk‹ ol‹tm; owd&vGrf;qGwfjcif;onf jynfolwdk‹. EkdifiHa&;todpdwfudk vrf;rvJGap&ef xdef;uGyfr_tjzpf wnf&Sdvsufaeygonf?

(atmufazmfjyyg aqmif;yg;udk aemufpmrsufESmtopfwGif xnfh&ygrnf?)

2 'Drdkua&pD&SmyHkawmf 1991 ckESpf t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh xkwfa0aom pmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 167-179 udk jrefrmjyefonf?

* * * 1

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_udk qef‹usif=uolrsm;u ,if;v_yf&Sm;r_udk ysufjym;ap&eftvdk‹iSm wkdif;jynftwGuf rnfonfht&mu taumif;qHk;jzpfonfudk jynfolvlxktaejzifh od&SdEkdifpGrf; r&Sd[lI‚if;/ 'Drdkua&pDtajccHoabmw&m;wdk‹onf jrefrmrqef[lI‚if; ajymqdkae=uygonf? wwd,urBmrS tpdk;&wdk‹onf tm%m&Sifpepfudk rSefuefa=umif; jyqdkI qufvufwnf+rJap&ef óud;yrf;&mwGif oabmxm;jynfh0aom 'Drkdua&pDrloabmwdk‹onf EkdifiHjcm;ESifhomqkdifonf[lI y,fcs=uonfrSm topftqef;r[kwfyg? wkdif;&if;om;,Ofaus;r_/ "avhxHk;wrf;pOfvm pHowfrSwfcsufrsm;ESifh rnfonfht&mu udkufnDonf/ rudkufnDonfudk/ ‚if;wdk‹onfomv#if w&m;0ifqHk;jzwfydkifcGifh&Sdonf[k oG,f0dkufaomenf;jzifh ajymqdkae=ujcif;jzpfygonf? tpdk;&. tm%mudk pkpnf;ckdifrmatmif ðyvkyf&ef &nf&G,fonfh Todk‹aom vkyf±dk;vkyfpOf 0g'jzef‹r_rsm;udk EkdifiHa&;ody`Hynm&Sifrsm;/ Oya'ynmausmfrsm;ESifh

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vlr_a&;ynm&Sifrsm;u cJGjcm;pdwfjzm/ avhvmqef;ppfI rrSefuefa=umif; oufaojycJh+yD; jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; jyifyurBm. EkdifiHa&;/ todOm%f wkd;wufr_wdk‹ESifh ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm uJGuGmcJh&aom jrefrmjynfYrl jynfolvlxkudk EkdifiHa&;wm0efay;&ef roifhavsmf[lI‚if;/ 'Drdkua&pDESifh roifhavsmf[lI‚if;/ ajymqdkvmcJhaom ,Hkwrf;pum;ESpf&yfudk acszsuf&mwGif/ jynfolwdk‹onf rdrdukd,fudkom rdrd tm;udk;=u&ygonf? 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_ jrefrmwjynfvHk;odk‹ jyef‹ESH‹oGm;onfESifhwòydifeuf 'Drdkua&pD[laom pum;vHk;. t"dy`m,f/ orkdif;a=umif;ESifh vufawG‹oabmw&m;wkd‹udk tjyif;txef pdwf0ifpm;vm=uygonf? tjrifusOf;ajrmif;aom tm%m&SifpepfatmufwGif t"dy`m,fwdrfI tESpfom&uif;rJhaom w&m;ao0g'udk ESpfaygif; (25) ESpfausmf tm[m&tjzpf cGef‹au|;jcif;cH=u&aomfvnf; jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹. EkdifiHa&;Edk;=um;r_onf‚if;/ pdwful;pdwfoef;wdk‹onf‚if; wHk;roGm;yg? jynfolwdk‹. pDppfa0zef ESD;aESmvdkpdwf/ jiif;ckefaqG;aEG;vdkpdwf/ rwnf;jzwfaom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk od&SdvdkpdwfESifh ,xmblwuspGm cJGjcrf;pdwfjzm avhvmvdkpdwf ponfh pdwf"mwfwdk‹onf wHk;roGm;bJ ydkIyif xufjrufvmonf[k rSwfxif&ygonf? 'Drdkua&pDpepfESifhywfoufaom tawG‹tóuH[lI jynfolwdk‹wGif r&Sdoavmufyif jzpfaomfvnf; ,Ofaus;aomvl‹tzJG‹tpnf;wGif 'Drdkua&pD&Sdxdkufonf[k ‚if;wdk‹. vufawG‹b0ay;todOm%ft& ,Hk=unfvm=uygonf? xkd‹tjyif acwfopfEkdifiHa&; t,ltqpepfrsm;ESifhqkdifaom *Eˆ0ifoDtdk&Doabmw&m;wkd‹udk pdwfyg0ifpm;pGm avhvmvdkpdwfrsm; xufoefvmonfomrubJ 'Drkdua&pDoabmtm; vlr_pepfw&yftaejzifh awG;awmqifjcifr_rsm; EkdifiHtESH‹tjym;wGif ay:xGufvmygonf? jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,frsm;om yg0ifaom tpdk;&pepf/ vl‹tcGifhta&;/ w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&; ponfh tajccHt,ltqrsm;udkvnf; rdrdwdk‹tvdktavsmuf teuft"dy`m,fazmfI aqG;aEG;vm=uygonf? 'Drdkua&pDpnf;rsOf;rsm;/ tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;u tmrcHrnfh vGwfvyfr_ESifh cHpm;cGifhrsm;udk pdwftm;xufoefpGm qifjcifawG;awmvm=uygonf? wnf+rJaom 'Drkdua&pDpepfudk xdef;odrf;&ef wm0ef,lrnfhyk*~Kdvfwdk‹. 0wW&m;onfvnf; tawG;e,fcsJŒap&ef v_H‹aqmfay;aom ta=umif;t&myif jzpfygonf? qdk;oGrf;aomtpdk;&. '%fudk qkd;0g;pGmcHcJh&aom jynfolvlxkonf aumif;rGefaom tpdk;&ESifhqkdifaom oDtdk&Dt,ltqrsm;udk txl;tm±HkpdkufaeonfrSm obm0yifjzpfygonf? "avhxHk;wrf;pOfvmt& oGefoifqHk;ronfh tcef;u¾rS yg0ifaom Ak'<bmom &[ef;oHCmawmfwdk‹uvnf; Ak'<0ifpmayrsm;udk udk;um;I umva'ora&G; ajymif;vJjcif;r&SdEkdifaom wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;udk &Sif;vif;jyoum trsm;jynfol. ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;udk xkwfazmfajymqdk&mY OD;aqmifvrf;jyvkyf=uygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; a&S;xHk;pOfvm ynmA[kokwudk rsufarSmufacwfvdktyfcsufrsm;ESifh qDavsmf&avatmif owd&SdpGm óud;yrf;&mY txl;oD;oef‹ todkif;t0dkif;wGifom r[kwfbJ òrd‹aeynmwwfESifh aps;onfuav;rsm;rSpI aus;vufa'ou wufºuGaom tzGm;tdkrsm;txd jrefrmhvl‹tzJG‹tpnf;w&yfvHk;wGif óud;pm;tm;xkwfaejcif;yif jzpfygonf? jrefrmjynfwGif obm0 o,HZmwypPnf;rsm;ESifh vltiftm;&Sdygvsuf ta&SŒawmiftm&SwGif pGrf;&nft&SdqHk;ESifh wkd;wufr_tjrefqHk; EkdifiHwEkdifiH jzpfvm&rnf[laom tapmydkif;u xm;&SdcJhonfh uwdtwdkif; aqmif&GufEdkifjcif; r&SdcJhonfrSm tb,fa=umifhenf;? tjynfjynfqkdif&m ynm&Sifrsm;u ordkif;/ ,Ofaus;r_/ EdkifiHa&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;ta=umif;tcsufrsm;udk aocsmpGm cJGjcrf;pdwfjzmavhvmI tao;pdwftajzrsm;udk ay;xm;+yD;jzpfygonf? jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹url ,if;odk‹aom ("gwfyHkvmygonf?) tay: oDv&Sifrsm;ESifhtwl atmuf

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bk&m;0wfðyaepOf (aqmif;yg;tquf) acwfrDynm&yfqkdif&m tcsuftvufrsm;udk r&Edkifaoma=umifh wkdif;jynf qkwf,kwfysufpD; ,kd,Gif;&jcif;ta=umif;. t"dutcsufukd &SmazGavhvm&mwGif Ak'<bk&m;. qHk;r=o0g'rsm;udkom tm;udk;tm;xm;ðy=u&m ta=umif;t&if;av;ckudk awG‹&ayonf? “aysmufv#if r&Sm/ ysufwm rjyif/ qifjcif roHk;/ tðzef; a[mh&rf;/ vl‹aygufyef;ukd/ a&SŒwef;rSmwif/ Tav;tif-rSefyifysufpD;a=umif;?” (t*FkwW& edum, pwkwˆ edygu ygVdawmf?) rsufarSmufacwftajctaet& t"dy`m,fzGifhqdk&rnfqkdygu ppftm%m&Sifpepfa=umifh aysmufqHk;oGm;&aom 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;rsm;udk jyefvnf&&Sd&eftwGuf óud;yrf;r_ tvHktavmufr&Sdjcif;/ udk,fusifhw&m;ESifh EkdifiHa&;qkdif&m wefzdk;xm;r_rsm; ,kd,Gif;ysufpD;vmonfudk tjyif;txef óud;pm;[ef‹wm;r_ rðyvkyfjcif;/ pD;yGm;a&;udk qdk;0g;pGm }uD;=uyfuGyfuJjcif;ESifh wkdif;jynfudk ynmtar#mftjrifvnf;r&Sd/ orm"dvnf; r&Sdaomolwdk‹u tkyfcsKyfjcif; ponfhta=umif;rsm;yif jzpfygonf? 1962 ckESpfrSpI jrefrmEdkifiH ,dk,Gif;ysufpD;vm&onfh t"duta=umif;&if;rsm;udk &SmazG&mwGif tu|rf;usifqHk;aom ynm&Sifu aemufqHk;ay: acwfrDtaumif;qHk; okawoeenf;pepfrsm;udk oHk;I aocsmjynfhpHkatmif avhvmxm;csufonfyifv#if xdkxufydkI rSefuefwdusjywfom;pGm azmfjyEkdifrnfr[kwfyg? wygwDqdk&S,fvpf tm%m&SifpepfatmufwGif csrSwfaom tpdk;&vrf;pOfrsm;onf wu,fhvdktyfcsufrsm;ESifh qDavsmfjcif;r&SdI jrefrmjynfY pD;yGm;a&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&; raocsm ra&&mr_rsm; jzpfay:vmojzifh ae‹pOfb0&yfwnfa&;twGuf vmbfay;vmbf,lr_ESifh pnf;urf;Oya'wdrf;a&Smifr_rsm;udk rvJGraoG usL;vGefvm=u&ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; ESpfaygif;=umjrifhpGm udk,fusifhw&m;ysufjym;r_ESifh pD;yGm;a&;usqif;r_rsm; jzpfyGm;aeonfh=um;rS jynfolvlxkESifh acgif;aqmifydkif;wdk‹ yl;aygif;I rludk tajccH+yD; óud;pm;vkyfudkifygu pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;wdk‹udk atmifjrifpGm &Edkifrnf[laom pdwful;tjrifonf jrefrmjynfwGif &Sifoefvsuf usef&Sdaeygonf? 1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_onf ,if;pdwful;tjrifudk taumiftxnfazmfEkdifrnfh ar#mfvifhcsufudk ay:aygufapygonf? tajccHtusqHk;ESifh csufcsif;vkyfaqmif&rnfhtqifhwGif oabmxm;jynfh0aom 'Drkdua&pDpepf[lonfrSm tzJG‹tpnf;w&yftaejzifhqdkygu w&m;r#wI vGwfvyfaom a&G;aumufyJGpepft& a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufxm;aom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u zJG‹pnf;yHktajccHOya't& owfrSwfxm;onfh tcsdefumvtwGif; zJG‹pnf;xm;aom tpdk;&yifjzpfygonf? jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹. acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; ‚if;wdk‹zmom a&G;cs,fydkifcGifhudk wm0ef&SdpGm usifhoHk;jcif;tm;jzifh qkwf,kwfusqif;onfh jzpfpOfudk xda&mufpGm pwifwGef;vSefEkdifrnf[k ar#mfvifhae=uygonf? jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹onf tpdk;&ESifhywfoufaom xHk;wrf;pOfvm oDtdk&Dt,ltqrsm;udk qef;ppfI 'Drdkua&pDonf ‚if;wdk‹. ,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m pHowfrSwfcsufrsm;ESifh roifhavsmf[laom 0g'jzef‹csufudk wefjyefqef‹usif=uygonf?

Ak'<bmom urBmhorkdif;tjrift& vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;onf pif=u,faom rlvtptajctaerS qkwf,kwfusqif;vm+yD; udk,fhusifhw&m;ESifh vlr_a&;ysufjym;r_rsm;udk óuHawG‹vm&aomtcgY w&m;r#wa&;ESifh +idrf;csrf;a&;udk jyefvnf&&Sd&eftwGuf tpdk;&rif;udk a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufvkdufjcif;

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jzpfygonf? tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfolonf bJG‹trnfoHk;rsKd;jzifh xif&Sm;ygonf? r[morRw [k trnf&jcif;rSm wkdif;oljynfom;tm;vHk;. oabmwlnDcsuft& wifajr‡mufjcif;cH&I jzpfygonf? cwWd, [k trnf&jcif;rSm v,fajrwdk‹udk pdk;rdk;ydkifqkdifI jzpfygonf? &mZm [k trnf&jcif;rSm oDvw&m;apmifhxdef;jcif;jzifh jynfol‹arwWmudk &,lxm;Ijzpfygonf? yxrqHk;aomrif;u ‚if;&,lonfh qefpyg; a0pka0yHktwGuf ajzmifhrwfpGmtkyfcsKyfrnf[k wm0ef,laom oabmwlnDcsufonf vlom;tcsif;csif; tjyeftvSef oabmwlnDr_ &,lI wnfaxmifaomtpdk;&/ wenf;tm;jzifh vlr_yÉdnmOft& wnfaxmifzJG‹pnf;aom tpdk;&pepfudk Ak'<bmomtjrifjzifh jyojcif;yifjzpfygonf? r[morRw onf tdENd,rS tajccHvmaom ta&SŒawmiftm&S bk&ifpepfyHkpHyifjzpfygonf? TyHkpHonf bk&ifpepftm; yk*~vdu udk,fydkiftjzpfodk‹a&mufatmif tm;ay;&ma&mufojzifh acwfopfEdkifiHawmfqkdif&m t,ltqESifh qef‹usifbufjzpfonf[k a0zef=uygonf? taemufwkdif; t,ltqwGif bk&if[lonf “obm0cE<m” ESifh “EdkifiHawmfcE<m” [lI cE<mESpfyg;jzpfav&m wrif;vGefI aemufwrif; acsmarmpGm qufqHonfhpepfudk tm;ay;ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; r[morRwrif;tm; trsm;jynfol.oabmjzifh a&G;cs,fjcif;jzpf+yD; ‚if;onf w&m;r#waom Oya'rsm;ESifhtnD tkyfcsKyf&ef vdktyfaoma=umifh a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufI Oya'ESifhtnD tkyfcsKyf&aom tpdk;&[lonfh t,ltqonf jrefrmhxHk;wrf;pOfvm tawG;tac:ESifh jcm;em;jcif; r&Sdyg?

Ak'<bmomtjrifwGif tpdk;&rif;wdk‹Y wkdif;jynfudk xifovdktkyfcsKyfEdkifonfh xm0&bk&m;ocifay;xm;aom vkyfydkifcGifhrsKd; r&Sdyg? tpdk;&rif;wdk‹onf rif;usifhw&m;q,fyg; qkwf,kwfr_udk [ef‹wm;onfh ty&d[med,w&m; ckESpfyg;/ o*F[w&m; av;yg; ponfwdk‹udk apmifhxdef;&rnfjzpfygonf? xdk‹tjyif rif;wdk‹usifhaom w&m; q,fhESpfyg;/ em,u*k%f ajcmufyg;/ &mZ*k%f &Spfyg;/ &efatmifa=umif;w&m; av;yg; ponfh rsm;jym;vSaom tusifhpm&dwWvrf;n$efpnf;urf;twdkif; ðyrl&rnfjzpfygonf?

wzufu rif;tm; &efolrsKd;ig;yg;xJwGif xnfhoGif;xm;+yD; wzufu tm%m&Sdolwdk‹ tusifhpm&dwWaumif;rGefap&ef oGefoifqHk;ray;jcif;udk tm;ay;usifhoHk;aom xHk;wrf;pOfvmonf usKd;a=umif; qifjcifr_ESifh jynfhpHkygonf? jrefrmjynfom;rsm;onf tm%m&SiftkyfcsKyfa&; tawG‹tóuHrsm;pGm &SdcJhojzifh tpdk;&ESifh ywfoufvmv#if oabmw&m; oDtdk&DESifh vufawG‹usifhoHk;r_wdk‹Y pdwfrcsrf;ajrŒp&m uGm[csuf}uD; &Sdonfudk aumif;pGm od&Sdem;vnfxm;=uygonf?

vlodrsm;aom rif;usifhw&m;q,fyg;udk urBmay:wGif yxrqHk;ay:aygufaom tpdk;&rif;tm; wkdif;wm&mwGif‚if;/ acwfopftpdk;&tm; wkdif;wm&mwGif‚if; udkufwHtjzpf toHk;ðyEdkifonfudk a,bk,stm;jzifh vufcHxm;=uygonf? rif;usifhw&m;rsm;rSm ay;urf;pGef‹}uJjcif; ('ge)/ udk,fusifhw&m;aumif;rGefjcif; (oDv)/ udk,fusKd;pGef‹jcif; (y&dpPm*)/ pdwfxm;ajzmifhrwfjcif; (tZ…0)/ =uifemjcif; (r'N0)/ òcd;+cHjcif; (wy)/ trsufrxGufjcif; (tauUm")/ t=urf;rzufjcif; (t0da[o)/ onf;cHjcif; (cEWD)ESifh jynfol‹tvdkukd rqef‹usifjcif; (t0da&m") ponfwdk‹jzpfygonf?

ay;urf;pGef‹}uJjcif; ('ge) [laom rif;usifhw&m;t& tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfolonf jynfolvlxk om,m0ajyma&;twGuf &ufa&mpGm ay;urf;&rnfjzpfojzifh tpdk;&[lonf EdkifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm;udk tvHktavmufay;urf;EkdifpGrf; &Sd&rnf[k t"dy`m,foufa&mufygonf? acwfopfEkdifiHa&;tajctaeESifh qdkygu wm0efodaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfw&yf. tajccHwm0efwckrSm EdkifiHawmf. pD;yGm;a&;ckdifrmr_udk aocsmatmif ðyvkyfjcif;yifjzpfygonf?

udk,fusifhw&m; (oDv) [lonfrSm Ak'<bmomxHk;wrf;pOfvmt& ig;yg;oDvapmifhxdef;onfhtay:wGif tajccHxm;ygonf? ig;yg;oDv[lonfrSm toufrowfjcif;/ rckd;jcif;/ rkom;roHk;jcif;/ t&ufaopmroHk;aqmifjcif;/ olwyg;om;r,m;tm; rjypfrSm;jcif; ponfwdk‹yif jzpfygonf? jynfolwdk‹. ,Hk=unfr_ESifh ±dkaoav;pm;r_udk &&Sd&ef‚if;/ jynfolwdk‹udk aysmf&$ifcsrf;omºuG,f0r_ ay;Edkif&ef‚if;/ pHerlemaumif; jyo&ef‚if; tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfolonf udk,fusifhw&m;aumif;rGef&rnf jzpfygonf? bk&ifu

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"rRudk apmifhxdef;jcif; r&SdaomtcgwGif rif;r_xrf;wdk‹ azmufjyef=uygonf? rif;r_xrf;wdk‹ azmufjyefaomtcgwGif jynfoljynfom;wdk‹ 'kuQa0'emrsm;pGm cHpm;=u&ygonf? xdk‹tjyif oDvr&Sdaomrif;onf wkdif;jynfY ab;'kuQqdk;}uD; usa&mufaponf[kvnf; ,Hk=unf=uygonf? wkdif;jynfwjynf uH=urRmqdk; óuH&onfh tajccHt&if;tjrpfudk tpdk;&. udk,fusifhw&m;ysufjym;r_rsm;wGif awG‹&SdEdkifrnf jzpfygonf?

wwd,rif;usifhw&m;rSm y&dpPm*jzpf+yD; ay;urf;pGef‹}uJjcif;[lI‚if;/ udk,fusKd;pGef‹jcif;[lI‚if; t"dy`m,fzGifhqdk=uygonf? ay;urf;&ufa&mjcif;onf yxrrif;usifhw&m; ('ge) ESifh xyfwljzpfaeojzifh jynfoljynfom;wdk‹tusKd;twGuf tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfolu &ufa&monfhae&mwGif tqHk;pGefaom &ufa&mjcif;jzpfygonf? udk,fusKd;udkyif pGef‹v$wfjcif;[lI t"dy`m,fzGifhqdku ydkIauseyfzG,fjzpfygrnf? trsm;tusKd; o,fydk;Ekdif&ef udk,fusKd;pGef‹v$wfonfh oabmw&m;udk jyo&mY tavmif;awmf okar"m &Sif&aohtm; pHerlemtjzpf tcsKdŒu axmufjyygonf? tavmif;awmf&Sif&aohonf wb0wGif edAŠmefr*fzdkvfudk rsufarSmufðyEkdifygvsufESifh owW0gtrsm; oHo&m0Éfqif;&JrS vGwfajrmufap&eftvdk‹iSm bk&m;qkyefum ra&rwGufEdkifavmufatmif rsm;jym;aomb0taygif;wGif usifvnf&rnfhtjzpfudk vufcHcJhygonf? ,if;uJhodk‹yif vlóudufrsm;aomyHkjyifwckrSm rdrd.toufudk paw;I vufatmufi,fom;rsm;udk u,fq,fcJhaom bk&m;tavmif; ajrmufrif;0wˆKyif jzpfygonf? ajrmufrif;u,fq,fvdkufolrsm;xJwGif ‚if;tm; ysufpD;&ef tpOfwpdkuf vdkvm;cJh+yD; aemufqHk; ‚if;.toufudkyg qHk;±H_;atmifðyvkyfcJhol (a'0'wf) vnf; yg0ifygonf?

pdwfxm;ajzmifhrwfjcif; (tZ…m0) qdkonfrSm jynfol‹0efudk xrf;aqmif&mwGif azmufjyefr_uif;&Sif;&rnf[k oabm&+yD; yk*~Kdvfa&;qufqHr_rsm;wGifvnf; ajzmifhrwf±dk;om;&rnfjzpfygonf? “rif;rSmopPm/ vlrSmuwd” [laom qdk±dk;pum;t& omrefyk*~KdvfwOD;taejzifh ‚if;ay;cJhaom uwdtwdkif;om vkyfaqmif±Hkr#omvdkaomfvnf; tkyfcsKyfolwdk‹rSmrl um,uH/ 0pDuH/ raemuH t& opPmw&m;udk tpOfxdef;odrf;xm;&ygonf? opPmw&m;onf Ak'<w&m; tqHk;tr=o0g'rsm;. tESpfom&yifjzpfygonf? Ak'<&Sifawmfonf rdrdudk,fudk rdrd wxm*w odk‹r[kwf opPmw&m;odk‹ a&muf&Sdvmol[k &nfn$ef;ygonf? xdk‹a=umifh Ak'<bmom0ifrif;wdk‹onf “ol‹trnfonmESifh ol‹obm0 tpOfxm0& nDnGwfajzmifhrSefjcif;” wnf;[laom opPmw&m;ESifhtnD aexkdiftkyfcsKyf&rnfyif jzpfygonf? jynfolvlxkudk vdrfvnfvSnfhjzm;r_/ txifrSm; tjrifrSm; jzpfapr_ ponfwdk‹onf tvkyfwm0ef0wW&m; ysufuGufc|wf,Gif;I udk,fusifhw&m;udk azmufzsufjcif;yif jzpfygonf? “jrm;ES,fpif;I/ 0rf;wGif;ajzmifhwef;/ raumuf,Gif;wnfh/ wpGef;[u/ ESpfcGraoG” (pwk"rRom& udk;cef;ysKdŒ)?

tkyfcsKyf&mY pdwfxm;El;nHhr_ (r'N0) [lonfrSm jynfolvlxktusKd;twGuf pdk;&drfylyefa=umifh=ur_udk cHpm;Ekdifaom owWdyif jzpfygonf? rdrdwdk‹. tcGifhta&;udk awmif;qdkEkdifpGrf; tvGefenf;yg;aeolwdk‹. qif;&J'kuQudk vspfv#L±_jcif;onf ‚if;wdk‹. vdktyfcsufudk xda&mufpGm wHk‹jyefta&;,lvkyfaqmifay;jcif;xuf ydkIvG,fulonfrSm rjiif;Edkifaomtcsufyif jzpfygonf? olwyg;udk *±kpdkufjcif;onf wm0ef,ljcif;yifjzpfI tm;enf;olwdk‹. tm;onf rif;jzpfonf[laom tqdktwdkif; vkyf&Jjcif;yif jzpfygonf? vlodrsm;+yD;jzpfaom r[m0Ho0wˆKwGif tajccHonfh 19 &mpkacwf 0dZ,jyZmwfY jynfolwdk‹udk aomu'kuQrsm;pGm a&mufaponfh qkd;oGrf;aom om;awmf}uD;tm; zcifbk&ifu jynfESif'%fay;vdkuf&ygonf? “rif;wdk‹"rRm/ jynfolESifh om;/ tcspftm;jzifh/ rjcm;&m/ arwWmnDr#/ aumif;ayonf?”

òcd;+cHa&;wm0ef (wy) t& bk&ifonf ±dk;om;aomtusifhrsm;udk vdkufem&rnf? rdrdudk,frdrd xdef;odrf;uGyfuJwwf&rnf? aumif;jrwfaom pdwf"mwf&Sdatmif avhusifhay;&rnf jzpfygonf? òcd;+cHr_udk *±krðybJ pdwftvdkvdkufI tvGeftu|Hðzef;wD;aeaom tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfoludk r[morRwrif;acwfu vufrcHEdkifouJhodk‹ ,ae‹jrefrmEdkifiHwGifvnf; vufcHEdkifvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg? owWr/ tÏr/ e0r rif;usifhw&m;wdk‹jzpfaom a'gouif;jcif; (tauUm")/ t=urf;rzufjcif; (t0da[o) ESifh onf;cHjcif; (cEWD)

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wdk‹onf wckESifhwck qufpyfaeonf[k qdkEdkifygonf? tiftm;}uD;olwdk‹. a'goa=umifh pdwfrcsrf;ajrŒp&m tusKd;qufrsm; us,fjyef‹pGm ay:xGufvmEdkifojzifh rif;wdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹. rvdkrkef;wD;pdwfrsm;udk um,uHajrmufonfh a'goESifh t=urf;zufr_tjzpfodk‹ raygufuJGoGm;ap&ef xdef;odrf;&rnf jzpfygonf? rdrdu xifovdkacsr_ef;Ekdifolrsm;. v_H‹aqmf&efpr_ESifh csKdŒ,Gif;csufrsm;udk ynm&SdyDoI oabmxm;}uD;pGm udkifwG,fEdkifaprnfh ppfrSefaom onf;cHjcif;w&m; (cEWD) udk tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfolwdk‹ usifh}uH&rnfjzpfygonf? t=urf;zufr_onf Ak'<0g' tqHk;trESifh qef‹usifbufjzpfygonf? &maZm0g' Zmwfawmft& rif;aumif;rif;jrwfwdk‹onf a'go}uD;oludk arwWmESifhatmifEkdif./ raumif;r_udk aumif;r_ESifh atmifEkdif./ ap;eJoludk ay;urf;jcif;jzifh atmifEkdif&m./ rrSefaompum;qdkoludk trSefqdkjcif;jzifh atmifEkdif&m.? t=urf;rzufbJ *±k%mw&m;jzifh wkdif;jynfudktkyfcsKyfol tmaomubk&if}uD;udk pHjyAk'<bmombk&iftjzpf t+rJwrf; erlemjy=uygonf? tpdk;&onf =urf;wrf;cufxefjcif;/ oDvESifhrnDaom tiftm;oHk;jcif;wdk‹jzifh emcHr_&atmif óud;pm;tm;xkwfjcif; rðybJ trSefw&m;ESifh atmifEkdif&ef ("rR0dZ&) udkom OD;wnf&rnf jzpfygonf? '\rrif;usifhw&m;rSm jynfol‹tvdkqENudk rqef‹usif&[k qdkxm;ojzifh 'Drdkua&pDudk Ak'<bmomu axmufcHvdkufonfhoabm oufa&mufygonf? vlodrsm;aom Ak'<0ifyHkjyifrsm;uvnf; Toabmudk axmufcHxm;ygonf? vlom;t&omudk óudufESpfoufoGm;aom ayg&dom'bk&ifonf Zwfwlom;pm;onfhtusifhudk pGef‹v$wf&ef jynfolvlxku awmif;qdkonfudk *±krðyojzifh wkdif;jynfrS xGufcGmcJh&ygonf? bk&m;w&m; tvGef=unf!dkaom a0oEW&mrif;}uD;onfvnf; 'geyg&rDjznfhqnf;&ef óud;pm;tm;xkwfpOftwGif; jynfol‹oabmwlnDcsufrygbJ EdkifiHydkif qifjzLawmfudk vª'gef;vdkufojzifh jynfESif'g%fay;jcif; cH&ygonf? jynfol‹tvdkqENudk rqef‹usif&[laom wm0ef0wW&m;. tESpfom& t& jynfolvlxk. oabmwlnDcsuf &&SdrSomv#if tpdk;&onf w&m;0ifI Oya'ESifhtnD jzpfEkdifygrnf? tkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfolonf jynfol‹tusKd;pD;yGm;udk o,fydk;EkdifpGrf;r&Sd[k jynfolu ,lqvmygu tpdk;&tm; ay;tyfxm;onfh vkyfydkifcGifhudk jynfolvlxku tcsdefra&G; jyefvnf±kyfodrf;ydkifcGifh&Sd&ygrnf? pnf;urf;wm0efESifhtnDjzpfaom/ jynfol‹qENudkav;pm;aom/ w&m;r#wonfh Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;udk t"duxm;aom tpdk;&wdk‹onf jynfol‹qENudkav;pm;&ef rvdkaom tm%m& vlwef;pm; odk‹r[kwf tm%m&SifwOD;. tkyfcsKyfr_xufydkI Ak'<bmombk&ifpepf. xHk;wrf;pOfvmwm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk vdkufemaqmif&GufEdkifrnf[lonfudk 'Drdkua&pDbufrS tcdkiftrmajymqdkxm;ygonf? trsm;jynfolu 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&pepfudk ar#mfrSef;jcif;onf rSefuefa=umif;/ t"dy`m,f&Sda=umif;/ xHk;wrf;pOfvm wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;u jyoaeygonf?

2 'Drdkua&pD[lonfrSm tpdk;&yHkpepfwckr#om ruao;bJ vlwOD;csif;udk ±dkaoav;pm;onfhtay:Y

tajccHxm;aom vlr_a&;ESifh oabmw&m;a&;&mwdk‹tm; pkpnf;aygif;pyfxm;aompepf jzpfonf[k jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹u ,lqxm;=uygonf? ‚if;wdk‹udk rnfonfhtwGuf 'Drdkua&pDudkvdkvm;=uygoenf;[k ar;aomtcgY EkdifiHa&;wGif pdwf0ifpm;r_ tenf;qHk;olwdk‹uyif “usaemfwdk‹taeeJ‹uawmh udk,fhzmomudk,f vGwfvGwfvyfvyf/ at;at;csrf;csrf; udk,fhtvkyfudk vkyfcsifwmygyJ? b,fol‹udkrS 'kuQray;csifygbl;? ra=umufr±GHŒ/ rpdk;&drf&bJ toifhtwifh pm;aomufaexdkifEdkifatmif toufarG;0rf;ausmif;av; wckavmufom vdkcsifwmyg” vdk‹ ajz=um;rSmjzpfygonf? wenf;tm;jzifhqdkaomf csKdŒwJh&r_/ a=umuf±GHŒ&r_rS uif;a0;I at;csrf;wnf+idrfoduQm&Sdaom b0rsKd;udk tmrcHEdkifrnfh tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹u vdkvm;jcif; jzpfygonf? 'Drdkua&pDoDcsif;rsm;wGifvnf; ,if;odk‹aom jyif;jyonfh wrf;wcsufrsm;udk azmfjyxm;ygonf? “xrif;pm;aom puf±kyfrsm;xJrSm ta&ma&m taESmaESmwdk‹ryg/ vlwkdif;vlwkdif; vl‹tcGifhta&;&Sdoifhw,f”/ “±dkif;pdkif;wJh awmwd&p>mefrsm;vnf;r[kwf/ tm;vHk;u todeJ‹vlawG/ vufeufjy+cdrf;ajcmufum tkyfcsKyfr_ &yfwef;u&yfoifh+yDav/ ta&;tcif;wkdif; aoewfeJ‹ajz&Sif;vdk‹awmh jrefrmjynfrSm vlomukefrav?”

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vl‹tcGifhta&;jy\emonf 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_. t"dutpdwftydkif;wck jzpfvmaomtcgY tpdk;&owif;Xmersm;u vl‹tcGifhta&;t,ltqwckvHk;udk jyuf&,fðy±_wfcsI "avhxHk;wrf;pOfvm wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;ESifh rudkufnDaom taemufwdkif;toHk;taqmifr#om jzpfonf[k pwiforkwfvm=uonfrSmvnf; óudwifcef‹rSef;Ekdifaomtcsufyif jzpfygonf? owW0grsm;teuf vlom;pifppfomv#if tqifhtjrifhqHk; tajctaejzpfaom bk&m;tjzpfudk &&SdEkdifojzifh vlom;tm; tvGefwefzdk;xm;onfh jrefrmh±dk;&m,Ofaus;r_ tajccHjzpfaom Ak'<0g'udk t&JGŒwdkufum ajymif;jyefvkyfaeouJhodk‹yif jzpfaeygonf? vlwkdif;wGif rdrdqENt& óud;yrf;tm;xkwfjcif;jzifh opPmw&m;udk od&SdEkdifpGrf;&Sd+yD; olwyg;udk odap&eftwGufvnf; ulnDEdkifaom tvm;tvm&Sdygonf? xdk‹a=umifh vl‹touf.wefzdk;onf tqHk;tpr&Sdyg? jA[RmbHkrSusvmaom tyfwacsmif;ESifh urBmajr}uD;ay:wGif pdkufxm;aom tyfwacsmif;wdk‹ xdawG‹=uonfrSm vljzpf&onfxuf vG,fulygonf[kyif qdk=uonfr[kwfygavm?

odk‹aomfvnf; tm%m&Siftpdk;&wdk‹onf vlom;udk EkdifiHawmf. tzdk;weftpdwftydkif;tjzpf todtrSwfrðy=ubJ EdkifiHolEdkifiHom;[lonfrSm xifovdk udkifwG,fI &aom/ rnfolrnf0grSef; rodaom/ todOm%fr&Sdaom/ tultnDuif;rJhaom vlxk}uD;omjzpfonf[k ,lq=uygonf? jynfolwdk‹tm; wkdif;jynf. toufaoG;cJ[k rSwf,lrnfhtpm; ta=umif;tm;avsmfpGm a&muf&Sdaeaom ta&;rygolrsm;[k ,lqxm;ouJhodk‹yif jzpfygonf? rdrd. wkdif;jynfudk cspfcifjrwfEdk;pGm apmifha&Smufjcif;jzpfaom jynfcspfpdwftm; tm%m&Sifwdk‹. rw&m;r_rsm;udk aoG;±l;aoG;wef; zHk;uG,f&mwGif toHk;ðyjcif;jzifh wefzdk;usqif;apygonf? tm%m&Sifwdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹. usOf;ajrmif;aom udk,fydkiftusKd;pD;yGm;ay:wGif rlwnfI jynfcspfpdwfudk t"dy`m,fazmf=uygonf? tpdk;&. t,l0g'ukd apm'urwufbJ vufcH,Hk=unf&rnfqdkonfrSm jynfh0aomAk'<bmom oabmw&m;rsm;ESifh udkufnDonfxuf taemufwkdif;wGif }uD;pdk;cJhaom wif;=uyfonfh c&pf,mefa&S;a[mif;bmoma&; oabmw&m;wdk‹ESifh ydkrdkudkufnDaeouJhodk‹ jzpfygonf?

“,HkrSm;oifhonfudk ,HkrSm;&m. æ xyfcgwvJajymoH=um;±HkESifh æ [kwf+yDrSef+yD[k r,HkavESifh/ tpOftqufu =um;zl;±HkESifh/ owif;pum; =um;zl;±HkESifh r,HkavESifh/ rdrdudk,fwkdif raumif;aomt&mjzpfonf/ rSm;,Gif;onf[k od&Sdaomtcg pGef‹v$wfI/ rdrdudk,fwkdif aumif;aomt&mudk od&SdvmaomtcgwGifrS vufcHygav” (t*FkwW& edum,f okwWefydÉuwfawmfvm/ auorkwWdokwf)

vlom;. oaE<yg*k%foduQmESifh vlom;ESifh cJGcGmIr&aom nDr#aom tcGifhta&;rsm;udk todtrSwfðyxm;onfh t,ltq/ vlwkdif;wGif trSm;trSefudk a0zefydkif;jcm;Edkifaom todOm%fESifh qifjcifwHkw&m;&Sdonfudk vufcHxm;aom t,ltq/ vltcsif;csif; nDtudkarmifESrozG,f arwWmxm;&Sd&ef t}uHðyxm;aom t,ltq ponfh tawG;tac: t,ltqwdk‹onf rdrdwdk‹. wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;ESifh rnfuJhodk‹ qef‹usifbufjzpfEkdifrnfudk jrefrmEdkifiHol EkdifiHom;rsm;taejzifh em;rvnfEdkifatmif jzpfae&ygonf? urBmhvl‹tcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf;. pmydk'f (30) wdk‹wGif yg&Sdaom tcGifhta&;rsm;udk ukodkvfw&m;ESifhnDonf/ aumif;rGefonf[k roHk;oyfygu rnfuJhodk‹ oHk;oyf&rnfudk jrefrmjynfolwdk‹tzdk‹ pOf;pm;&cufvSygonf? jrefrmEdkifiHonf 1948 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif ,if;a=unmpmwrf;udk twnfðy&ef axmufcHrJay;cJhaom EdkifiHwEdkifiHjzpfaeonfhtav#muf Ta=unmpmwrf;udk jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹u jrefrmEdkifiHwGif a&;qJGcJhjcif;r[kwfojzifh y,fcs&rnfqdkjcif;rSm rvHkavmufaom ta=umif;jycsuf[k tenf;qHk; ajymqdkEkdifygonf? t,ltq/ tawG;tac:/ ,Hk=unfcsufrsm;onf pwifay:ayguf&m ae&ma'o. yx0DESifh ,Ofaus;r_qkdif&m e,ferdwfjyifywGif w&m;r0if[k jiif;qdkaeygu Ak'<bmomonf tdENd,jynfajrmufydkif;Yom xGef;um;Ekdifrnfjzpf+yD; c&pf,mefbmomonf ta&SŒtv,fydkif;a'o&Sd usOf;ajrmif;aome,fajrav;Yom‚if;/ tpPvrfbmomonfvnf; tma&;AD;,m;a'oYom‚if; xGef;um;Ekdif=urnf jzpfygonf? 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHrsm;rS EdkifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm; &&Sdaom tcGifhta&;rsm;

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cHpm;ydkifcGifhrsm;udk jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹ rcHpm;xdkuf[laom pum;onf apmfum;&ma&mufygonf? wcsdefwnf;wGif jrefrmEkdifiHtpdk;&url 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHtpdk;&rsm;xuf ydkrdkI tcGifhta&;rsm; cHpm;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf[k ,lqxm;jcif;rSm ,kwWdwefygovm;[k ar;p&m jzpfygonf? Todk‹ a&SŒaemufpum;rnDr_udk rSefuefa=umif; jyqdkEdkifjcif;r&Sdaomfvnf; &Sif;vif;azmfjyEdkifygonf? tpdk;&ESifh jynfolvlxkt=um; uGm[r_ tifrwefrS }uD;rm;aeojzifh ,if;uJhodk‹ oD;jcm;cJGI pHowfrSwfum qHk;jzwf&jcif;jzpfonf[k qdk&rnfjzpfygonf? TuJhodk‹ }uD;rm;aom uGm[r_&Sdaeav&m tpdk;&onfomv#if EdkifiHwEkdifiHvHk;. wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;udk òcHiHkudk,fpm;ðyEkdifonf[laom 0g'tay:Yyif oHo,jzpf&ygonf?

usKd;a=umif;qifjcifr_rcdkifvHkjcif;/ a&SŒaemuf pum;rnDjcif;/ jynfolvlxkESifh uif;uGmjcif;wdk‹onf tm%m&Sifpepf. =ueftifvuQ%mrsm;yif jzpfygonf? tm%m&Siftpdk;&wdk‹onf vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:r_ESifh t,ltqopfrsm;udk ydwfyifwm;jrpf&ef rem;rae óud;pm;tm;xkwfI ‚if;wdk‹om rSefuefonf[k xyfcgwvJvJ wif;rmpGm ajymqdkaejcif;a=umifh ‚if;wdk‹Y todOm%f A[kokw rwdk;wufbJ &yfwef‹oGm;&+yD; jynfolvlxkwdk‹onfvnf; ‚if;wdk‹enf;wl todOm%f A[kokw &yfwef‹oGm;+yD[k ,lq=uygonf? +cdrf;ajcmufr_ESifh 0g'jzef‹r_udk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f&mwGif wufnDvufnD toHk;ðyaeI ae&mwumwGif a=umuf±GHŒr_/ ouFmruif;jzpfr_rsm; ay:aygufae&m jynfolvlxkonf cHpm;csufudk zHk;uG,fI qdwfqdwfaewwfvmygonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif ‚if;wdk‹tm; “xrif;pm;onfh puf±kyf” tqifhrS rdrdwdk‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk jynfh0pGm cHpm;ydkifcGifh&SdI acgif;axmifvmEkdifum vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:ajymqdkEkdifaom vlom;tqifhodk‹ wkd;jr‡ifhay;rnfhpepfudk awmifhwonfh qENrsm;rSmvnf; tpOfwpdkuf }uD;xGm;vsuf&Sdygonf? jrefrmjynf. 'Drdkua&pDwkdufyJGonf ueOD;uyif tEW&m,frsm;vSygonf? rdrdwdk‹ydkifqdkifor#udk jzpfonfhenf;jzifh qufvufudkifxm;rnf[k oEMdÏmefcsxm;aom tcGifhxl;cHvlenf;pk. vufwGif;Y =um&SnfpGm wnf&SdcJhaom tcGifhta&;ESifh tm%mudk rSefuefw&m;r#wpGm cJGa0&ef óud;pm;aomv_yf&Sm;r_onf umv=um&SnfI cufcJEdkifygonf? ar#mfvifhpdwfESifh taumif;bufrScsnf; jrifvdkpdwfwdk‹udk csKyfwnf;I r&aomfvnf; ajymif;vJr_udk qef‹usifolwdk‹onf &ufpuf,kwfrmpGm vkyfzG,f&m&Sdonf[k wifóudowdðyrd=uygonf? Tr# zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faomtpdk;&u 'Drdkua&pD wu,fay;rnfvm;[k pdk;&drfa=umifh=upGm r=umc% ar;cGef;xkwf=uygonf? tajzonfum; tjcm;aom vlr_a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&;qkdif&m tcGifhta&;/ w&m;r#wa&;/ vGwfvyfa&;rsm;uJhodk‹yif 'Drkdua&pDudk ay;onf[lI r&Sdwwf/ pGrf;&nfowWd}uHŒcdkifr_/ tepfemcHr_wdk‹jzifh &if;I &,l&rnfjzpfygonf?

awmfvSefa&;qdkonfrSm tpdk;&vrf;pOfrsm; odk‹r[kwf vlr_a&;vspfv#L±_r_rsm;a=umifh &yfwef‹ae&onfh vdktyfaom ajymif;vJr_rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf&ef òrdodyfrxm;Edkifatmif E_d;qGwdkufwGef;aom pdwf"mwfudk a,bk,stm;jzifh a&mifjyef[yfjcif;yif jzpfygonf? Todk‹aom ajymif;vJr_rsm;udk t=urf;rzufbJ xdxda&mufa&muf taumiftxnfazmfEdkif&ef 'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹tpnf;rsm;ESifh vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;wGif enf;vrf;rsm;ay;xm;ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; wif;=uyfaom vrf;pOfrsm;rS aoGzDr_rSefor#udk cGifhrðyaom tm%m&Sifpepfonf ajymif;vJr_udk &GHrkef;ygonf? oabmxm;uJGvJGydkifcGifhudk‚if;/ oabmxm;uJGvJGr_udk +idrf;csrf;pGm ajz&Sif;&rnfh wm0efudk‚if; 'Drdkua&pDu todtrSwfðyxm;ygonf? tm%m&Siftpdk;&wdk‹url ‚if;wdk‹. 0g'oabmw&m;ESifh vkyf&yfrsm;tm; a0zefonfudk wdkufyJG0if&ef pdefac:aejcif;jzpfonf[k ,lq=uygonf? twdkuftcHvkyfjcif;rSm xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkifawG‹r_udk vdkvm;jcif;omjzpfonf[k jrifI &ifqkdifawG‹r_udk t=urf;zufaom yÉdyuQ[k t"dy`m,fzGifhqdkxm;=uygonf? ppfrSefaom aqG;aEG;r_jzifh ajz&Sif;Ekdif&ef OD;wnfI t"duoabmxm;uJGvJGcsufrsm;udk yGifhvif;pGm tjyeftvSefaphpyfjcif;onf &ifqkdifawG‹r_yif jzpfonf[laom oabmudk csKyfcs,fvdkpdwf &Sdolwdk‹u em;rvnfEdkif=uyg? twif;t"rR vkyfckdif;onfhpepftay:wGif wnfaqmufxm;aom tm%m[lonfrSm rvHkòcH/ rcdkif+rJaoma=umifh oabmwm;uJGvJGoltm;vHk;udk acsr_ef;&efvdktyfaomtjzpfodk‹ a&muf&SdoGm;&ygonf? jynfh0aom 'Drdkua&pDabmiftwGif;Yrl

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qef‹usifuef‹uGufr_/ oabmxm;uJGvJGr_ ponfwdk‹onf tajymif;tvJrvdkvm;aom 0g'/ a&S;a[mif;t,ltq ponfwdk‹ESifh tusKd;&SdpGm ,SOfwJGI &SifoefEkdifygonf? TuJhodk‹ twl&SifoefEkdif&ef Oya'/ pnf;urf;±dkaoav;pm;r_ESifh yk*~vdutcGifhta&; av;pm;r_wdk‹udk r#watmifvkyfay;&onfh vdktyfcsufudk a,bk,stm;jzifh todtrSwfðy&rnfjzpfygonf?

“+idrf0yfydjym;a&;” [laom pum;udk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f&mwGif qifajcay;onfhtaejzifh r=umc% tvJGoHk;pm;vkyf=uojzifh tm%m&Sifpepf}uD;pdk;aom EkdifiHrsm;wGif Tpum;vHk;toHk;tE_ef;udk r,HkouFmjzpfvm=uygonf? xif&Sm;aom jrefrmpma&;q&m}uD;wOD;onf vGefcJhaom ESpftenf;i,fcef‹u “+idrf0yfydjym;a&;” ESifhywfoufaom aqmif;yg;wyk'fa&;om;cJhygonf? pum;wvHk;csif; cJGjcrf;pdwfjzm=unfhaomtcgwGif +idrfae&rnf/ 0yfwGm;ae&rnf/ ydap&rnf/ jym;ap&rnf[k t"dy`m,f&ojzifh Edk;=um;wufºuGwdk;wufaom EkdifiHom;wdk‹ ay:aygufvmjcif;udk [ef‹wm;onfh rvdkvm;tyfaom tajctaejzpfvmaprnf[k rSwfcsufcscJhygonf? “Oya'” [lonf w&m;r#wr_ESifh xyfwlxyfr#jzpf+yD;/ w&m;r#wr_&Sdjcif;a=umifh jynfoljynfom;rsm; ausauseyfeyfESifh +idrfoufae=uaom “+idrf0yfydjym;r_” rsKd;omv#if rGefjrwfygonf? Oya'udk tpdk;&. zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faom ud&d,mtjzpf toHk;ðyjcif;onf tm%m&Sifpepf. trsm;od =ueftifvuQ%mw&yfyif jzpfygonf? Oya'vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;twkdif; jzpfap&ef tmrcHay;rnfh trsm;oabmwl a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufxm;onfh Oya'ðyv$wfawmfESifh oD;jcm;vGwfvyfaom w&m;pD&ifa&;r¾dKif r&Sdygu tm%mydkifwdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹xifovdk xkwfjyefxm;I vufcHEkdifavmufaom w&m;r#wr_ pHowfrSwfcsuftm;vHk;ESifh ajymifajymif}uD; qef‹usifonfh trdef‹rsm;udk “Oya'” oabmjzifh usifhoHk;Edkifygonf? wkdif;EkdifiH wEkdifiHwGif tm%m&Sdolrsm; tqifajyap&ef Oya'opfrsm;udk jyXmef;Ekdifygu‚if;/ Oya'a[mif;rsm;udk ajymif;vJEdkifygu‚if;/ EkdifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm; vHkòcHr_&&SdEkdifrnfr[kwfyg? Ttcsufudk a&S;xHk;wrf;tpOftvmt& todtrSwfðyxm;jcif;jzpfa=umif;udk ty&d[med, w&m;rsm;u xif&Sm;apygonf? ‚if;w&m;wyg;t& tnDtnGwf ynwfxm;aom Oya'rsm;udk tvG,fwuly,fzsufjcif;/ tnDtnGwf ynwfxm;jcif;r&Sdaom Oya'rsm;udk tvG,fwul jyXmef;jcif;wdk‹rS a&SmifusOf&rnf jzpfygonf? Ak'<bmomt,ltqwGif Oya'onf w&m;"rRtay:wGif tajccHygonf? tumtuG,fuif;rJhaom/ jynfolvlxktay:wGif =urf;wrf;cufxefwif;rmaom pnf;rsOf;rsm; jyXmef;Ekdifaom tm%mtay:wGif tajccHjcif;r[kwfyg? pepfwck. w&m;r#wr_udk rSefuefpGmwkdif;wm&mwGif tiftm;tenf;qHk;jzpfolwdk‹tm; umuG,f&ef rnfr#tmrcHxm;onfudk =unfhI wkdif;wm&rnfjzpfygonf?

w&m;r#wr_r&Sdaom ae&ma'owGif pdwfcs&aom+idrf;csrf;r_vnf; r&SdEkdifyg? tm%m&SifpepfESifh zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk aemufqHk; rcHEdkifawmhonfhtqHk;wGif tm;udk;p&m[lI olykefx&efom &Sdawmhonfhtjzpftxd a&mufrvmap&eftwGuf vl‹tcGifhta&;udk w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;r_jzifh umuG,fxm;&rnf[k urBmhvl‹tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;u todtrSwfðyxm;ygonf? +idrf;csrf;a&;[lonfrSm twdkuftcHtm;vHk; E_wfqdwfaejcif;jzpfonf[lI‚if;/ vHkòcHa&;[lonfrSm rdrdwkd‹ tm%mwnf+rJa&;udk aocsmatmif ðyvkyfjcif;jzpfonf[lI‚if;/ t"dy`m,faumuf,laom oabmxm;usOf;ajrmif;olwdk‹uomv#if vl‹tcGifhta&;onf +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;wdk‹. vdktyfaom tajccHjzpfonf[laom tcsufudk jiif;qdk=urnfjzpfygonf? jrefrmwdk‹onf +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;oabmudk at;jraomt&dyfESifh wJGzufxm;=uygonf?

opfyif.t&dyfonf at;jrayonf xdkxuf rdb.t&dyfonf ydk at;jr. xdkxuf q&morm;.t&dyfonf ydkIyif at;jr. xdkxuf rif;.t&dyfrSm ydkIyifom at;jrayonf? odk‹aomf tat;jrqHk;rSm Ak'<jrwfpGmbk&m;. t&dyfyif jzpfayonf?

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xdk‹a=umifh jynfolvlxkudk +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;[lonfh at;jraom

t&dyftm0goay;Ekdif&eftwGuf tkyfcsKyfolwdk‹onf Ak'<&Sifawmf. tqHk;tr=o0g'rsm;udk vdkufem&rnfjzpfygonf? ,if;=o0g'rsm;xJwGif opPm&Sdjcif;/ *±k%mxm;jcif;ESifh w&m;"rR apmifhpnf;jcif;wdk‹onf t"dujzpfygonf? Todk‹aom t&nftcsif;rsm;ay:wGif tajcðyaom tpdk;&udk &&Sd&ef&nf&G,fI jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹u 'Drkdkua&pDwkdufyJG0ifae=ujcif;yif jzpfygonf?

awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif vwfwavm ta&;}uD;onfh ta&;ay:EkdifiHa&;udpPrsm;onf pdwf"mwfa&;&m t"du&nfrSef;csufrsm;udk zHk;tkyfoGm;zG,f&m odk‹r[kwf ysufjy,foGm;zG,f&m&Sdaom tEW&m,fESifh t+rJwrf; óuHawG‹ae&ygonf? pdwf"mwfa&;&m &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk yxr OD;pm;ay;&rnf/ rysufpD;atmifvkyf&rnf[k ckdifrmpGm wdkufwGef;ae&onfrSm pdwful;,Of0g'udkom xkwfazmfaejcif; r[kwfbJ wd&p>mefO,smOf0wˆKxJrS tjzpfrsKd;ay:aygufrvmEkdifatmif tumtuG,fay;&ef vdktyfaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? (+Adwdo#pma&;q&m}uD; a*smhtdk0Jvf a&;om;aom) wd&p>mefO,smOf0wˆKwGif pepfopfudk wnfaxmifolwdk‹onf tpyxrwGif pdwftm;xufoefpGm wufwufºuGºuG ðyjyifa&;rsm; ðyvkyf=uaomfvnf; aemufydkif;wGifrl ‚if;wdk‹ tpm;xkd;vdkufaom pepfa[mif;. rESpfòrd‹zG,f&m tusifhp±dkufrsm;udk vufcHusifhoHk;vm=uygonf? jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹onf tpkd;&pepfudkom ajymif;vJvdkonfr[kwfbJ EdkifiHa&;wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;udkyg ajymif;vJvdkygonf?

“tpdk;&. tajccHtkyfjrpfonf tºuGif;rJhtm%mjzpfonf” [laom t,ltqudk t,Hkt=unf&Sdjcif;onf EkdifiHa&;tm%m. t&if;cHtiftm;jzpfonf[laom t,ltqjzifh tpm;xdk;rSomv#if tm%m&Sifpepf. pdwfrcsrf;ajrŒp&m tarGtESpfrsm;udk z,f&Sm;Ekdifrnfjzpfygonf? wkdif;jynf. uH=urRmudk tqHk;tjzwfay;Ekdifaom jynfolwdk‹. tcGifhta&;ESifh pGrf;&nfrsm;tay:wGif t,Hkt=unf&Sdjcif;/ tpkd;&ESifh jynfolt=um; tjyeftvSef,Hk=unfjcif;/ vGwfvyfr_ESifh vl‹tcGifhta&; oabmw&m;rl0g'rsm;tay:wGif t,Hkt=unf&Sdjcif; ponfwdk‹ vdktyfygonf? Ak'<bmomt,ltqrsm;t& rGefjrwfaom tusifhoDvoabmw&m;rsm;wGif t,Hkt=unf&Sdaom o'<gpdwfonf avmuDcsrf;omr_xufomaom avmukwW&mcsrf;omr_&&Sd&eftwGuf yxrqkHk;aom vdktyfcsufyifjzpfygonf? t,Hkt=unfuif;rJhr_ESifh raocsmr_wdk‹udk =um&SnfcHpm;ae&aom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;twGif;odk‹ Todk‹aom ,Hk=unfr_rsKd;udk oGwfoGif;&mY qENtm±Hkudk tm;udk;jcif;rðybJ todOm%ft& oabmaygufvufcHvmap&ef aqmif&Gufjcif;onf jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDawmfvSefa&;. tESpfom&jzpfygonf? udk,fusifhw&m;qdkif&m urBmhpHowfrSwfcsufrsm;ESifhtnDjzpfaom tajymif;tvJrsm;udk OD;wnfonfh awmfvSefa&;yifjzpfygonf?

'Drdkua&pD&SmyHkawmfzGifh&mwGif jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹wkdif;jynfjyifywGif&Sdaom EkdifiHa&;oDtdk&Dt,ltqESifh vufawG‹usifhpOfrsm;udk avhvm±Hkr#omru ‚if;wkd‹. ywf0ef;usiftajctae toGiftjyifudk jzpfay:vmaponfh pdwfydkif;qdkif&mESifh todOm%f tawG;tac:ydkif;qkdif&m wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;udkvnf; avhvm=uygonf?

wkdif;jynfwjynf. ,Ofaus;r_/ vlr_a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&;wdk;wufzHG‹òzd;r_onf tpOft+rJ v_yf&Sm;ajymif;vJaeom jzpfpOfjzpfa=umif; jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹ yifudk,fobm0pdwfu em;vnfoabmayguf=uygonf? xdk‹a=umifh wkd;wufzHG‹òzd;Ekdif&eftwGuf xHk;wrf;pOfvmrsm;/ wDxGifprf;oyfr_rsm;/ t,ltq ta[mif;rsm;ESifh topfrsm;udk "rR"dXmefusus wefzdk;jzwfr_rsm;udk toHk;ðy=u&rnfudk oabmayguf=uygonf? twdwfumvudk wnf=unfajzmifhrwfodrfarG‹pGm tuJjzwfr_ESifh ypPKy`efumvudk vdrRmyg;eyfpGm tuJjzwfr_wdk‹tm; nDnGwfap (o[Zwf) &ef vdktyfonfh todw&m;twkdif; 'Drkdua&pDvdkvm;oltm;vHk;u v_yf&Sm;aeonf[k qdkvdkjcif;r[kwfyg? odk‹aomf Tv_yf&Sm;r_onf todOm%fqdkif&m tcuftcJrsm;udk tar#mftjrif&Sd&Sd/ &J&J&ifh&ifhESifh &ifqkdifEkdifpGrf;udk &Sdaponfh

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oabmxm;jynfh0r_jzifh ºuG,f0vsuf&Sdygonf? tqufrjywf pdwf"mwfa&;&mwdkufyJGrsm; qifEJ$&eftwGuf cHEkdif&nf&Sdygonf? rkef;wD;r_/ w,loefr_/ ar#mfvifhcsufuif;rJhr_ ponfhtiftm;pkrsm;udk }uHŒ}uHŒcHEdkif&ef vdktyfaom ±kyfydkif;qkdif&m cHEkdif&nfvnf; &Sdygonf? tm;&SdzG,f&m taumif;qHk;tcsufrSm 'Drdkua&pDwkdufyJG. t"duwGef;tm;onfh tm%m&&ef/ vufpm;acs&ef/ zsufqD;&ef tmomjyif;jyr_r[kwfbJ vGwfvyfr_/ w&m;r#wr_ESifh +idrf;csrf;a&;udk wu,fwrf; ±dkaoav;pm;a&;yifjzpfygonf?

jrefrmEkdifiH. 'Drdkua&pD&SmyHkawmfonf jynfolwdk‹u urBmhtzJG‹tpnf;wGif vGwfvyfaom wef;wlnDwl tzJG‹0ifrsm;tjzpf jynfh0pGm t"dy`m,f&Sd&Sd aexkdifEkdif&ef ±kef;uefr_}uD;yifjzpfygonf? TonfrSm rdrdwdk‹. pdwf"mwfonf rdrdwdk‹obm0. c|wf,Gif;csufrsm;tm; ausmfvGefEkdifa=umif;udk xif&Sm;ap&ef vlom;wdk‹ tqufrjywf óud;yrf;tm;xkwfaer_. tpdwftydkif;wckyifjzpfygonf? 3 a=umuf±GHŒjcif;rS vGwfuif;a&; t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh 1991 ckESpfY xkwfa0aom pmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 180-185 udk jrefrmjyefonf?

* * * vlwdk‹tm; t*wdvdkufpm;azmufjym;aponfrSm tm%mr[kwf/ pdk;&drfa=umuf±GHŒjcif;yif jzpfygonf? tm%mvufv$wf&rnfudk a=umuf±GHŒjcif;onf tm%mvufudkifxm;olwdk‹tm; azmufjyefap+yD; tm%m. '%fcsufukd a=umuf±GHŒjcif;onf tm%mvufatmufcHwdk‹tm; azmufjym;aponf? jrefrmtrsm;pkonf t*wdw&m;av;yg;ESifh tu|rf;w0if&Sd=uygonf? tvdkqENa=umifh azmufjyefr_ (qENm*wd) [lonfrSm wHpdk;vufaqmifvdkcsifI‚if;/ rdrdcspfcifolrsm; tusKd;twGuf‚if;/ rSefuefaomvrf;a=umif;rS aoGzDoGm;jcif;yif jzpfygonf? a'gom*wdqdkonfrSm rdrdrkef;wD;olrsm;udk &efòid;vkyfvdkojzifh vrf;rSm;odk‹ a&mufoGm;jcif; jzpfygonf? arm[m*wdqdkonfrSm rodem;rvnfr_a=umifh azmufjyefoGm;jcif; jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; T*wdav;yg;xJwGif tqkd;0g;qHk;rSm b,m*wd jzpfzG,f&m&Sdygonf? ta=umif;rSm a=umuf±HGŒr_ (b,m) onf trSm;trSef a0zefydkif;jcm;Ekdifonfh pGrf;&nftm;vHk;udk epfrGef;atmifðyI wajz;ajz; ysufpD;aponfhtjyif tjcm;t*wdoHk;yg;. rlvt&if;tjrpfvnf; jzpfwwfygonf? avmboufoufa=umifh jzpfay:vmjcif;r[kwfygu qENm*wdonf csKdŒwJhrnfudk a=umuf±GHŒjcif;/ rdrdcspfcifolrsm;. arwWm/ apwemqHk;±H_;rnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif; ponfwdk‹a=umifh jzpfay:vmEkdifouJhodk‹ rdrdxuf omoGm;rnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ tESdrfcH&rnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ epfemrnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif; ponfwdk‹uvnf; a'gom*wdudk jzpfapygonf? a=umuf±HGŒr_tcsKyftaESmifrS vGwfuif;pGm trSefw&m;udk vGwfvGwfvyfvyf r&SmEkdifrjcif; arm[udk z,fxkwf&ef cufcJrnfjzpfygonf? a=umuf±HGŒr_ESifh azmufjyefr_wdk‹onf tvGefeD;uyfpGm qufoG,faeojzifh ae&mtESH‹tjym;Y a=umuf±HGŒae&aom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;wkdif;wGif azmufjyefr_rsKd;pHkwdk‹onf euf±_dif;pGm tajcpdkufvmygonf? 1988 ckESpf ausmif;om;qENjyyJGrsm;rS pwifcJhaom jrefrmEkdifiH 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_. t"duta=umif;&if;onf pD;yGm;a&;tcuftcJ t=uyftwnf;rsm;tay: jynfolvlxku rauseyfcsufyif jzpfonf[k trsm;u ,lq=uygonf? pyf[yfIr&aom vrf;pOfrsm;/ rqDavsmfaom ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_rsm;/ wae‹wjcm;wdk;yGm;aeaom aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_/ 0ifaiG. 0,ftm;usqif;r_ ponfwdk‹ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm jzpfyGm;cJhojzifh wjynfvHk; pD;yGm;a&;upOfhuvsm;jzpfae&onfrSm rSefygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; ±dk;&m"avht& oabmaumif;+yD; qdwf+idrfpGmaewwfaom jynfolwdk‹. onf;cHEkdifr_w&m; ysufjym;oGm;&jcif;rSm vufcHEkdifavmufaom vlaer_tqifhtwef;udk &&SdEkdif&efyif cufcJpGm ±kef;uefv_yf&Sm;&Iomr[kwf/ a=umuf±HGŒr_/ azmufjyefr_wdk‹a=umifh ±kyfysufqif;ysufjzpfae&onfh b0.

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&SufzG,f&m taetxm;a=umifhvnf; jzpfygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;onf ‚if;wkd‹. taygif;tazmfrsm; aoqHk;&onfudkom uef‹uGufqENjyaeonfr[kwfbJ ypPKy`efb0udk t"dy`m,fuif;rJhap+yD; tem*wftwGufvnf; ar#mfvifhcsufray;Edkifaom tm%m&Sifpepfu ‚if;wdk‹. touf&SifoefydkifcGifhudkyif jiif;qefaeonfudk uef‹uGufae=ujcif;yif jzpfygonf? xkd‹jyif ausmif;om;wdk‹. uef‹uGufawmif;qdkr_rsm;onf jynfolvlxk. rcsifhr&J rcHcsifpdwfrsm;udk yDyDoo xkwfazmfajymqdkaeouJhodk‹ jzpfav&m qENjyyJGrsm;onf EdkifiHw0Srf; vsifjrefpGm jyef‹ESH‹oGm;ygonf? Tv_yf&Sm;r_udk pdwftxufoefqHk; ulnDaxmufcH=uolrsm;xJwGif pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&SiftcsKdŒvnf; yg0ifygonf? ‚if;wdk‹onf azmufjyefaompepfwGif &Sifoef&yfwnfEkdifa&;twGufomru }uD;yGm;csrf;oma&;twGuf vdktyfaom u|rf;usifr_ESifh tquftoG,frsm; &&Sdxm;=uolrsm;yif jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; ‚if;wdk‹. ºuG,f0csrf;omr_u ‚if;wdk‹udk ppfrSefaom vHkòcHr_udkaomf‚if;/ auseyfr_udkaomf‚if; ray;Ekdifyg? wkdif;oljynfom;tm;vHk; qif;&Jcsrf;omra&G; xdkufxdkufwefwef touf&Sifoefvdkonfqdkygu wm0ef&Sdaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfw&yfum; tenf;qHk; vdktyfcsufjzpfonf[k ‚if;wdk‹u rodbJraeEkdif jzpfvm&ygonf? tm%m&Sifwdk‹vufckyfxJrS a&uJhodk‹ rv_yfEkdifr&Sm;Edkif pdk;&drfa=umuf±HGŒae&aom rvHkòcHaomb0udk jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹ +iD;aiG‹vm=uygonf? vufckyfxJu a&b0rdk‹

igwdk‹ at;jr&aomfvnf; æ vufckyfxJu zefuJGpawG igwkd‹ jzpfvdkufcsifygbd (armifom,m. “awmfvSefa&;qdkwm” rS) tao;i,fqHk;aom zefpuav;rsm;onfyifv#if ‚if;wdk‹. pl;&Sc|efxufajymifvufaom pGrf;tifjzifh

‚if;wdk‹tm; acsr_ef;rnfh vufwdk‹tEW&m,frS ‚if;wdk‹udk,f‚if;wdk‹ umuG,fEkdifpGrf;&Sdjcif;onf zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_atmufrS vGwfajrmuf&ef óud;pm;aeolrsm;. t&if;tESpfjzpfaom ol&owWdESifh xif&Sm;aom oauFwrsm;jzpfonf[k ,lqEkdifygonf? rdrdudk,frdrd awmfvSefa&;orm;[k ,lq+yD; jrefrmEkdifiH &ifqdkifae&aom jy\emrsm;udk tajz&Sm&mY raerem;óud;pm;cJhaom AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u “owWd/ AswWd&Sdolrsm;udkom tm;rudk;rlI vlwkdif;vlwkdif;yif rdrdwdk‹udk,fwkdif owWd/ AswWd&Sdaom ol&Jaumif;rsm;jzpfatmif pGef‹pm;&ayvdrfhrnf? okd‹rSomv#if usaemfwdk‹tm;vHk; vGwfvyfa&;tppfudk cHpm;cGifh&=uayvdrfhrnf” [k ajymqdkcJhygonf? (tv,fypP,H nDvmcHrdef‹cGef; - 20-1-46)

ae‹pOfb0&yfwnfa&;twGuf a=umuf±HGŒae=u&aom ywf0ef;usiftajctaewGif razmufjyef&avatmif rnfr# óud;pm;tm;xkwf&onfudk w&m;Oya't&tkyfcsKyfaom EkdifiHrsm;wGif uHtm;avsmfpGm aexdkifae&olrsm;tzdk‹ tvG,fwul odjrifEkdifrnfr[kwfyg? w&m;r#waom Oya'[lonfrSm tjypfusL;vGefolwdk‹udk rsufESmrvdkufbJ tjypf'%fcwfI azmufjyefr_udk wm;qD;umuG,fjcif;om r[kwfyg? azmufjyefaomtavhtusifhrsm;udk tm;rudk;bJ vl‹*k%foduQmudkxdef;odrf;xm;&eftwGuf tajccHvdktyfcsufrsm;udk jynfolwdk‹u jznfhqnf;Ekdifaprnfh vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;udk wnfaxmif&mwGif w&m;r#waom Oya'rsm;u taxmuftulðyaejcif;yif jzpfygonf? Todk‹ w&m;r#waom Oya'rsm;r&Sdonfh ae&ma'orsm;wGifrl w&m;r#wr_ESifh [D&d=owWy` w&m;wdk‹ESifh udkufnDaomusifhpOfwdk‹udk ckcHumuG,f&ef wm0efonf omrefjynfolwdk‹tay:wGif usa&mufvmygonf? jynfolwdk‹. tqufrjywf óud;yrf;r_ESifh wnf=unfpGm cHEkdif&nf&Sdr_rsm;. pkaygif;tusKd;qufrsm;onf a=umuf±HGŒr_a=umifh qifjcifwHkw&m;ESifh tqdk;taumif; odwwfaompdwf"mwfwdk‹ ysufjym;ae&onfhEkdifiHwGif

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vlom;wdk‹. qdk;oGrf;aom p±dkufudkxdef;csKyf+yD; ‚if;wdk‹. w&m;r#wr_ESifh nDnGwfr_vdkvm;aom pdwfrsm;udk tm;ay;Ekdifrnfh Oya'pnf;rsOf;rsm; pdk;rdk;aom EkdifiHtjzpfodk‹ ajymif;vJEkdifrnf jzpfygonf?

twwfynm tvGeftrif; xGef;um;aomacwfwGif wDxGifxm;onfh aoapEkdifaom vufeufrsm;udk tm;enf;olESifh tultnDrJholwdk‹tm; v$rf;rdk;}uD;pdk;&mwGif tiftm;}uD;ol/ tm%m&SdolESifh w&m;vufudkifr&Sdolwdk‹u toHk;ðyEkdif=uygonf? xdk‹a=umifh wkdif;EkdifiH toD;oD;wGif‚if;/ tjynfjynfqkdif&mtqifhwGif‚if; EkdifiHa&;ESifh udk,fusifhw&m;udk ydkrdkeD;uyfpGm qufpyfxm;&ef tvGefyifvdktyfaeygonf? bmomt,l0g'ra&G;/ vlrsKd;ra&G;/ EkdifiHra&G; vlom;tm;vHk; &ydkifcGifh&Sdaom tajccHvGwfvyfr_rsm;ESifh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk jr‡ifhwif&ef vlwkdif;/ tzJG‹tpnf;wdkif; óud;yrf;tm;xkwfoifhonf[k ukvor*~ urBmhvl‹tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;u xkwfjyefa=unmxm;ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; vwfwavmtusKd;tjrwfudk a&&Snfom,m0ajyma&;ESifh +idrf;csrf;a&;wdk‹xuf ydkI OD;pm;ay;aom udk,fusKd;&Smtkyfpkrsm;udk tajcðyI‚if;/ jynfolvlxkay;xm;aom vkyfydkifcGifhtay:wGif tajcrcHbJ twif;t"rRvkyfr_tay:wGif wnfaqmufxm;aom tpdk;&rsm; &Sdaeor#umvywfvHk; vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk umuG,f/ jr‡ifhwif&eftwGuf tjynfjynfqkdif&mu pkaygif;ta&;,laqmif&Gufjcif;[lonfrSm wydkif;wpom taumiftxnfazmfEkdifaom &nfrSef;csuftqifhwGif wnf&Sdaernfomjzpfygonf? vl‹rdom;pk0iftjzpf &&Sdxm;aom rdrdESifhcJGjcm;Ir&aom tcGifhta&;rsm;udk umuG,f&mwGif zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fjcif; cHae=u&olrsm;u rdrdwdk‹udk,frdrdwdk‹ tm;udk;I ±kef;uefóud;yrf;ae&onfh ae&ma'orsm;rSmrl qufvufwnf&Sdaernfjzpfygonf?

tppfrSefqHk;aom awmfvSefa&;[lonfrSm wkdif;jynfwdk;wufzHG‹òzd;a&;vrf;a=umif;udk yHkazmfonfh pdwfoabmxm;rsm;ESifh wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;udk ajymif;vJ&ef vdktyfae+yD[laom todrS aygufzGm;vmaom pdwf"mwfawmfvSefa&;yifjzpfygonf? ±kyfydkif;tajctaersm; wkd;wufaumif;rGefvmap&ef a&SŒ±_I tpdk;&vrf;pOfrsm;ESifh &Sd+yD;om; vkyf±dk;vkyfpOf Oya'rsm;udkom ajymif;vJ&ef &nf&G,faom awmfvSefa&;onf ppfrSefaom atmifjrifr_udk &,lEkdifrnfr[kwfyg? pdwf"mwfawmfvSefa&; rqifEJ$ygu pepfa[mif;wGif rr#wr_rsm;udk jzpfay:aponfh tiftm;pkrsm; qufvufv_yf&Sm;aernfjzpfI ðyjyifa&;ESifh udk,fusifhw&m; jyefvnf&Sifoefa&;jzpfpOfudk t+rJwrf; tEW&m,fay;aernf jzpfygonf? vGwfvyfr_/ 'Drkdua&pDa&;ESifh vl‹tcGifhta&;wkd‹udk awmif;qdkae±Hkjzifh rvHkavmufyg? qENm*wd/ a'gom*wd/ arm[*wd/ b,m*wd wdk‹udk wGef;vSef&ef xm0&wnf&Sdaom trSefw&m;twGuf tepfemcH&ef‚if;/ ckdif+rJaom ZJGvHk‹vjzifh wdkufyJG0if&ef‚if; tm;vHk; wnDwnGwf jywfom;pGm oEMdXmefcs=u&rnf jzpfygonf?

olawmfpif/ olawmfaumif; [lonfrSm tjypfusL;vGefr_rsm; &SdcJhaomfvnf; raumif;r_tukodkvfudk a&SmifusOf&ef óud;yrf;&mY ZJG/ vHk‹v rav#mholrsm;jzpfonf[k tqdk&Sdygonf? xdk‹enf;wlyif vGwfvyfolqdkonfrSmvnf; vGwfvyfaomvl‹tzJG‹tpnf;udk xdef;odrf;xm;rnfh pnf;urf;rsm;udk umuG,fapmifha&Smufxm;Ekdifaom wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;udk rdrdESifhavsmfuefoifhjrwfa&;twGuf rav#mhwrf; óud;yrf;tm;xkwfae=uaom tzdESdyfcHrsm;yif jzpfygonf? jynfh0I usOf;usyfr_r&Sdaom b0udk &&Sda&;twGuf vlom;wdk‹ ar#mfvifhawmifhw=uaom tajccHvGwfvyfr_rsm;wGif a=umuf±HGŒjcif;rS uif;vGwfa&;onf enf;vrf;tjzpf‚if;/ aemufqHk;yef;wkdiftjzpf‚if; xif&Sm;pGm ay:vGifaeygonf? tpdk;&. +cdrf;ajcmufr_rS vGwfuif;ap&ef tmrcHay;Ekdifrnfh 'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹tpnf;rsm; ckdifrmpGm tajcpdkufxm;aom wkdif;EkdifiHudk wnfaxmifvdkolrsm;onf ‚if;wdk‹. a=umuf±HGŒpdwf/ vspfv#L±_pdwfrsm;rS vGwfajrmufatmif yxrqHk; óud;pm;=u&rnfjzpfygonf?

tajymESifhtnD tpOfðyvkyfavh&Sdaom atmifqef;onf owWdudk t+rJwrf; vufawG‹jyocJhygonf? um,owWdudkomr[kwfbJ trSefw&m;udk ajymqdk&Jjcif;/ ajymonfhpum;twdkif; &yfwnfjcif;/ a0zefr_udk vufcHjcif;/ rdrd. c|wf,Gif;csufudk 0efcHjcif;/ rdrd. trSm;udk jyifEkdifjcif;/ twdkuftcHudk ±dkaoav;pm;jcif;/ &efolESifh aqG;aEG;jcif;/ rdrdonf acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfoifh/ rjzpfoifhudk jynfoltm; qHk;jzwfydkifcGifhay;jcif;

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paom pGrf;&nfowWdrsm;udk vufawG‹jyocJhygonf? Todk‹aom udk,fusifhw&m;qkdif&m owWdrsm;a=umifh atmifqef;tm; jrefrmwjynfvHk;u t+rJwrf; =unf!dkav;pm;cspfcifaernf jzpfygonf? ‚if;tm; ol&Jaumif;ppfonfawmftjzpfESifhomrubJ wkdif;jynf. pdwf"mwfudk wufºuGoef‹pifaponfh pHerlemxm;tyfoltjzpf cspfcifjrwfEkd;ae=ujcif;yif jzpfygonf? r[wWr*ENDESifhywfoufI *s0g[vmae±l; oHk;oGm;aompum;rsm;udk atmifqef;ta=umif; ajym&mwGifvnf; oHk;Ekdifygonf? “‚if;. qHk;r=o0g'rsm;. tESpfom&onf a=umuf±HGŒjcif;uif;rJhjcif;ESifh trSefw&m;yifjzpfI Tpdwf"mwfrsm;jzifh v_yf&Sm;vkyfudkifum vlxk. om,m0ajyma&;udk t+rJwrf; OD;wnfjcif;yif jzpfygonf?”

t=urf;rzufa&;vrf;pOfudk a&SŒaqmifjzef‹csDol acgif;aqmif}uD;jzpfaom *ENDESifh trsKd;om;ppfwyfudk wnfaxmifcJhaom atmifqef;onf yifudk,fobm0t& uGmjcm;vSygonf? odk‹aomf umva'ora&G; tm%m&Sifpepfrsm;rS ay:xGufvmaom pdefac:r_rsm;onf qifwl±dk;rSm;&SdouJhodk‹ xdkpdefac:r_udk òydifqkdiftHwk&ef xGufay:vmolrsm;. t&nftaoG;rsm;onfvnf; wlnDavh&Sdygonf? *END. t}uD;rm;qHk;aom atmifjrifr_w&yfrSm tdENd,jynfoljynfom;rsm;wGif owWdpdwfoGif;ay;jcif;jzpfonf[k ,lqaom ae±l;onf EkdifiHa&;wGif acwfopftjrif&Sdoljzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; ESpfq,f&mpk vGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_vdktyfcsufrsm;udk tuJjzwfaomtcgwGif a&S;a[mif;tdENd,jynf. '\etawG;tac:rsm;txd jyefvnf&SmazGum a&;om;wifjyxm;onfum; “vlwOD; odk‹r[kwf wkdif;jynfwjynftzdk‹ }uD;us,ftjrifhjrwfqHk;aom yg&rDonf tb, ac: a=umuf±HGŒr_r&Sdjcif;jzpf.? um,owWdomr[kwf pdwfxJrSmyif a=umuf±HGŒr_uif;jcif;jzpfygonf?”

a=umuf±HGŒpdwfr&Sdjcif;onf yg&rDjzpfzG,f&m&Sdaomfvnf; xdkxufydkI tzdk;wefzG,f&m&Sdaom owWdrsm; óud;yrf;tm;xkwfjcif;jzifh &&Sdvmaom owWd/ a=umufpdwfudk vdkufavsm&onfhtjzpfudk ra&mufatmif ðypkysKd;axmifavhusifhI &&Sdvmaom owWd/ t=uyfudkifzdESdyfaeonfh=um;rS wnf=unfodrfarG‹pGm &nfwnfEkdifjcif;/ =urf;wrf;cufxefpGm tqufrjywf zdESdyfaeonfh=um;xJrSm xyfcgwvJ wnf=unfodrfarG‹r_udk xdef;odrf;jcif;jzifh &&SdaomowWd ponfwdk‹yif jzpfygonf?

tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;r&Sd[k jiif;y,fxm;aompepfatmufwGif a=umuf±HGŒpdwfom ae‹pOfESifhtr# v$rf;rdk;aeygonf? axmifusrnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ n‡if;yef;ESdyfpufrnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ ao&rnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ rdwfaqGrdom;pk/ OpPmypPnf; odk‹r[kwf toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;rsm; qHk;±H_;rnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ qif;&Jrnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ txD;usefjzpfrnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ ysufpD;qHk;±_H;rnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif; ponfwdk‹yif jzpfygonf? arG;&myg vl‹*k%foduQmESifh rdrdudk,frdrd av;pm;r_wdk‹udk rqHk;±_H;&avatmif xdef;odrf;umuG,f&mwGif taxmuftuljzpfapaom owWdjyonfh ae‹pOfvkyf&yfuav;rsm;udk tcsnf;ESD;yifjzpfonf/ odk‹r[kwf t&mra&mufaom vkyf&yfjzpfonf/ t&rf;uma&mvkyfonf/ rdkufrJjcif;jzpfonf ponfjzifh jypfwif±_wfcsum rdrduyif b0ay;todOm%f odk‹r[kwf ynmOm%f&SdouJhodk‹ [efaqmifjcif;onf wdwfwcdk;tEW&m,fay;onfh tqkd;0g;qHk;aom a=umuf±HGŒr_rsKd;yif jzpfygonf? tiftm;onf trSefw&m;jzpfonf[laom rljzifh zdESdyftkyfcsKyfaom pepfatmuf. yHkoGif;jcif;udk cH&olrsm;tzdk‹ tiftm;ukefcrf;apaom a=umuf±HGŒr_tqdyfaiG‹rS vGwfu|wfatmif ±kef;xGuf&efrSm rvG,fulvSyg? odk‹aomfvnf; a=umuf±HGŒr_onf ,Ofaus;aomvlom;. obm0r[kwfaoma=umifh tzdESdyfqHk;aom tpdk;&,EW&m;atmufYyif owWdonf xyfcgwvJvJ xºuGvmygonf?

txdef;tcsKyfr&Sdaom tm%mudk &ifqkdif&mwGif owWd&Sdr_ESifh cHEkdif&nf&Sdr_wdk‹tm; t+rJwrf; &Sifoefaeapaom a&aomufjrpfrSm udk,fusifhw&m;qkdif&m oabmw&m;rsm;udk txGwftjrwfxm;onfhtay:wGif ckdifrmpGm,Hk=unfjcif;jzpf+yD; rnfr#yif ±_H;edrfhr_/ qkwf,kwfr_rsm; &Sdapumrl vlom;onf aemufqHk;wGif ±kyfydkif;ESifh pdwfydkif;qkdif&m wkd;wufr_ESpfckpvHk;udk &&Sd&rnf[laom orkdif;oabmudk ,Hk=unfjcif;yifjzpfygonf? rdrdudk,frdrd wkd;wufaumif;rGefatmif óud;pm;jcif;/ rdrdukd,frdrd

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raumif;r_rS vGwfajrmufatmif óud;yrf;jcif; paom pGrf;&nfwdk‹onf vlom;wdk‹udk wd&p>mef±dkif;rsm;ESifh txift&Sm;uJGjym;apaom t"dutcsufyifjzpfygonf? vl‹wm0ef0wW&m;. rlvt&if;tjrpfrSm vHk;0tjypfuif;pifjcif;[laom oabmw&m;udk em;vnfI tjypfuif;pifvdkaompdwfqEN/ tjypfuif;pif&ef enf;vrf;&SmEkdifaom todOm%fESifh ,if;enf;vrf;twkdif; vkdufemvdkaompdwf"mwf/ ,if;enf;vrf;udk tqHk;wkdif rvdkufemEkdifonfhwkdifatmif udk,fydkifc|wf,Gif;csuftuef‹towfESifh ywf0ef;usiftwm;tqD;rsm;udk ausmfvGef&efvdktyfaom twkdif;twmtxd tenf;qHk; a&muf&Sdatmif óud;pm;vdkjcif;wdk‹yif jzpfygonf? qifjcifwHkw&m;&SdI ,Ofaus;aomvlom;wdk‹ESifh avsmfuefoifhjrwfaom vl‹avmuudk vlom;wdk‹ pdwful;ar#mfjrif=uonfhtwGuf a=umuf±HGŒr_ESifh csKdŒwJhr_rS uif;vGwfaom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;rsm; wnfaxmif&ef ra=umufr±HGŒ/ tepfemcHvkyf0Hh=ujcif;yif jzpfygonf? opPmw&m;/ *±k%mw&m;ESifh w&m;r#wr_wdk‹udk +iD;aiG‹zG,f&m tawG;tac:a[mif;}uD;rsm;[kqdkum ypfy,fI r&yg? &ufpufaom tm%mpufukd wGef;vSef&mwGif Tw&m;rsm;onfomv#if tumtuG,fay;aevsuf &Sdwwfygonf? 4

“Adkvf” . t"dy`m,ftppftrSef t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh 1991 ckESpfY xkwfa0aom pmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 186-191 udk jrefrmjyefonf?

* * * Adkvf[laom a0g[m&rSm tpdk;&±Hk;toHk;tE_ef;wGif =unf;wyfrS Adkvf odk‹r[kwf “vufzfwifheifh” udk

qdkvdkjcif; jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; trsm;oHk;pum;wGif ppft&m&Sdrsm;/ trdef‹ay;olrsm;/ acgif;aqmifrsm;udk “Adkvf” [k ac:avh&Sdygonf? wdkif;jynf vGwfvyfa&;&awmhrnf[laom ar#mfvifhcsufjzifh wufºuGaeaom xGef;opfp ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf 1942 ckESpfwGif jrefrmhajray:ajccsvmonfESifh ‚if;wyfrSt&m&Sdrsm;udk &mxl;ra&G; “Adkvf” [k ac:a0:cJh=uygonf? vltrsm; pdwf"mwft&Sdefjrifhrm;I ab;tEW&m,fxlajymaom ppfwGif;umvwGif vlpGrf;aumif;rsm; aps;aumif;av&m “Adkvf” wkdif;udk pJGrufzG,f&m pdwful;,OfyHkjyifqefqef roJuGJaom tawG;jzifh ±_jrif=uygonf? ‚if;wdk‹teuf a&SŒqHk;rS xifay:aeolrSm atmifqef;jzpfygonf? touf (27) ESpfyif rjynfhao;bJ pdwf"mwftvGefjyif;xef+yD; ajzmifhrwfwnf=unfojzifh rsKd;cspfvli,f ppfaoemywdtoGifaqmifae&m ‚if;ESifhywfoufI oDcsif;/ uAsmrsm; a&pyf&mY pdwful;uGef‹jrL;vm=uygonf?

igwdk‹jrefrmjynfr,f rdbwdkif;uuG,f

Adkvfatmifqef;vdk tmZmenftppfawG arG;=u&r,f –

&mZ0iftwˆKywWdvnf; &Sd&r,f armfuGef;vnf; xdk;avmufwJh jrifhjrwfwJh Adkvfatmifqef;&,f

TuJhodk‹ csD;ajr‡mufjcif;a=umifh ydkI touftm;jzifh‚if;/ tawG‹tóuHtm;jzifh‚if; ydkrdkolrsm;yifv#if

,pfrl;oGm;Ekdifaomfvnf; atmifqef;rSmrl rdrd. udk,fydkifpHowfrSwfcsufrsm;a=umifh wnf=unfckdif+rJ tjrif("gwfyHkvmonf)

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("gwfyHk) ykodrfY pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;aepOf (aqmif;yg;tquf vmonf) &Sif;vif;jyefom;pGmjzifh vHk;0pdwfxm;rSefatmif xdef;odrf;cJhygonf? xkdpOfu usif;yavh&Sdaom tcrf;tem;wckwGif atmifqef;tm; urBmhorkdif;wGif xif&Sm;rnf[k csD;rGrf;aom=obmpmudk zwf=um;aomtcg urBmhorkdif;wGifrqdkESifh/ Armhorkdif;Yyif ae&mr&ao;yg[k atmifqef;u ºuGwfqyfqyf rSwfcsufcsoGm;cJhygonf? awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_wav#mufwGif ppfwyfudk OD;aqmifcJhonfhaemufydkif;wGif jyefvnfwnfaxmifvdkufaom +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;cJh+yD; bk&ifcH. tkyfcsKyfa&;aumifpDwGif 'kOuUXtjzpf cef‹tyfjcif;cH&aomtcgYyif atmifqef;u “usKyfwdk‹ tck rp&ao;/ rvkyf&ao;bl;? 'ga=umifh csD;rGrf;p&m&Sdvnf; tckcsD;rGrf;rcHcsifao;bl;” [k ajymaewkef;yif jzpfygonf? xdkpOftcsdefu ‚if;onf trsKd;om;vlpGrf;aumif;tjzpfodk‹ a&muf&Sdae+yDjzpf+yD; EkdifiHw0Srf;vHk;wGif “AdkvfcsKyf” [k od&Sd=uum jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹. acgif;aqmiftjzpf todtrSwfðycHae&olyif jzpfygonf? “AdkvfcsKyf” [lonfrSm 'kAdkvfcsKyf}uD;atmufwGif&Sdaom tqifhyifjzpfaomfvnf; atmifqef;u &,lvdkufaomtcg ,if;&mxl;tqifhonfvnf; jrefrmjynfwGif twkr&Sd/ xl;jcm;ta&;ygaom t"dy`m,foufa&mufr_&Sdvmygonf? AdkvfcsKyf[lonfrSm wyfrawmf. zcif/ tiftm;}uD;aom udk,fusKd;r=unfhaom acgif;aqmifr_/ a0g[m&t"dy`m,ft& “Adkvfrsm;udk tkyfcsKyfol” [k oabm&ygonf? “Adkvf” ygVdpmvHk; “Av” (cGeftm;) rS vmjcif;jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; csD;usL;xdkufaom cGeftm;ESifh rvdkvm;tyfaomtiftm;udk cJGjcm;&onfrSm rvG,fulvSyg? “um,” ðyvkyfjcif;ESifh “Av” wdk‹ aygif;pyfvdkufygu AvuUm, t=urf;zufjcif;jzpfvmygonf? wenf;qdk&aomf vufcHEkdifavmufaom tuef‹towf twkdif;twmxufausmfvGefI cGeftm;udk toHk;ðyaomtcg zsufqD;jcif;tjzpfodk‹ a&muf&Sdvmygonf? TtEW&m,fudk udk,fusifhw&m;jzifh xdef;csKyfjcif; rðyygu EdkifiHa&; odk‹r[kwf vlr_a&;tajymif;tvJrsm;a=umifh 0±kef;okef;um; jzpfaeaom tcsdeftcgY t}uD;rm;qHk;aom tEW&m,fjzpfvmEkdifrnfrSm txl;ajymp&mrvdkyg? Todk‹aom tcsdefumvwGif atmifqef;onf jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_wdkufyJGudk OD;pD;OD;udkifvkyfcJh&onf? Ak'<bmombkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;xGufjzpfojzifh ‚if;onf pdwfESifh pdwf"mwfwdk‹. pGrf;tm;ESifhqkdifaom oabmw&m;ukd i,fpOfuyif od&SdrnfjzpfI Avig;yg; (Áa¹ENig;yg; odk‹r[kwf pdwfudk xdef;odrf;Ekdifaomw&m;rsm;) udkvnf; avhvmqnf;yl;cJhrnfjzpfygonf? ‚if;wdk‹rSm o'<g/ 0d&d,/ owd/ orm"dESifh ynmwdk‹jzpfygonf? avmuDtvdkt& Avig;wefjzpfaom um,/ Om%/ abm*/ rdwW/ pm&dwWAvwdk‹onf avmukwW&mtusKd;aqmifAvrsm;xuf edrfhus+yD; *k%foduQm&SdpGm tusKd;ay;rnfhtiftm;rsm;jzpfvmEdkif&ef ‚if;wdk‹udk pdwfESifh pdwf"mwfðypkysKd;axmifjcif;jzifh xdef;odrf;xm;&rnfjzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; cGeftm;. aumif;usKd;/ qdk;usKd;udk todOm%fynmt& em;vnfoabmaygufonfhtcsufonf atmifqef;udk rv$rf;rdk;yg? wm0ef&Sdaom ppftzJG‹tpnf;wckESifh aygif;pyf&rnfh ay:xGef;p ppfwyf. ppfaoemywdtjzpf‚if;/ rwnf+idrfaom yk*~dKvfaygif;rsm;pGm yg0ifaeonfh trsKd;om;v_yf&Sm;r_. acgif;aqmiftjzpf‚if; pnf;urf;jzifh rxdef;xm;aom tiftm;. vufawG‹tEW&m,frsm;udk ‚if;u aumif;pGmod&Sdxm;olyifjzpfygonf? atmifqef;onf ‚if;wnfaxmifxm;aom wyfrawmfudk pnf;urf;}uD;I *k%fusufoa&&Sdaom tzJG‹tpnf;tjzpf &nfrSef;xm;ygonf? tepfemcHjcif;/ udk,fhpnf;udk,fxdef;jcif;/ azmufjyefr_uif;jcif; paom ausmufom;yuwdcdkifrmonfh jrifhjrwfaom*k%ft*Fgrsm;jzifh wnfaqmufxm;aomwyfrawmf/ udk,fydkiftusKd;tjrwfrar#mfudk;bJ wkdif;jynfwm0efxrf;aqmif&ef rdrd.cGeftm;udk vHk;0ay;vªxm;aom wyfrawmfomjzpf&rnf[k atmifqef;u ,lqygonf? vufeuftiftm;udk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f&m

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ypPnf;ud&d,mtjzpf xifrSwfaprnfh oabmxm;rsm;/ &yfwnfcsufrsm;udk a&SmifusOfyg&ef ppfonfawmfrsm;tm; atmifqef;u wdkufwGef;qHk;rcJhygonf? tm;}uD;olu tm;enf;oludk tEdkifusifhvdkaom vl‹obm0udkaxmufjyI rw&m;ðyusifhaom tm;}uD;olwdk‹tm; ra=umufr±HGŒqef‹usif&efESifh tm;enf;olwdk‹tay:wGif ajzmifhrSefw&m;r#wpGm ðyusifh&ef atmifqef;u wdkufwGef;cJhygonf? “'Dwyfrawmf[m 'DEkdifiH/ 'DvlrsKd;twGuf/ 'DvlrsKd;awG&JŒ udk;uG,f&m/ vJavsmif;&m/ qnf;uyf&mqdkwJh taersKd;jzpf&r,f? 'Dvdkr[kwfbJ 'Dwyfrawmf[m EkdifiHolEkdifiHom;awG&JŒ pdwfxJrSm atmhESvHk;emp&mjzpfr,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'Dwyfrawmfudk wnfaxmifxm;wJh &nf&G,fcsuf[m tvum;yJjzpfr,f” [kvnf; owday;cJh. (31-1-44)? wkdif;jynfu udk;uG,fqnf;uyfxdkufaom xl;c|efonfhwyfrawmfjzpfvmap&ef tqufrjywf óud;yrf;tm;xkwfae&rnfjzpfygonf? odk‹aomf xl;c|efojzifh acgif;aqmifr_ay;&ef txl;tcGifhta&;&Sdaom vufa&G;pifvlwpkjzpfvm&rnf r[kwfyg? jrefrmhwyfrawmfonf vlwOD;wa,muftwGuf/ wzJG‹/ vlwpk/ wygwDtwGuf wnfaxmifxm;jcif;r[kwfbJ wjynfvHk;twGuf wnfaxmifxm;jcif;jzpfonf[k atmifqef;u &Sif;vif;jywfom;pGm ajymqdkxm;ygonf? ‚if;wdk‹Yomv#if jynfcspfpdwf&SdEkdifonf[laom t,ltqudk cH,lxm;=uonfh ppfr_xrf;rsm;. ao;odrfarS;rSdefaom tjrifudkvnf; atmifqef;u y,fcsygonf? “wjcm; ppfom;r[kwfayrJh EdkifiHtwGuf trsKd;rsKd;tepfemcH/ trsKd;rsKd;pGef‹pm;vkyfwJh vlawGvnf; &SdwmyJ? tJh'ga=umifh ppfom;rS ppfom;qdkwJh pdwf"mwfoabmxm;udk ajymif;=u&r,f” (13-3-44)? atmifqef;u ppfom;rsm;udk wif;rmjyif;xefpGm owday;qHk;rae&onfhtcsufrSm wyfrawmfudk ESdrfvdkaoma=umifhr[kwfbJ “igwdk‹[m vufeufudkifvlawGjzpf=uaomfvnf; rw&m;rvkyf/ EkdifiH&JŒ &efolawGr[kwf/ EkdifiH&JŒ rdwfaqGawGjzpfw,fqdkwm tm;vHk;oabmaygufatmif ajymjyjcif;yJ” [k udk,fwdkifrdef‹=um;cJhygonf (13-3-44)? wkdif;jynf. *k%foduQm[lonfrSm jynfolwdk‹. *k%foduQmjzpfonf/ jynfolwdk‹. *k%foduQmonf ‚if;ESifh ‚if;ppfom;rsm;. *k%foduQmESifh cJGjcm;Ir&[k atmifqef;u ,Hk=unfxm;ygonf? olvdkvm;aom pHjyvufeufukdifwyfzJG‹qdkonfrSm ppfr_xrf;wkdif;. tðytrltusifhwdk‹onf 18 &mpk eef;wGif;pmqdkawmf vuf0JokEN& (1723-99) a&;om;zJG‹qdkxm;aom eENdaoeysKdŒyg oabmw&m;jzifh jynfh0aernfjzpfaom wyfzJG‹yifjzpf&ayrnf? ppfenf;AsL[m/ b,fvdkomvnf; pJGudkifvufeuf/ b,fvdkxufvnf;

jynfol‹ESvHk;/ rodrf;óuH;v#if jynfol‹cGeftm;/ rudk;pm;v#if "g;oGm;vnfaºuG/ vSHvnf;acGtHh?

(vuf0JokEN&/ eENdaoeysKdŒrS) vGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ tjrifhrm;qHk;tqifhodk‹ a&muf&SdvmonfESifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf

jynfol‹pdwfESvHk;udk odrf;óuH;I/ jynfol‹tiftm;udk udk;pm;a=umif; ydkI odomxif&Sm;vmygonf? “vlwOD;wa,mufonf rnfr#avmuf pGrf;yum;&Sdapumrl vlxk. tm;ay;,kdif;yif;r_r&SdbJvsuf &mZ0ifwGifavmufaom vkyfief;rsKd;udk jzpfajrmufatmif raqmif&GufEkdif” [k ,Hk=unfonfhtavsmuf vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_wGif jynfolwdk‹udk ‚if;aemufrS +rJ+rHpGm }uHŒ}uHŒckdifckdif &yfwnf=uyg&ef yef=um;cJhygonf? ppfrSefaom tm;ay;axmufcHr_udk twif;t"rRenf;jzifh r&,lEkdifa=umif; ‚if;u od&Sdxm;ygonf? r[kwfrrSefaom uwdrsm;ay;I‚if;/ ajr‡mufyifhajymqdkI‚if;/ axmufcHr_&,laomenf;udk ‚if;u roHk;yg? ppfa=umifh t}uD;tus,fysufpD;ae&onfh ajray:wGif vGwfvyfaom udk,fxludk,fx wdkif;EkdifiHudk wnDwnGwfwnf; 0dkif;0ef;wnfaxmif&ef ‚if;ESifh jynfolvlxkt=um; tjyeftvSef,Hk=unfr_ESifh ±dkaoav;pm;r_wdk‹. wckwnf;aomtajccHrSm ±dk;om;ajzmifhrwfyGifhvif;r_yif jzpfonf[k AdkvfcsKyfatmiffqef;u ,lqygonf? EdkifiHa&;wGif vdrfvnfvSnfhjzm;r_/ aumufuspfpOf;vJr_wdk‹udk

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OD;pm;ay;usifhoHk;aejcif;onf jynfolvlxkudk apmfum;&ma&mufonfhtjyif rdrd. oduQmorm"dudkvnf; azmufzsuf&ma&mufygonf?

jrefrmjynfoljynfom;trsm;pkonf todw&m;jzifh trSm;xuf trSefudkom wefzdk;xm;+yD; trSm;trSef a0zefydkif;jcm;EkdifpGrf;&Sdonf[k ,lqI atmifqef;u vkyfudkifaqmif&Gufjcif;yifjzpfygonf? ,if;,lqcsufonf rSm;,Gif;jcif;r&Sdyg? ‚if;. óud;yrf;r_rsm;udk jynfolvlxku tjynfht0 em;vnfoabmayguf=u+yD; pnf;vHk;nDnmpGm axmufcHtm;ay;I wHk‹jyef=uojzifh 1947 ckESpf {+yDvY usif;yaom a&G;aumufyJGwGif zufqpfqef‹usifa&; jynfol‹vGwfajrmufa&; (zqyv) tzJG‹rS 0ifa&muf,SOfòydifoltrsm;pk tEkdif&cJhygonf? atmifqef;onf tpdk;&tm%m. tqift,if/ taqmifta,mifrsm;udk *±kpdkufvSolr[kwfaomfvnf; jynfolwdk‹u a&G;cs,fxm;aom acgif;aqmifqdkonfh*k%fudkrl ±dk;om;pGmjrwfEdk;olyifjzpfygonf? acgif;aqmifr_wm0efrsm;udk atmifqef; av;av;eufeuf cH,lxm;ygonf? acgif;aqmifr_[lonfrSm ao&rnf odk‹r[kwf uJh&JŒ±_wfcsrnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;r&SdbJ rdrdrSefonf[k ,lqaomudpPukd owWd&Sd&Sdjzifh vkyfudkif&Jojzifh vlxku ,Hk=unfpGmay;tyfxm;aom t&mjzpfonf[k atmifqef;u jrifygonf? wkdif;jynftay:wGif xm;&Sd&rnfh ‚if;. wm0ef0wW&m;rsm; ysufuGufygu ay;xm;aom acgif;aqmifr_udk jynfolu jyefvnfodrf;,l&rnf[kvnf; vufcHygonf? ‚if;ESifh ‚if;. tpdk;&tzJG‹udk wkdif;jynfu ±dkaoav;pm;jcif;r&SdawmhaomtcgwGif ‚if;wdk‹ &mxl;rS E_wfxGufrnf[k atmifqef;u ajymaomtcg tajymoufoufomr[kwfbJ zsufrnfr[kwfaom uwdudk ay;vdkufjcif;jzpfonf[k jynfolwdk‹u od&Sd=uygonf? tiftm;qdkonfrSm w&m;r#wrSefuefaom OD;wnfcsuftwGuf toHk;ðyrSomv#if wefzdk;&Sdonf[k ,Hk=unfaom EkdifiHhacgif;aqmif ppfonfwOD;tzdk‹ *k%foduQmr&SdbJ tkyfcsKyfjcif;onf ESpfvdkzG,f&mr[kwfyg?

jynfol‹vlpGrf;aumif;[lonf jynfol. ar#mfrSef;awmifhwcsufudk udk,fpm;ðyygonf? vufawG‹b0&Sd acgif;aqmifrsm;rSmrl jynfolwdk‹. ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;tm; taumiftxnfazmfay;Ekdifrnfh twkdif;twmudkom a&mifjyef[yfae=uygonf? óuHcJvSaom orkdif;tcsdeftcgrsm;wGif ar#mfrSef;awmifhwcsufESifh wu,fhvufawG‹b0wdk‹ wxyfwnf; wkdufqdkifoGm;aomtcgY jynfolvlxkonf udk,fa&mpdwfyg tifwdkuftm;wdkuf tpGrf;ukefvkyfaqmif=u+yD; tcsif;csif; nDnGwf=uygonf? ,if;tcsdeftcgudk owd&aejcif;jzifh oduQmrJhI atmifjrifr_ajcmufcrf;aom umvrsm;wGif tm;arG;/ *k%f,lEkdifygonf? atmifqef;acgif;aqmifaom wdkawmif;vSonfh umvtwGif;Y jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹udk,f‚if;wdk‹ xdkufxdkufwefwef ,Hk=unftm;udk;cGifh&=uolrsm;wGif&Sdaom ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;/ vkyfcsifudkifcsifaom tiftm;rsm;jzifh jynfhòzd;ae=uygonf? ‚if;wkd‹. AdkvfcsKyfu ‚if;wdk‹udk pnf;urf;ESifh vHk‹v0d&d,r&Sd[lI ol‹0oDtwdkif; wHk;wHk;wdwd jypfwif}udrf;armif; qlylonfhtcgYyif ‚if;wdk‹onf pdwfysufjcif;r&Sd=ubJ AdkvfcsKyfonf rdrd. csKdŒ,Gif;csufrsm;udk rdrdudk,fwkdif jyifqif&ef qEN&SdouJhodk‹ ‚if;wdk‹udkvnf; ‚if;wdk‹. csKdŒ,Gif;csufrsm;udk jyifapvdkonf[k taotcsmod&Sdxm;=uojzifh ydkIyif óud;pm;csifpdwf aygufvm=uygonf?

“b0[lonfrSm trSefw&m;ESifh tjypfuif;pifr_udk &SmazGaom rGefjrwfonfh c&D;pOf” [k atmifqef;u ,lqxm;ygonf? Todk‹ &SmyHkawmfzGifh&mwGif olESifhtwl wkdif;jynfudkyg o,faqmifoGm;&ef óud;pm;cJhygonf? vufawG‹rusavmufatmif jrifhrm;onf[k qdk&avmufaom &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf&mY tHh=ozG,f&matmifjrifr_rsm;onf jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;. t&nftcsif;udk‚if;/ ajymonfhtwkdif; vkyfI oduQmorm"dESifh ±dk;om;ajzmifhrwfr_onf vufawG‹EdkifiHa&;. xda&mufaomtajccHjzpfEkdifa=umif; jyocJhaom atmifqef;. pGrf;&nfudk‚if; *k%fðy&ma&mufygonf? atmifqef;onf ppfonfawmfwOD;jzpfonfhtavsmuf wdkufcdkuf&rnfqdkv#if taotcsmwdkufoljzpfygonf? odk‹aomf wdkufyJG+yD;aomtcgwGif a=umuf±HGŒjcif;r&SdbJ vufeufudk

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ab;z,fum +idrf;csrf;a&;vrf;udk vdkufcJholjzpfygonf? ‚if;. vufxJodk‹ EkdifiHa&;tm%m a&muf&SdvmaomtcgwGifvnf; “usKyfu arwWmESifh opPmudk a&SŒxm;+yD; tkyfcsKyfr,f” [k [efrvkyfbJ ±dk;om;pGmajymEkdifolyifjzpfygonf? ‚if;tm; axmufcHolrsm;u ‚if;onf rdrdwdk‹. touf/ rdrdwdk‹. csrf;omr_ESifh rdrdwdk‹. ,Hk=unfr_wdk‹udk rqifrjcif tusKd;rJhatmif vkyfrnfr[kwf[k pdwfcsEkdif=uygonf? ol. pum;twkdif; qdk&v#if atmifqef;onf wkdif;jynfudk “t&rf;rJh ajAmif;qefatmif” vkyfrnfh “EkdifiHa&;pwef‹rif;om;” r[kwfyg? jynfolvlxku ‚if;. acgif;aqmifr_udk ,Hk=unfrnfqdkygu wESpftwGif; vGwfvyfa&;udk twwfEkdifqHk; +idrf;csrf;pGm&,lrnf[k &J&J}uD; tmrcHcJhygonf? “usKyf[m usKyfuwdudk rzsufcJhbl;qdkwm cifAsm;wdk‹ odw,fr[kwfvm;”? Tpum;udk 1948 ckESpf ZEM0g&D (4) &ufae‹wGif jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHtm; vGwfvyfaom orwEkdifiH[k ra=unmrD (11) vwdwdtvdku ajymcJhjcif;jzpfonf?

wkdif;jynfvGwfvyfa&;&aomtcgwGif atmifqef; uG,fvGefoGm;+yDjzpfygonf? olwyg;tm; qifjcifwHkw&m;udk vufcHI pdwfaumif;apwemaumif; tppftrSefudk wHk‹jyefwwfaom todOm%f&Sdonf[k ,lqonfh tajccHoabmxm;&Sdol atmifqef;onf tm%m&&Sda&;udk udk,fusifhw&m;xufydkI *±kðy=uaom EkdifiHa&;òydifzufwdk‹. opPmw&m;uif;rJhjcif;. '%fudk cHoGm;&ygonf? jrefrmjynftwGuf ‚if;xm;&Sdaom &nfrSef;csuffrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif *±kwpdkufpOf;pm;awG;ac: t}uHOm%frsm;xkwfouJhodk‹ ‚if;. udk,fa&;udk,fwmvHkòcHr_twGuf *±kwpdkuf&SdcJhygu atmifqef;onf vkyf}uHowfjzwfcH&rnfr[kwf[k ajymolrsm;&Sd=uygonf? odk‹aomf olom xdkuJhodk‹ udk,fusKd;iJholjzpfcJhygu “acgif;aqmifonf EkdifiH.tiftm;jzpfonf” [laomxHk;udk toufoGif;ay;vdkufaom AdkvfwumhAdkvf jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;u ‘igwdk‹ AdkvfcsKyf’ [k owfrSwfxm;aom Adkvfatmifqef;jzpfawmhrnf r[kwfyg?

5

&nfrSef;csufrsm; “jynfol‹ ol&Jaumif;trsKd;orD; &nfrSef;csufrsm; &Sif;jyjcif;” [laom acgif;pOfjzifh atmifqef;pk=unfESifh c&ifomyg (Karan Thapar) wdk‹. awG‹qHkar;jref;cef;udk atmufygtwdkif; 1988 ckESpf =o*kwfv 19 &ufae‹xkwf “onfwdkif;rfpf” (The Times) owif;pmwGif azmfjyxm;ygonf?

* * *

ar;? &efukefeJ‹ jrefrmEkdifiH&JŒ vuf&SdtajctaeawGu tawmfuav; ±_wfaxG;aeygw,f? wkdif;jynf&JŒ tajctaeudk b,fvdk&Sdw,fvdk‹ qdkEdkifrvJ?

ajz? tajctaeuawmh cef‹rSef;EkdifwJhtwdkif; awmfawmf}uD;udk wif;rmaeygw,f? tpdk;&,EW&m;[m wkdif;jynfae&mtrsm;tjym;rSm &yfwef‹oGm;oavmufjzpfaeyg+yD? 'gayrJh 'DtcuftcJudk ausmfv$m;bdk‹ jynfolawGu vkyfp&m&SdwmawG vkyfae=uygw,f? qENjyyJGawGudk pepfwus usif;yaeygw,f? &yfuGufvHkòcHa&;udkvnf; t&yfom;uif;apmifhtzJG‹awGu wm0ef,laeygw,f? pnf;urf;pepf&Sd=ubdk‹twGufvnf; jynfolawGu a&SŒwef;u v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f?

ar;? r=umcif &ufydkif;awGrSm cifAsm;[m tckjzpfaewJh jynfol‹v_yf&Sm;r_rSm t"duacgif;aqmiftjzpfeJ‹

ay:xGufvmygw,f? bmtwGuf wdkufaewmygvJ? cifAsm;&JΠ&nfrSef;csufawGudk b,fvdkazmfjyrvJ?

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ajz? 'Drdkua&pD&bdk‹ jrefrmjynfrSm óud;yrf;ae=uwJh jynfoltrsm;xJrSm usrwa,mufvnf; ygygw,f? aemufxyf taotaysmuf t=urf;zufr_awG r&SdawmhbJ jynfolawG 'Drkdua&pD&atmif usr ulnDbdk‹ &nf&G,fygw,f?

ar;? “'kwd,ajrmuf jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&; óud;yrf;r_” vkyfzdk‹vdka=umif; r=umcifuyJ

cifAsm;ajymoGm;ygw,f? tJ'g wdwdusus bmudkqdkvdkwmygvJ? ajz? jynfolvlxkudk vl‹tcGifhta&;tjynfht0 cHpm;cGifhray;wJh EkdifiHa&;pepf[m jynfh0wJhvGwfvyfa&;&JŒ

tjrifhqHk;ar#mfrSef;csufeJ‹ qef‹usifaeygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ tckvdk jrefrmjynfolvlxku 'Drkdua&pDawmif;qdkaewm[m olwdk‹&JŒ 'kwd,t}udrfvGwfvyfa&; óud;yrf;r_jzpfw,fvdk‹ usrajymwm jzpfygw,f?

ar;? ygwDpHka&G;aumufyJGudpPeJ‹ywfouf+yD; vlxkqENaumuf,lyJGvkyfr,f/ rvkyfzl;qdkwm qHk;jzwfzdk‹

pufwifbmv 12 &ufae‹ 1988 rSm txl;ygwDnDvmcHusif;yr,fvdk‹ orwarmifarmifu urf;vSrf;xm;wmudk cifAsm; b,fvdkjyef=um;rvJ?

ajz? vGefcJhwJhvu yxrqHk; p+yD; tqdkðypOfwkef;u tm%m&ygwDuom vlxkqENaumuf,lyJGvkyfzdk‹ oabmwlcJh&if jynfolvlxku aus;Zl;wifpGmeJ‹ vufcHvdkufrSmjzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh tckawmh tJ'DudpP[m ta&;rygawmhygbl;? “odyfaemufus+yD; odyfeJaew,f” qdkwJh pum;vdkjzpfaeyg+yD? jynfolawGu qENjy+yD;awmh ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pD vdkcsifw,fqdkwmudk eJeJav;rS oHo,&Sdp&mrvdkatmif jyo+yD;yg+yD? tJ'Dawmh vlxkqENaumuf,lyJGqdkwm vHk;0 tydkjzpfaerSmygyJ/ rvdkawmhygbl;?

ar;? tJ'Dvdkqdk&if jynfolvlxkudk vuf&Sdtpdk;& ðywfusoGm;wJhtxd qufvufawmif;qdkzdk‹u cifAsm;u

qdkvdkygovm;? ajz? 'DudpPu tpdk;&udk ðzwfcszdk‹yJ r[kwfygbl;? usr&JŒ vdkvm;csufeJ‹vnf; rqkdifygbl;? jynfolvlxk[m

olwdk‹vdkvm;wJh EdkifiHa&;pepfudk r&rjcif; qufvufawmif;qdkae=urSmygyJ? ar;? vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_awG[m a,bk,stm;jzifh tvdktavsmuf rpnf;±Hk;&bJ jzpfay:aewmrdk‹

jrefrmjynfrSm Oya'pnf;urf;r&Sd/ xdef;csKyfr,fhtm%mydkifvnf; r&SdbJeJ‹ rif;rJhtajctae a&mufoGm;rSmudk cifAsm; pdwfrylbl;vm;?

ajz? [kwfygw,f/ 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_[m jynfolvlxku pdwfysufvGef;vdk‹ tvdktavsmufqENjy=uwmu pwifcJhayrJh tckawmh wae‹xufwae‹ pepfwus pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk; jzpfvmyg+yD? jynfolvlxk[m tck &yfuGufvHkòcHa&;tpDtpOfawG vkyfaeygw,f? pepfwus oydwfawGarSmufzdk‹/ qENjy=uzdk‹vnf; pDpOfaeygw,f? 'Dawmh pdk;&drfr_awG ydkaep&m rvdkygbl;?

ar;? ppfwyfqDu b,fvdktultnD&r,fvdk‹ ar#mfvifhxm;ygovJ? ajz? ppfwyfqDu tultnD&zdk‹ usr rar#mfvifhygbl;? =o*kwfv 25 &ufae‹u usr ajymoGm;wmu

wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfolt=um;rSm oabmuJGvJGr_ r&Sdoifhbl;qdkwmygyJ? wyfrawmf[m jynfolvlxku av;pm;+yD; ,Hk=unf&wJhtiftm;wpk jzpfoifhygw,f? wyfrawmf[m ol‹oduQmol xdef;odrf;zdk‹twGufeJ‹ wdkif;jynfaumif;zdk‹twGuf EdkifiHa&;rSm rygoifhygbl;vdk‹ usr tckdiftrm ,Hk=unfygw,f?

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ar;? tu,fI 'Dtpdk;&usqif;oGm;&if ol‹ae&mrSm b,folu ,lrSmvJ? b,fvdktul;tajymif; tpDtpOfrsKd;awG jzpfEkdifygovJ?

ajz? jynfolu ,Hk=unfwJh =um;jzwf,m,Dtpdk;&[m wkdif;jynfudk wnf+idrfatmif jyefvkyfEkdifrSmjzpf+yD; vGwfvyf+yD; w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJGusif;yzdk‹ tajctaeawGu zefwD;ay;EkdifrSmjzpfygw,f?

ar;? tJ'Dtul;tajymif;umvrSm cifAsm; b,fae&mu yg0ifzdk‹ &SdygovJ? ajz? usrtaeeJ‹ txl;oD;oef‹ae&mu yg0ifzdk‹ r&Sdygbl;? b,fvdkjzpfvmrvJqdkwmudk

apmifh=unfh+yD;awmh +idrf;csrf;pGm tul;tajymif; vkyfEkdifatmif usr b,fvdktwwfEkdifqHk; tultnDay;&r,fqdkwmyJ &Sdygw,f?

ar;? uJ tem*wfudk =unfh&atmif/ tif;/ wu,fawmh tem*wfqdkwmuvnf; odyfa0;awmhr,f

r[kwfygbl;? ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDjzpfay:vmr,fqdk&if jrefrmjynfrSmuvnf; bmygwDrS &Sdwmr[kwfygbl;? b,fvdkygwDrsKd;awG ay:aygufvmwmudk jrifcsifygovJ?

ajz? taumif;qHk;uawmh 'Drdkua&pDpepfudk xdef;odrf;zdk‹twGuf &nfpl;t"dXmefðyxm;wJh/ pGrf;&nf&Sd+yD; ±dk;om;ajzmifhrwfwJhyk*~KdvfawG OD;aqmifwJhygwDawGudk jrifcsifygw,f?

ar;? cifAsm;ua&m ygwDxlaxmifrSmvm;? ajz? a&Smif&Sm;vdk‹ &r,fqkd&ifawmh rxlaxmifcsifygbl;? ar;? EdkifiHa&;avmurSm aZmufcs+yD;vkyfzdk‹ pdwful;ygovm;? vkyfr,fqdk&if EkdifiHa&;orm;wOD;tjzpfeJ‹

cifAsm;&JŒ yifudk,ft&nftaoG;eJ‹ u|rf;usifr_udka&m b,fvdkoHk;oyfygrvJ? ajz? EkdifiHa&;xJrSm epfrGef;ae&r,fh b0rsKd;[m usrtwGuf rufzG,f&mr[kwfygbl;? tck

avmavmq,frSm usrtaz&JŒ emrnfa=umifh‚if;/ usruvnf; ae&mvkzdk‹ pdwfr0ifpm;wma=umifhwa=umif; usr[m aygif;pnf;nDnGwfatmif vkyfay;wJh tiftm;wcktaeeJ‹om yg0ifaewmjzpfygw,f?

ar;? tJ'Dvdkqdk&if cifAsm; b,fol‹udk tem*wfacgif;aqmiftjzpf axmufcHrSmvJ?

tajymif;tvJumvrSm OD;aqmifzdk‹ayghav? ajz? 'Dar;cGef;udk ajz&r,fqdk&if usr twwfEkdifqHk; a&SmifusOfaewJh EkdifiHa&;rsKd;rSm yg0ifvmwJhoabm

jzpfaeygvdrfhr,f? ar;? cifAsm;taeeJ‹ 'grSr[kwfvnf; tem*wftpdk;&taeeJ‹ ynmwwfjrefrmawG wkdif;jynfudk

jyefvm&atmif b,fvdkvkyfrvJ? 'grSr[kwf b,fvdkajymjyrvJ? ajz? jynfolawGudk olwdk‹&JŒ u|rf;usifr_pGrf;&nfawGudk toHk;cscGifh tvHktavmufay;wJh

'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&[m jrefrmawGtrsm;}uD; wkdif;jynfudk jyefvmatmif qJGaqmifrSm aocsmygw,f? 'gayrJh jynfwGif;rSm&SdaewJh twwfynmeJ‹ u|rf;usifr_rsm;udk av#mhwGufwm[m rrSefuefygbl;? zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fwJh EkdifiHa&;eJ‹ pD;yGm;a&;pepfudk z,f&Sm;vdkufr,fqdk&if rdrdwdk‹t&nftcsif;udk tckxufxd jyocGifhr&ao;wJh vkyfEkdifudkifEkdifwJh vlawG trsm;}uD;ay:vmrSmyg?

ar;? 'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmEdkifiHtaeeJ‹ jyifyurBmeJ‹ b,fvdkqufoG,fa&;rsKd;udk usifhoHk;rSmygvJ?

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ajz? jrefrmEkdifiH[m t+rJwrf; bufrvdkufvrf;pOfudk usifhoHk;wmrdk‹ 'Dtwdkif;yJ qufvufusifhoHk;oifhygw,f? 'gayrJh jyifyurBmeJ‹ qufqH&mrSm ydk+yD;yGifhvif;wJh oabmxm;eJ‹ qufqH&rSmjzpfygw,f?

ar;? jrefrmawGtaeeJ‹ a&S;±dk;pOfqufuwnf;u ta&;w}uD; pdk;&drfcJh=uwmu olwdk‹&JŒ ,Ofaus;r_eJ‹

bmom,Hk=unfr_ oef‹pifa&;udk xdef;odrf;zdk‹jzpfw,f? 'g[m cifAsm;twGufa&m ta&;}uD;ygovm;? ajz? udk,fh,Ofaus;r_eJ‹ bmom,Hk=unfr_udk xdef;odrf;ay;zdk‹ vlrsKd;wkdif;twGuf ta&;}uD;w,fvdk‹

xifygw,f? wcsdefwnf;rSmyJ owdxm;&rSmu wdk;wufwJhEkdifiHqdkwm[m tcsdefumveJ‹twl wdk;wufv_yf&Sm;oifhw,f? w,loeftpJGeJ‹ tjrifusOf;ajrmif;wJh oabmxm;awGudk a&Smifoifhw,fqkdwmygyJ?

ar;? cifAsm;&JŒ zcif[m orkdif;pOft& jrefrmhwyfrawmfeJ‹ wJGzufvmcJhwmrdk‹ tem*wf

'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmEkdifiHrSm ppfwyf[m b,fvdkae&mu ygoifhw,fvdk‹ cifAsm; xifygovJ? jrefrmEkdifiHvdk wkdif;jynfrSm ppfwyfu EdkifiHa&;rSm ae&m,lzdk‹ Oya'pnf;rsOf;awGvkyfzdk‹ vdkw,fvdk‹ ,lqygovm;?

ajz? wyfrawmf[m EdkifiHa&;rSm ryg&bl;vdk‹ usrtazu ajymcJhygw,f? tJ'Dt,ltqudk usr vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm; axmufcHygw,f?

6 awmfvSefa&;tv,fA[dkwGif t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh 1991 ckESpfwGif xkwfa0aompmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 209-213 udk jrefrmjyefonf?

* * * vHk;0r,Hk=unfp&m/ a'goxGufp&m/ a=umufvef‹zG,f&m/ a=uuJGzG,f&m tcsdefumvrsm;/ odk‹aomf cHpm;r_taygif;udk v$rf;rdk;xm;onfrSmum; vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tjynfht0cHpm;vdkonfh rwGef;vSefrz,f&Sm;Ekdifaom jynfol‹vdktifqENrsm;rS tvdktavsmufaygufzGm;vmonfh v_yf&Sm;r_ taotcsm atmifjrif&rnf[laom ,Hk=unfcsuf? vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:r_udk‚if;/ udk,fydkifwDxGifr_rSefor#udk‚if; cGifhrðycJhaompepfatmufwGif jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹. pGrf;&nfrsm; (26) ESpfvHk;vHk; ESdrfeif;csKyfcs,fjcif; cHcJh&ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; jynfolwdk‹. vsifjrefpGmpOf;pm;I qHk;jzwfvkyfudkif&rnfh tajctaersm;udk ta&;,ludkifwG,fEkdifa=umif; vGefcJhaom &ufowWywf tenf;i,ftwGif; jyocJhygonf? tpdk;&,EW&m; vnfywfjcif;r&SdawmhbJ &JtzJG‹uvnf; vHkòcHa&;udk tmrrcHEkdifawmhonfhtwGuf Ak'<bmombkef;}uD;rsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm; t"dutm;jzifhyg0ifaom &yfuGufuif;apmifhtzJG‹rsm; wjynfvHk;wGif ay:aygufvmygonf? 'Drdkua&pD&,l&ef tcdkiftrmqHk;jzwfxm;onfh rsm;jym;vSaom or*~tkyfpkrsm;onf wckwnf;aom OD;wnfcsuftwGuf vkyfudkifaqmif&Guf&ef qufoG,fr_rsm; ðyvkyf=uonfrSm vGefcJhaomvurS vGwfvGwfvyfvyf toif;tzJG‹rsm; w&m;0ifr[kwfaomfvnf; pkpnf;EkdifcJhaom wdkif;jynftwGuf tHhzG,f&myif jzpfygonf? tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfa&; ysufjym;oGm;&onfESifhtwl qufoG,fa&;ESifh o,f,lydk‹aqmifa&; tcuftcJrsm; jzpfay:vmojzifh pm;ukefypPnf;rsm; &Sm;yg;+yD; aps;E_ef;jrifhwufvmygonf? TudpPwGif‚if;/ aq;0g;jzef‹a0a&;

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udpPwGif‚if;/ oufom&m&ap&eftwGuf jynfolwdk‹uyif ‚if;wdk‹udk,fwkdif pnf;±Hk;vkyfaqmif=uygonf? ,ae‹ (pufwifbmv 8 &uf 1988) vlaygif;woef;ausmf yg0ifzG,f&m&Sdaom vlxkqENjyyJGrsm;udk txdtcdkuf tvGJtacsmf wpHkw&mr&SdbJ atmifjrifpGm usif;yEkdifjcif;onf &Sifoef}uD;xGm;vmaom pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_ESifh pnf;urf;user_rsm;udk vufawG‹jyovdkufjcif;yif jzpfygonf? wdkufckdufvk,ufr_/ rD;±_dŒr_ESifh tjcm;zsufqD;onfh vkyf&yfrsm;udk trsm;odatmif owif;v$ifhxm;=uygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; tqdk;0g;qHk;aomjzpf&yfrsm;udk ,cifu‚if;/ ,cktcgwGif‚if; tpdk;&zufrS tkyfpkwpku v_H‹qGay;aeonfrSm odomxif&Sm;vSygonf? jynfolwdk‹u pnf;urf;&Sda&;ESifh pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;udk xdef;odrf;&ef óud;yrf;ae=upOf tpdk;&bufrS tkyfpkwpku rif;rJhtajctaeodk‹ a&muf&Sdatmif tpGrf;ukefóud;pm;tm;xkwfaeonfrSm em;rvnfEkdifavmufaom a=umuf&GHŒxdwfvef‹p&m tajctaeyif jzpfygonf? ,cktajctaexuf ydkI rqkd;0g;bJ jzpfae&onfrSm jynfol‹'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_a=umifhom jzpfygonf? vuf&Sdtpdk;&xJrS tcsKdŒaom tzJG‹0ifwdk‹onf jynfolvlxku txift&Sm;jyoxm;aom pdwfqENudk wGef;vSefz,f&Sm;&ef cyfajymifajymifyif oEMdÏmefcsxm;=uonfrSmvnf; rnfhonfhta=umif;a=umifh jzpfonfudk wm0efodwwfaomol[lor# em;rvnfEkdifatmifyif jzpf&ygonf? wkdif;jynforkdif;pOfwGif jrifawG‹&cJaom pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_jzifh ‚if;wdk‹tm; y,fcsvdkufaom jynfolvlxktm; trsm;qHk; 'kuQa&mufap&eftwGuf upifhuvsm;jzpfatmif ‚if;wdk‹u vkyfaqmifjcif; jzpfyHk&ygonf? jynfol‹'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_udk ysufjym;ap&efOD;wnfaom =urf;wrf;±dkif;pdkif;onfh v#KdŒ0Sufvkyf}uHr_rsm;wGif tpdk;&tzJG‹0iftm;vHk; yg0ifjcif;r&SdonfrSmvnf; odomxif&Sm;ygonf? Todk‹aom }uHpnfr_rsm;onf wckrusef tapmydkif;uyif ysufpD;oGm;cJhygonf? xdk‹a=umifh ar#mfvifhcsufukefqHk;I rxl;awmh+yD[k ,lqxm;aom/ t&nftcsif;uif;rJhaom ajymif;vJr_rvdkvm;oltcsKdŒu t}uHukefIvkyfonfh aemufqHk;vkyf&yfrsm;[k t"dy`m,faumuf&efom &Sdygawmhonf? 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf vkyfudkifaqmif&Gufaeaom “jynfolrsm;” [lonfrSm rnfolenf;[k ar;Ekdifp&m&Sdygonf? ‚if;wdk‹rSm jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwD (rqv) vufatmufwGif vlr_a&;/ EkdifiHa&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&; qif;&J'kuQtaygif;udk cHpm;vmcJh&aom rsm;pGmaom jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;yif jzpfygonf? rqvygwDonf xifovkd zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fjcif;/ qDavsmfaom pD;yGm;a&;vrf;pOfudk rusifhoHk;jcif; ponfwdk‹a=umifh r&nf&G,faomfvnf; trSwfrxif pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_udk zefwD;ay;ovdk jzpfoGm;&onf[kvnf; qdkEdkifygonf? rqvygwDudk qufvuf,Hk=unfaeao;olrsm;rSm ‚if;wdk‹. &mxl;tvkyftudkif vufrvGwfoGm;ap&ef twGufomrubJ ‚if;wdk‹. vHkòcHa&;twGufyg pdk;&drfae=uaoma=umifhyif jzpfrnfrSm ,HkrSm;oHo,&Sd&ef rvdkawmhyg? TonfrSmvnf; jynfolvlxkESifh rqvygwD acgif;aqmifykdif;t=um;wGif uGm[mr_ tifrwef}uD;rm;aeyHkudk om"ujyvdkufjcif;yif jzpfygonf? rqvtpdk;&udk tjynfht0 vufpm;acsvdkaom yk*~Kdvfrsm;&SdaeonfrSm rjiif;Edkifaomfvnf; jynfoltrsm;pkurl w&m;Oya't& tjypfay;onfhwkdifatmif *±k%mw&m;a&SŒxm;I oufn‡maxmufxm;pGm vkyfapvdk=uygonf? jrefrmhwyfrawmfonf t"duta&;}uD;aom tcef;u¾rS yg0ifaeygonf? wyfrawmfonf &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfpGm zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faom tiftm;pk rjzpfap&[k tcgaygif;rsm;pGm owday;cJhaom usr. zcif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u wyfrawmfudk wnfaxmifcJhjcif;yif jzpfygonf? vuf&Sdpepf qufvuf&Sifoefa&;ay:wGif ‚if;wdk‹. tm%mESifh txl;cHpm;cGifhrsm;wnf&Sdaeonfh azmufjyefaom vufwqkyfpm w,loef t,lonf;olwpku wyfrawmfudk y&d,m,fjzifhudkifwG,fum tvJGoHk;pm;vkyfaeonf[k jynfoltrsm;pku ,Hk=unfygonf? vuf&Sdtpdk;&. vrf;pOfrsm;udk rvJ$ra&SmifombJ xrf;aqmifcJhonfhtwGuf *k%foduQm pGef;xif;ysufpD;cJh&onf[k ,lq=uaom vufeufudkifwyfzJG‹0if trsm;tjym;uvnf; tjyif;txef uef‹uGufvm=uonfrSm ydkIom

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odomxif&Sm;vmygonf? wyfrawmfonf jyefvnfaphpyfI r&Ekdifawmhaom tkyfpkrsm;tjzpfodk‹ uJG+yJoGm;rnfudk rSefuefpGm awG;awmwwfaom jrefrmEkdifiHom;tm;vHk;u pdk;&drf=uygonf? ppfwyftaejzifh ppfwef;vsm;odk‹ *k%foa&&SdpGm jyefoGm;Ekdifaprnfh jynfolrsm;vufcHavmufonfh EdkifiHa&;pepfrsKd;udk apmpD;pGm +idrf;csrf;pGm ul;ajymif;oGm;a&;udk vlxku vdkvm;ygonf? jynfvHk;u|wf 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_wGif rnfuJhodk‹ usr yg0ifvm&onfudk vlawmfawmfrsm;rsm;u ar;=uygonf? acwfopfjrefrmEkdifiH. zcif[k ,lqxm;jcif;cH&ol. orD;jzpfol usrtaejzifh wkdif;jynf. vuf&SdEkdifiHa&; a&pD;a=umif;ESifh &if;ESD;pGm o[Zmwjzpfvm&rnfrSm rvJ$ra&Smifomaom tcsufyifjzpfygonf? usronf uav;b0rSpI jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH. vlr_a&;/ EdkifiHa&;wdk;wufr_ESifh vGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ordkif;udk tvGefyif pdwf0ifpm;cJhygonf? usr (2) ESpft&G,fwGif zcifjzpfol uG,fvGefoGm;cJhojzifh tazhudk usr odonf[k wu,fwrf;rajymEkdifyg? “uav;rsm;udk cspfciftvdkvkdufaom taz/ udk,fhtusKd;xuf wkdif;jynfom,m0ajyma&;udk OD;pm;ay;aom taz” [lIom od&Sdem;vnfxm;&ef usrudk oif=um;ay;cJhygonf? usr }uD;jyif;vmaomtcgwGif zcif. b0atmifjrifr_rsm;ESifhqdkifaom taxmuftxm;tcsuftvufrsm; pwifpkaqmif;onfhtcgwGifrS ‚if;onf rnfodk‹aomyk*~Kdvfjzpfonf/ touf (32) ESpfwm b0c&D;wGif rnfr#atmifjrifpGm xrf;aqmifEkdifcJhonf ponfwdk‹udk usr pwifavhvmod&Sdjcif;yif jzpfygonf? xdktcgwGif ‚if;tm; jynfcspfwOD;/ EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifwOD;taejzifh csD;usL;=unf!dk±HkomrubJ usrwdk‹. pdwfoabmxm;rSmvnf; wlnDr_rsm;&Sdaea=umif; awG‹&ojzifh ‚if;tm; em;vnfudk,fcsif;pmwwfaompdwfrsm; ay:aygufvmwwfygonf? TuJhodk‹ ckdifrmoefpGrf;aom oHa,mZOfaESmifóud;a=umifhyif wkdif;jynf om,m0ajyma&;twGuf usrwGif wm0ef&Sda=umif; av;eufpGm cH,lvdkufjcif;yif jzpfaumif;jzpfayrnf? vuf&Sdtpdk;& 1962 ckESpfwGif tm%m&,lvdkufaomtcgu usronf rdcifjzpfol jrefrmoHtrwf}uD;tjzpf tr_xrf;aeaom tdENd,jynfwGif ausmif;aevsuf&Sdygonf? Ttpdk;&ESifh usrwdk‹. qufqHa&;rSm tqifajyvSonfr[kwfyg? usr. zciftay:wGif opPmxm;I cspfcifjrwfEkd;=uonfh tpdk;&tzJG‹0iftcsKdŒurl usrwdk‹rdom;pkudkvnf; cspfcif±dkao=uygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; usrzcif. emrnfudk udk,fh&nf&G,fcsufrsm;twGuf toHk;ðyae=u+yD; wkdif;jynfaumif;rGef&eftwGuf vdktyfcsuftjzpf usrzcifu csrSwfxm;aom rlrsm;ESifh udk,fhusifhw&m;rsm;udk rusifhoHk;olrsm;vnf; &Sdygonf? Todk‹aom yk*~Kdvfrsm;xJwGif usrwdk‹rdom;pktm; t}uD;tus,f remvdk0efwdkjzpf+yD; usrwdk‹udk tEW&m,ftjzpf jrifae=uoltcsKdŒvnf; &Sdygonf? 1974 ckESpfu usr tdrfjyefvmonfhwacgufu usrwGif tpdk;&qef‹usifa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;Y yg0if&ef &nf&G,fcsuf&Sd/ r&Sd tm%mydkifrsm;u odvdka=umif;/ usrudk tvGwfoabm ar;jref;pHkprf;vmygonf? usrvnf; EkdifiHjcm;rS vSrf;I bmudkr# vkyfrnfr[kwfa=umif; usrom EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_xJwGif yg0ifrnfqdkygu jynfwGif;Yom vkyfrnf[k jyefajzcJhygonf? usr EkdifiHjcm;wGif aexdkifaomtcsdefrsm;Y jrefrmhjy\emrsm;udk us,fjyef‹aom tjynfjynfqdkif&m jrifuGif;rS oHk;oyfcGifh&&SdcJh+yD; r=umc% tdrfjyefvmaoma=umifh wkdif;jynfY jzpfysufaeonfrsm;udk rsufajcrjywfcJhyg? rqvtpdk;&vufxufwGif wkdif;jynf rxdef;Ekdif/ rodrf;Edkif ,kd,Gif;ysufpD;vm&onfudk od&Sd&efrSm rcufcJvSyg? odk‹aomfvnf; usr pdwfa&mudk,fyg axmufcHEkdifrnfh trsm;axmufcHaom twdkuftcHv_yf&Sm;r_[lI rESpfu {+yDvY jrefrmjynfodk‹ jyefvmonftxd rawG‹cJh&yg? xdktcsdefwGif jynfolwdk‹. pdwftajctaeonf ajymif;vJoGm;+yDjzpf+yD; trsm;axmufcHaom tpdk;&qef‹usifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_onfvnf; vsifjrefpGm csOf;uyfvmae+yDjzpfygonf? vGefcJhaom =o*kwfvu +idrf;csrf;pGm qENjy=uolrsm;udk tpkvdkuftòyHvkduf owfjzwfvdkufonfhtwGufa=umifh tpdk;&qef‹usifa&; jynfol‹v_yf&Sm;r_udk vsifjrefpGm jzpfyGm;apcJh+yD; usronfvnf; jynfol‹vdkvm;csufudk axmufcH&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufjcif;jzpfygonf? ,if;odk‹ qHk;jzwfvdkuf&onfrSmvnf; wpdwfwa'otm;jzifh tazhorD;taejzifh wkdif;jynftay:wGif wm0ef&Sdonf[k usr ,Hk=unfIyif jzpfygonf?

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usronf EdkifiHa&;orm;tcsKdŒ. =oZmv$rf;rdk;r_atmufwGif v_yf&Sm;aeonf[laom rSef;qajymqdkcsufrsm;vnf; &Sdygonf? usrtay: t,Hkt=unfr&Sdatmif vkyfvdkaomvlrsm;ESifh trSefwu,f pdk;&drf=uaom yk*~Kdvfrsm;u usrudk uGefjrLepfawG ywfvnf0kdif;aeonfh oabmrsKd;ESifh ajymqdkae=uygonf? EkdifiHa&;t,ltqtrsKd;rsKd; &Sd=uaom 0g&ifhEkdifiHa&;orm;tcsKdŒu usrudk vufawG‹tultnDay;aeonfrSm rSefygonf? tem*wfwGif yk*~Kdvfa&;tjrwftpGef; odk‹r[kwf EkdifiHa&;tusKd;tjrwfudk vHk;0rar#mfvifhbJ 'Drkdua&pDta&;twGufom aqmif&Gufrnf[laom em;vnfr_udk &Sif;vif;pGm &,lxm;+yD;rS usru ‚if;wdk‹. tultnDudk vufcHjcif;jzpfygonf? usrudk,fwdkifuvnf; EdkifiHa&;,Hk=unfcsuf/ ygwD odk‹r[kwf oabmw&m;awGudk wkdif;jynfom,m0ajyma&;xufydk+yD; OD;pm;ay;aomvlrsm;udk tjyif;txefqef‹usifygonf? wkdif;EkdifiHwdkif;/ jynfoljynfom;wkdif;onf ‚if;wdk‹. tajctaeESifhudkufnDrnfh EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;pepfudk &SmazG&rnfjzpfygonf? ,cktcgwGif usronf ausmif;om;trsm;tjym;yg0ifaom EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;r[kwfaom tkyfpkrsm;ESifh &if;ESD;pGmyl;wJGvkyfudkifvsuf&Sdygonf? ‚if;wdk‹. wckwnf;aom &nf&G,fcsufrSm jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm; vl‹tcGifhta&;tjynfht0 cHpm;Ekdifrnfh 'Drdkua&pDpepfrsKd;udk &&Sd&efyifjzpfygonf? ,cktcsdefonf trsKd;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;twGuf óud;yrf;tm;xkwf&rnfh tcsdefjzpf+yD;/ tem*wf ygwDEdkifiHa&;twGuf tajccHtiftm;pkrsm; wkd;yGm;ckdifrmatmif óud;pm;&rnfhtcsdef r[kwfyg? EdkifiHa&;ygwDwnfaxmifrnfavm[k usrudk ar;vmaomtcg usr rufrufarmarm vkyfvdkaom udpPr[kwf[k ajz&rnfjzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; usrwdk‹tm;vHk; ,ckóud;yrf;ae=uaom 'Drkdua&pDpepfudk axmufcHumuG,f&eftwGuf vdktyfvmonf[k usr ,Hk=unfvmygu usr a&Smif&Sm;vdkaom ygwDEdkifiHa&;rsKd;Yyif 0ifa&mufvkyfudkifrnfjzpfygonf? usrudk r=umc%ar;vmaom tjcm;ar;cGef;wckrSm usr jrefrmjynfY rnfr#=umatmif aexkdif&ef &nf&G,fygoenf;[laom ar;cGef;yifjzpfygonf? usr wae‹wGif jyefvm+yD; wkdif;jynfrSm aexkdif+yD;/ jynfol‹pm=unhfwkdufrsm; wnfaqmuf&efESifh ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf ynmoifqkrsm; pDpOfay;rnf[k usr t+rJojzifh &nf&G,fcJhygonf? xkd‹a=umifh 'Drkdua&pDpepfodk‹ ul;ajymif;+yD;onfhaemufydkif;Y usr EkdifiHa&;qufvkyfonfjzpfap/ rvkyfonfjzpfap ,if;rlv&nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf&ef ar#mfvifhygonf? usrudk r=umc%ar;vmaom wwd,ar;cGef;rSm jynfol‹'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_ atmifjrifrnf[k usr ,Hk=unfygovm;[laom ar;cGef;jzpfygonf? ,Hk=unfonf[k jywfjywfom;om; ajzygrnf? ,ae‹ jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd pdwf"mwftajctaeESifh vHk;0tqufjywfaeaom yk*~Kdvfrsm;u óudwifa[mudef;xkwfxm;onfhtwkdif; jzpfrvmbJ jynfolvlxkonf 'Drdkua&pDudk atmifjrifpGm &&Sdrnfhtjyif wkdif;jynfwdk;wufxGef;um;a&;twGuf 'Drdkua&pDpepfudkvnf; atmifjrifpGm usifhoHk;Ekdifrnf[k usr ,Hk=unfygonf? Tae&mwGif TtrsKd;om;v_yf&Sm;r_tm; E_d;qGtoufoGif;ay;onfh ausmif;om;rsm;. tcef;u¾udk usr ajymvdkygonf? ausmif;om;trsm;pkonf &J&ifhI jzwfxkd;Om%f&Sd±Hkwifruao;bJ oabmxm;}uD;+yD; t,ltqopfrsm;udkvnf; cH,lwwfa=umif; awG‹&Sd&ygonf? ‚if;wdk‹. tzJG‹tpnf;ESifh ‚if;wdk‹. aZmufcsvkyfr_wdk‹onf tHh=ozG,f&m pdwf"mwfwufºuGp&myif jzpfygonf? Tvli,fuav;rsm;onf tcsdefusa&mufvmaomtcgwGif wkdif;jynfwm0efxrf;aqmif=urnf[k awG;rdaomtcg rsm;pGm tm;wufrdygonf? jrefrmEdkifiH. tem*wfta&; pdwfat;&+yD[lIom usr cHpm;rdygawmhonf?

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ukvor*~vl‹tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifodk‹ tdwfzGifhay;pm t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh 1991 ckESpfwGif xkwfa0aom pmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 222-224 udk jrefrmjyefonf?

* * * 1? urBmhvl‹tcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf;wGif azmfjyyg&Sdaom vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk Oya't& tumtuG,fay;rnfh +idrf;csrf;wnf+idrf wdk;wufaom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;jzpfay:&ef tmrcHrnfh vlr_a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&;tajymif;tvJrsm;udk ay:aygufap&efrSm jrefrmjynfY 'Drkdua&pDtpdk;&wnfaxmif&ef vkyfaqmifaeaom trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf (NLD) ESifh tjcm;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;. t"duOD;wnfcsufyif jzpfygonf? 2? vGwfvyfyGifhvif;pGm tjyeftvSef aqG;aEG;+yD;aemuf w&m;Oya't& a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufxm;aom v$wfawmfrS jyXmef;xm;aom Oya'pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk w&m;r#wajzmifhrwfpGm taumiftxnfazmfjcif;[k t"dy`m,f&aom “w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;” ESifh jynfolvlxk. axmufcHr_udk r&&Sdaom tpdk;&u xifovdk pdwfóudufxkwfjyefxm;onfh a=unmcsufrsm;udkom taumiftxnfazmfjcif;jzpfaom “+idrf0yfydjym;a&;” [lonfwdk‹udk jrefrmEkdifiH 'Drkdua&pDta&;wGif vkyfudkifaqmif&Gufaeolrsm;u uJGjym;jcm;em;pGm odomapvdkygonf? 3? vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk ,Hk=unfjrwfEkd;olrsm;onf +idrf0yfydjym;a&;oabmudk y,fcsonfr[kwfyg? odk‹aomf Oya'qdkonfrSm “}uD;rm;aomtkyfpk. vdktifqEN” om jzpfraeap&ef‚if;/ pnf;urf;&Sdr_qdkonfrSmvnf; “ae&mwumY a=umuf&GHŒae&onfudk a&mifjyef[yfjcif;” r[kwfonfudk‚if; taotcsmtmrcH&ef vdkvm;=uygonf? jrefrmjynfoljynfom;trsm;pkonf "rRESifh tb, ac: udk,fusifhw&m;aumif;rGefr_ESifh a=umuf&GHŒjcif; uif;rJhr_wdk‹udk xdef;odrf;rnfhtpdk;&udk jrefrmjynfwGif vdkvm;=uygonf? 4? w&m;r#wr_udk xda&mufpGm usifhoHk;Ekdif&eftwGufESifh ,if;odk‹usifhoHk;onfh jzpfpOfw&yfvHk;wdk‹udk vlwkdif;u qef;ppfavhvm&ef tvdk‹iSm Oya't& tmrcHcsufay;EkdifrSomv#if vl‹tcGifhta&;vdkvm;csufrsm;udk Oya'av;pm;r_ESifh o[Zmwjzpfatmif ðyvkyf&rnf[laomtqdkonfvnf; w&m;0ifrnfjzpfygonf? vGwfvyfr_/ w&m;r#wr_ESifh +idrf;csrf;a&;wdk‹. tajccHtjzpf vdktyfa=umif; ukvor*~ todtrSwfðyxm;aom tcGifhta&;rsm; qHk;±_H;ysufpD;&onfudk wGef;vSefaeolrsm;tm; jrefqefpGm ta&;,lESdrfeif;Edkif&ef &nf&G,fI jyXmef;xm;aom trdef‹a=unmcsufrsm;onf tpdk;&trdef‹r#omjzpf+yD; w&m;aom Oya'tqifhodk‹ jr‡ifhwif&efvdktyfaom oDv/ pGrf;tm;ESifh Oya'qkdif&m vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;. axmufcHr_r&Sd[k qdk&rnfjzpfonf? 5? w&m;aomOya'tm;vHk;udk axmufcH&efESifh ±dkaoav;pm;&efrSm trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfu tpOfwpdkufvdkufemcJhaom vrf;pOfjzpfygonf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif ckdifrmaom/ +idrf;csrf;aom/ wkdif;jynfwnfaxmifvdkolrsm;onf vl‹*k%foduQmESifh trSefw&m;. tajccHrsm;udk wkdufckdufonfh ta&;,lvkyfaqmifr_rsm;udk wGef;vSef&ef wm0ef&Sdonf[k jynfoltrsm;pkESifhtwl trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfu od&Sdem;vnfxm;ygonf? 6? jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ,ae‹zrf;qD;cHxm;&onfh rsm;jym;vSaom EkdifiHa&;tusOf;orm;rsm;onf &mZ0wfr_rsm; usL;vGefonfqdkI pJGcsufwifxm;ygonf? trSefpifppfrSm ‚if;wdk‹onf

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urBmhvl‹tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;tydk'f 19/ 20 ESifh 21 wdk‹udk axmufcHumuG,f&ef óud;yrf;tm;xkwf=ujcif;a=umifh ta&;,lcHae&jcif;jzpfygonf? xdk‹tjyif tydk'f 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11 ESifh 12 wdk‹ESifh qef‹usifI ‚if;wdk‹tm; udkifwG,fqufqHaeygonf? 7? EkdifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;tcuftcJrsm;a=umifh twd'kuQa&mufae=u&onfh jynfoljynfom;wdk‹tm; xyfrHIom 'kuQay;Ekdifaom yÉdyuQrsKd; &ifqkdifawG‹r_rsKd;ukd trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfESifh ‚if;tm; axmufcHa=umif; &Sif;vif;pGmjyaeaom jynfolwdk‹u rvdkvm;=uyg? trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfonf 1988 ckESpfwGif pwifay:aygufvmonfrSpI aqG;aEG;aphpyfn‡dE_dif;jcif;jzifh em;vnfr_&,laom 'Drkdua&pDtpOftvm rl oabmw&m;udk ckdif+rJpGm vufcHusifhoHk;cJhygonf? 8? “vlom;wdk‹tm; ‚if;wdk‹. tcGifhta&;udk ray;bJ jiif;qdkaejcif;onf vlr_a&;/ EdkifiHa&; rjidrfoufr_jzpfay:ap&ef vrf;cif;ay;vdkufjcif;jzpfonf” [laom azmfjycsuf cdkifvHkonfudk 'Drkdua&pDtpdk;&pepfodk‹ apmapmpD;pD; +idrf;csrf;pGm ul;ajymif;vdkolrsm;u vufcHtodtrSwfðy=uygonf? xdk‹a=umifhvnf; vlr_a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&;r+idrfroufr_rsm;udk a&Smif&Sm;rnfh tajctaersm; ay:aygufvm&ef OD;wnfI ‚if;wdk‹u óud;yrf;ae=ujcif;jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; vlrsm;pk. pdwfqENudk ±dkaoav;pm;&ef tm%mydkifwdk‹u jiif;qefaeojzifh ,if;odk‹ óudf;yrf;tm;xkwfr_rsm;onf [ef‹wm;jcif; cHae&ygonf? 9? jrefrmEdkifiHwGif vl‹tcGifhta&;jr‡ifhwifvdkolrsm; (txl;ojzifh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;) taejzifh ‚if;wdk‹tay:wGif‚if;/ ‚if;wdk‹.rdom;pk odk‹r[kwf taygif;toif;tay:Y‚if; &efwHk‹jyefr_rsm; ðyvkyfvmrnfh ab;tEW&m,fudk ra=umufr&GHŒ&bJ ‚if;wkd‹. t,ltqrsm;udk yGifhvif;pGm xkwfazmfEkdifaprnfh tajctaersm;udk ukvor*~ vl‹tcGifhta&;aumfr&Siftaejzifh awmif;qdk&ef jzpfEkdifvdrfhrnf[k ar#mfvifhygonf? 10? vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tmrcHrnfh EkdifiHa&;pepf&&Sd&ef óud;yrf;±kef;uef&mY atmifjrifr_&&ef ‚if;wdk‹. udk,fydkifowWd/ ZJG/ vHk‹vESifh cHEkdif&nfpGrf;tm;rsm;udkom tm;udk;&rnfudk em;vnfoabmayguf=uaomfvnf; jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹. w&m;r#waom OD;wnfcsufudk ukvor*~aumfr&Sifu axmufcHrnf[k ar#mfvifhygonf? 8 jynfolvlxku vGwfvyfa&;udk vdkcsifonf atmifqef;pk=unfonf ‚if;.aetdrfY txdef;odrf;rcH&rD 19 &uftvdkjzpfaom Zlvkdifv 1 &ufae‹ 1989 ckESpfY at;&Sm;0dcf (AsiaWeek) rS a'grepfazgvf'g (Dominic Faulder) ESifh atmufygtwdkif; tar;tajz vkyfxm;ygonf?

* * * ar;? vuf&Sdtajctaeudk b,fvdk&Sdw,fvdk‹ qdkEkdifrvJ? ajz? usru t"duypfrSwfjzpfaewm xif&Sm;ygw,f? 'Dvdkjzpfaewmvnf; tawmfav;=umyg+yD? 'gayrJh

tckawmh ajAmifvkyfvm+yDaygh? usrwdk‹udk jynfolawGu taxmufcHqHk;rdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹udk OD;wnf+yD;

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wkdufcdkufae=uwmygyJ? usrwdk‹ +idrf+idrfav;xkdif+yD; apmifh=unfhae±HkeJ‹ ta&G;cH&rSm aocsmw,fvdk‹ wcsKdŒu xif=uygw,f? 'gayrJh tJ'Davmuf rvG,fygbl;? usrwdk‹rSm&SdwJh tajccH EkdifiHa&;vkyfydkifcGifhawG[m wae‹+yD;wae‹ ydk+yD; qHk;±_H;ae&ygw,f? e0wtzJG‹ (EkdifiHawmf+idrf0yfydjym;r_ wnfaqmufa&;tzJG‹) [m usrwdk‹ wkdifxm;wJh rw&m;r_awG/ wzufowfusr_awG tm;vHk;udk vHk;0*±krpdkufygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ b,fvdktrSefwu,fjzpfysufaew,fqdkwmudk usrwdk‹u ajymae&wmyg?

ar;? a&G;aumufyJGpnf;rsOf;opfudk avhvm+yD;+yDvm;? ajz? [kwfuJh/ usr aoaocsmcsm zwf=unfh+yD;yg+yD? t}uHOm%fawG wyHkwacgif; 0dkif;ay;xm;wmawGudk

eJeJav;awmif *±kpdkufwmr[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹uvnf; t}uHawGtrsm;}uD; ay;xm;ayr,fh tm;vHk;udk vspfv#L±_xm;wm awG‹&ygw,f? tm%mvJ$ajymif;a&;eJ‹qdkifwJh txl;pnf;rsOf;awG xnfhoGif;ay;bdk‹ usrwdk‹ ajymxm;wmawGudk vHk;vHk; razmfjyxm;ygbl;?

ar;? a&G;aumufyJGusif;yjzpfw,fqdk&if a&G;aumufyJG+yD;&if bmjzpfr,fxifygovJ? ajz? usrwdk‹vnf; rodygbl;? 'gu jy\emygyJ? b,folyJ ta&G;cH&/ cH& tm%mtvJ$tajymif;rvkyfcif

yxrqHk; zJG‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;qJG+yD; twnfðy&rSmjzpfygw,f? zGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk b,fvdktwnfðy&r,fqdkwmudkvnf; ajymao;wmr[kwfygbl;? vlxkqENaumuf,lyJGvkyf+yD;awmh twnfðy&rSmvnf; jzpfEkdifygw,f? 'Denf;uawmh ESpfeJ‹r[kwf&ifawmif veJ‹csD+yD; =umEkdifygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹ tm%mvJ$ajymif;a&;qkdif&m pnf;rsOf;awG[m odyfta&;}uD;ygw,f? tm%mudk b,fvdkvJ$ajymif;ay;r,fqdkwmudk usrwdk‹ rodrjcif; e0w u 'Drdkua&pDenf;vrf;t& a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufxm;wJh tpdk;&udk zJG‹pnf;ay;r,fvdk‹qdkwmudk usrwdk‹ ,Hk=unfvdk‹ rjzpfao;ygbl;?

ar;? 'gayrJh twdkuftcHawGtaeeJ‹uvnf; zJG‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'rl=urf;tay:rSm

oabmwlcsufr&Edkifao;bJ jzpfaew,fr[kwfvm;? ajz? ygwD (200) ausmf&Sdaeawmh vlwkdif;vufcHEkdifavmufwJh zJG‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk a&;qJGzdk‹qdkwmu

vG,fwJhudpP r[kwfygbl;? 'gtpm; e0w ua&m aqG;aEG;yJGawG rpEkdifbl;vm;? 'g[m EkdifiHa&;jy\emawGudk EkdifiHa&;enf;eJ‹&Sif;wJh enf;vrf;jzpfygw,f? olwdk‹ raqG;aEG;Edkifao;wmu OD;ae0if;u trdef‹ray;ao;vdk‹bJ jzpfr,fvdk‹ usr xifrdygw,f? e0w u b,foleJ‹aqG;aEG;wmudkrS OD;ae0if; =um;csifr,f r[kwfygbl;? tJ'Dawmh e0w u olwdk‹udk wdkufaewJhygwDawGeJ‹ pum;rajymEkdifbl;/ rwdkufwJhygwDeJ‹yJ ajymr,fvdk‹ qdkvmjyefygw,f? tJ'gudk tpuawmh bma=umifhrajym=uovJ? 'g[m qifajcoufoufygyJ? usrwdk‹u “e0w [m 'D[mawG [dk[mawG rvkyfbl;? aus;Zl;ðyI vkyfzdk‹óud;pm;yg” vdk‹ ajym&ifawmif oem;p&maumif;vSwJh e0w crsmrSm bmrS vkyfydkifcGifh&Sdwm r[kwfygbl;?

ar;? oem;p&maumif;wJh e0wwJhvm;? ajz? [kwfygw,f/ oem;p&maumif;wJh e0w ygyJ? b,ftzJG‹tpnf;yJjzpfjzpf tm%m&SifwOD;&JŒ =oZmcH

vHk;0jzpfae&if oem;p&mvdk‹ ajymEkdifygw,f? olckdif;wJhtwkdif; vkyf=uwmygyJ? OD;ae0if;u tm%mudk óud;udkifaeor#awmh vGwfvyf+yD; w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJGqdkwmvnf; &SdEkdifr,f rxifygbl;?

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ar;? tm%mydkifawGu cifAsm;bufudk OD;wnfwdkufcdkufvmr,fvdk‹ xifovm;? ajz? olwdk‹óud;pm;r,fxifygw,f? usrta=umif; r[kwfwmawG/ t"dy`m,fr&SdwmawG 0g'jzef‹zdk‹ olwdk‹

t+rJwrf; óud;pm;ae=uwmygyJ? usrrSm tdrfaxmifav;quf/ oHk;quf/ ESpfquf&Sdw,f pojzifhayghav? aemufawmh usr[m uGefjrLepfvdk‹vnf; ajym=uw,f? wcsKdŒtodkif;t0dkif;rSmawmh usru pDtkdifat vdk‹ qdkygw,f? usru Ak'<&Sifawmfudk apmfum;aeygw,fvdk‹ xif&Sm;ausmf=um;wJh bkef;awmf}uD;awGu rdef‹qdkatmifvnf; olwdk‹ óud;pm;aewmygyJ? usr EkdifiHjcm;om;eJ‹ vufxyfxm;w,fvdk‹awmh olwdk‹ ajymEkdifygw,f? 'gudkvnf; usru &Sif;&Sif; 0efcHxm;wmygyJ? zHk;uG,fzdk‹ óud;pm;aewmrSr[kwfbJ?

ar;? cifAsm;ajymwmudk jynfolvlxk em;axmifatmif vkyf&wm cufovm;? ajz? rcufygbl;? jynfolvlxku vGwfvyfa&;udk vdkcsifwmyg? jy\emuawmh vlawG[m

a=umuf&GHŒxdwfvef‹wwfwJh tusifhawG pJGaeygw,f? ZGefv (19) &ufae‹ 1989 ckESpfu EkdifiHjcm;"gwfyHkq&mwOD;[m usrudk "gwfyHk±dkufaewkef; taESmuft,SufcH&wJhtcgrSm olu jyefajymawmh usreJ‹twl&SdwJh vlwcsKdŒ[m awmfawmf tHhtm;oifhoGm;=uygw,f? “tJ'Dvdk vkyfwm[m vGwfvyfwJh vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;u vmwJhvlawGtzdk‹ yHkrSefyJjzpfw,f” qdkwmudk usru &Sif;jy&ygw,f? a=umuf&GHŒw,fqdkwmuvnf; wjcm;tðytrlawGvdk tavhtxyJ jzpfygw,f? a=umufa=umuf&GHŒ&GHŒeJ‹ aexdkifvm=uwm =umvm&if a=umufwwfvmwmygyJ? 'ga=umifhrdk‹ usrudk vlawGu odyfowWdaumif;w,fvdk‹ ajym=uwm xifygw,f? usru a=umufvef‹ae&wJhtusifh r&cJhvdk‹om jzpfrSmyg?

ar;? cifAsm;[m EkdifiHa&;ðyjyifr_udk pD;yGm;a&;zHG‹òzd;r_xuf ydk+yD; OD;pm;ay;xm;ygvm;? e0w owfrSwfxm;wJh

a&G;aumufyJGrvkyfcif &Sd&r,fh tajctaeawGxJrSm ±kyfydkif;qkdif&m ºuG,f0r_[mvnf; wcktygt0if jzpfw,fav?

ajz? usrajymwmu 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJGuae vlawG tm±Hkajymif;oGm;atmif pD;yGm;a&;ðyjyifr_qdkwmrsKd;eJ‹ rqG,foifhbl;qdkwJhtcsufygyJ? EkdifiHa&;pepfudk usrwdk‹ rajymif;bl;qdk&if pD;yGm;a&;rSmvnf; wdk;wufzHG‹òzd;rSm r[kwfygbl;? tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;udk tmrcHcsuf ray;EkdifwJh tpdk;&[m pD;yGm;a&;&m tcGifhta&;awGudk tmrrcHEdkifrSmuawmh aocsmygw,f?

ar;? trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf tm%m&vm&if cifAsm; bmvkyfrvJ? ajz? tpdk;&tzJG‹xJrSm usryg0ifvm&r,fvdk‹ xifygw,f? 'guvnf; usrvkyf&r,fh udpPwck

jzpfaeygw,f? aemufwufr,fh tpdk;&awmh oufomr,fr[kwfbl;vdk‹ usr ajymEkdifygw,f? ESpfaygif; 26 ESpf/ 27 ESpfavmuf wdwfwqdwf 'kuQcHvmcJh=u&wJh jynfolawG[m &ifzGifh=uawmhrSmygyJ? vlwkdif;udk auseyfr_ay;Edkifavmufatmif jrefqefwJh ðyjyifa&;vkyfief;awGudkvnf; b,ftpdk;&urS vkyfEkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? jynfolawGuawmh aemufwufvmr,fh tpdk;&udk aumif;aumif;}uD; uoduatmufjzpfatmif vkyf=uawmhrSmygyJ?

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9 EdkbJvfqk&Sifudk,fpm;ajymaomrdef‹cGef; atmifqef;pk=unfudk 1991 ckESpf EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk csD;jr‡ifhaomtcgwGif rvma&mufEkdifojzifh olrudk,fpm; om;}uD;jzpfol armifjrifhqef;atmif (Alexander Aris – tvufZENm;tJ&pf) u atmufygrdef‹cGef;udk zwf=um;ygonf?

* * * bk&ifrif;jrwf/ rdzk&m;}uD;/ tpdk;&tzJG‹0ifrsm;/ oHwrefrsm;ESifh trsKd;orD;/ trsKd;om;rsm;cifAsm;? qkrsm;xJwGif t}uD;tus,fqHk;aom TEdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkudk usaemfhrdcif a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk,fpm; vufcH&ef vl}uD;rif;rsm;a&SŒarSmufwGif usaemf ,ae‹ a&muf&Sdaejcif;jzpfygonf? usaemfhrdcifonf tajctaeta=umif;rsm;a=umifh udk,fwkdifrvma&mufEkdifojzifh olrtaejzifh xkwfazmfajymqdkrnfh cHpm;csuf[k usaemf ,Hk=unf,lqaom cHpm;r_rsm;udk azmfjyEkdif&ef usaemf tpGrf;ukefóud;pm;ygrnf? yxrOD;pGm olronf EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkudk olrtaejzifhr[kwfbJ jrefrmjynfoljynfom; tm;vHk;udk,fpm; vufcHa=umif;ajymqdkI pwifvdrfhrnf[k usaemf od&Sdem;vnfygonf? Tqkonf olrESifh roufqkdifbJ usaemf ,ck pum;ajymaepOfYyif jrefrmjynf 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf ‚if;wdk‹. udk,fusKd;aumif;pm;r_/ udk,fydkifvGwfvyfr_ESifh toufwdk‹udk qufvuftepfemcHae=uaom trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;/ uav;oli,frsm;ESifhom oufqkdifaomqkjzpfa=umif; olru ajymrnfjzpfygonf? Tqkonf ‚if;wdk‹. qkjzpfouJhodk‹ jrefrmjynf +idrf;csrf;a&;/ vGwfvyfa&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDtwGufjzpfaom a&&SnfwdkufyJGwGif aemufqHk;&&Sdrnfh atmifyJGrSmvnf; ‚if;wdk‹.atmifyJGyif jzpfygrnf? odk‹aomfvnf; olr. om;taeESifh usaemf jznfhpGufajymvdkonfrSm olrudk,fwkdif pdwfa&mudk,fyg jr‡KyfESHvkyfudkifjcif;/ udk,fwkdiftepfemcHjcif; ponfwdk‹a=umifh olronf jrefrmjynfoljynfom; tm;vHk;. qdk;0g;aomtajctaeudk trsm;u todtrSwfðyvmap&ef tm;vHk;udk,fpm; &yfwnfxdkufaom oauFw jzpfvm&ygonf? ,if;tajctaeqdk;rsm;udk rnfolur# av#mhrwGufoifhyg? òrd‹&Gmaus;vufwGif qif;&JrJGaw csKdŒwJhEGrf;yg;ae=ujcif;/ tusOf;axmifxJwGif t±dkuftESufcH/ tESdyfpufcHae=u&jcif;/ jrefrmjynf. ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;jzpfaom vli,fvl&G,frsm; ‚if;wdk‹xGufajy;&mawmxJY iSufzsm;rd+yD; 'kuQa&mufae=ujcif;/ Ak'<bmombkef;}uD;rsm; t±dkufcH/ oduQmcscHae=u&jcif; ponfhtajctaeqdk;rsm;yif jzpfygonf? usaemfhrdciftjyif txl;±dkaoav;pm;cH&aom 0g&ifhacgif;aqmifrsm;onfvnf; tusOf;cscHae&onfudk usaemfwdk‹ rarhoifhyg? Todk‹ tjrifhqHk; *k%fðycH&onfudku ‚if;wdk‹udk,fpm; usaemfu v_dufv_dufvSJvSJ aus;Zl;wifa=umif; ajymtyfygonf? TuJhodk‹ tvGefa0;vHaom wkdif;jynfwGif rdrdwdk‹. 'kuQa0'em cHpm;ae&r_rsm;udk em;pdkuf*±kðyaeaoma=umifh jrefrmjynfolwdk‹taejzifh ,ae‹ tenf;i,f acgif;armhEkdifrnf jzpfygonf? tapmifhxlxyfpGmcsxm;aom &efukefòrd‹aetdrfwGif wOD;wnf; qifEJ$aeaomwkdufyJGonf pdwf"mwfa&;&m ESdyfuGyfr_ESifh EkdifiHa&; t"rRtEkdifusifhr_wdk‹rS vlom;wdk‹ vGwfajrmufatmif urBmESifhcsDI us,fjyef‹pGm óud;yrf;aeaom wkdufyJG}uD;. wpdwfwydkif;yifjzpfa=umif; usaemfwdk‹ owd&=u&rnf jzpfygonf? Tqkonf TwdkufyJG}uD;xJwGif rnfonfht&yfrSrqdk yg0ifaeolrsm;udkvnf; *k%fðy&ef &nf&G,fonf[k usaemf ,Hk=unfrdygonf? ,ae‹ atmfpvdkòrd‹wGif ðyvkyfaom Ttcrf;tem;udk wurBmvHk;wGif usif;yaeaom urBmhvl‹tcGifhta&;ae‹Y usif;y&onfrSmvnf; ta=umif;&Sdygonf?

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OuUX}uD;cifAsm;/ vl}uD;rif;wdk‹ aumfrwD. a&G;cs,fcsufudk urBmhrdom;pkwckvHk;u aumif;csD;=obmay;ae=uygonf? vGefcJhaom &uftenf;i,fcef‹u ukvor*~onf wnDwnGwfwnf; orkdif;0ifqHk;jzwfcsufw&yf csrSwfum Tqk. ta&;ygyHkESifhywfoufaom taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;csKyf yJ&pf'DuJGv,m; (Perez de Cueller) . xkwfjyefcsufudk óudqdk=u+yD; usaemfhrdcif vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf ‚if;u xyfcgwvJ yef=um;xm;onfrsm;udkvnf; axmufcHvdkufygonf? jrefrmjynf. vl‹tcGifhta&;tajctae tvGef pdk;&drfzG,f&m jzpfaeonfudk wurBmvHk;u od&Sdem;vnfxm;=uonfudkvnf; xif&Sm;pGm azmfjyxm;ygonf? urBmhwkdif;EkdifiHtm;vHk;xJwGif wudk,fwnf;uif;uGmI txD;usefaecJhaom &efukef tpdk;&xHrSom wckwnf;aom oabmxm;uJGvJGoHudk =um;&ygonf? aemufususef&pf+yD; tm;enf;aeaom toHyifjzpf.? ("gwfyHkvmonf) om;}uD; tvufZENm; (jrifhqef;atmif) 1991 ckESpf 'DZbFmv 10 &ufae‹Y rdcifudk,fpm; EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk vufcH&if; aus;Zl;wifpum;ajym=um;aepOf (aqmif;yg;tqufvmonf) Ttpdk;&onf ESpfaygif;oHk;q,feD;yg; rw&m;ojzifh tkyfcsKyfvmcJhonfhtwGuf wcsdefu }uD;yGm;wdk;wufcJhaom jrefrma&$0gajronfvnf; pD;yGm;a&;wGif urBmhtqif;&JqHk; EkdifiHwEkdifiHb0odk‹ a&muf&SdoGm;&ygonf? =oZmtm%mudk xda&mufap&ef +cdrf;ajcmufr_/ a=umuf&GHŒr_/ zdESdyfr_/ rkef;wD;r_wdk‹udk toHk;ðycJhaom tjcm;tm%m&Sifpepfrsm;. uH=urRmuJhodk‹ aemufqHk;wGif ‚if;wdk‹. uH=urRmvnf; jzpfay:vmvdrfhrnfudk &efukef&Sd tm%mydkifwdk‹. twGif;pdwfxJY od&Sd=u&rnf jzpfygonf? vuf&Sd jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDóud;yrf;r_wkdufyJG 1988 ckESpfu/ vrf;rrsm;ay:Y aygufuJGxGufay:vmjcif;onf ta&SŒOa&my/ tm&SESifh tmz&duwdk‹wGif ay:aygufvmrnfh tjynfjynfqdkif&m 'Drdkua&pD 'Da&v_dif;}uD;. yxrqHk;aom v_yf&Sm;r_w&yfyif jzpfygonf? ,ae‹ 1991 ckESpfwGif jrefrmEkdifiHonf zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faom/ acgif;rmaom EdkifiHawmf +idrf0yfydjym;r_ wnfaqmufa&;tzJG‹ vufatmufwGif qufvuf 'kuQcHae&ojzifh jrefrmEkdifiHonf odomxif&Sm;aeygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; tjcm;EkdifiHrsm;wGif 'Drkdua&pDatmifyJGcHoGm;aom om"uonf jrefrmjynfolwdk‹twGuf ta&;}uD;aom owif;yg;csufyifjzpfygonf? tm%m&Sifpepf pD;yGm;a&;onf vHk;0 pGrf;aqmifEkdifjcif; r&SdonfhtwGuf vuf&Sdtpdk;&onfvnf; usqHk;&rnf[laom ta=umif;=um;csuf jzpfygonf? ,cktcgwGif jrifhwufaeaom aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_/ tvJGvJGtrSm;rSm;jzpfaeaom pD;yGm;a&;ESifh wefzdk;r&Sdaom usyfaiGwdk‹ESifh &ifqdkifae&aom jrefrmtpdk;&onf rdrdwdk‹ ðyvkyfcJhonfhtwkdif; cHpm;ae&onfrSm oHo,jzpfp&mrvdkyg? odk‹aomfvnf; vuf&Sdtm%m&tpdk;& usqHk;oGm;jcif;onf pD;yGm;a&; vHk;0 òydusysufjym;oGm;&aoma=umifh rjzpfygapESifh[k usaemf av;eufpGm ar#mfvifhygonf? ,ckESpftwGuf qka=unmpOf EdkbJvfaumfrwDu azmfjyxm;onfhtwkdif; vl‹tajccH*±k%mw&m;t& yef=um;xm;onfudk tm%m&tpdk;&u *±kðyrdaumif; ðyrdygvdrfhrnf? zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fI a=umuf&GHŒxdwfvef‹atmif ðyvkyfaeaom vuf&Sdvrf;pOfrsm;onf jrefrmhAk'<bmomtpOftvm. rGefjrwfaom udk,fusifhw&m;rsm;udk csKd;azmufaejcif;jzpfonf[k ,lqum &GHrkef;aeolrsm;vnf; ppftpdk;&tzJG‹wGif yg&Sda=umif; usaemfodygonf? TonfrSm tcsnf;ESD; udk,fvdk&mudk,fqJG+yD; awG;ac:jcif;r[kwfbJ usaemfhrdcifudk,fwkdif tm%mydkiftqifh&Sd yk*~Kdvfrsm;ESifh xdawG‹qufqH&if; &&Sdvmaom ,Hk=unfr_yifjzpfygonf? ppfr_xrf;rsm;ESifh ‚if;wdk‹ rdom;pkrsm;om t"dutm;jzifh aexdkifaom rJqENe,fajrrsm;wGif olr. ygwD tEdkif&&SdonfrSmvnf; Ttcsufudk xif&Sm;pGm om"ujyjcif;yif jzpfygonf? tm%mydkifrsm;xJrS ,if;odk‹ r#wvdkaom/

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oifhjrwfvdkaom yk*~Kdvfrsm;u jrefrmjynf. tvdktyfqHk;aom tcsdefumvY ‚if;wdk‹. cHpm;csufrsm;udk xdxda&mufa&muf tusKd;oufa&mufr_&SdEkdif&ef vkyfEkdifygap[k usaemf av;eufpGm qENðyygonf? usaemfhrdcifom ,ae‹ vGwfvyfaeygu vl}uD;rif;rsm;udk aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif; ajymqdk&if; zdESdyfolESifh zdESdyfcHae&olwdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹. vufeufrsm;udk pGef‹ypfI twlwuG yl;aygif;um +idrf;csrf;a&;pdwf"mwfESifh *±k%mw&m;wdk‹tay:wGif tajccHaom wkdif;jynfudk wnfaqmufapEkdif&eftwGufyg qkawmif;ay;yg&ef vl}uD;rif;wdk‹tm; yef=um;rnf[k usaemf odygonf? usaemfhrdciftm; 'Drkdua&pDtajymif;tvJrsm;udk +idrf;csrf;aomenf;vrf;jzifh &,lvdkaom EkdifiHa&;twdkuftcH[k r=umc% xkwfazmfajymqdk a&;om;=uaomfvnf; olr óud;pm;&SmazGaeonfrSm tajccHtm;jzifh pdwf"mwfa&;&m ajymif;vJr_jzpfonfudk usaemfwdk‹ owd&oifhygonf? “tppfrSefqHk;aom awmfvSefa&;onf pdwf"mwfawmfvSefa&;jzpf+yD;” ,if;odk‹ óud;yrf;tm;xkwf&mwGif “vdktyfaom pdwf"mwfa&;&m t"du&nfrSef;csufrsm;” ESifh ywfoufIvnf; olr. a&;om;xm;csufrsm; &Sdygonf? ,if; pdwf"mwfawmfvSefa&; atmifjrif&efrSm vl‹wm0ef0wW&m;tay:wGif vHk;0 rlwnfaeygonf? vl‹wm0ef0wW&m;odpdwf. rlv t&if;tjrpfrSm “vHk;0 tjypfuif;pifjcif;[laom oabmw&m;udk em;vnfI tjypfuif;pifvdkaom pdwfqEN/ tjypfuif;pif&ef enf;vrf;&SmEdkifaom todOm%fESifh ,if;enf;vrf;rsm;udk vdkufemvdkaompdwf"mwf/ ,if;enf;vrf;udk tqHk;wkdif rvdkufEkdifonfhwkdifatmif rdrd. c|wf,Gif;csuf tuef‹towfudk ausmfvGef&ef vdktyfaomtwkdif;twmtxd tenf;qHk; a&muf&Sdatmif óud;pm;vdkjcif;wdk‹ jzpfygonf”? b0wGif jynfh0pGm aexkdif&eftwGuf olwyg;. vdktyfcsufwm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifvdkaomowWd &Sd&rnfjzpf.? Twm0efudk xrf;aqmifvdk&rnf[k olru qdkcJhygonf? Ttcsufudk olr.,Hk=unfr_ESifh qufpyf,l&mwGif “owW0gtaygif;wdk‹teuf vlom;ppfppfomv#if tqifhtjrifhqHk; tajctaejzpfaom bk&m;tjzpfudk &&SdEkdifojzifh vlom;tm; tvGefwefzdk;xm;onfh jrefrmh±dk;&m ,Ofaus;r_tajccHjzpfaom Ak'<0g't& vlwkdif;onf rdrdqENt& óud;yrf;tm;xkwfjcif;jzifh opPmw&m;udk odEkdifpGrf;&Sd+yD; olwyg;udk odap&eftwGufvnf; ulnDEkdifaom tvm;tvm&Sdonf” [k a&;om;xm;ygonf? aemufqHk;wGif olru “jrefrmEkdifiHwGif 'Drdkua&pD&SmyHkawmfonf jynfolwdk‹u urBmhtzJG‹tpnf;twGif; vGwfvyfaom wef;wlnDwltzJG‹0ifrsm;tjzpf jynfh0pGm t"dy`m,f&Sd&Sd aexdkifEkdif&ef ±kef;uefr_}uD;yif jzpfygonf? TonfrSm rdrdwdk‹. pdwf"mwfonf rdrd. obm0c|wf,Gif;csufrsm;tm; ausmfvGefEdkifa=umif;udk xif&Sm;ap&ef vlom;wdk‹u tqufrjywf óud;yrf;tm;xkwfaer_. tpdwftydkif;wckyif jzpfygonf”[k a&;om;xm;ygonf? aemfa0;wGif rdciftwGuf usaemfESifh usaemfhnDwdk‹ qkxl;}uD;udk vufcH=u&onfrSm Tt}udrfonf 'kwd,t}udrfyif jzpfygonf? ,refESpfuvnf; odka&mhzf&mzfwdk (Thorolf Rafto) vl‹tcGifhta&;qkudk vufcH&ef bm*if (Bergen) odk‹ usaemfwdk‹ oGm;a&mufcJhygonf? ,ckESpftcrf;tem;. y%mryif jzpfygonf? ,cktcg usaemfwdk‹wGif aemfa0;jynfolrsm;twGuf txl;cHpm;csufrsm; &Sdae=u+yD jzpfygonf? r=umrDtwGif; usaemfwdk‹rdcifonfvnf; TcHpm;csufudk r#a0cHpm;Ekdif+yD; usaemfrSwqifh odk‹r[kwfbJ rdrdudk,fwkdif wkduf±dkuf pum;ajymEkdifvdrfhrnf[k usaemf ar#mfvifhygonf? TtawmtwGif; olrESifh jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹tm; Todk‹ }uD;rm;xl;jcm;pGm axmufcHjcif;onf urBmhtpGefqHk; qef‹usifbufae&mrsm;wGif aexdkifae=uaom jynfolESpf&yftm; ydkrdkeD;uyfatmif pkaygif;ay;&mus+yD; ,ckuJhodk‹ jzpfay:vmaom qufoG,fr_rS ajrmufjrm;pGmaom tusKd;qufrsm; ay:xGufvmrnf[k usaemf ,Hk=unfygonf? vl}uD;rif;tm;vHk;udk usaemfhtaejzifh pdwfxJESvHk;xJrS aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif; ajymvdkygonf? ,ae‹rSpI emusnf;csufrsm;/ tmCmwrsm; pwif ys,fajymufI jrefrmjynf +idrf;csrf;a&;&&Sd&mwGif 1991 EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkonf orkdif;wGifrnfh ajcwvSrf;jzpfap&ef usaemfwdk‹ qkawmif;&/ ar#mfvifh&rnf

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jzpfygonf? twdwf. oifcef;pmrsm;udk arhavsmhrnf r[kwfaomfvnf; tem*wf ar#mfvifhcsuftwGuf usaemfwdk‹ ,ae‹ tcrf;tem; qif,ifusif;yjcif;yif jzpfygonf? 10 EdkbJvfaumfrwDodk‹ay;pm 56/ wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf; &efukef 14 ar 1992 ygarmuQ vGef'Dpwuf&Sifh 1991 ckESpftwGuf EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk usrudk ay;tyf&efqHk;jzwfvdkufa=umif; usr yxr =um;od&aomtcgwGif csufcsif;jzpfay:vmaom cHpm;csufrsm;rSm av;eufaom ed0gwpdwfESifh txl;aus;Zl;wifpdwfwdk‹yif jzpfygonf? jrefrmEkdifiHwGif 'Drkdua&pD&&Sd&ef óud;yrf;tm;xkwfwdkufyJG0ifae=uolrsm;. tepfemcHr_ESifh qif;&J'kuQcHr_rsm;a=umifhom usrudk Todk‹ *k%fðyjcif;jzpfonfudk usr od&Sd&ojzifh ed0gww&m; yGm;rsm;&jcif;jzpfygonf? Todk‹ óud;yrf;tm;xkwf wkdufyJG0ifae=uonfudk vl}uD;rif;rsm;u todtrSwfðyjcif;jzifh 'Drkdua&pDwkdufyJGudk tvGeftzdk;wefvSaom taxmuftulay;vdkufonfhtwGuf aus;Zl;wifpdwf ay:aygufvm&jcif; jzpfygonf? usrwdk‹. pkaygif;óud;yrf;r_wGif yg0ifolrsm;tm;vHk;udk,fpm; Tqk}uD;udk vufcH&,la=umif; usrom;}uD; tvufZENm; (jrifhqef;atmif) u ajym=um;cJhonfrSm usr. cHpm;csufudk wdwdusus azmfjyjcif;yifjzpfygonf? usrwdk‹ jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;. ta&;udk *±kðya=umif; jyoonfhtwGuf usr v_dufv_dufvJSvSJ aus;Zl;wifa=umif; ajymvdkygonf? usr&&Sdaom qkaiGrsm;jzifh jrefrmjynfynma&;ESifh usef;rma&;b¾mxdef;tzJG‹ wnfaxmif&efvnf; usrcifyGef; rdkufu,ftJ&pftm; ajym=um;xm;ygonf? usrudk,fwkdif ,if;b¾mxdef;tzJG‹udk tjynfht0 }uD;=uyfEkdifrnfh tcsdefumvrwdkifrjcif; Tb¾mxdef;vkyfief;ESifhqkdifaom Oya'a&;&mudpP&yftm;vHk;udk usr cifyGef;tm; usrudk,fpm; aqmif&GufydkifcGifh ay;xm;ygonf? usrtaeESifh ajym&rnfqdkygu usrom;}uD;u aemfa0;jynfoljynfom;rsm;ta=umif; cspfcif&if;ESD;pGm aEG;axG;aom arwWmpdwfjzifh ajymoGm;onfudk =um;odvdkuf&onfhtwGufvnf; usr rsm;pGm ESpfouf=unfEl;rdygonf? qkay;yJGtcrf;tem;udk =unfEl;zG,f&m/ rarhEkdifzG,f&m jzpf&yftaejzifh/ txl;ojzifh wufa&muf=uaom jrefrmrsm;twGuf ðyvkyfay;&ef/ óud;pm;aqmif&Gufay;=uonfrsm;udk =um;&aomtcgwGifvnf; usr pdwfv_yf&Sm;&onftxd =unfEl;rdygonf? aemfa0;EkdifiH&Sd awmifapmufawmif=um;twGif;rS yifv,fajrmifrsm;ta=umif;udk usr uav;b0wGif zwf±_&pOfuwnf;rSpI aemfa0;EkdifiHonf usrpdwftm±Hkudk txl;pJGaqmifcJhygonf? usrudk,fwkdif wae‹wGif vma&mufI EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;a[majymyJGudk ðyvkyfEkdifrnfhtcsdeftcgudk pdwftm;xufoefpGm apmifhar#mfaeygonf?

atmifqef;pk=unf

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11 tjynfjynfqkdif&m vl‹tcGifhta&; Oya'tzJG‹rS ay;aom qktwGufrdef‹cGef; tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl‹tcGifhta&;Oya'tzJG‹rS csD;jr‡ifhaomqkudk vufcH&mwGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfa&;om;I olrudk,fpm; om;}uD; tvufZENm; (jrifhqef;atmif) u 1992 arv 14 &ufae‹wGif 0g&Sifwefòrd‹awmfY zwf=um;aom rdef‹cGef;jzpfygonf?

* * * tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl‹tcGifhta&;Oya'tzJG‹rS ESpfpOfcsD;jr‡ifhaom vl‹tcGifhta&;qkudk orw yufx&D±_d-tvf0if (Patricio Aylwin) ESifhtwl wcsdefwcgxJ vufcH&,l&onfudk rsm;pGm*k%f,lrdygonf? Tqkonf ,cktcgY jrefrmEkdifiHwGif tvGefta&;}uD;vSaom udpP&yfrsm;udk tm±Hkpl;pdkufvmap&ef rD;armif;xdk;ouJhodk‹ jzpf&ygonf? csDvDEkdifiH orw}uD;onf trSefw&m;ESifh jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;w&m;wdk‹t=um; ckdif+rJaom qufpyfr_&SdaeyHkudk wae‹wjcm; vltrsm; ydkrdkod&Sdoabmaygufvmap&ef aqmif&Guf&mwGif us,fjyef‹pGm ±dkaoav;pm;jcif;cH&aom xl;jcm;vSonfh acgif;aqmifwOD;yifjzpfygonf? vSnfhjzm;r_/ rw&m;r_/ vl‹*k%foduQmudk rav;pm;r_wdk‹rS jzpfay:vmaom a=umuf&HGŒr_ESifh oHo,jzpfr_wdk‹onf vl‹tcGifhta&;azmufzsufr_a=umifh uJGtufae&aom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;tay:Y avmif;&dyfxdk;vsuf&Sdygonf? Todk‹aom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;wGif jzpfay:aeaom emusnf;csuf'%f&mrsm;udk aysmufuif;atmif uko&mwGif jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;onf t"duyifjzpfygonf? Todk‹ðyvkyfEkdif&ef wjynfvHk;. csrf;ajrŒom,ma&;udk yk*~vduESifh tkyfpkwdk‹. usOf;ajrmif;aom tusKd;pD;yGm;wdk‹xuf a&SŒwef;rS xm;vdkaom jzLpifaomapwem &Sd&rnfjzpfygonf? wOD;ESifhwOD; ydkI tjyeftvSef ,Hk=unfpdwfcs&aom tajctaevnf; &Sd&ef vdktyfygonf? cg;oD;vSaom &efòid;zJG‹r_rsm; tcsdef=umjrifhpGm jzpfyGm;+yD;aemuf wOD;ESifhwOD; jyefvnf,Hk=unfpdwfcsvmEkdifatmif jyefvnfðyvkyf&mwGif pdwfoabmuJGvJGr_ESifh aomu'kuQtaygif;udk ay:aygufapaom tðytrlrsm;/ pdwfoabmxm;rsm;/ cHpm;csufrsm;udk "rR"dXmefusus trSefudk trSeftwdkif; oHk;oyfqifjcif&ygvdrfhrnf? trSefw&m;udk &ifqkdif&aomtvkyfrSm rvG,fulvSyg? owWd&Sd&ef vdktyfygonf? oef‹pifaomapwemESifh ±dk;ajzmifhaompdwfxm;rsm; arG;jrLjcif;tm;jzifh aemufqHk;wGif rvdkrkef;wD;r_ESifh vdrfvnfr_wdk‹rS jzpfay:vmaom aysmufcJvSaomtusKd;qufrsm;udk atmifjrifpGm ausmfv$m;Ekdifrnf[k ,Hk=unfaom o'<gpdwfudkvnf; arG;&efvdkygonf? trSefw&m;udk OD;wnfIvkyfudkif&ef vdktyfa=umif; vufcHvdkufjcif;onf ac|;odyfjcif;r#omjzpfaom tay:,Ha=umoufouf vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk ausmfvGefI udk,fpdwfESvHk;yg nDnGwfpGmjzifh bHkjy\emrsm;udk ajz&Sif;Ekdifaprnfh ppfrSefaom jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;vrf;udk yGifhapEkdifygonf? jrefrmEkdifiHwGif jynfoljynfom;rsm;onf EdkifiHa&;vkyfief;pOft&yf&yfwGif jynfh0pGm yg0ifqifEJ$ydkifcGifh &Sd r&Sd/ vGwfvyfI w&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyJGrSwqifh jyocJhaom vlxkqENudk wu,fav;pm;r_ &Sd/ r&Sd? w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;udk jr‡ifhwifjcif;jzifh‚if;/ vGwfvyfaomw&m;pD&ifa&; r¾Kdifwnfaxmifjcif;jzifh‚if;/ vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk xda&mufpGm tumtuG,fay;jcif; &Sd/ r&Sd ponfwdk‹udk urBmu ,ae‹ apmifh=unfhavhvmaeygonf? trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwf aygif;pnf;nDnGwfoGm;aomtcgY jrefrmEkdifiHolEkdifiHom;wdk‹onf vdkvm;tyfaom tajymif;tvJrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfEdkifvdrfhrnf[k usr tpOft+rJ

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,Hk=unfxm;ygonf? umv=um&SnfpGm cHpm;cJh=u&aom udk,fydkiftusKd;pD;yGm;udk cdkif+rJatmif umuG,f&ef enf;y&d,m,frsm;xufydkI trSefw&m;ESifh em;vnfr_&&Sda&;udk wefzdk;xm;jcif;jzifh vdkvm;tyfaom tajymif;tvJrsm; vsifjrefpGm jzpfajrmufEkdifvdrfhrnf[k usr ar#mfvifhygonf? vl‹tcGifhta&; odk‹r[kwf 'Drdkua&pDta&;ESifh oufqkdifaom qkcsD;jr‡ifhjcif;cH&onf[k od&Sd&onfhtcgwdkif;Y csufcsif;qdkovdkyif usr. tawG;rsm;onf rdrdwdk‹,Hk=unfcsufrsm;twGuf trsKd;rsKd; tepfemcH=u/ pGef‹v$wfcJhaom &J&ifhwnf=unfvSonfh vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;xHodk‹ a&muf&SdoGm;wwfygonf? rdrdwdk‹EdkifiH. uH=urRmudk rdrdwdk‹ qHk;jzwfydkifcGifh&&Sda&;twGuf óud;yrf;aeaom jynfolvlxkudkvnf; tpOfrjywf owd&vsuf&Sdygonf? ,ae‹ csD;jr‡ifhaomqkudk jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;ESifh vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;udk,fpm; aus;Zl;wifpGm vufcHygonf? usr. wkdif;jynfESifh usrudk TuJhodk‹ *k%fðyvkdufaom tjynfjynfqkdif&m vl‹tcGifhta&;Oya'tzJG‹. aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;udk vGefpGm av;pm;csD;rGrf;rdyga=umif; ajym=um;&if; ed*Hk;csKyfvdkufygonf?

atmifqef;pk=unf &efukef 12 arv 1992

12 pydeftdkvHypfrdef‹cGef; atmufwGifazmfjyygpmpkonf 1992 ckESpf ZGefv 13 &ufae‹wGif pydefEkdifiHY tdkvHypfrD;±_; a&mufvmonfudk óudqdkaomrdef‹cGef;jzpfygonf? ,Hk=unfcsufa=umifh jrefrmEkdifiHwGif txdef;odrf;cHae&ol 1991 ckESpf urBmh+idrf;csrf;a&; EdkbJvfqk&Sif atmifqef;pk=unfu a&;om;I olrudk,fpm; om;}uD;jzpfol armifjrifhqef;atmif (tvufZENm;tJ&pf) u tifyl&dtmpfY zwf=um;ygonf?

* * * bmpDvdkemodk‹ ukef;wwef a&wwef ,laqmifvmcJh&aom tdkvHyD,mrS TrD;awmufrD;v#Honf ppf&yfqkdif;aom tvHozG,fjzpfygonf? urBmt&yf&yfrS trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;pk±Hk;um +idrf;csrf;cspf=unfpGmjzifh wlnDaom0goemudk vdkufpm;avhusifhEkdif=uap&ef wdkufcdkufr_/ &efðyr_tzHkzHk &yfqkdif;vdkufjcif;udk &nfn$ef;ygonf? tdkvHypftm;upm;yJGonf vlom;wdk‹ xl;c|efajymifajrmufa&;twGuf óud;yrf;±kef;uefaom toGiftjyifw&yfudk azmfjyygonf? Todk‹aom óud;yrf;r_onf csrf;omokcESifh qufEG,faeonf[k a&S;a[mif; *&dvlrsKd;rsm;u ±_jrifcJhonfhtav#muf ,ae‹tcrf;tem;onf acwfaygif;rsm;pGmrSpI ,Ofaus;aom vlom;rsm; qGwfcl;&ef &SmazGcJhaom qk}uD;rsm;jzpfonfh +idrf;csrf;ESifh csrf;omokcudk &nfpl;I usif;yonf[k qdkEdkifygonf? um,pGrf;tm;udk Om%ESifh pdwWpGrf;tm;rsm;enf;wl vdrRmpGmynmOm%fjzifh ysKd;axmifjcif;udk tav;ay;aom a&S;*&dwkdif;&if;om;wdk‹. trGefjrwfqHk; pHowfrSwfcsufonf tdkvHypfxHk;pH"avh. ZpfjrpfY wnf&Sdygonf? um,/ Om%ESifh pdwWAvoHk;oG,f oifhjrwfnDnmpGm v_yf&Sm;ygu vlom;. pGrf;aqmifEkdifr_ abmife,ferdwfrsm; csJŒxGifEdkifa=umif;udk pHcsdefa[mif;rsm; tzefwvJvJusKd;I pHcsdefopfrsm; wifEkdifjcif;jzifh oufaojyEkdifygonf? ydkrdkoefpGrf;+yD; pGrf;&nfomaom tm;upm;orm;rsm; arG;xkwf&mwGif acwfopfody`HynmudkrDS;aom ydkrdkaumif;rGefonfh avhusifhenf;rsm;ESifh usef;rma&;xdef;odrf;enf;rsm;.

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tcef;u¾ t"duusonfrSm rSefygonf? odk‹aomf aemufqHk;Y tEkdifrcH t±_H;ray;pdwf"mwfonfom tdkvHypfol&Jaumif;udk atmifyJGo&zlaqmif;ay;Ekdifygonf? yef;wkdifodk‹a&mufcgeD;wGif tpGrf;ukef tm;oGefI t}udwfte,f vHk;yrf;&I emusifvmonfudk avsmhyg;oGm;atmif rnfuJhodk‹ avhusifhygoenf;[k a&$wHqdyf& tajy;orm;wOD; tar;cH&zl;ygonf? ‚if;. tajzum;- emusifr_onf rnfonfhtcgwGifrS ravsmhoGm;cJhyg? emusifvsuf qufvuftm;pdkufoGm;Ekdif&efudkom avhusifhxm;&ygonf? b0ZmwfcHkay:rSmuJhodk‹yif tm;upm;uGif;Yvnf; vlom;wdk‹onf rdrdwdk‹. pGrf;aqmifEdkifr_pHcsdefudk wdk;jr‡ifhvdkygu cHEdkif&nfarG;um rdrd. tm;enf;csufrsm;udk ausmfvGef&ef rdrdudk,fwkdif jyefvnfvHk;yrf;&ygonf? tusKd;tjrwfESifh ausmfv$m;r_udk ar#mfrSef;um vlom;onf tqrwef}uD;rm;aom tcuftcJtwm;tqD;rsm;udk tHwk&ef óud;yrf;tm;xkwf=u&ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; tusKd;tjrwfudk rpOf;pm;bJ pdefac:r_udk twwfEkdifqHk;/ taumif;qHk; &ifqkdifrnf[laom pdwf"mwfuomv#if yuwdjynfhpHkaom atmifjrifr_udk &apEkdifygonf? ppfrSefaom tm;upm;pdwf"mwfudk uav;wOD;u jyocJhygonf? rdrdxuf rsm;pGm}uD;olrsm;ESifh twlajy;yJG0ifcJh+yD; pdwfrav#mhbJ ,SOfòydifcJh&m tm;vHk;.aemufrS yef;wkdifodk‹ a&mufaomtcgY atmifyJGcHaomavoHjzifh “usaemf aemufqHk;uEkdifw,f” [k a=unmvdkufygonf? pdwftm;xufoefpGm ajy;cJhaom òydifyJGY ±_H;edrfhjcif; r&SdEkdifyg? ppfjzpfyGm;cJhaomEkdifiHrsm; jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;twGuf acwfopftdkvHypfudk wnfaxmifcJhjcif;jzpfygonf? urBmhtxl;c|efqHk; tm;upm;orm;rsm; t}udwfte,f òydifqkdif=uaomfvnf; oduQm&SdI rdwfjzpfaqGjzpf pdwf"mwfv$rf;rdk;aom òydifyJGwGif yg0ifqifEJ$=uaomtcgY e,ferdwfowfrSwfcsuf/ ta&SŒ/ taemuf/ vlrsKd;ESifh Zmwdqkdif&m jcm;em;r_rsm; r&Sdawmha=umif; jyojcif;jzifh +idrf;csrf;aom EkdifiHwum o[Zmw&&Sda&;udk tm;ay;Ekdifvdrfhrnf[laom ar#mfvifhcsuf qufvuf&Sifoefaernfjzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; usrwdk‹ urBmonf ,ckwkdif b,m/ avmb/ a'go/ arm[ wnf;[laom wHwkdif;}uD;rsm;jzifh ydkif;jcm;xm;jcif; cHae&ygonf? vlom;wdk‹onf rdrdwdk‹udk xdcdkufysufpD;apI rdrdwdk‹ qufvuf&Sifoefa&;twGufyif tEW&m,fðyrnfh tiftm;rsm;udk wGef;vSefwdkufcdkufjcif;r&SdbJ tcsif;csif; òydifqkdifwdkufcdkufaeaoma=umifh urBmay:wGif 'kuQyifv,fa0aeygonf? usOf;ajrmif;I t&mra&mufaom pdwf"mwfrsm;udk z,f&Sm;I +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;wdk‹udk toufoGif;ay;rnfh pdwf"mwfrsm; TurBmY ay:aygufvm&efrSm vGefpGmvdktyfaeygonf? ("gwfyHkvmonf) tdkvHypfrD;±_; pydefEdkifiHodk‹ a&muf&Sdvmonfudk óudqdkaom atmifqef;pk=unf. rdef‹cGef;tm; om;}uD; tvufZENm; (jrifhqef;atmif) u 1992 ckESpf ZGefv 13 &ufae‹Y zwf=um;aepOf (aqmif;yg;tqufjyefvmonf) arG;&myg t&nftaoG;rsm;udk txl;c|efqHk;tqifhwkdif zHG‹òzd;apEdkifrnfh b0rsKd;twGuf pdwftcs&qHk;aom tajccHtkwfjrpfrSm +idrf;csrf;a&;yif jzpfygonf? zdESdyfr_a=umifh ydjym;pdwf+idrfaejcif;/ wzufowf w,loeftawG;tac:rsm; ydkufzufxm;onfh acgif;aqmifydkif;Y ya,m*a=umifh rv_yfr&Sm; +idrfoufaeonfh pdwftajctae[lonfh o±kyfysuftwkta,mif +idrf;csrf;a&;rsKd;udk qdkvdkonfr[kwfyg? w&m;r#wr_/ *±k%mpdwf/ nDnmoifhjrwfr_/ yk*~vdu vGwfvyfr_/ trsm;jynfol xdef;odrf;tyfaom pnf;rsOf;rsm;twdkif; &Sdoifh&Sdxdkufaom nDr#r_/ rdrdEkdifiHtay: xm;tyfaom wm0efodpdwfESifh tjynfjynfqkdif&m todtjrifem;vnfr_rsm;udk r#watmifjrifatmif ðyvkyfr_ ponfwdk‹tay:wGif tajccHaom +idrf;csrf;a&;rsKd;udk qdkvdkygonf?

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tdkvHypfrD;±_;wdkifonf trGefjrwfqHk;aom pHxm;csufESifh &nfrSef;csufrsm; jyefvnfqef;opfr_ESifh pdwf"mwfjyefvnfoef‹pifjrifhrm;apr_wdk‹. oauFwjzpfygonf? aemufwv=umaomtcgwGif ESpfaygif; ESpfaxmifausmfu vlom;wdk‹. óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr_udk *k%fðyonfhtaejzifh pwifusif;ycJhaom tm;upm;yJGawmf}uD;udk Tae&mY acwfopftoGifjzifh usif;yygawmhrnf? 1992 ckESpf tdkvHypfyJGawmf}uD;Y EkdifiHwumtm;upm;pdwf"mwfrsm;ESifh tjynfjynfqkdif&m em;vnfr_pdwf"mwfrsm; tjrifhqHk;tqifhodk‹ a&mufEkdifygap[k qkrGefaumif;ydk‹ovdkufygonf? wcsdefwnf;wGif +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh csrf;omokc&&Sda&;[laom ydkrdkus,fjyef‹onfh ±kef;uefr_}uD;Yvnf; urBmolurBmom;tm;vHk; atmifyJGo&zlaqmif;Ekdif=uygap[lonfh tvGefwefzdk;xm;&ygaom ar#mfvifhcsufudk azmfjyvdkuf&ygonf?

atmifqef;pk=unf &efukef

8-6-1992 13 ppfrSefaom vHkòcH&modk‹ tXrajrmuf ‘*|dKufpf yDtmpf’ txdrf;trSwfa[majymyJGwGif atmifqef;pk=unf udk,fpm; a'gufwmrdkufu,ftJ&pfu 1993 ckESpf ar 19 &ufae‹ atmufpzdk‹'fwuUodkvfY zwf=um;aompmwrf;?

* * * 1993 ckESpf ‘*|Kdufpf yDtmpf’ txdrf;trSwfa[majymyJGY a[majym&ef ta=umif;=um;vmaomtcg usr rsm;pGm*k%f,lrdygonf? ‘rpPfyDtmpf’ . vlr_a&;vkyfief;rsm;ta=umif;udk =um;odcJh&onfh twdwfumvrsm;/ txl;ojzifh usrtm; =uifemr_/ ulnDapmifha&Smufr_ ponfwdk‹udk oGefoifjyoay;cJhonfh cspfcif&if;ESD;&aom ‘av'Dyufx&pf&Sm *dk;bGwfof’ ESifh ‚if;.cifyGef; uG,fvGefol ‘aygvf’ wdk‹xHrS =um;od&onfh twdwfumvrsm;udk jyefvnfowd&rdojzifh aEG;axG;aom arwWm"gwfudk cHpm;rdygonf? Ta[majymyJGudk ‘tJvDZbuf bk&ifraqmif’ u urux ðyvkyfI usif;yrnf[k od&ojzifhvnf; usrtaeESifh txl;ESpfouf =unfEl;rdygonf? Tae&mYyif usronf ESD;aESmzvS,fyJGrsm;/ a[majymyJGrsm;udk wufa&mufI tusKd;jzpfxGef;aom tcsdefumvrsm;udk jzwfoef;cJh&+yD;/ urBmt&yf&yfrS yk*~Kdvfrsm;ESifhvnf; awG‹qHkcJh&ygonf? atmufpzdk‹'fwuUodkvf. aygif;oif;qufqHr_/ wnf+idrfat;jrr_ESifh awG;ac:ajrmfjrifr_wdk‹udk awG‹óuHcJh&onfh ,if;tcsdefumvrsm;udk usr jyefvnfowd&rdygonf? xkd‹a=umifh ‘'kuQonfavhvma&;tpDtpOf’ ESifh ‘*|KdufpfyDtmpf txdrf;trSwf ESpfvnfa[majymyJGaumfrwD’ wdk‹tm; usrudk zdwfac:onfhtwGufwifomrubJ/ ‚if;wdk‹. zdwf=um;r_a=umifh ESpfouf=unfEl;zG,f&m twdwfumvrsm;udk jyefvnfowd&rdonfhtwGufyg aus;Zl;wifrdygonf? ‘*|KdufpfyDtmpf’ onf tcsdef&Sdor#/ pGrf;&nf&Sdor# 'kuQonfrsm;twGuf aqmif&GufcJhojzifh Ta[majymyJGY/ 'kuQonfrsm;ESifhoufqkdifaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk ajym&ef rvdkawmh[k usr awG;rdygonf? 'kuQonfjy\emESifhywfoufI y&dowfrsm;taeESifh aumif;pGmod&Sd+yD; jzpfaernf[k xifygonf? usrtaeESifh Tta=umif;t&mESifhoufqkdifaom aemufqHk;wdk;wufjzpfxGef;r_rsm;udk tenf;i,fr#xuf ydkI od&SdEkdifaom tajctaewGif r&Sdojzifh Tta=umif;t&mudk udkifwG,f&ef wGef‹qkwfrdygonf?

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odk‹aomfvnf; usr qufI pOf;pm;rdonfrSm refugee [laom toHk;tE_ef;udk jrefrmjyefvdkufaomtcg ‘'kuQonf’ wenf;tm;jzifh ‘'kuQcHpm;ae&ol’ [k t"dy`m,faygufygonf? Toabmtwkdif;om qdkygu 'kuQonfb0udk usrwkd‹tm;vHk; rvJGraoG od&Sd&rnfjzpfygonf? b0&yfwnfr_. tESpfom&wefzdk;udkay;aom/ vHkòcHr_ESifh udk,fpdwfESpfjzmcsrf;omr_wdk‹udk csKd;zJhzsufqD;onfh tiftm;pkrsm;. ab;&efrS uif;a0;vHkòcHa&;udk &SmazGae=uaom 'kuQonfrsm;yif jzpf=uygonf? zsufqD;rnfhtiftm;pkrsm;udk od&SdrSomv#if rnfodk‹rnfyHk tumtuG,f,l&rnf[laom tajzudk awG‹Ekdifrnfjzpfygonf? urBmwcGifvHk;udk wkefv_yfajcmufjcm; pdwfxdckdufoGm;aponfh vlodrsm;vSaom twd'kuQqdk;}uD;rsm;onf tao;tr$m;udpPuav;rsm;uyif pwifavh&Sd=uygonf? xdkudpPuav;rsm;onf ae‹pOfESifhtr# óuHawG‹&onfh avmuD'kuQrsm;xJwGif tusKH;0ifaom/ csKyfxdef;xm;Ekdifonfh udk,fa&;udk,fwm pdwfqif;&Jr_uav;rsm;ESifh rjcm;em;vSyg? vlom;. zefwD;r_a=umifh jzpfay:&aom ab;'kuQqdk;}uD;rsm;onf (acgr'¾m&DyHkjyifyg) e*g;rif;. tpG,frsm;rS aygufzGm;vmaom ppfonfrsm;uJhodk‹ wr[kwfjcif; tifwkduftm;wkduf xGufay:vmcJhjcif; r[kwfyg? yHkjyifxJYyifv#if e*g;pG,frsm;udk vlom;wOD;u &atmif,lI yuwd±dk;om;tjypfrJhonf[k rqdkEkdifaom &nf&G,fcsufESifh yx0Dajr}uD;ay:wGif pdkufysKd;xm;cJhjcif;jzpfygonf? obm0ta=umif;oufoufa=umifh ay:aygufvm&jcif;r[kwfaom 'kuQqdk;}uD;rsm;onf jzpf±dk;jzpfpOf[k trsm;u owfrSwfxm;=uaom vlom;wdk‹. csKdŒ,Gif;csufwdk‹Y jrpfzsm;cHygonf? TcsKdŒ,Gif;csufwdk‹onf ae&mwumwGif &Sd&efvdktyfygoavm/ ae&mwkdif;wGif&Sdonf[k qdkI a&m*gydk;r$m;rsm;udk rwm;qD;bJ xm;ygu tumtuG,fr&SdolESifh tm;enf;olwdk‹om 'kuQa&muf=u&rnfudk em;vnfoabmayguf=u+yD; jzpfygonf? xdk‹a=umifh vl‹avmuw&yfvHk;tm; ydkI tEW&m,fay;aeaom jzpf±dk;jzpfpOf[k owfrSwfxm;onfh oabmxm;r_rsm;tm; rSefuefatmif ðyjyifonfhudpPudk ydkrdkI tm±Hkrpdkufoifhygvm;[k ar;ygu rqDavsmfaomt&mr[kwf[k qdk&rnfjzpfygonf? ±kyf0wKypPnf;udk qxufxrf;ydk; t"duxm;vmaom avmu}uD;wGif ydkIom tm;}uD;vmyHk&aom oabmxm;rsm;ESifh wefzdk;xm;r_tcsKdŒESifh pyfvsOf;aom usr. tawG;tac: t,ltqudk Ta[majymyJGY wifjyvdkygonf?

* * *

ppfat;acwfukefqHk;oGm;jcif;onf trsKd;om;a&;ESifh EkdifiHwumta&;wdk‹wGif oabmw&m;a&;/ EkdifiHa&; ponfwdk‹xuf pD;yGm;a&;ESifh ukefoG,fa&;wdk‹udk OD;pm;ay;oifhonfudk tcsufjyvdkufjcif; jzpfonf[kvnf; ,lq=uygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; yÉdyuQESifh twd'kuQrsm;a=umifh yifyef;EGrf;e,fae+yDjzpfaom jynfolrsm;ESifh wdkif;EkdifiHwdk‹u vdkvm;awmihfwae=uonfh vlodrsm;vSaom ‘urBmhpepfopf’ tm; +idrf;csrf;om,mwdk;wufaom acwfwacwftjzpfodk‹ ajymif;vJvmap&ef OD;pm;ay;vrf;pOfrsm;u pGrf;aqmifEkdifrnfavm[k apm'uwufEkdifygonf?

ESpfq,f&mukefqHk;&ef eD;uyfvmonfESifhtr# vlom;. om,m0ajymr_udk wkdif;wm&mwGif ±kyf0wˆKudkufwHrsm;jzifhom wkdif;wmIr&Ekdif[lonfrSm odomxif&Sm;vmygonf? tvGeftajccHusvSaom qif;&Jr_jy\emudk oHk;oyfavhvm&mYyif qif;&J&ygonf[laom cHpm;r_udk jzpfay:aponfh csKdŒwJhr_a=umifh ay:aygufvm&aom pdwfydkif;qkdif&moabmudk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;&rnfjzpfygonf? qif;&Jr_ESifh pyfvsOf;aom/ acwfopftjrif[kqdkaom t,ltqonf jrefrmwdk‹tzdk‹ topftqef;r[kwfyg? ±kyf0wKypPnf; rjynfhpHkygu‚if;/ udk,fpdwfrcsrf;omonfhtcgwGif‚if;/ vlom;wOD;tm; +yD;jynfhpHkapI b0udk t"dy`m,f&Sdapaom ±kyfydkif;ESifh emrfydkif;qkdif&mpGrf;tifrsm; acgif;yg;jcif;onf qif;&Jjcif;yif jzpfygonf? qif;&Jjcif;. qef‹usifbufrSm csrf;omjcif;jzpf+yD; ±kyf0wˆKºuG,f0r_udkomrubJ ukd,fvufom,mr_ESifh aysmf&$ifr_[kvnf; oabm&ygonf? pdwfcsrf;omjcif;/ udk,fcsrf;omjcif;[lI&Sd+yD;/ usrwdk‹onf udk,fpdwfESpfyg;pvHk; csrf;omvdk=uygonf?

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r=umc% ajymqdkjcif; rðyonfhwkdifatmif us,fjyef‹pGm vufcHxm;onfhtcsufrSmum; pdwfcsrf;omr_uJhodk‹ tvG,fwul t"dy`m,ftrsKd;rsKd;aumuf,lEkdif+yD; em;vnf&efcufcJI aocsmpGm rodEkdifaomudpPrsKd;udk jr‡ihfwiftm;ay;&ef wm0ef,laqmif&Guf=urnfhtpm;/ ydkI odomxif&Sm;aom 'kuQtaygif;udk yaysmufa&;twGufom tjynfjynfqkdif&m at*sifpDrsm;ESifh tpdk;&wdk‹u óud;pm;vkyfudkifoifhonf[laom tcsufyifjzpfygonf? vkyfc/ usef;rma&;/ vkyfief;cGiftajctae/ tdk;tdrf/ ynma&;/ (ynma&;qdkonfrSmvnf; rnfumrwW usOf;ajrmif;aom ynma&;rsKd;) ponfwdk‹Y tenf;qHk;&Sd&rnfh tqifhtwef;udk owfrSwf&ef &nf&G,fonfh vrf;pOfrsm;ESifh Oya'ðycsufrsm;onf vl‹b0 om,m0ajyma&;udk OD;wnfaom/ tjzpfEdkifqHk;[k ar#mfvifhEkdifonfh vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;jzpfonf[k a,bk,stm;jzifh ,lq=uayonf? ±kyfydkif;qkdif&m tajctae aumif;rGefvm+yD;aemuf vlr_oabmxm;/ udk,fusifhw&m;ESifh '\eqkdif&m wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;wGifvnf; wdk;wufaumif;rGefvmrnf[k rSwf,lxm;=uyHk&ygonf? “tlrawmifhrS oDvapmifhEkdifrnf” [laom usrwdk‹ jrefrmpum;onfvnf; ,Ofaus;r_abmifrsm;udk ausmfv$m;I us,fjyef‹pGm vufcHxm;=uaom oabmw&yfyif jzpfygonf? “yxr t0t+yJpm;/ aemufrS udk,fusifhw&m;” [laom *smrefpum;udk trSwf&rdygonf?

odk‹aomfvnf; Todk‹ rSefuefonf[k ,lqxm;=uaom pum;&yfwdk‹onf vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;xJwGif trSefwu,f jzpfysufaeonfrsm;udk yuwdtwkdif; a&mifjyef[yfaeonf[k ajym&ef rvG,fulvSyg? b0&Sifoef&yfwnfa&;twGuf raumif;r_rsm;udk usL;vGefI udk,fusifhw&m;ysufae=uonfh udpPrsm;rSm rjiif;Edkifaom tcsufyif jzpfygonf? ±kyf0wˆKypPnf; tv#Hy,fºuG,f0ae+yD;rS olwyg;ypPnf;udkvdkcsif/ vk,lcsifaom tbdZÆmAsmyg' pdwfwdk‹udk rxdef;odrf;Ekdifojzifh/ raumif;r_'kp±dkufESifh 'kuQtrsKd;rsKd; ay:xGufvm&onfrSmvnf; xif&Sm;vSygonf? xdk‹a=umifh vl‹b0tcGifhtvrf;rsm; qdk;0g;pGm qHk;±_H;ae&olrsm;u ‚if;wdk‹.b0 aumif;rGefa&;twGuf xyfcgwvJ óud;yrf;=uojzifh ay:xGufvm&aom tusKd;oufa&mufr_rsm;xufpmv#if/ ºuG,f0csrf;om+yD;olrsm;u qxufxrf;ydk; tqufrjywf vdkcsifawmihfw &ruf avmb}uD;=uaoma=umifhom rw&m;r_/ udk,fusifhw&m;ysufr_/ qif;&J'kuQ ydkI }uD;xGm;vmjcif;jzpfonf[k qdkEdkifygonf? vlom;. avmb[lonfrSm tqHk;r&Sdojzifh tajccHvdktyfcsufrsm; tvHktavmuf &&Sd+yD;onfhwkdifatmif r&Sdao;/ rvHkavmufao;[laom pdwf"mwfonf cdkifrmpGm qufvufudef;atmif;aeEdkifygonf? Tonfa=umifh ±kyfydkif;qdkif&m wkd;wufºuG,f0r_onf qif;&J'kuQtaygif;udk ay:aygufapaom tjcm;tiftm;pkrsKd;pHkudk avsmhyg;atmif ðyvkyf&efrqdkxm;ESifh/ pD;yGm;a&;yÉdyuQwdkufyJGudkyif avsmhyg;oGm;atmif tmrcHEkdifrnf[k rar#mfvifhEdkifyg?

qif;&J'kuQjzpf&jcif; ta=umif;&if;trsKd;rsKd;ukd &SmazGaom Ak'<w&m;awmfwGif tawmrowfonfh vdkcsifawmifhwr_jzpfaom avmbudk pdwfwnf+idrfoef‹&Sif;r_tm; taESmuft,Sufay;onfh udavomq,fyg;wGif yxr ae&mY xm;&Sdygonf? ay;urf;pGef‹}uJjcif;[laom ‘'ge’ udkrl Ak'<. yg&rDq,fyg;/ ðyusifh&rnfh yknud&d,m aumif;r_q,fyg;/ rif;usifhw&m;q,fyg;wdk‹wGif xdyfqHk;u ae&may;xm;ygonf? Todk‹ ‘'ge’ ay;urf;pGef‹}uJr_udk tav;ay;xm;jcif;rSm avmuDY *k%foduQmwufap&efESifh avmukwW&mtusKd;twGuf[lI yg;eyfpGm wGufudef;csum tvªtwef;ðyr_udk vG,fvifhwul axmufcHtm;ay;jcif;jzpfonf[k rrSwf,loifhyg? oabmxm;}uD;jcif;/ ppfrSefaom apwemo'<gw&m;t& ay;urf;pGef‹}uJjcif; ponfwdk‹onf avmbudk xda&mufpGm wefjyefwGef;vSef&mY‚if;/ +idrf;csrf;om,maysmf&$ifr_udk ay:aygufaponfh pdwfaumif;/ apwemaumif;rsm; jzpfay:&m a&aomufjrpftjzpf‚if;/ ta&;}uD;vSonfudk todtrSwfðyjcif;yif jzpfygonf? tr&yl& r[m*E<m±Hkausmif;wdkufrS aus;Zl;awmf&Sif q&mawmfbk&m;}uD; t&SifZeumbd0Ho. tqdktrdef‹t& oDvraumif;v#if 'geyif roef‹&Sif;Ekdifyg? tvªvkyfonfhtcgY csD;rGrf;cHvdkjcif;/ *k%f,lvdkjcif;onf avmb/ ewfjynfa&mufvdkjcif;onf avmb [k q&mawmfbk&m;}uD;u =o0g'ay;cJhygonf?

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arwWm/ *±k%m/ rk'dwm/ OyuQm[laom jA[Rmpdk&fw&m; av;yg;onf 'kuQudk oufomap+yD; owW0gtm;vHk;udk aysmf&$ifr_ay;Ekdifaom toef‹pifqHk;/ taumif;rGefqHk; pdwftajctaersm;[k Ak'<bmom0ifwdk‹u ,lq=uygonf? Todk‹aom jrifhjrwfonfh pdwfxm;rsm; ray:Edkifatmif }uD;rm;aom t[ef‹twm;tjzpf wnf&SdaeonfrSm trsufa'go odk‹r[kwf rvdkrkef;wD;pdwfr[kwfbJ umv=um&SnfpGm tpOfwpdkuf udk,fusKd;udkom usOf;ajrmif;pGm =unfhcJhojzifh ay:aygufvm&aom yHkaopdwfxm;yif jzpfygonf? rw&m;cH&jcif;/ txiftjrifvJGrSm;jcif;/ a=umuf&GHŒjcif;/ remvdk0efwdkjcif;wdk‹a=umifh ay:aygufvm&aom trsufa'go/ odk‹r[kwf rvdkrkef;wD;pdwfwdk‹tm; at;+idrf;atmif ðyvkyf&mwGif onf;cHjcif;/ cGifhv$wfjcif;/ cspf=unf&if;ESD;jcif; ponfwdk‹ukd jzpfay:apEkdifaom pdwfoabmxm;}uD;r_ vHkavmufpGm &Sd&rnfjzpfygonf? odk‹aomf wzufom;Yvnf; w&m;r#wr_/ =uifemr_/ pmemaxmufxm;r_wdk‹udk tnDtr# cHpm;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf[laom tcsufudk t"du OD;aqmifyg0ifaeolrsm;. twGif;pdwfu vufrcHEkdifonfhtay:wGif yÉdyuQ tjrpfwG,fvmaomtcgY +idrf;csrf;om,mr_udk xdef;odrf;&ef odk‹r[kwf jyefvnf&&Sd&efrSm jzpfEkdifvdrfhrnf r[kwfawmhyg? =urf;wrf;jcif;/ wudk,faumif;qefjcif;/ tjrifusOf;ajrmif;jcif; wdk‹onf avmbESifh oufqkdifouJhodk‹ =uifemoem;jcif;/ em;vnfr_&Sdjcif;/ tar#mftjrif&Sdjcif;wdk‹onf ppfrSefaom oabmxm;}uD;r_ukd t&if;cHonfh aumif;jrwfaom 'gew&m;ESifh oufqkdifaeygonf?

rdrdwGif&Sdor# aumif;aomt&m/ ESpfoufp&mrsm;xJrS tjcm;olrsm;tm; cJGa0ay;jcif;tm;jzifh csrf;omokc[lonf wudk,faumif;pdwfudk auseyfatmif jznfhqnf;onfhudpPxuf ydkIus,fjyef‹aom tajccHvdkaeonfudk em;vnfa=umif; jyo&ma&mufygonf? xdkrSwqifh wdk;wuf,Ofaus;aom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;udk umuG,fapmifha&Smufrnfqdkygu olwyg;. cHpm;csufESifh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk ±dkaoav;pm;jcif;onf rdrd. cHpm;csufESifh tcGifhta&;udk umuG,fonfhenf;wl ta&;}uD;vSonfudk od&Sdem;vnf&ef ra0;awmh[k qdkEkdifygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; urBmh+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;tajccHjzpfaom vlr_qufqHa&; ajyjypfr_udk zsufqD;onfh wzufapmif;eif;vkyf&yfrsm;udk rSefuefatmif ðyvkyf&ef vdktyfonf[laom tcsufudkrl t+rJwrf; tjynfht0 em;vnfoabmaygufjcif; r&Sd=uyg? xdk‹a=umifh udk,fusKd;twGufom OD;pm;ay; tav;xm;vdkaom qENudk Ak'<bmomESifh tjcm;bmoma&;/ vlr_a&;pepfrsm;u todtrSwfðycJh=u+yD;/ rSefuefatmifðyjyif&ef óud;pm;=ujcif; jzpfygonf? “udk,fusKd;udkom vl‹b0. tESpfom&tjzpf xm;&Sdaom ykxkZOfwdk‹. jyif;jyaomqENtm; wGef;vSefjcif;ESifh olwyg;tusKd; aqmif&Gufay;jcif;udk t"duxm;aom udk,fusifhw&m;udkom vdkufemjcif;wdk‹onf ppfrSefoef‹pifaom olawmfaumif;w&m;yif jzpfonf” [k *sL;bmomavhvmol ynm&SifwOD;u a&;om;xm;ygonf?

vlom;tm;vHk;tm; olrsm;tusKd;udk udk,fusKd;xuf OD;pm;ay;=u&ef ajzmif;jzajymqdkEkdifrnf[k ar#mfvifhjcif;onf rodem;rvnf&ma&mufygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; trsm;jynfol oabmxm;tay: =oZmanmif;Ekdif+yD; vl‹tðytrlESifhywfoufI tjynfjynfqdkif&mtqifhtwef;udk pHowfrSwfEkdifonfh tpdk;&rsm;ESifh tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;u qHk;jzwfcsuf cdkifrmpGmcsrSwfjcif;jzifh udk,fusKd;pD;yGm;[lonfrSm vlwOD;. udk,fusKd;jzpfap/ vlwpk. udk,fusKd;jzpfap/ wkdif;jynfwjynf. udk,fusKd;jzpfap/ olwyg;. tusKd;pD;yGm;ESifh vHk;0uif;uGmIr&a=umif; urBmolurBmom;trsm;pku od&Sdoabmaygufem;vnfEkdifygonf? ±kyfydkif;qdkif&m wdk;wufr_onf vlr_a&;/ EkdifiHa&;ESifh udk,fusifhw&m;tqifhtwef;udk wdk;wufaumif;rGefaponf[k rSwf,lrnfhtpm; oifhawmf&m vlr_a&;/ EkdifiHa&;ESifh udk,fusifhw&m;qkdif&m wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;udk xdxda&mufa&muf jr‡ifhwiftaumiftxnfazmfay;jcif;onf ±kyfydkif;qkdif&m wdk;wufr_udk taxmuftulðy±HkomrubJ ,if;wkd;wufr_a=umifh &&Sdvmaom toD;tyGifhudkvnf; rSefuefpGm jzef‹a0Ekdifaprnf [lonfudk rpOf;pm;oifhygoavm? “aomu qif;&Judk a&Smif&Sm;Ekdifap&ef vHkavmufaom "eOpPmESifh xdk"eOpPmrsm;udk vdrRm rSefuefpGm toHk;cswwfaomESvHk;om;” wdk‹onfomv#if “taumif;qHk;aom csrf;omr_” jzpfonf[lI ‘tD;uDvyfpf’ qdkol tmoifjyZmwfa&;q&m}uD;u

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a&;om;cJhzl;ygonf? q,fpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGm ppfrufrsm;/ awmfvSefa&;ESifh tm%m&Sifpepfrsm; jzpfyGm;cJh+yD;aemuf xGef;opfp acgrtmoif 'Drdkua&pDpepfonf vGwfvyfpGm qifjcifawG;awmwwfaom vlom;wdk‹twGuf tvGefw&m xl;uJpGm oifhawmfa=umif; pwifoufaoxlaeonfhacwfY tmoifjyZmwfq&m}uD;u ,if;odk‹ a&;om;cJhjcif;jzpfygonf?

rdrd. om,m0ajyma&;ESifh roufqkdifaom ta=umif;t&mtm;vHk;udk zHk;uG,f&ef óud;pm;onfh tjrifusOf;ajrmif;aom ±kyf0g'onf trSefpifppf rdrdESifhtoufqkdifqHk;aom udpPudkyg aemufqHk;wGif zHk;uG,foGm;Ekdifygonf? tar&duefjynfaxmifpk. vlr_pD;yGm;a&;tem*gwfwGif &ifqdkif&rnfh “auseyfr_"avh” ta=umif;udk aqG;aEG;&mwGif ygarmuQ ‘uif;euf-a*gb&dof’ u uHaumif;olESifh tcGifhxl;cHpm;=u&olrsm;onf avmavmq,f pnf;pdrfcH&r_ESifh auseyfr_udk &&Sd&eftwGufom tm±Hkðyae=uojzifh ‚if;wdk‹. a&&Snfom,m0ajyma&;udpPudk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;jcif; rðy=uawmh[k axmufjyxm;ygonf? “TonfrSm t&if;&Sifavmu[k ac:aeqJjzpfaom avmuYomr[kwfbJ ydkIeuf±_dif;aom/ ydkIa,bk,susaom vl‹yifudk,f ZmwdpdwfESifhvnf; oufqkdifaeygonf” [k a&;om;xm;ygonf? cdkifrmpGm wnfaqmufxm;aom 'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹tpnf;rsm;/ pnf;rsOf;rsm;jzifh axmufulxm;onfh csrf;omºuG,f0aom pufr_EkdifiHwEkdifiH. wnf+idrfa&;ESifh qufvuf om,m0ajyma&;wdk‹udk usOf;ajrmif;aom vwfwavmtusKd;udkom vdkvm;onfh Zmwdpdwfu odomxif&Sm;pGm tEW&m,fðyaeonfqdkygu 'Drdkua&pD EkdifiHa&;pepfESifh vGwfvyfaom aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepfwdk‹udk r=umrDurS pGef‹pm;I raorcsmESifh usifhoHk;ae=uaom EkdifiHrsm;udk ,if;pdwf"mwfu ydkI tEW&m,frðyEkdifygoavm? pD;yGm;a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&;tm%mudk vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;&I auseyfae=uaom vlenf;pku }uD;pdk;aeqJjzpf+yD; w&m;r#wr_ESifh vGwfvyfr_a&mifjcnfudk jrif&Edk;Edk;jzpfaeaom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;wGif tqdkygtwWpdwfonf tvGefyif tEW&m,f}uD;vSygonf?

xGef;opfp 'Drdkua&pDEkdifiHrsm;Y ±kyfydkif;qdkif&m tusKd;cHpm;r_rsm;udk rdrdwdk‹ ar#mfvifhxm;ouJhodk‹ csufcsif;vufiif;r&&Sd=uI rausreyfjzpfaeolwdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹pdwfysufr_/ rcsifhr&Jjzpfr_wdk‹udk ayghyg;oGm;ap&eftwGuf jzpfvmor# jy\emwdk‹onf tcsKdŒaomtzJG‹tpnf;rsm;/ vlwef;pm;rsm;/ vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh EkdifiHrsm;. ya,m*a=umifh jzpfonf[laom ra&r&m/ a[mif;EGrf;aqG;ajrŒvSonfh oDtdk&Dt,ltqrsm;udk axmufcHtm;ay;=uygawmhonf? wzufapmif;eif; oabmxm;/ ta=umif;rJh ,HkrSm;oHo,jzpfr_ESifh t=urf;zufr_rsm;udk jzpfay:apaom ,if;t,ltqrsm;onf t"dutm;jzifh w&m;cH&Smjcif;omjzpf+yD; wm0ef0wW&m;udk jiif;qefjcif;/ vlr_pD;yGm;a&; tajccHjy\emrsm;. oabmobm0ukd ajzmifhrwfpGm ynmOm%fjzifh roHk;oyfEkdifjcif;/ ,if;jy\emrsm;udk ZJG&Sd&Sdjzifh ckdifrmpGm rudkifwG,fEkdifjcif; ponfwdk‹udk jyo&ma&mufygonf? jzpfajrmufatmifjrifr_rSefor#ukd ±kyfydkif;qkdif&mtjrifjzifhom wefzdk;jzwfjcif;onf vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;udk usOf;ajrmif;ap&ef uef‹owfxm;aomtjrifyif jzpfygonf? Ttjrift&omqdkygu vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;qdkonfrSm touf&Sifoefvdkaom pdwfavmufudkom od&SdcJh=uaom orkdif;rwdkifrDacwf vlowW0grsm;xuf tenf;i,fr#om wkd;wufonfh twWjyif;aom pm;oHk;ukefpkaqmif;onfh tzJG‹tpnf;w&yfyif jzpfaeygwmhonf? xdk‹xuf omvGefjrifhjrwfaom t&nftaoG;rsm; &Sdap&efrSm pdwfydkif;qkdif&mrsm;udkvnf; wefzdk;xm;&rnf jzpfygonf?

vlom;taeESifh aomuuif;a0; vHkòcHa&;udk vdkcsifawmifhw=uonfrSm vHk;0 oabmusvSygonf? tv#Hy,fºuG,f0aom ±kyf0wˆKypPnf;rsm;jzifh rdrdudk,frdrd ywf0kdif;I tm;jznfhxm;jcif;jzifh vHkòcHr_&&Sdrnf r[kwfonfrSm cdkifrmaom oufaoom"ursm;&Sdygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; vlaygif;rsm;pGmwdk‹onf ±kyf0wˆKypPnf;rsm; pkpnf;EkdifrSomv#if vHkòcHr_udk tmrcHay;Ekdifrnfhtvm; ðyrlae=uonfrSm 0rf;enf;p&myif jzpfygonf? urBmhvHkòcHa&;udk ,ae‹ t}uD;tus,f tEW&m,fðyaeonfrSm tqif;&JqHk;EdkifiHrsm;. pD;yGm;a&;csKdŒwJhr_ r[kwfyg? vl‹avmu. trsKd;rsKd;aom ZmwdpdwfESifh vdkvm;csufwdk‹udk

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aphpyfzsefajzay;Ekdifaom oabmw&m;ESifh usifhpOfrsm;udk *±krpdkufbJ/ ESdyfuGufzsufqD;xm;aom ae&ma'orsm;wGif jyif;xefpGmjzpfay:aeonfh bmoma&;/ vlrsKd;a&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;oabmxm; uJGvJGr_rsm;u tEW&m,fðyaejcif;yif jzpfygonf? v$rf;rdk;}uD;pdk;ae=uaom yk*~Kdvfrsm;ESifh tkyfpkrsm;u ‚if;wdk‹ pdwful;,Of&m tkyfpktusKd;pD;yGm;xuf ydkIvkyfaqmif&ef jiif;qefae=uI vlr_ab;'kuQqdk;}uD;rsm; jzpfay:vm&ygonf? iwfrGwfacgif;yg;r_udk umuG,fonfh taumif;qHk;enf;rSm wm0efodwwfaom tpdk;&&Sd&efyif jzpfonf[k xif&Sm;aom zHG‹òzd;r_qkdif&m abm*aA'ynm&SifwOD;u qdkzl;ygonf? ulnDaxmufyHhr_udk xda&mufatmifjrifjcif;r&Sdatmif ðyvkyfaeaom tajctaersm;u ajymif;vJ&ef róud;pm;bJ ulnDaxmufyHhaejcif;onf EkdifiHa&;t&‚if;/ pD;yGm;a&;t&‚if; rSefuefaomvkyf&yf[k rajymEkdifoavmufyif jzpfygonf? ±kyf0wˆKypPnf;rsm;ESifh twwfynmrsm; rnfr#yif ay;urf;apumrl vlom;. wm0efrJhr_/ csKdŒ,Gif;r_/ raumif;r_ ponfwdk‹rS ay:aygufvm&aom qdk;oGrf;onfh tusKd;qufrsm;udk ausmfv$m;z,f&Sm;Ekdifrnf r[kwfyg?

tedrfhqHk;jzpfaom w&m;r#wr_ESifh onf;cHcGifhv$wfr_wdk‹udk xdef;odrf;xm;onfh wefzkd;xm;r_pepfrS vJGacsmfoGm;aom vrf;pOfrsm;a=umifh wkd;wufonfh EkdifiHrsm;a&m zHG‹òzd;pEkdifiHrsm;yg 'kuQa&muf=u&ygonf? qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpka[mif; vsifjrefpGm òyduJGI vlrsKd;a&;udk t"duOD;pm;ay;=uonfh EdkifiHtrsm;tjym; yg0ifaom wkdif;EkdifiHopfrsm; ay:xGufvmjcif;onf ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm tm%m&SifpepfESifh tkyfcsKyfjcif;jzifh wlnDr_ESifh emcHr_udk &EkdifzG,f&m&Sdaomfvnf; a&&Snfat;csrf;om,mr_ odk‹r[kwf wnf+idrfr_udkrl r&Edkifa=umif; jyo&ma&mufygonf? “tm%m&SifacwfvGefpepf” udk tawmfav; atmifjrifpGm usifhoHk;cJhaom ,l*dkpvm;AD;,m; EdkifiHwGifvnf; ±kyfydkif;qdkif&m tusKd;cHpm;r_rsm;onf orkdif;tawG‹tóuHrS arG;xkwfvdkufaom pdwfydkif;qkdif&m rESpfòrd‹zG,f cHpm;csufrsm;ukd yaysmufatmif rðyvkyfEkdifojzifh ,cktcgwGif ‘abmfvuef’ a'oY tqdk;0g;qHk;aom bmoma&;/ vlrsKd;a&; t=urf;zufr_rsm;ESifh óuHawG‹ae&jcif;yif jzpfygonf? +idrf;csrf;r_/ wnf+idrfr_ESifh pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_wdk‹udk a&$aiGypPnf;rsm;ay;I‚if;/ twif;t"rRðyvkyfI‚if; &&SdEkdifrnf r[kwfyg? olwyg;. t,ltqESifh tcGifhta&;wdk‹udk ±dkaoav;pm;I vl‹vdktyfcsufudk pmemod&SdEkdif&ef ðypkysKd;axmifay;jcif;jzifhom +idrf;csrf;wnf+idrfr_ESifh pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_udk &Ekdifrnfjzpfygonf? ckdifrmaom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;ay:aygufa&;wGif uJGjym;r_ESifh t,ltq rwlr_wdk‹u wm;qD;aejcif;r[kwfbJ/ aysmhaysmif;r_r&Sdjcif;/ tjrifusOf;ajrmif;jcif;/ ±kyfydkif;qdkif&mudkom OD;pm;ay;jcif;/ ponfwdk‹uom ,if;vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;. &Sifoefwkd;wufr_udk [ef‹wm;aejcif;jzpfygonf? olwyg;u vlom;wOD;uJhodk‹ ðyrlqufqHyg&ef awmif;qdkvmonfudk ysufjy,fatmif ðyvkyf&mwGif rdrdESifhuJGjym;onf[laom tcsufwcsufudkom vHkavmufaom ta=umif;jycsuf[k cH,lonftxd pdwfoabmxm;rsm; rma=umcGifh &vmaomtcgrl acwfopf,Ofaus;r_wdk‹. tqifwefqmwdk‹onfvnf; xdwfvef‹p&m t&Sdeft[kefjzifh a=urGysufpD;&ayawmhonf?

urBmay:wGif tEW&m,ftrsm;qHk; &ifqkdifae&aom a'orsm;Y onf;cHcGifhv$wfr_/ =uifemoem;r_ESifh vHkòcHr_ ponfwdk‹ uG,faysmuf+yD; pm;oHk;ukefypPnf;rsm; tvGefyifavsmhenf;oGm;aomfvnf; ppfvufeufypPnf;rsm;rSmrl aygrsm;aeqJjzpfygonf? TonfrSm wefzdk;xm;r_pepfwckvHk; uajymif;ujyef jzpfoGm;jcif;yif jzpfygonf? vlu zefwD;vdkufaom trkef;yGm;r_/ aoG;xGufoH,dkr_ESifh vlr_pD;yGm;a&; upOfhuvsm;jzpfr_rsm;rS vGwfajrmufEkdifrnfh wckwnf;aomenf;vrf;rSm oufqkdifoltm;vHk; pka0; aqG;aEG; aphpyf nd‡E_dif;I +idrf;csrf;aomenf;jzifh tajz&Sm&efyifjzpfa=umif;/ od&Sd em;vnf oabmayguf vmaomtcsdeftcgYrl qifjcifwHkw&m;udk jyefvnfusifhoHk;&ef rvG,fulawmhaom tajctaeodk‹ a&muf&Sdae+yD; jzpfygawmhonf? rw&m;r_udk w&m;0ifatmif jyXmef;I Oya'udk ysuf&,fðyum vlr_pD;yGm;a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&;rnDr#r_wdk‹udk oufqdk;&Snfaponfh pepfrsm;u yHkoGif;ay;vdkufolwdk‹onf *dk%f;*%tkyfpk tusKd;xuf w&m;r#wa&;ESifh trsm; om,m0ajyma&;udk ydkI OD;pm;ay;aom r#wonfh

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oabmwlnDcsuf[laom t,ltqudk jrefqefpGm nd‡Ed_if;vufcHjcif; rðyEkdif=uyg? odk‹r[kwf – vHk;0 vufrcHEkdif=uyg?

ppfat;acwfwGif &ufpufaom tpdk;&rsm;ESifh vufeufudkiftkyfpkwdk‹. rw&m;r_rsm;udk obm0w&m;a&;&m ta=umif;rsm;a=umifh cGifhv$wfxm;cJh=uygonf? xdk‹a=umifh ay:xGufvmaom &v'frsm;rSm auseyfzG,f&mr&Sdyg? ,cktcgwGif w&m;r#wr_ESifh vl‹tcGifhta&;udk t"duxm; tav;ay;vmaomfvnf; EdkifiHa&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&; (txl;ojzifh pD;yGm;a&;) tjrwf&r_udkom xdyfwef;wifvdkonfh yk*~Kdvfrsm; &SdaeqJyif jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; umv=um&SnfpGm ºuG,f0csrf;omvmcJhaom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;wGifvnf; vlr_a&;a&m*g}uD;rsm; pJGuyfae=uI tem*wftwGuf &ifav;ae=u&ygonf? csrf;omp EkdifiHrsm;uvnf; ‚if;wdk‹. OpPm"etawmfrsm;rsm;udk vufeufESifh ppfwyftwGuf toHk;ðyae=uyHk &ygonf? xdk‹a=umifh ydkI csrf;omºuG,f0jcif;ESifh ydkI +idrf;csrf;om,mjcif;wdk‹onf tajccH obm0tm;jzifh tquftoG,f r&SdonfrSm &Sif;vSygonf? vl‹avmuwckvHk; om,m=unfEl;a&;twGuf csrf;omºuG,f0r_ESifh +idrf;csrf;r_ ESpfckpvHk; vdktyfygonf? csrf;omºuG,f0r_u udk,fqif;&Jjcif;udk pdwfoufomapI +idrf;csrf;r_u pdwfwnf+idrf at;csrf;jcif;udk jzpfay:apygonf? TESpfcsufudk tnDtr# OD;pm;ay;aom vrf;pOfrsm;onfomv#if udk,fpdwfcsrf;omr_udk cHpm;Ekdifrnfh avmuudk jzpfay:apEkdifygonf? pD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufatmif óud;yrf;&mwGif tjrifusOf;ajrmif;r_ESifh vlrqefr_wdk‹udk tvG,fwul jzpfay:apaom avmbtEW&m,fudk owd&Sd=u&ef vdktyfygonf? rdrd. aysmf&$ifr_udk jr‡ifhwifonfhtaeESifh olwyg;. aysmf&$ifr_udk vufcHóudqdkaom pdwfoabmxm;}uD;r_udk jynfolrsm;ESifh wkdif;EkdifiHrsm;u ðypkysKd;axmifay;Ekdifygu rajz&Sif;Ekdif[k xif&aom jy\emwdk‹onf cufcJvSawmhrnf r[kwfyg?

±kyfydkif;qkdif&m taxmuftulrSefor# qHk;±_H;cJh&olwdk‹wGif tm;udk;tm;xm;ðyp&m[lI rdrdwdk‹. ,Ofaus;r_ESifh pdwfydkif;qkdif&m wefzdk;xm;r_"avhom usefawmha=umif;udk 'kuQonfrsm;ESifh qufqHvkyfudkifolrsm; todqHk;jzpfygonf? bdk;bGm;pOfquf ,Hk=unfvufcHvmcJh=uaom o'<gw&m;/ *±k%mw&m;wdk‹rS aygufzGm;vmaom a0iSay;urf;vdkpdwfrsm;a=umifh/ tdk;rJhtdrfrJhjzpfae&ol qif;&Jom;uyif rdrd. &SdpkrJhpk &duQmav;udk tv#Hy,fºuG,f0oluJhodk‹ olwyg;tm; =unfEl;pGm ay;urf;jcif;rsm;vnf; &Sdygonf? wzef udk,fusKd;udkom t"duxm;onfh obm0udk =umjrifhpGm arG;jrLtm;ay;I ay:aygufvmaom tbdZÆm Asmyg' pdwfrsm;. v_H‹aqmfr_a=umifh 'kuQonftcsif;csif;xHrSyif cdk;0Sufvk,uf=uonfrsm;yif &Sdygonf? pifppfrSmrl urBmh'kuQonftrsm;pkonf vlrqefr_ESifh ynmOm%fuif;rJhr_a=umifh jzpfay:vm&aom rcHomawmhonfh tajctaersm;rS uif;vGwf&m vHkòcH&mudk &Smae=uolrsm;jzpfygonf?

arwWmw&m;/ qifjcifwHkw&m;ESifh w&m;r#wr_}uD;pdk;aom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;udk pdwful;,Ofar#mfrSef;cJh=uonfrSm vl‹,Ofaus;r_oufwrf;wav#mufvHk;yif jzpfygonf? Tar#mfvifhcsufonf pdwful;,Oftdyfruf jzpf&rnfavm/ 'kuQrsm;ajrmif Tvl‹abmifudk t+rJwrf; taumif;bufrSjrifaom ‘umvfayghyg;’ u tarSmifonf ,cifuwnf;u &SdaecJhaomfvnf; tvif;a&mif ay:aygufvmonfrSm r=umao;[k qdkygonf? ay:xGef;pjzpfaom tvif;a&mifudk w,kw, =unfh±_apmifha&Smuf&rnf jzpfygonf? tao;i,fqHk;aom tvif;a&mifudkyif urBmwcGifvHk;&Sd tarSmifxku uG,faysmufatmif rvkyfEkdifyg? tarSmif[lonfrSm vHk;0uif;rJhjcif;oabmudk aqmifygonf? tarSmif[lonfrSm tvif;a&mifr&Sdjcif;om jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; ao;i,faom tvif;a&mifonf us,fjyef‹pGm 0dkif;&Hxm;aom tarSmifxkudk ròzdcGif;Ekdifyg? Ttvif;a&mifav; ydkrdk xGef;vif;awmufyvmEkdif&eftwGuf tm;aumif;&ef vdktyfygonf? Ttvif;a&mifudk cspfjrwfEdk;vmEkdif&eftwGuf 'kuQa0'em[k oabmrxm;bJ aumif;r_r*Fvmtjzpf ESvHk;oGif;I usifhom;&atmif=unfhzdk‹ vdktyfygonf? urBmay:wGif rSDwif;aexkdifol tm;vHk;tm; vHkòcHr_ tvHktavmufay;Ekdifaom ydkrdkxGef;vif;onfh urBmavmuudk usrwdk‹ tvGefyif vdktyfvsuf&Sdygonf?

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(a':atmifqef;pk=unf "gwfyHkvmygonf?)

(pmrsufESmwckvHk; wif&rnfacgif;pOf)

tydkif;-c 1988 =o*kwfvrS 1989 Zlvkdifvtxd

ajym=um;cJhaom rdef‹cGef;ESifh owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrsm;

14 a&$wd*kHapwDawmf taemufrkcf vlxkpnf;a0;yJG &efukefòrd‹Y =o*kwfv 26 &uf 1988 ckESpfwGif ajym=um;onf?

* * *

&[ef;&Sifvl jynfolvlxktaygif;wdk‹/ tck vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD;[m jynfolvlxk&JŒ qENudk

wurBmvHk;uodap&ef xkwfazmfjyovdkufwmygyJ? tJh'Dawmh 'Dvlxk tpnf;ta0;yJG}uD;rSm jynfolvlxk[m pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ nDnDnGwfnGwf quf+yD; vkyfoGm;=uyg&ap? tck 'Dtpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; wem&DeD;yg; aemufuswmudkvnf; usr awmif;yefygw,f? 'DudkvmwJhtcgrSm vrf; tifrwef ydwfaewma=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ ra&mufvmEdkifcJhjcif;jzpfygw,f?

'Duae‹ usif;ywJh tpnf;ta0;}uD;uawmh jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;[m ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfudk &csifaewJhqEN jyif;jyaewma=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usif;y&wJh tpnf;ta0;}uD;jzpfygw,f? tck tpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; jzpfEkdifwJhtajctaeudk b,folawGup+yD; OD;aqmifwmvJqdkawmh Armjynfu ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;taygif; jzpfygw,f? 'Dausmif;olausmif;om;taygif;&JŒ OD;aqmifr_a=umifh 'Dausmif;olausmif;om;taygif;[m touftaocH+yD; OD;aqmifay;wma=umifhrdk‹ usrwdk‹ 'Dvdktpnf;ta0;}uD;vkyfEkdifwJh tajctaea&mufcJhygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ toufaysmufoGm;wJh ausmif;olausmif;om;tm;vHk;udk wrdepfcef‹ *k%fðy+yD;aemuf tr#a0wJhtaeeJ‹ tm;vHk; wdwfwdwfqdwfqdwf +idrf+idrf wrdepfcef‹ aeapcsifygw,f?

tcrf;tem;rª;. toH (usqHk;oGm;aom ausmif;om;rsm;udk tav;ðyaomtm;jzifh wrdepf +idrfoufyg&ef arwWm&yfcHygonf cifAsm;)

tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if tm;vHk; 'DrSma&mufaewJh vlxky&dowf}uD;[m 'Drdkua&pDpepfudk ar#mfrSef;+yD;awmh 'DrSma&mufaew,fvdk‹ xifygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'Drdkua&pDyef;wdkifudk a&mufzdk‹&mrSm vlxktm;vHk;u pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk;/ nDnDnGwfnGwf/ pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ csDwufrSyJ a&mufEdkifrSmyg?

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("gwfyHkrsm; vmygonf) tay: - armifaomfu (OD;baomf-uG,fvGef)/ atmifqef;pk=unfESifh cifoDwmxGef; =o*kwffv 24 &uf 1988 ckESpfY &efukefaq;±Hk}uD;a&SŒwGif rdef‹cGef;ajym=um;pOf atmuf - 1988 ckESpf =o*kwfv 26 &uf a&$wd*HkapwDawmfY rdef‹cGef;ajym=um;pOf (rdef‹cGef;tqufvmygonf)

'DudpPrSm usr tcef;u¾udkvnf; eJeJ&Sif;jyyg&ap? bmjzpfvdk‹vJqdkawmh vltaygif;u usrta=umif; odyf+yD;awmh rod=uygbl;? rod=uwJhtcgusawmh odcsifwJhqENawGvnf; &Sdygw,f? 'guvnf; rSefwJhtwdkif;ygyJ? odawmhvnf; odxdkufygw,f? tJh'Dawmh wcsKdŒuvnf; ajym=uw,f? usr[m EdkifiHjcm;rSm aew,f? EkdifiHjcm;om;eJ‹ tdrfaxmifusaew,f? ArmjynfEkdifiHa&;ta=umif; bmodovJvdk‹ ajym=uygw,f? yxr usr 'Duaep+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkeJ‹ yGifhyGifhvif;vif; qufqHyg&ap? usr EkdifiHjcm;rSm aecJhw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefygw,f? EdkifiHjcm;om;eJ‹ tdrfaxmifusw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefygw,f? 'gayr,fh 'gav;twGufa=umifheJ‹ usr wkdif;jynftay:rSmxm;wJh arwWm[m b,fvdkeJ‹rS usqif;roGm;Ekdifygbl;?

aemufwck ajymcsifwmuawmh usr[m ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;ta=umif; bmrS em;rvnfbl;wJh? wu,fawmh em;vnfvGef;vdk‹ cufaewmyJ? ArmEdkifiHa&; b,favmuf±_yfaxG;w,f/ 'D±_yfaxG;r_'%fudk azaz b,favmufcHcJh&w,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ rdom;pk todqHk;ygyJ? azaz[m pdwfyef;udk,fyef;eJ‹ 'DEkdifiHa&;udk vkyfaqmifvmwm[m bmtusKd;pnf;pdrfrS rcHpm;cJh&ygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹vnf; vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;wJhtcgusvdk‹&Sd&if xyf+yD;awmh tm%mvkwJh EdkifiHa&;rsKd;udk qufrvkyfbl;qdkwm azaz twdtvif; ajymoGm;ygw,f?

'Dvdk ajymoGm;wmrsKd;a=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrvnf; EkdifiHa&;avmueJ‹ a0;a0;uif;uif; aecsifygw,f? tJh'Dvdk a0;a0;uif;uif; aecsifcJhvsufom;eJ‹ tckrS 'Dta&;tcif;rSm yg0ifaeovJvdk‹ ar;p&m&Sdygw,f? tJh'D[muawmh 'Dta&;tcif;[m wwdkif;jynfvHk;eJ‹qdkifwJh ta&;tcif;jzpfaeygw,f? usrrSmvnf; azazh&JŒorD;vkyf+yD;awmh acgif;a&Smif+yD;awmh aevdk‹rjzpfawmhbl;? 'Dta&;tcif;[m wu,fawmh 'kwd,vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJG}uD;vdk‹ ac:&ifvnf; jzpfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDvGwfvyfa&;udk wrsKd;om;vHk; vdkcsifwJhqEN jyif;jyvGef;vdk‹ jzpfay:vmwJh wdkufyJG}uD; jzpfygw,f?

'Drdkua&pDeJ‹ywfouf&if azazajymcJhwJh tcsufuav;wckudk usr zwfjycsifygw,f? 'Dtcsufuawmh “usaemfwdk‹[m 'Drdkua&pD0g'udkom acwfpm;atmifvkyf&r,f? tJh'D 0g'rsKd;t&om vGwfvyfwJh ArmEkdifiH xlaxmifEkdifatmif óud;pm;&r,f? 'grsKd;rvkyfEkdif&if usaemfwdk‹jrefrmjynfu vlawGvnf; epfemr,f? usaemfwdk‹jynfudkvnf; urBmu =unfhaevdk‹ r&wJhwae‹ *syefeJ‹ *smr%D 0dkif;+yD; tESdrfcH&ovdk tESdrfcH&r,fqdkwmudk owd&Sd=u&r,f? 'Drdkua&pD0g'uom vGwfvyfa&;eJ‹ qDavsmfw,f? 'D 0g'om +idrf;csrf;a&;udk tm;ay;w,f” tJh'g[m azazajymcJhwJh pum;awGyg?

("gwfyHkvmygonf)

1988 ckESpf =o*kwfv 26 &ufae‹ a&$wd*HkapwDawmfY rdef‹cGef;ajym=um;pOf

(rdef‹cGef;tqufvmygonf) 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usr[m usr&JŒtaz tpOftvmtwdkif; 'Drdkua&pD vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyJGudk

0ifvdk‹EJ$cJh&ygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'Drkdua&pD&zdk‹&ef jynfolvlxktm;vHk; pnf;vHk;nDnGwfzdk‹ vdkygw,f? nDnGwf&if bmrqdk jzpfEkdifygw,f? rnDnGwf&if bmrS rwwfEkdifbl;?

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jynfolvlxk[m nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹ r&SdEkdifvkd‹&Sd&if b,f0g'yJjzpfjzpf wkdif;jynfudk tusKd;ray;Ekdifbl;? tJh'D[mudk tm;vHk;pJGrSwfxm;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? pnf;urf;r&Sdvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; b,f0g'rS ratmifEkdifygbl;? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹ wkdif;oljynfom;awG[m nDnGwfzdk‹/ pnf;urf;&Sdzdk‹ t+rJvdkygw,f?

'DnDnGwfzdk‹ta=umif;awG ajymaewkef;rSm usrwdk‹ wckyJajymcsifygw,f? ,ck usrajymoGm;wJhpum;awGxJrSm wcsKdŒuvnf; oabmusr,fhpum;vnf; ygr,f/ rusr,fh pum;awGvnf; ygr,f? 'gayr,fh usrtaeeJ‹uawmh jynfolvlxkudk rSefrSefuefuefajymoifhw,fvdk‹ ,Hk=unfw,f? usrpdwfxJrSm&Sdovdk rSefrSefuefuef ajymoGm;rSmyJ? óuduf&ifvnf; axmufcH=uyg/ róuduf&ifvnf; usrpdwfxJrSm rSefwJhtwdkif;vkyfwmyJ? róudufwmawmh b,fvdkrS rwwfEkdifbl;? usr wckajymcsifwm[m tcktcsdefrSm wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfolvlxkt=um;xJrSm pdwf0rf;uJGae=uygw,f? 'Dpdwf0rf;uJGr_}uD;[m aemifwkdif;jynftwGuf tEW&m,ftrsKd;rsKd; jzpfEdkifygw,f? Armhwyfrawmfqdkwm usrtaz ðypkysKd;axmifcJhwJh wyfrawmfyg?

azaz ðypkysKd;axmifcJhwJh wyfrawmfqdkwm pum;t&om r[kwfygbl;? tppftrSefygyJ? azazudk,fwkdif ca&aphwGif;us atmufajcuaep+yD;awmh 'Dwyfrawmfudk b,fvdkxlaxmif&r,fqdkwm ol‹vufa&;eJ‹ a&;xm;wJh pm&Gufpmwrf;awGvnf; &Sdygw,f? azazu wyfrawmftwGuf bm&nfrSef;csufawG &SdcJhovJ? tJh'D &nfrSef;csufwckavmuf usr zwfjyyg&ap?

“'Dwyfrawmf[m 'DEdkifiH/ 'DvlrsKd;twGuf/ 'DvlrsKd;awG udk;uG,f&m/ vJavsmif;&m/ qnf;uyf&mqdkwJh taersKd; jzpf&r,f? 'Dvdkr[kwfbJ wyfrawmfu EkdifiHol/ EkdifiHom;awG&JŒ pdwfxJrSm atmhESvHk;emp&mjzpfr,fqdk&if 'Dwyfrawmfudk wnfaxmifxm;wJh &nf&G,fcsufawG[m tvum; jzpfoGm;awmhrSmyJ?”

usr rSefrSefyJ ajymyg&ap? usr[m wyfrawmftay:rSm tifrwef oHa,mZOf}uD;ygw,f? azazwnfaxmifcJhwJh wyfrawmfvnf;jzpfw,f? usrwdk‹qdkwmvnf; i,fi,fuwnf;u &JabmfawGvufxJrSm }uD;vmwmygyJ? jynfolvlxk}uD;uvnf; azazhtay:rSm tifrwef arwWm&Sdw,fqdkwm usr odygw,f? 'DarwWmawGtwGufvnf; usr tifrwef aus;Zl;wifygw,f? azazðypkysKd;axmifcJhwJh wyfrawmfeJ‹ azazhtay:rSm tifrwefarwWm&SdwJh vlxk}uD;xJrSm yÉdyuQ rjzpfapcsifygbl;? wyfrawmfom;awGudkvnf; usr 'DuaeyJ arwWm&yfcHyg&ap? vlxktm;udk;EkdifwJh wyfrawmf}uD;jzpfygap? wkdif;jynf&JŒ *k%foduQmudk xdef;odrf;EdkifwJh wyfrawmf}uD;jzpfygap? jynfolvlxkuvnf; jzpf+yD;cJhwJh[mawGudk óud;pm;cGifhv$wf+yD;awmh wyfrawmftay:rSm arwWmrysufygapeJ‹vdk‹ awmif;yefyg&ap? usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹ qufvufoGm;rSom wnfwHhckdif+rJwJh jynfaxmifpkyef;wkdif}uD;udk a&mufEdkifrSmyg? tck ra&mufao;ygbl;? 'Drdkua&pDyef;wdkifudkawmif ra&mufao;ygbl;? ra&mufcifu uJGuJGjym;jym; r&SdygeJ‹? tm;vHk; wnDwnGwfwnf; 'Drdkua&pDyef;wdkifudk OD;wnf+yD;awmh csDwufoGm;=uyg? tJh'Dvdk csDwufoGm;wJhae&mrSm +idrf;csrf;wJhenf;vrf;udk oHk;apcsifygw,f? vlrsKd;wrsKd;[m EdkifiHol/ EdkifiHom;taygif;wdk‹[m pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹/ +idrf;csrf;wJhenf;awGeJ‹ udk,fvdkwJhqENawGudk jznfhpGrf;Ekdifw,fqdkwm tifrwef*k%foduQmeJ‹jynfhpHkwJh tðytrljzpfygw,f?

'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk OD;aqmifcJhwJh ausmif;om;awGeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usr ajymp&mav;awG&Sdygw,f? ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m tifrwefrS awmfygw,f? olwdk‹&JŒ vuf±Hk;&nfudkvnf; jy+yD;yg+yD/ tckvnf; quf+yD;awmh olwdk‹&JŒ ESvHk;&nfudk jyr,fqdkwm usr ,Hk=unfygw,f?

'Dausmif;om;rsm;udkvnf; tcsif;csif; nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹ quf+yD; vufwJGoGm;zdk‹ usr arwWm&yfcHcsifygw,f? tckqdk&if ausmif;om;awGxJrSmvnf; tzJG‹tpnf;awG &Sd=uygw,f? 'DtzJG‹tpnf;awG[m tm;vHk;pk±Hk;+yD;awmh wnDwnGwfwnf; jzpfoGm;apcsifygw,f? tJh'D[mtwGufvnf;

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ausmif;om;nDvmcHwck ac:r,fvdk‹ usr =um;aeygw,f? 'DnDvmcH}uD; jzpfay:wJhtcgus&if ausmif;om;awGtm;vHk; wpkwpnf;wnf;jzpfoGm;ygapvdk‹ usr qkawmif;vdkufygw,f?

ausmif;om;av;awGu usrudk ar;=uw,f? usr&JŒaemufrSm b,fEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm; &SdaeovJ/ 'DEkdifiHa&;orm;awG[m usrudk óud;qJG+yD;awmh olwdk‹udk eif;oGm;rSm pdk;&drfw,fvdk‹ ajym=uygw,f? tJ'Dvdk yGifhyGifhvif;vif;ajymwm usr tifrwef0rf;omw,f? ausmif;om;vli,frsm; tifrwef yGifhvif;w,f? oG,f0dkufwJh pum;awG rajymwwfbl;? usruvnf; rSefwJhtwdkif;yJ jyef+yD;awmh ajymvdkufygw,f? usraemufrSm b,fEkdifiHa&;orm;rS r&Sdygbl;? usr tckvkyfaewJh vkyfief;[mawmh jynfolvlxkvdkcsifwJh 'Drdkua&pDjzpfajrmufa&; vkyfief;ygyJ? 'Drdkua&pD jzpfajrmufa&;twGufudk 0dkif;+yD;awmh ulnDcsifygw,fqdkwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;a[mif;}uD;awG &Sdygw,f? tJh'D EdkifiHa&;orm;a[mif;}uD;awGudk usruawmh &Sif;&Sif;yJ ajymxm;ygw,f? 'DvdkulnDvdk‹ aemif EkdifiHa&;tjrwfxkwfr,fqdk&if usr vHk;vHk;raxmufcHbl;qdkwm tckuwnf;u usr ajymxm;ygw,f?

jynfolvlxka&SŒrSm usr jyef+yD;awmh ajymygr,f? 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf 0dkif;0ef;ulnDwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;}uD;awG[m aemifEdkifiHa&;tjrwfxkwfzdk‹ óud;yrf;&if usrudk,fwkdif wuf+yD;awmh 'Dvl}uD;awGudk ±_wfcsay;yghr,f?

aemufwckuawmh usrwdk‹wdkif;jynfrSm vl}uD;eJ‹vli,f =um;xJrSm uGJuGmr_awG &Sdygw,f? tJh'DuJGuGmr_awGudkvnf; ajz&Sif;zdk‹vdkygw,f? vli,fawGu vli,fawG/ vl}uD;awGu vl}uD;awG qdkwJh pdwfxm;awG jzpfaeygw,f? jynfolvlxk&JŒ tiftm;[m wae‹xufwae‹ }uD;vmyg+yD? 'Dvdk}uD;vmvdk‹vnf; ydk+yD;awmh pnf;eJ‹urf;eJ‹ xdef;zdk‹vdkygw,f? pnf;r&SdwJh tiftm;/ trSefw&m;eJ‹ rudkufnDwJh tiftm;qdkwm b,fawmhrS aumif;usKd; ray;Ekdifygbl;?

trsm;twGufyg tEW&m,fjzpfEkdifygw,f? tJh'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ trSefw&m;eJ‹ udkufnDwJh pGrf;tm;udkyJ quf+yD;awmh oHk;=uyg? trSefw&m;eJ‹ rudkufnDwJh pGrf;tm;udk roHk;ygeJ‹? tckvlxkbufuae tm;}uD;aewJhtcsdefrSm tm;i,fwJh tpkt0dkif;udkvnf; EdkifhxufpD;eif; rvkyf=uygeJ‹? 'Dvdk EkdifhxufpD;eif;vkyfwm[m tusifhraumif;ygbl;? jynfolvlxk&JŒ *k%foduQmudkvnf; usqif;apygvdrfhr,f? jynfolvlxkbufuae+yD;awmh cGifhv$wfEkdifwJh oabmxm;&Sdw,fqdkwmudk uGufuGufuGif;uGif; xifay:ygap? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹[m tm;vHk; jynfolvlxktaygif;u bmudk vdkvm;aeovJqdkwm pOf;pm;vdkufvdk‹&Sd&if t"dutcsufuawmh ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfudk vdkvm;ae=uygw,f? wygwDpepfudk ðzwfcscsif=uygw,f?

aemuf tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if orw a'gufwmarmifarmif[m vlxkqENcH,lyJGusif;yzdk‹/ rusif;yzdk‹ nDvmcHac:r,fvdk‹ qdkygw,f? usrtaeeJ‹ ajym&&ifawmh 'DvlxkqENcH,lyJG[m rvdkawmhygbl;? wwdkif;jynfvHk;&JŒ qEN[m uGufuGufuGif;uGif; ay:aeyg+yD? tm;vHk;[m ygvDref 'Drdkua&pDpepfudkyJ vdkvm;aew,fqdkwm tifrwefrS ay:vGifaeyg+yD? 'Dpepfudk tjrefqHk;jzpfay:vmEkdifzdk‹ vkyfay;zdk‹[m ,ck tm%mydkiftpdk;&awG&JŒ wm0efjzpfygw,f?

yef;wdkifudk ra&mufao;bl;qdkwm rarh=uygeJ‹? 'Drkdua&pD&wJh tcgusvdk‹&Sd&if b,fvdkjynfaxmifpk}uD;udk wnfwHhckdif+rJatmif b,fvdkvkyf&r,fqdkwmudk pOf;pm;xm;=uygOD;? wkdif;jynf&JŒ tem*wfudk a&SŒ±_=uyg? wkdif;jynf&JŒ tem*wfudk rawG;vdk‹&Sd&if tckvufiif; jzpfay:vmwJh ðyjyifajymif;vJr_awGuvnf; udk,fhwkdif;jynfudk tusKd;ay;EkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? tJh'Dawmh azazajymcJhovdk usrwdk‹ EdkifiHol/ EkdifiHom;rsm;[m pnf;urf;±dkaozdk‹/ nDnGwfzdk‹qdkwmudk b,fESpfcgyJajymajym ajymvdk‹udk rukefEdkifatmif ajym&r,fhudpP}uD;wck jzpfaeygw,f?

tck usrwdk‹[m vlxkqENcH,lyJG}udD; rvdkawmhygbl;? ygwDpHk 'Drkdua&pDpepfudkyJ vdkvm;ygw,f? 'D[mudk jrefjrefjzpfatmif vkyfay;=uyg? 'D[m jzpfay:vmatmifvdk‹ w&m;r#wwJh/ oef‹&Sif;wJh a&G;aumufyJGudkvnf; jrefjrefqefqef jzpfEkdifatmif vkyfay;=uyg? 'D oef‹&Sif;wJh/ w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJGawG jzpfEkdifzdk‹ tajctaeudkvnf; zefwD;ay;zdk‹vdkygw,f? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if

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jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;[m vuf&Sdtpdk;&tay:rSm t,Hkt=unf tifrwefrS ysufaew,f? tJh'Dawmh[m oef‹&Sif;pif=u,fwJh/ w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJG jzpfay:vmzdk‹ta&;udk tu,fIrsm; b,fvdkjzpfatmif vkyf&rvJ/ vkyfay;zdk‹&m aumif;ygw,f?

t"du&nf&G,fcsufuawmh 'Dtpdk;&vnf; r[kwfbl;/ =um;jzwftpdk;&vnf; r[kwfbl;/ aemuftpdk;&vnf; r[kwfbl;? jynfaxmifpk}uD; wnfwHhckdif+rJ om,m0ajyma&;twGuf vkyfay;EkdifwJh tpdk;&ygyJ? 'Dt"duudpPtay:rSm rsufajcrjywfygapeJ‹? wkdif;jynf&JŒ tem*wfta&;udk rarhygeJ‹? arhoGm;vdk‹&Sd&if tck&&SdwJh atmifjrifr_[m aemifus qHk;±_H;r_ jzpfoGm;Ekdifygw,f? tck usrwdk‹ b,ftajctaerSm a&mufae+yDvJ/ yef;wdkifudk uGufuGufuGif;uGif; jrifaeyg+yD? jrifaewJh yef;wdkifudk tm;vHk; vufwJG+yD;awmh csDwufoGm;=uygpdk‹/ pdwf0rf;ruJG=uygeJ‹? ausmif;om;av;awGbufu txl; pdwf0rf;ruJGzdk‹ vdkygw,f? ausmif;om;av;awGudk pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvnf; xdk;qGray;=uygeJ‹? ausmif;om;av;awG[m wkdif;jynf&JŒ tem*wf acgif;aqmifay;r,fh vli,fav;awG jzpf=uygw,f? 'Dausmif;om;av;awG&JŒ pdwf"mwf usatmifvkyfvdkufr,fqdk&if aemif wkdif;jynf nDnGwfa&;twGufvnf; xdyg;oGm;ygvdrfhr,f?

nDnGwfa&;ta=umif; ajymaewJhtcsdefrSm jynfaxmifpkta=umif; c%avmuf ajymvdkufyg&ap? vlrsKd;pkawGtm;vHk;[m nDnGwfzdk‹ vdkygw,f? tck vlrsm;pk/ vlrsm;pkuawmh jrefrmvlrsKd;awG jzpfygw,f? vlrsm;pk jrefrmawG[m vlenf;pkawGjzpfwJh wkdif;&if;om;awGeJ‹ pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk;jzpfzdk‹ tvGefóud;pm;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? ukd,fu tm;&SdaewJhvl/ udk,fu tm;rsm;aewJhvlrdk‹vdk‹ ydk+yD;awmh óud;pm;zdk‹vdkygw,f? tm;rsm;aewJhvlqdkwm tm;enf;aewJhvludk tpOft+rJav#mh+yD;awmh n‡may;zdk‹vdkygw,f? tJh'Dae&mrSm 'DwygwDpepfudk axmufcHaewJhvlawGeJ‹ ywfoufvdk‹vnf; usr wckajymyg&ap? ygwD0ifaygif; tajrmuftjrm; 'DygwDtay:rSm t,Hkt=unfr&Sdawmhbl;qdkwm usr odygw,f? t,Hkt=unfr&Sdawmhvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; 'DygwDu xGufvdkuf=uyg? ygwD0ifu'fjym;awGvnf; jyeftyfvdkuf=uyg?

'gayr,hfvnf; olwdk‹&JŒ t,Hkt=unft& ygwD0iftaeeJ‹ quf+yD; xrf;aqmifaewJh vlawGudkvnf; tEW&m,frðy=uygeJ‹? 'Drdkua&pDqdkwm rm;rm;rwfrwf udk,fh,Hk=unfcsufudk,f&SdEkdifwJh pepfrsKd; jzpfygw,f? olwdk‹u quf+yD;,Hk=unfr,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if tEW&m,frðy=uygeJ‹? udk,fhbmom udk,fvdkcsifwJh yef;wdkifudkom nDnDnGwfnGwfwufyg? udk,fu tm;}uD;aevdk‹ tm;enf;wJhvludk jyef+yD; uvJhpm;acswJhudpPrsKd; rjzpfay:ygapeJ‹? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹rSef;xm;wJh tcsdefxuf trsm;}uD; tcsdefvGefoGm;yg+yD? tJh'Dawmh usr pOf;pm;xm;wmxuf eJeJ ydk+yD;awmh twdkcsKH;+yD;awmh ajym&r,fh tajctaersKd; jzpfaeyg+yD? 'Dtpnf;ta0;yJGudk aemufqHk; usr ajymcsifwmuawmh usrwdk‹vlxk[m nDnGwfzdk‹ vdkygw,f/ pnf;urf;&Sdzdk‹ vdkygw,f? trSefw&m;eJ‹ udkufnDwJhpGrf;tm;udk quf+yD;oHk;oGm;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? tJh'Dvdk oHk;oGm;rSom usrwdk‹vdkwJh yef;wdkifudk a&mufEdkifygw,f? tJh'Dawmh usr tEl;tnGwf jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;udk awmif;yefyg&ap?

jynfolvlxktm;vHk; nDnGwf=uygap? pnf;urf;&Sdygap? trSefw&m;eJ‹udkufnDwJh vlrsKd;w&yfjzpfygap? jynfolvlxktm;vHk; ab;b,mtjzmjzmrS a0;uGm=uygap? aemufqHk;taeeJ‹ usrwdk‹&JŒ aºuG;a=umfoHuawmh

* qENcH,lyJG rvdkr&Sd * wygwDpepf zsufodrf;ypf * ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepf wnfaqmuf=u * w&m;r#waoma&G;aumufyJG tjrefqHk; usif;yay; qdkwJh aºuG;a=umfoHygyJ?

Page 104: Freedom from fear rev1 - WordPress.comThis first edition of Freedom from Fear and Other Writings in the Burmese language first published in 1993 by La Haule Books West Lodge La Haule

tcrf;tem;rª; jynfolvlxk}uD;cifAsm;/ tck a':atmifqef;pk=unf tqdkðycsuftay:rSm usaemfwdk‹

vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; tqHk;tjzwfudk cH,lzdk‹ jzpfygw,f? tqdkðycsuf (1)

jrefrmEkdifiHw0Srf;vHk;&Sd ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESifhwuG vlxkvlwef;pm;aygif;pHkyg0ifI tzrf;cH aoG;ajruscH+yD; wygwDpepf zsufodrf;a&;eJ‹ ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepf wnfaqmufa&;wdk‹udk wcJeuf qENðycJh=u+yDjzpfI xdkudpPtwGuf vlxkqENcH,lyJG usif;yðyvkyfay;&ef rvdktyfawmh+yDjzpfa=umif; a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JŒ tqdkðycsufudk vlxk}uD;u axmufcHygovm;cifAsm;?

(axmufcHygw,f) 3

tqdkðycsuf (2) jrefrmEkdifiHw0Srf;vHk;&Sd ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESifhwuG &[ef;&Sifvljynfoltaygif;rS wcJeuf

qENjycJh=u+yD;jzpfaoma=umifh wygwDpepfudk zsufodrf;+yD;awmh ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfjzifh tpm;xkd;wnfaqmuf=u&efom&Sda=umif; a':atmifqef;pk=unfu tqdkðycJhygw,f? 'Dtqdkudk axmufcHygovm;cifAsm;?

(axmufcHygw,f) 3

tqdkðycsuf (3) jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;tm; udk,fpm;ðy&aom jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f tppftrSefrsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm

a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufEkdif&ef w&m;r#w oef‹&Sif;aom taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD;udk tjrefqHk; usif;yEkdifa&;twGuf =um;jzwftpdk;& zJG‹pnf;ay;&eftqdkukd a':atmifqef;pk=unfu tqdkðyygw,f? jynfolvlxk}uD;u axmufcHygovm;cifAsm;?

(axmufcHygw,f) 3 usaemf tck 'Dtpnf;ta0;yJG}uD;&JŒ aºuG;a=umfoHudk wdkifay;yghr,f? * qENcH,lyJG tvdkr&Sd/ tvdkr&Sd * wygwDpepf zsufodrf;ypf * ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepf wnfaqmufay; * w&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyJG tjrefqHk; usif;yay; * =um;jzwftpdk;& zJG‹pnf;ay; [laom aºuG;a=umfoHrsm;udk tcrf;tem;rª; OD;xGef;a0rSwkdifay;I

vlxky&dowf}uD;u wcJeuf aºuG;a=umfI eHeuf 11 em&D 30 rdepftcsdefwGif tpnf;ta0;}uD;udk atmifjrifpGm ±kyfodrf;vdkufygonf?

15

'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;ESifh jynfolrsm;. tcef;u¾

68 }udrfajrmuf trsKd;om;ae‹txdrf;trSwf =o0g'cH,lyJGY trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; a':atmifqef;pk=unf a[majymrdef‹=um;csuf 3-12-88

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* * * ckvdk (68) }udrfajrmuf trsKd;om;ae‹tcrf;tem;udk zdwfac:wmudk aus;Zl;wifygw,f?

trsKd;om;ae‹eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹awmh tcrf;tem;rª;u ajymoGm;wJhtwkdif; trsKd;om;ae‹qdkwm 1920 ckESpfwkef;u ausmif;om;oydwf}uD; pcJhwJhae‹jzpfygw,f? ausmif;om;oydwfudk a&$wd*Hkbk&m;rSm paeaxmifhuae+yD;awmh wefaqmifrkef;vqkwf (10) &ufae‹rSm oydwfpzkd‹ oabmwlvdkuf=uw,f? tJh'Dawmh wefaqmifrkef;vqkwf (10) &ufae‹[m trsKd;om;ae‹qdk+yD;awmh owfrSwfvdkufygw,f? trsKd;om;ae‹eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ xkwfvdkufwJh a=unmcsuf[m tck usrwdk‹ jyefzwf=unfhvdkufwJhtcgusawmh cktcsdeftcgeJ‹ tifrwefrS oifhavsmfaeygw,f? tJh'ga=umifh usr 'gudk eJeJav; zwfjycsifygw,f? 'gu oydwfarSmufaumifpD. 1920 jynfh 'DZifbmv 8 &ufae‹pJGjzifh wkdif;jynfodk‹ xkwfjyefonfh a=unmcsufwJh?

“wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;odk‹ - &efukefaumvdyfESifh ,k'\efaumvdyf&Sd usaemfwdk‹ ausmif;om;tm;vHk;wdk‹onf tqHk;Y

b,fvdkjzpfrnfudk aocsmrod&ao;aom udpPwckudk pwifðyvkyf=uygonf? odk‹&mwGif usaemfwdk‹onf w&m;enf;vrf;rSefuefa=umif;udk aumif;rGefckdif+rJpGm od&Sd&ygonf? usaemfwdk‹onf wwdkif;wjynfvHk; u|efwGif;u rnfonfhtcgrS rvGwfruif;Ekdifv#if AsL±dku&ufwdk‹onf ody`Hausmif;Oya'udk xkacszsufqD;&ef t}uH&Sdygonf? usaemfwdk‹ wkdif;jynfom;wdk‹. pdwftm;xufoefaom tultnDtm;jzifh vli,frsm;wdk‹u ckcHòzdzsufjcif;rSwyg; tjcm;aomenf;jzifh wkdif;jynfudk u,fq,fzdk‹&ef enf;vrf;r&Sd[k ,Hk=unfygonf? usaemfwdk‹onf jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd vltrsm;wdk‹. ynmtqDtESpfESifhjynfhpHkaom ausmif;om;rsm;jzpfrnfudk &nfoefI ulnDapmifr&ef awmif;yefajym=um;ygonf? usaemf

("gwfyHkrsm; vmygonf?)

1989 ckESpfwGif pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;aepOf

(rdef‹cGef;tqufvmygonf) wdk‹pdwfxJ pJG+rJpGm ,Hk=unfaom Tvkyfief;}uD;onf wkdif;jynfY vdktyfaom tcsuf}uD;wckudk xkwfazmfajymqdkjcif;yif rnfygonf? Tum; tjcm;r[kwf? trsKd;om;ody`Hausmif;}uD;aywnf;? xdkausmif;}uD;rS jrefrmEdkifiH. om;orD;rsm;ESifh oifhavsmfaom ynm&yfrsm;udk &Ekdifayonf? tdENd,EkdifiHY trsKd;om;ausmif;awG tvdktavsmuf ay:aygufvm=uay&m jrefrmEdkifiHuvnf; aemufrus&atmif jrefrmwdk‹onf EkdifiHom;ppfI cspfcJhygv#if b,feHa&mtcgr# rwnfaxmifEkdifbJ &Sdvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg? pdwfygvufygvkyfv#if rkcsjzpfygvdrfhrnf?”

'Dwkef;uawmh ajymwmuawmh 'DwuUodkvfudpPeJ‹ywfouf+yD;awmh ajymwmyJ? 'gayrJh ajymoGm;wJhtoHk;tE_ef;awGu tck 'Drdkua&pDwkdufyJGtwGuf oHk;r,fqdk&ifvnf; tifrwef oifhavsmfygw,f? 'D[m aemifb,fvdkjzpfr,f rodayr,fhvnf; udk,fwwfEkdifor# rSefuefa=umif;udk aumif;rGefpGm/ cdkif+rJpGm od&SdI vkyfygonfqdkwm/ tck 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJGvnf; 'Dtwkdif;yJ? aemif b,fvdkjzpfr,fqdkwmvnf; rodbl;? aemifb,fvdkjzpfr,fqdkwm rodbJeJ‹ 'DwkdufyJG0if&jcif;[m rSefuefw,f/ oifhavsmfw,fqdkwm ,Hk=unfvdk‹ tm;vHk;0ifcJh=uwmyJ? 'ga=umifh 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ 'Drdkua&pD&rSmvm;/ taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG vkyfrSmvm;vdk‹ ar;&ifvnf; usr 'Dtwdkif;yJ ajymw,f? jzpfrSm/ rjzpfrSmudk rpOf;pm;aeygeJ‹/ udk,f rSefwmuefwmudkvkyfwm vkyfvdkufyg? 'D aemuftusKd;qufawG[m ol‹zmomol jzpfvmygvdrfhr,f? tJh'DrSm udk,fh&JŒwm0efuawmh rSefwJhudpPudkvkyfzdk‹yJ? 'D 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSm tm;vHk;0ifvm+yDqdkuwnf;u usrwdk‹ atmifyJGcHEdkifw,fqdkwJh ar#mfvifhcsuf&Sdvdk‹om 0ifvmwmyJ? Oyrmtm;jzifhqdkvdk‹&Sd&if òydifyJGwck 0ifòydifwJhvl[m Ekdifr,fxifvdk‹ òydifwmyJ? xDxdk;wJhvlqdkwmvnf; xDaygufEkdifwJhudef; &Sdw,fxifvdk‹ xdk;vdkufwmyJ? b,folurSawmh rEdkifbl;xifvdk‹&Sd&if 0ifòydifrSmr[kwfbl;? rjzpfEkdifbl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if

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óud;pm;+yD;vkyfrSmr[kwfbl;? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹ 'Drdkua&pD[m atmifjrifEkdifvm;vdk‹ar;&if usruawmh rSefrSefuefuefyJ atmifjrifEdkifw,fvdk‹ jyefajz&rSmyJ? atmifjrifEdkifw,fxifvdk‹om 'DwkdufyJGrSm ygaewmyJ? 'Dtwdkif;yJ ausmif;om;vli,ftm;vHk;[mvnf; 'Drkdua&pDwkdufyJGxJ 0ifaewJhtcgus&if atmifjrifEkdifr,fqdkwJh pdwfawGxm;+yD;awmh qufvuf+yD; vkyfoGm;apcsifygw,f? usrwdk‹ quf+yD;awmh tifrwefrS ±kef;uefzdk‹&Sdygao;w,f? óud;pm;zdk‹ &Sdygao;w,f? quf+yD;awmh ±kef;uefóud;pm;&r,fqdkwm[m tckvydkif;udk ajymwmr[kwfygbl;? ESpfydkif;eJ‹udk quf+yD;awmh ±kef;uefóud;pm;oGm;&rSmyg? 'Da&G;aumufyJGjzpfvdk‹ a&G;aumufyJG0ifòydifvdk‹ 'Drdkua&pDbufu tEkdif&&ifawmifrS 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;[m r+yD;ao;ygbl;? ±kef;uefoGm;&r,fh tcsdef[m rukefao;ygbl;? quf+yD;awmh ±kef;uefoGm;&rSmygyJ? tJh'Dausmif;om;vli,frsm;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if touf (20) 0ef;usif&Sd=urSmaygh? touf (20) 0ef;usif&SdwJh vlrsm;[m ArmawG&JŒ oufwrf;qdk&if tck 60 avmuf&Sdr,f? usrwdk‹ 'Drkdua&pDpepfatmufrSm usef;rma&;awGbmawG aumif;oGm;vdk‹ (70) avmuftxd &SdoGm;r,fqdkygawmh/ 'Dvdkqdk&if aemiftESpf (50) avmufudk quf+yD;awmh ±kef;uefoGm;&r,f? 'Drkdua&pDqdkwm woufvHk;xdef;odrf;oGm;rS &Sifoefr,fhudpPyg? vlwa,muf&JŒ usef;rma&;vdkaygh? i,fi,fwkef;u udk,fhtaztaru aumif;aumif;au|;arG;xm;vdk‹/ aumif;aumif;=unfhxm;vdk‹ usef;usef;rmrm&Sdayr,fh udk,fu touf}uD;vmwJhtcgusawmh jzpfovdkaer,f/ jzpfovdkpm;r,fqdk&if usef;rma&;u csKdŒwJhoGm;rSmyJ? tJh'Dawmh 'Drdkua&pDpepf&Sifoefa&;qdkwm woufvHk;vkyfoGm;&rSmyJ? vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m udk,fhwoufwmrSm udk,fhwkdif;jynftusKd; aqmif&GufoGm;r,fqdkwJh pdwf"gwfeJ‹vkyfoGm;r,fqdk&if usrwdk‹wkdif;jynfrSm bmrSqkwf,kwfEkdifp&mta=umif; r&Sdygbl;? 'Dvdk 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf vufwJGvkyfaewJhvlrSefor#udk usrwdk‹u vufwJG+yD;awmh ac:oGm;csifygw,f? vufwJGw,fqdkwmvnf; rwJGcsif/ wJGcsif wJGenf;rsKd;udk ajymwmr[kwfygbl;? udk,faygif;pdwfcGmr[kwfygbl;? pdwfwloabmwlvufwJG+yD; csDwufoGm;wJhenf;rsKd;udk usrwdk‹ ajymvdkygw,f? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹ 'Dae‹uaep+yD;awmh 'Dae‹[m trsKd;om;ae‹jzpfw,f/ trsKdom;ae‹rSm trsKd;om;a&;twGuf tm;vHk;uae aqmif&GufoGm;ygr,fqdkwJh qHk;jzwfcsufudk csapcsifygw,f? trsKd;om;a&;qdkwm wkdif;jynf&JŒaumif;usKd;/ jynfaxmifpk}uD; wnfwHhckdif+rJa&;/ jynfaxmifpkom;tm;vHk;&JŒ trsm;pk}uD;&JŒ aumif;usKd; vkyf&r,fhudpPjzpfygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'DvdktrsKd;om;a&;udk vkyfwJhtcgusvdk‹&Sd&if 'Dyk*~KdvfpJGwdk‹/ qENpJGwdk‹ r&Sdzdk‹qdkwm usrwdk‹&JŒ tajccHpnf;rsOf;Oya'xJrSmvnf; ygygw,f? tJh'Dawmh yk*~KdvfpJGawG rxm;=uygeJ‹/ 'g aumif;wJh tpOftvmawG r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹ qufoGm;&r,fh c&D;rSm tifrwefrS apwemoef‹oef‹/ pdwfoef‹oef‹eJ‹ vkyfoGm;apcsifygw,f? tJh'Dawmh vlwkdif;udk usrajymw,f? jrifhjrifh}uHyg? tjrifhqHk;}uHyg? óud;pm;&if bk&m;jzpfEkdifw,fvdk‹ usrwdk‹ qdk±dk;&Sdyga&mvm;? bmhvdk‹ r}uHEkdif&rSmvJ? óud;pm;&if ±kd;±kd;omrefvl/ jrwfpGmbk&m;qdkwmvnf; omrefvlygyJ? jrwfpGmbk&m;awmifrS 'Dvdk bk&m;jzpfatmif usifh}uHEkdif&if vlawG[m jrifhjrifh}uHEdkifygw,f? udk,f[m woufvHk; trSefw&m;t& vkyfoGm;r,fqdkwJhudpP[m rjzpfEkdifwJhudpP r[kwfygbl;? jzpfEkdifwJhudpPyg? wcsKdŒu xifw,f? vlyJuGm/ trSm;awmh&SdrSmyg? ykxkZOfyJ? 'gawGudk usrawmh vufrcHbl;? ykxkZOfvlom;rdk‹vdk‹udk óud;pm;+yD;awmh trSefw&m;eJ‹ ae&r,f? owW0gawGrS r[kwfbJ? wd&p>mefawGawmifrS trSm;/ trSefukd odygw,f/ [kwfvm;? opPm&SdwJhae&mrSmqdk&if acG;vdkwd&p>mefudk vlawGu rvdkufEkdifbl;? acG;[m vlxufydk+yD; opPm&Sdw,fqdkwm vlwkdif;odw,f? acG;vdk wd&p>mefwaumifawmif opPm&SdEkdifw,fqdk&if vlrsm;[m bmjzpfvdk‹ opPmr&SdEdkif&rSmvJ? opPmrJhwm vlawGyJ? vlawGxJrSmqdk&if opPmw&m;[m tifrwefeJw,fvdk‹ ajymvdk‹&Sd&if rSefvnf;rSefw,f/ opPmw&m;[m pOf;pm;=unfh&if opPmqdkwJhpum;[m pum;vHk;u tifrwefvSovdk t"dy`m,fvnf; tifrwefvSw,f? tJh'Dvdk opPm&Sd&SdeJ‹ tm;vHk;u vkyfoGm;rS usrwdk‹wdkif;jynf wdk;wufvmrSmyg? 'Dvdk wdkif;jynfwdk;wufrS aemifvmaemufom;rsm;[m *k%foduQm&Sd&SdeJ‹ urBmhtv,frSm &yfwnfEkdifr,f? tJh'Dawmh 'D[mudk ar#mfudk;+yD;awmh 'Dae‹up+yD;awmh 'Dae‹ (68) }udrfajrmuf trsKd;om;ae‹up+yD;awmh

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usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m trsKd;om;a&;twGuf udk,fwwfEdkifor# aqmif&GufoGm;=ur,fvdk‹ oEMdÏmefcs=uygvdk‹ usr arwWm&yfcHcsifygw,f? 'Drkdua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf vkyfaewJhvlrSefor#udk usrwdk‹u vufwJG+yD; ac:oGm;csifygw,f?

16

owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJG trSwf – 3

&efukefòrd‹Y 26-3-1989 ckESpfwGif ajym=um;onf?

* * * 'Dowif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJvkyf&wJh ta=umif;uawmh tckwavm vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfeJ‹

jrefrmhtoHrSm a=unmaewJh owif;awGeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹yJ jzpfygw,f? wevFmae‹u vSnf;wef;/ urm&GwfrSmjzpfwJh udpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfeJ‹ jrefrmhtoHu owif;t&qdkvdk‹&Sd&if uav;rsm;u oGm;+yD;awmh qlylatmifvdk‹ wcsKdŒEdkifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGu vkyfaqmifw,fvdk‹ qdkwJhoabmrsKd;eJ‹ a&;vdkufygw,f? aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; usrwdk‹&JŒ tzJG‹csKyfemrnfudk odyf+yD; xifxif&Sm;&Sm;}uD; a&;xm;w,f/ apmif;+yD;awmh tift,f'Duae+yD;awmh v_H‹aqmfvdk‹ uav;rsm;u oGm;+yD;awmh qlylw,fvdk‹/ 'DoabmrsKd;eJ‹ a&;oGm;wmudk jrif&ygw,f?

'geJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usr b,fvdkjrifvJqdkawmh tJh'Dae‹utjzpftysufudk usr wcsdefvHk; odygw,f? pjzpfuwnf;u usr 'Duae=um;aew,f? uav;awG [dkrSmeJeJqlqlylyljzpfw,fqdkwmeJ‹ usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf; +yD;oGm;atmifvdk‹ vdkuf+yD;awmh vkyfwmyJ? uav;awGudk usrwdk‹udk,fwkdifvnf; vdkufxdef;w,f? vli,ftcsif;csif;vnf; vdkufxdef;w,f? aemuf+yD;awmh +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ vlpkcJGzdk‹qdkwm tJh'DrSmvm+yD;awmh wm0ef,lwJhwyfrawmft&m&Sdudk trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfxJu wm0ef&SdwJhyk*~Kdvfrsm;u oGm;a&muf+yD;awmh at;at;csrf;csrf; jzpfa&;twGuf aqG;aEG;cJhw,f? tJh'Dvkdvkyfwmudk wm0ef&SdwJh wyfrawmfyk*~Kdvfrsm;u od&Sdvsufom;eJ‹ bmjzpfvdk‹ vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfeJ‹ jrefrmhtoHuae+yD;awmh v_H‹aqmfw,fqdkwJh oabmeJ‹ a&;vJqdkwm trsm;}uD;ar;p&mudk jzpfaeygw,f?

wyfrawmfu wm0ef&SdwJhyk*~KdvfeJ‹ usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu wm0ef&SdwJh yk*~Kdvfuae oGm;+yD;awmh +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ vlpkcJGa&;twGuf óud;pm;wm[m trsm;todyJ? tJh'Dawmh wrifoufouf usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfudk tjypf&SmcsifwJhoabm[m tifrwefudk xif&Sm;aeygw,f? 'gwifruao;bl;? rae‹ujzpfwJh udpPawGrSmvnf; xdkenf;‚if;ygyJ?

rae‹ujzpfwJhudpP[m usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf0if;xJrSm ausmif;om;vli,frsm; tpnf;ta0;vkyfaew,f? tpnf;ta0;vkyfaewkef;rSm jyifyuvli,frsm; vma&muf+yD; qENjyzdk‹ &nf&G,fw,fqdkwJh owif;=um;w,f? =um;wmeJ‹ usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;uvnf; *dwf0udk ydwfxm;w,f? usrwdk‹tdrfuvnf; *dwf0udk ydwfxm;w,f? 'gayr,fhvnf; 0kef;/ 0kef; qdk+yD;awmh vlpkvla0;a&mufvmw,f? tjyifu vli,fcsnf;yJ/ vlpdrf;awGcsnf;yJ? 'Dvdkjzpfvnf;jzpfa&m wyfuvnf; w0kef;0kef;eJ‹ a&mufvmwmyJ?

wyfom;rsm;u 0g;&if;wkwfrsm;udk oHql;óud;rsm;ywf+yD;awmh udkifxm;w,f? tJh'gvnf; trsm;}uD;ar;p&myJ? jynfolvlxkudk 0g;&if;wkwf oHql;óud;ywf+yD;awmh ESdrfeif;csifwJhpdwfawG bmjzpfvdk‹&Sd&ovJqdkwmukd usrwdk‹ ar;p&mar;cGef;wck jzpfaeygw,f?

owif;pmxJrSm b,fvdka&;vdkufovJqdkawmh 'D(44)wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf; trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf±Hk;a&SŒrSm jzpfw,f? aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; a':atmifqef;pk=unf tdrf0if;xJajy;w,fvdk‹ ajymygw,f? trSeftm;jzifhawmh 'Dem;rSm&SdwJhtdrf0if;awG tm;vHk;txJudk

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0ifajy;=uwmcsnf;yJ? usrwdk‹ tdrf0if;txJwif 0ifajy;wmr[kwfygbl;? [dkbuftdrfxJvnf; 0ifajy;ygw,f? tzJG‹csKyfxJvnf; 0ifEkdifwJhvlawGu 0ifzdk‹ óud;pm;=uygw,f? 'gudk usrwdk‹tdrfwtdrfxJudkyJ uGuf+yD;awmh 0ifajy;w,fqdkwm b,fvdkt"dy`m,feJ‹/ b,fvdk&nf&G,fcsufeJ‹ ajymwmvJ? usrwdk‹vnf; trsm;}uD; ar;p&mjzpfygw,f?

usr&JŒ tdrf0if;xJrSm ausmif;om;vli,frsm; tpnf;ta0;vkyfaew,fqdkwm rSefw,f? ausmif;om;rsm;[m usr&JŒtdrf0if;xJ 0ifajy;vmw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefw,f? 'gvnf; usrwdk‹ 0efcHygw,f? 'gayr,fh usrwdk‹tdrf0if;xJwif r[kwfbl;? tjcm;tdrf0if;xJawGvnf; 0ifajy;w,f?

usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu vl}uD;rsm;u xGuf+yD;awmh ajyajyvnfvnfjzpfatmif óud;pm;w,f? 'gudkvnf; wyfrawmfu t&m&SdawGu odwmyJ? odayr,fhvnf; bmrS todtrSwfrðybl;? 'gudk bmrSrajymbJeJ‹ 'D qlylr_jzpfatmif usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu vkyfw,fqdkwJh oabmxm;eJ‹a&;wm[m tifrwefrS r&Sif;wJhudpPvdk‹yJ usrwdk‹ ,lq&rSmyJ? 'g wrifoufouf tzJG‹csKyfukd &r,f&Sm+yD;awmh tjypf,lcsifvdk‹ vkyfaeovdk oabmoufa&mufw,fvdk‹ usrjrifygw,f? 'Dvm+yD;awmh qENjywJh uav;rsm;[m usrwdk‹eJ‹ rqkdifygbl;? tzJG‹csKyfvli,fxJrSmygwJh vli,fawG vHk;vHk;r[kwfygbl;?

'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu OD;atmifa&$eJ‹ OD;cspfckdifwdk‹ rae‹u w0w ±Hk;udk oGm;cJhygw,f? w0w ±Hk;rSmawG‹cJhwJh Adkvfrª;wifarmif0if;udk pHkprf;csifwm&Sd&if pHkprf;yg? ar;p&m&Sd&if ar;yg? aqG;aEG;p&m&Sd&if aqG;aEG;yg? tzJG‹csKyfeJ‹ vHk;vHk;oufqkdifwJh qENjyr_ ("gwfyHkrsm;vmygonf)

1989 ckESpf o}uFefa&obifqifEJ$pOf

(aqmif;yg;tqufjyefvmygonf?) r[kwfygbl;qdkwm ajymcJhygw,f? 'gudkvnf; bmrSpHkprf;jcif; r&Sdbl;? bmrS ar;jref;jcif;r&Sdbl;? bmrS aqG;aEG;jcif;r&Sdbl;? olwdk‹ owif;pmeJ‹ a&'D,dkrSm ajymcsifwmudk ajymoGm;w,f? 'g[m odyf+yD;awmh rSefuefwJh vrf;r[kwfbl;vdk‹ usrxifygw,f? usrwdk‹uae+yD; qlylapcsifvdk‹ vkyfw,fvdk‹ajymw,f? rSefrSefuefuef +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf; vkyfcsifwJhtzJG‹tpnf;udk qlylatmifv_H‹aqmfay;ygw,fvdk‹ ajymwmudku +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ rjzpfapcsifwJh pdwfoabmrsKd;ygovdk jzpfaeygw,f? 'ga=umifh usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyftaeeJ‹ 'gudk jyif;jyif;xefxef uef‹uGufygw,f? aemuf+yD;awmh armifzkef;armfudpP? armifzkef;armfae‹ &ufowWywfa[majymyJGawGeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ owif;pmxJrSm ygygw,f? b,fae&mawGrSm b,folawGu a[majymoGm;w,f/ wyfrawmfqef‹usifa&;awG a[majymoGm;ygw,fayghav? a[majymoGm;wJh ae&mawGxJrSm usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;awG ygw,fqdkwm rSefygw,f? usrwdk‹ 0efcHygw,f? 'g rjiif;ygbl;? usrwdk‹&JŒ tift,f'Dvli,fxJu a[majymoGm;w,fqdkwmvnf; rSefw,f? usrwdk‹ rjiif;ygbl;? 'Dvdkvli,frsm;udk usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;awGrSm a[majymcGifhay;wm[m ±kef;&if;qefcwf rjzpfoGm;atmifvdk‹qdkwJh qENeJ‹ usrwdk‹ vkyfoGm;wmyg? usrwdk‹eJ‹ aqG;aEG;r,fqdk&if tajz[m ay:rSmyg? armifzkef;armfudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m txdrf;trSwftcrf;tem;rsm; vkyfcsifw,fqdkuwnf;u usrwdk‹udk wdkifyifygw,f? ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf; vkyf=uyg/ wwfEkdifor# at;at;csrf;csrf;jzpfatmif vkyf=uyg? jyifyrSm qENjyr_awG vkyfvdk‹&Sd&if ±kef;&if;qefcwf jzpfrSmpdk;vdk‹/ a[majymyJGawG olwdk‹u odyfvkyfcsifw,f/ 'Dawmh uJ 'Dvdkqdk&ifawmh taqmuftODawGtwGif;rSm vkyfyg? usrwdk‹ xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf;jzpfatmif trsKd;rsKd;óud;pm;cJhygw,f? 'gudkvnf; wu,fyJodcsifw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if odzdk‹&m rcJ,Of;ygbl;? b,fum;eJ‹ b,fvlawG b,ftcsdefrSm oGm;w,fqdkwm odEkdifwJholrsm;[m usrwdk‹b,fvdk xdef;odrf;w,fqdkwm wu,fyJodcsifw,fqdk&if

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odEkdifzdk‹ta=umif; trsm;}uD;&Sdygw,f? wdwdusus odcsifw,fqdk&if usrwdk‹udk vm+yD;awmh ar;vdk‹&ygw,f? usrwdk‹ ajymzdk‹tqifoifhygyJ? vli,fawGudk usrwdk‹ xdef;zdk‹ óud;pm;w,fqdkwm usrwdk‹udk b,ftcsdefar;ar; ajymEkdifygw,f? aemuf+yD;awmh w&m;r0ifwJhtzJG‹tpnf; ‘Auo’ u rif;udkEkdifudk usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;xJrSm a[majymoGm;w,fvdk‹ ajymygw,f? 'Dawmh usru ar;csifw,f? ‘Auo’ udk 'Dvdkajymawmh ‘ruo’ ua&m w&m;0ifwJh tzJG‹tpnf;vm;? jrefrmEkdifiHvHk;qkdif&m ausmif;om;rsm;tzJG‹csKyfqdkwJh ‘ruo’ vnf; w&m;0ifwJhtzJG‹tpnf;r[kwfbl;? r[kwfbJeJ‹ Adkvfrª;csKyfcifnGef‹ udk,fwkdifac:+yD;awmh awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;w,f? pmawGbmawG a&;w,f? 'D[musawmh jzpfEkdifovm;? ausmif;om;vli,frsm; xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf;jzpfa&;/ +yD;awmh tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;awGxJrSm ‘ruo’ udk a[majymcGifhay;wmusawmh tjypf}uD;jzpfoGm;a&mvm;? 'D[m rSefuefwJhenf;r[kwfbl;vdk‹ usrwdk‹ xifygw,f? usrwdk‹udk w&m;0iftzJG‹tpnf;wckxJrSm wckckjzpfaevdk‹ rauseyfbl;qdk&if ac:+yD;awmh aqG;aEG;wkdifyifygvm;? bmjzpfvdk‹ ‘ruo’ vdk w&m;0if rSwfyHkwifxm;wJh tzJG‹tpnf;r[kwfwJh tzJG‹tpnf;usawmh aqG;aEG;vJ? wu,fyJ wkdif;jynfxJrSm +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf; jzpfapcsifw,f/ EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGeJ‹ e0wt=um; bmrSyÉdyuQ rjzpfapcsifbl;qdk&if tcsdefra&G; usrwdk‹udk ac:+yD;awmh aqG;aEG;vdk‹&ygw,f? nd‡E_dif;wkdifyifvdk‹ &ygw,f? usrwdk‹ tpuwnf;uvnf; ajymxm;+yD;om;yg? aqG;aEG;zdk‹ usrwdk‹ tqifoifhyg? pum;ajymzdk‹ tqifoifhyg? usrwdk‹rSm bmrS ykef;v#Kd;uG,fv#Kd; vkyfp&mta=umif; r&Sdygbl;? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ tpuwnf;u ajymxm;+yD;om;yg? w&m;0if yGifhyGifhvif;vif; ajymxm;+yD;om;yg? trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf[m ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk b,fawmhrS rypfy,fbl;qdkwmvnf; usrwdk‹ ajymxm;+yD;om;yg? 'ga=umifh Auo u usrwdk‹qDrSm vm+yD;awmh awG‹csifw,fqdk&if usrwdk‹ tawG‹cHw,f? ruo u vm+yD;awmh awG‹csifw,fqdk&ifvnf; usrwdk‹ tawG‹cHwmyJ? usr tawG‹rcHbl;qdkwJh ausmif;om;vli,ftzJG‹&,fvdk‹ r&SdoavmufygbJ? usr tcsdef&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if t+rJyJtawG‹cHygw,f? nd‡E_dif;w,f/ wkdifyifw,f/ at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf;vkyfoGm;zdk‹ usr t+rJtm;ay;ygw,f? 'g usrwifr[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf&JŒ rlt& tzJG‹csKyfu vl}uD;tm;vHk; 'Dtwkdif;yJ vkyfygw,f? 'gudk ckwifuajymovdk b,fol b,fum;eJ‹ b,feHygwfeJ‹ b,ftcsdef b,fudkoGm;w,fqdkwm ca&aphwGif;us odwJhvlawG odr,fvdk‹ usr xifygw,f? odvsufom;eJ‹ 'D[mawGusawmh azmfrjybJeJ‹ tzGJ‹csKyfudk xdcdkufEkdifr,fhudpPawGudkom uGuf+yD;awmh azmfjywm[m tifrwefrSyJ w&m;rr#wwJhudpPvdk‹ usr ,lqygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'g[m bmoabmvJ? 'g[m bmvkyfcsifvdk‹vJ/ bmjzpfapcsifvdk‹vJ? 'Dv (25) &ufae‹u owif;pmxJrSm a&;xm;wmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if tcsKd‹aom EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; EdkifiHawmf at;csrf;om,m&Sdaer_udk rvdkvm;=uwJh? usrwdk‹awmh r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹[m EkdifiHawmfrSm at;csrf;om,m &Sdapcsifvdk‹ wwfEkdifor# ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf; vkyfaeygw,f? 'gudk odvsufeJ‹ wrifoufouf qlylatmifv_H‹aqmfaew,fvdk‹ ajymaewJhvlrsm;[m at;csrf;jcif;udk rvdkvm;vdk‹ ajymaewmvm;vdk‹/ usrwdk‹u trsm;}uD; jyefar;p&mawG jzpfaeygw,f? aemuf+yD;awmh EkdifiHawmfudk qef‹usif/ wyfrawmfudk qef‹usifa[majymaew,f/ qlylr_jzpfap&ef zefwD;aew,fwJh? usrwdk‹ rzefwD;ygbl;? usr wyfrawmfta=umif;eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ b,fawmhrS wae&mwrsKd;/ wae&mwrsKd; rajymygbl;? trdef‹trSwf 8§88 t& wyfrawmfòyduJGa&;/ wyfrawmfeJ‹jynfol pdwf0rf;uJGa&;twGufqdkwm usr wcgrS rvkyfcJhbl;/ usr t+rJyJajymw,f? wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfol=um;xJrSm pdwf0rf;uJGa&;qdkwm jynfolzuf/ EdkifiHa&;ygwDawGzufuom vkyfEkdifwmr[kwfbl;? wyfrawmfzufuvnf; vkyfEkdifw,f/ wyfrawmfzufu vkyfyHkudkifyHk rrSefuefvdk‹&Sd&if/ ajymyHk/ qdkyHk/ aeyHk/ xkdifyHk rrSefvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; jynfolvlxkeJ‹ wyfrawmf=um;rSm odyfpdwf0rf;uJGEdkifygw,f?

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usr twefwefajymygw,f? wyfrawmfòyduJGa&;udk rvdkvm;ygbl;? wyfrawmf wnfwHhckdif+rJrSom EkdifiHawmf wnfwHhckdif+rJr,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ vufcHxm;+yD;om;yg? wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfol=um;xJrSm pdwf0rf;uJGa&;udkvnf; rvdkygbl;? wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfol=um;rSm pdwf0rf;uJGaevdk‹om usrwdk‹wdkif;jynf 'Davmufawmif 'kuQa&mufaewmyg? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usr twefwefajymygw,f? wyfrawmf&JŒ tm%mudk tvJGoHk;pm;vkyfwJholrsm;omv#if jynfoleJ‹wyfrawmf=um;rSm pdwf0rf;uJGatmif vkyfaeolawGyJ? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ wcgrS wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfol=um;rSm pdwf0rf;uJGatmif rvkyfcJhygbl;? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if wyfrawmfxJrSm usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ 0g'jzef‹csDa&;awG trsKd;rsKd;vkyfaew,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ =um;&ygw,f? 'gawGu v#KdŒ0SufwJhudpPr[kwfygbl;? e0w twGif;a&;rª; (2) jzpfwJh Adkvfrª;csKyfwifOD;[m pnf;a0;yJGawGrSm usrwdk‹udk ±_wfcsaew,fqdkwm =um;&ygw,f? 'D[m e0wt&m&SdwOD;taeeJ‹ vkyfoifhwJhudpPr[kwfygbl;? e0w wnfaxmifuwnf;u “=um;”aeyghr,f/ ta&mifqdk;xm;jcif; r&Sdygbl;/ b,fEdkifiHa&;ygwDtzJG‹urS rygygbl;vdk‹ ajymcJh+yD;awmh e0wtwGif;a&;rª; (2) u 'Dvdk usrwdk‹udk xdyg;ajymqdkaewm[m tifrwefrS tajymeJ‹tvkyfrnDwJh udpPwckjzpfygw,f? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfukd bmjzpfvdk‹ wdkufaewmvJ? 'gar;p&myJ? rae‹wkef;u udpPqdkvdk‹&Sd&if qifuGufeJ‹ trsm;}uD;wlygw,f? usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyfeJ‹ bmrSroufqdkifwJh ausmif;om;awGudk b,folu oGm;+yD;awmh v_H‹aqmfovJ? wevFmae‹wkef;uvnf; 'Dtwdkif;yJ? ausmif;om;awG qlylaew,f/ vm=uyg/ vm=uygvdk‹ w,fvDzkef;awG qufw,f? usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyfxJu r[kwfbl;? usrwdk‹ tzJG‹emrnfudk oHk;+yD;awmh vkyfwmvnf;&Sdw,f? 'g[m qlylatmifv_H‹aqmfaewm b,folawGvJqdkwm wu,fyJodcsifvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹eJ‹wdkifyifyg? usrwdk‹vnf; odcsifw,f? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf&JŒemrnfudk b,folawGu tvJGoHk;pm;vkyfaeovJqdkwm usrwdk‹ odcsifwmyg? rae‹uudpPvnf; xdkenf;‚if;yJ? tzJG‹csKyfa&SŒrSm bmjzpfvdk‹ qENvmjyovJ? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfudk tr_ywfapcsifvdk‹ vkyfwmvm;/ 'g ar;p&mjzpfae+yD? aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; tuGufu odyf+yD;awmh aooyfvGef;w,f/ tuGufqifxm;wmusaewmyJ? wck+yD;wck wqufwnf;jzpfoGm;vdkufwm tm;vHk; tzJG‹csKyfa&SŒrSmcsnf;yJ? ppfum;awGu a&mufvmw,f/ ppfom;awGu qENjyaewJh uav;awGudk vdkuf+yD;awmhvkyfwm xm;ygawmh? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf0if;xJudk 0ifvm+yD;awmh ±dkufzdk‹óud;pm;w,f? 'gu b,fvdkt"dym,fvJ? usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyfwHcg;awGudk ydwfxm;w,f? txJuvlvnf; tjyifrxGuf&/ tjyifuvlvnf; txJr0if& qdk+yD;awmh wm;xm;w,f? usrwdk‹eJ‹ bmrSrqkdifbl;qdkwm &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; ajymxm;w,f? ajymxm;wJhtxJu tzJG‹csKyf0if;xJ 0if+yD;awmh ±dkufzdk‹óud;pm;=uw,f? aemuf+yD;awmh aumvm[vowif; v$ifhvdkufao;w,f? &Jabmfrsm;udk r=um;Ekdif/ rcHEkdifavmufatmif qJa&;wkdif;xGmaew,fwJh? b,folu qJa&;wdkif;xGmaewmvJ? usrwdk‹zufu b,folrS qJa&;wkdif;xGm rvkyfbl;? tjyifuvmwJh ausmif;om;rsm;[m ol‹zmom aºuG;a=umfcJh=uwmyJ? qJw,f/ bmw,fqdkwm wckrSr&SdcJhbl;? pum; um;+yD;awmh wyfrawmfeJ‹jynfol=um;rSm wrifoufouf pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvkyfaewm[m b,folawG&JŒvufcsufvJqdkwm usrwdk‹vnf; odcsifygw,f? e0wuvnf; trSeftwdkif; odcsifw,fqdk&if usrwdk‹eJ‹ aqG;aEG;wdkifyifaygh? wu,fhw&m;cHawGudk&Smzdk‹ usrwdk‹eJ‹twlwl óud;pm;aygh? usrwdk‹u ajzzdk‹tqifoifhyJ? bmrS usrwdk‹ 0Sufxm;p&m zHk;xm;p&m r&Sdygbl;? tckvkyfyHkudkifyHk[m t}uHwckckeJ‹ vkyfaeovdkvdk jzpfaew,f? tzGJ‹csKyfeJ‹ wyfrawmf=um;xJrSm pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvdk‹ wyfrawmfxJrSm 0g'jzef‹csDaew,fqdkwmvnf; usrwdk‹ =um;&w,f? tpnf;ta0;awGac:+yD;awmh wyfom;awGudk usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu b,fokd‹b,fnmqdk+yD;awmh vkyfaewm[m apmapmu ajymovdk e0w twGif;a&;rª; (2) Adkvfrª;csKyfwifOD; ajymaewm/ qdkaewmeJ‹ woabmxJyJ? 'g[m wrifoufouf tzJG‹csKyfeJ‹ wyfrawmf=um;rSm pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvkyfwmyJ? wyfrawmfom;rsm;u tzJG‹csKyfudk &efoltaeeJ‹ jrifatmifvkyfwmyJ? wyfrawmfom;rsm;u 'Drdkua&pDvdkvm;wJh jynfoludk &efoltaeeJ‹ jrifatmifvkyfwmyJ? 'DvdkyJ usrwdk‹

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jrifygw,f? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹csnf;yJ vufn‡dK;xdk;+yD;awmh qlylr_jzpfatmif v_H‹aqmfw,fvdk‹ ajymaewm[m wu,fawmh olcdk;u vl[pfwmeJ‹ trsm;}uD;wlaew,f? aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; wyfrawmfae‹udk 2§88 eJ‹ +idw,fqdk+yD;awmh wcsKdŒEkdifiHa&;orm;awGu ajymaew,fvdk‹ qdkygw,f? rwfv (25) &ufae‹ owif;pmxJrSm ygygw,f? trdef‹trSwf 2§88/ tyk'f 1/ tyk'fcJG c wGifyg&SdonfrSm - qlylv_H‹aqmfvdkaom &nf&G,fcsufjzifhjzpfap/ vl (5) a,mufESifh vl (5) a,mufxufydkI vrf;rsm;ay:wGif pka0;jcif;/ vrf;av#mufjcif;/ pDwef;vSnfhjcif;/ atmf[pfaºuG;a=umfjcif;/ v_H‹aqmfjcif;/ ±kef;&if;qefcwfðyjcif;/ rnfolr# rðyvkyf&[lIjzpfa=umif;/ odk‹aomfvnf; òrd‹xJwGif ae‹pOfESifhtr# axmif/ aomif;csD+yD; oGm;vmaeolrsm; tm;vHk;tjrifyifjzpfa=umif;/ ‚if;wdk‹onf qlylvdkaom &nf&G,fcsuf/ jypfr_wpHkw&m usL;vGefvdkaom &nf&G,fcsufr&Sda=umif;/ xdk‹tjyif xdkolrsm; oGm;vmae=ujcif;udk ta&;,lr_ r&Sda=umif;-wJh? usrwdk‹vnf; 'Dtwdkif;yJ ajymcJhwmyg? usrwdk‹tzJG‹tpnf;twGuf pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;wJhtcgus&if tJh'Dvlxkuawmh ig;a,mufxuf rsm;wmcsnf;aygh? tJh'Dawmh ig;a,mufxuf rsm;oGm;vdk‹qdk+yD; ta&;,lw,f? rGefjynfe,fwdk‹/ weoFm&Dwdkif;wdk‹qdk&if usrwdk‹jyefoGm;wmeJ‹ ig;a,mufxufrsm;vdk‹qdk+yD; pnf;±Hk;a&;wm0efcHawGudk 2§88 t& qJGygw,f? usr tJh'Dwkef;uvnf; &Sif;jycJhygw,f? 2§88 &JŒ &nf&G,fcsufu qlyljcif;rjzpfzdk‹/ ±kef;&if;qefcwfrjzpfzdk‹/ jypfr_wpHkw&m usL;vGefvdkaom &nf&G,fcsufr&Sdzdk‹/ 'gtwGuf xkwfxm;wmyJ? usrwdk‹&JŒ pnf;±Hk;a&; tpnf;ta0;rsm;[m vlpkvla0;}uD;rm;ayr,fh tm;vHk; at;at;aq;aq;eJ‹ +yD;oGm;wmyg? ±kef;&if;qefcwfvnf; rjzpfcJhygbl;? bmjypfr_rSvnf; rusL;vGefcJhygbl;? 'Dawmh bmjzpfvdk‹ 'gawGudk ta&;,lzdk‹ vdkovJ? 'gudk usr wifjycJhygw,f? usrwdk‹&JŒ pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;awGrSm wcgrS 2§88 &JŒ tESpfom&udk rcsKd;azmufcJhygbl;qdkwm usrwdk‹ t}udrf}udrf wifjycJhygw,f? 'gayr,fhvnf; rGefjynfe,frSm pnf;±Hk;a&;rª;awGudk tckxufxd zrf;xm;ao;w,f? ta=umif;jycsufuawmh usrwdk‹oGm;wkef;u vl ig;a,mufxufrsm;vdk‹ 2§88 eJ‹ qJGwmwJh? qJG+yD;awmh r+yD;ao;bl;? yk'frwck+yD;wck xyfwyfw,f? wckwyfvdk‹r& wckajymif;wyf/ wckwyfvdk‹r& wckajymif;wyfw,f? 'D[m wa,muf yHkpHwrsKd; vkyfovdkrsKd;jzpfaew,f? usrwdk‹usawmh 2§88 qdk+yD;awmh trsKd;rsKd;[ef‹wm;aew,f? tckusawmh ±kef;&if;qefcwfrjzpfbl;/ jypfr_rusL;vGefvdk‹&Sd&if 2§88 qdkwm udpPr&Sdbl;vdk‹ajymwmeJ‹ twlwlvdkjzpfaew,f? 'gudk usr vufcHygw,f? usrwdk‹u t&if pajymcJhwmyg? usrwdk‹ {&m0wDwkdif;wkef;u wc&D;vHk; 'Dtwdkif;yJ ajymcJhwmyg? ±kef;&if;qefcwf rjzpfbl;/ jypfr_ rusL;vGefbl; qdkvdk‹&Sd&if 2§88 qdkwmudk bmrScsKd;azmufjcif; r&Sdygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ vl ig;a,mufxuf ydk±HkeJ‹ qJGr,f/ ta&;,lr,fqdkwmawmh 2§88 udk tvGJoHk;pm;vkyfwmygvdk‹ usrwdk‹udk,fwkdif ajymcJhwmyg? tJh'Dawmh tckowif;pmrSmajymwmudk usrwdk‹ axmufcHygw,f? 'gayr,fhvnf; ajymwJhtwdkif;yJ vkyf=uygvdk‹ usru arwWm&yfcHcsifygw,f? wyfrawmfusawmhwrsKd;/ jynfolvlxkusawmh wrsKd;qdk+yD;awmh/ w&m;Oya'udk oHk;w,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfol=um;rSm pdwf0rf;uJGrSmaygh? 'Dawmh b,folu pdwf0rf;uJGatmif vkyfaewmvJ? usrwdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? wyfrawmfxJrSm at;at;csrf;csrf; csDwufw,fqdk&if csDwufygap? qlylaomif;usef;r_ rjzpfbl;qdk&if usrwdk‹ bmrSrajymvdkygbl;? usrwdk‹tzJG‹tpnf;awGuvnf; 'Dtwkdif;yJ pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;xGufwJhtcg vlig;a,mufxuf rsm;vdk‹&Sd&if rsm;ygap? qlylaomif;usef;r_ r&Sd&if +yD;a&maygh? 'gudk usrwdk‹ vufcHygw,f? wa,mufwrsKd;pDxm;vdk‹awmh b,fjzpfrvJ? armifzkef;armfae‹eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ wywftwGif;rSm awmfawmfrsm;rsm; zrf;qD;r_awG &Sdygw,f? usrwdk‹&JŒ tzJG‹csKyfeJ‹qkdifwJhuav;awGudk zrf;oGm;wm&Sdygw,f? uav;ESpfa,muf zrf;oGm;wmqdk&if ausmif;om;vli,frsm;xkwfa0wJh armifzkef;armfae‹ tpDtpOfpm&GufawG vufxJrSmygvdk‹qdk+yD; zrf;oGm;wmyg? 'g[m tifrwefrS vGefw,fvdk‹ usrwdk‹ xifygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm 'Dpm&GufawG[m wòrd‹vHk;rSm yvlysHaewmyJ? wa,mufudk ig;&Gufq,f&Gufavmuf a0vdkufwmyJ? óudufwJhvl a0uGmqdk+yD; a0oGm;wmyJ? 'Dawmh 'Duav;awGvufxJrSm 'Dpm&GufawG trsm;}uD;&Sdwmaygh? &Sd±HkeJ‹ zrf;&ovm;? tjypfeJ‹ tjypfay;yHk

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tifrwefrS uGmjcm;aeygw,f? vkyfwJhtr_av;u ao;ao;av;/ ay;vdkufwJhtjypfu t}uD;}uD;vdk jzpfaeygw,f? awmif}uD;rSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹tzJG‹0ifwa,mufukd wabmifpm&GufawG vufxJrSm&Sdvdk‹qdk+yD; zrf;ygw,f? erfhpefrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'D wabmifpm&GufeJ‹ywfouf+yD;awmh usrwdk‹tzJG‹0ifwa,muf&JŒ ZeD;udk r0w u ac:ppfw,f/ ESdyfpufygw,f? yg;pyfxJudk rsufESmokwfyk0gawG oGwfxnfh+yD;awmh wabmifpm&GufawG jzef‹a0w,fqdkwmudk twif;0efcHcdkif;ygw,f? bmtaxmuftxm;rS r&SdbJeJ‹ 0efcHcdkif;ygw,f? tJh'Dvdkvkyfwm[m b,fvdkt"dy`m,feJ‹ vkyfwmvJ? usrwdk‹ trsm;}uD; ar;p&myJ? wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfol=um;rSm pdwf0rf;ruJGapcsifbl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if bmjzpfvdk‹ 'DvdkudpPawG vkyfaeovJ? rEWav;wkdif; ykodrf;}uD;òrd‹rSmqdk&ifvnf; wyfrawmfom;rsm;u usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfqdkif;bkwfudk zsufqD;eif;acscJhygw,f? pnf;±Hk;a&;rª;tdrfudk 0if&rf;cJhw,f? awmfawmfyJ ±dkif;±dkif;pdkif;pdkif; vkyfcJhygw,f? 'gawG[m rvdkvm;tyfwJhudpPawGyJ? oufouf&ef&SmaewJh oabmrsKd;awG jzpfygw,f? awmifolv,form;rsm;udpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;u qlylapcsifwJhqENeJ‹ wrifoufouf &r,f&Sm+yD; ajymaew,fqdkwJhoabmrsKd; owif;pmxJrSm ygygw,f? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usrwdk‹ azazmf0g&Dvuwnf;u usrwdk‹ OuUX OD;wifOD;u e0w udk ta&;qdkcJhygw,f? awmifolv,form;rsm; b,fvdk'kuQa&mufae=ua=umif;/ aemuf+yD;awmh yifv,fydkifeufrsm; a&mif;vdkufwJh ta=umif;a=umifh a&tvkyform;rsm; b,fvdk'kuQa&mufaew,fqdkwJh ta=umif;rsm;udk pma&;cJhygw,f? owif;a=unmcsufwckvnf; xkwfcJhygw,f? tJh'DvdkyJ usrwdk‹ vkyfcJhygw,f? bmrS 'ghxufydk+yD;awmh rv_H‹aqmfcJhygbl;? owif;pmxJrSma&;ovdk usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu ajymwmr[kwfygbl;? owif;pmxJrSm EdkifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;0if awmifolv,form;rsm;uom ajymw,fvdk‹ qdkygw,f? r[kwfygbl;? ±dk;±dk;tzJG‹tpnf;xJudk r0if&JwJh awmifolv,form;rsm;u xyfcgxyfcg 'DudpPudk ajymaewmyg? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfxJudkvnf; awmifolv,form; trsm;pk}uD;vnf; r0if&Jygbl;? 0ifvdk‹&Sd&if zrf;r,f/ qD;r,fqdk+yD;awmh +cdrf;ajcmufr_awG trsm;}uD;&Sdaewma=umifh r0if&J=u&Smygbl;? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfxJu awmifolv,form;rsm;u ajymw,fqdkwm vHk;vHk;r[kwfygbl;? tzJG‹csKyftjyifbufu awmifolv,form;rsm;u wcsdefvHk;ajymaewmyg? usrwdk‹ wu,fyJ qlylaomif;usef;r_ jzpfapcsifw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if e0w udk bmjzpfvdk‹ ta=umif;=um;rvJ? ta=umif;r=um;ygbl;? ta&;r,lapeJ‹? ta&;r,lwmawmifrS aumif;ao;w,f? ydk+yD;awmh jynfolvlxk tHkºuGrSmyJqdk+yD; usrwdk‹ aoG;xkd;ay;rSmaygh? jynfolvlxk 'kuQa&mufaewmudk rjrifcsifvdk‹ e0w udk wifjyygw,f? 'DvdkyJ 'kuQa&mufaeygw,f? 'DvdkyJ jy\emawG jzpfaeygw,f? =unfh+yD;awmh vkyfay;ygqdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹ wifjyygw,f? jynfolvlxkodatmifvdk‹ 'Dvdkawmifolv,form;rsm; 'kuQa&mufaew,fqdkwm/ usrwdk‹ ajymygw,f? 'Dvdkajym&jcif;rSm usrwdk‹jynfolvlxk[m udk,fh&JŒtcGifhta&;awGudk udk,fumuG,f&r,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ ,Hk=unfvdk‹ajymcJhwmyJ? tzJG‹csKyftaeeJ‹ n$ef=um;csufwckxkwfxm;ygw,f? awmifolv,form;rsm; 'kuQa&mufaevdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu wwfEkdifor# ulnD&r,f? 'g[m vlr_a&;t&yJ? 'g EkdifiHa&;y&d,m,f r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹ EdkifiHa&;y&d,m,fqdkwmudk t,Hkt=unfr&Sdbl;qdkwm usr ajym+yD;om;yJ? usr vHk;vHk; t,Hkt=unfr&Sdbl;? usr 'DudpPvkyfwm rSefw,fxifvdk‹vkyfw,f? awmifolv,form;rsm; 'kuQa&mufaewmudk usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu ulnDcsifvdk‹ vkyfwJhudpPyJ jzpfygw,f? usr òcH+yD;awmh ajym&r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if ckwavmrSm usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfeJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDvdkvm;wJh tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;udk oufouftjypf&Smaew,fqdkwm usr jrif&ygw,f? oufoufwdkufcdkufvmw,f? usrwdk‹u qlylr_jzpfatmifvdk‹ v_H‹aqmfaew,fqdk+yD;awmh xyfwvJvJajymaeygw,f? 'Dvdkajymaewm[m b,fvdk&nf&G,fcsufeJ‹ ajymaeovJqdkwm usr trsm;}uD;pOf;pm;&ygw,f? rae‹ujzpfwJh udpPawGuvnf; wrifoufouf tuGufqif+yD;awmh usrwdk‹udk vufn‡Kd;xdk;wmvm;qdkwm usrwdk‹ ar;p&mjzpfvmygw,f? wyfrawmfae‹twGuf pdk;&drfvdk‹vm;?

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wyfrawmfae‹twGuf pdk;&drfw,fqdk&if usrwdk‹eJ‹ aqG;aEG;Ekdifygw,f? wyfrawmfae‹ ysufpD;&mysufpD;a=umif; b,fvdkrvkyfapcsifbl;qdkwm ajymyg? usrwdk‹ aqG;aEG;zdk‹ tqifoifhyJ? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk trsm;}uD;xdef;ygw,f? usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyfvli,frsm;udk wyfrawmfae‹rSm pDwef;vrf;av#mufwmwdk‹/ qENjywmwdk‹ rvkyf&bl;qdkwm usrwdk‹ ajym+yD;om;yg? 'Dwyfrawmfae‹udk wyfrawmfae‹taeeJ‹ vufrcHbl;qdk&if b,folrSroGm;=ueJ‹? b,folrS xGufr=unfh=ueJ‹? tJh'Dvdkenf;eJ‹ oydwfarSmuf&if arSmuf=uaygh? usrwdk‹ ajym+yD;om;yg? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ rwfv (27) &ufae‹udk awmfvSefa&;ae‹taeeJ‹ vufcHw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ ajym+yD;om;yg? 'g jynfolvlxk&JŒ awmfvSefa&;ae‹yg? 1945 ckESpfwkef;u jrefrmEkdifiH[m jynfolvlxku tm;vHk;ºuGvm+yD;awmh zufqpf0g'udk rvdkcsifvdk‹ awmfvSefa&;udk pwifcJhwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyftaeeJ‹awmh (27) &uf rwfv[m awmfvSefa&;ae‹vdk‹ vufcHygw,f? awmfvSefa&;ae‹taeeJ‹vnf; azazu todtrSwfðycJhw,f? usrvnf; awmfvSefa&;ae‹taeeJ‹yJ quf+yD;awmh todtrSwfðyygw,f? usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyfuvnf; 'Dtwkdif;yJ? jynfolvlxkuvnf; jynfolvlxkudk ESdyfpufwJhzufqpf0g'udk awmfvSefwJhae‹tjzpf todtrSwfðyygw,f? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ tm;vHk;udk ajyajyvnfvnf jzpfapcsifw,f? +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf; jzpfapcsifw,f? e0w eJ‹ nd‡E_dif;wkdifyif&rvm;? nd‡E_dif;wdkifyifr,f? wyfrawmfeJ‹ aqG;aEG;&rvm;/ aqG;aEG;r,f? tqifoifhyJqdkwm usr xyfwvJvJ ajymygw,f? 'DvdkajymaewJhtxJu bmrS aqG;aEG;wkdifyifr_r&SdbJeJ‹ tzJG‹csKyfudk oufouf vufn‡dK;xdk;vmwmuawmh usrwdk‹udk jynfolvlxku axmufcHwmudk r±_pdrfhvdk‹vm;qdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹ ar;&awmhrSmjzpfygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfudk wdkufcdkufw,fqdkwm[m jynfolvlxk&JŒ 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_udkvnf; wdkufcdkufwmeJ‹ twlwlygyJ? wu,fyJ ppfrSefwJh/ w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJGawG jzpfapcsifw,f qdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh 'Dvdkrawmfrw&m; wkdufcdkufr_awGudk &yfwef;u &yfzdk‹vdkr,fvdk‹ usr xifygw,f? 'g usrtaeeJ‹ ajymcsifwmuawmh 'gygyJ? ar;p&m&Sdvdk‹ &Sd&if ar;=uyg? 17 wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&; jrpf}uD;em;òrd‹Y 28-4-1989 ae‹wGif ajym=um;onf?

* * * wem&Davmuf apma&mufzdk‹yg? cyfcsKduxGufwm aemufuswm awmif;yefygw,f? pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;xGufwJhtcg wcgwav usrwdk‹ tpDtpOftwdkif;rjzpfygbl;? vrf;rSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; wcgwav tcuftcJav;awG awG‹wwfygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ 'Dvdk aemufus&jcif;jzpfygw,f? jrpf}uD;em;udk rvmcifwkef;uqdk&if =um;&wmawmh jrpf}uD;em;rSm 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_&JŒ tajctae odyfraumif;bl;vdk‹ ajym=uygw,f? jynfolvlxku odyf+yD; wufwufºuGºuG r&Sd=ubl;vdk‹ qdkygw,f? tJh'Dawmh usru enf;enf;tm;i,frdygw,f? 'gayrJh tckvmwJhtcgusawmhvnf; jynfolvlxku ydk+yD;wufºuGw,fqdkwmjrif&vdk‹ trsm;}uD;yJ tm;&SdoGm;ygw,f? *k%fvnf; *k%fðyygw,f? ucsifjynfe,frSm&SdwJh awmifwef;om; vlrsKd;pkrsm;[m owWd&Sdw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹tm;vHk;yJ tpu odxm;+yD;jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ 'DvdkowWd&Sd&SdeJ‹ quf+yD;awmh trsKd;om;a&;twGuf vkyfoGm;r,fqdkwmvnf; usrwdk‹ ,Hk=unfygw,f? i,fi,fuwnf;u usrwdk‹ em;vnfwmuawmh

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awmifwef;om;rsm;[m tifrwefrS owWd&Sdw,f/ tifrwefrS ±dk;om;ajzmifhrwfw,f/ vkyf&nfudkif&nf &Sdw,fvdk‹ em;vnfcJhygw,f? tck 'Drdkua&pD v_yf&Sm;r_xJrSmvnf; 'Dtwdkif;yJ ±kd;±dk;om;om;/ ajzmifhajzmifhrwfrwf/ owdW&Sd&SdeJ‹ quf+yD;awmh vkyfoGm;=ur,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹vdkcsifwJh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tjrefqHk;&EdkifrSmyg? tcktcsdefrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if wkdif;&if;om;vlrsm;pk trsm;pk}uD;[m awmfawmfrSyJ yifyifyef;yef;/ qif;qif;&J&J ae=u&ygw,f? 'Dvdktajctaeuae+yD;awmh wdk;wuf+yD; csrf;omwJh jynfaxmifpk}uD;wck xlaxmifzdk‹qdkwm tm;vHk;&JŒ wm0efjzpfygw,f? wcgwavusvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹udk wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;u ar;ygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;& &vdk‹&Sd&if usaemfwdk‹vlrsKd;pkawGtwGuf bmvkyfay;rSmvJ/ jynfaxmifpktwGuf bmvkyfay;rSmvJ qdk+yD;awmh ar;ygw,f? usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf taeeJ‹uawmh a=unmxm;+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pD&vdk‹&Sd&if ppfrSefwJh 'Drdkua&pDjynfaxmifpk}uD; xlaxmifa&;twGuf wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;eJ‹ wkdifyifn‡dE_dif;+yD;awmh usrwdk‹[m tajccHpnf;rsOf;Oya'[m jynfaxmifpk wnfwHhckdif+rJa&;twGufvnf; vkyf&r,f/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;&JŒ arG;&mygtcGifhta&;rsm;udkvnf; todtrSwfðy&r,f? vlwkdif;vlwdkif; vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm; cHpm;ydkifcGifhvnf; OD;wnf&r,fqdkwmvnf; usrwdk‹ a=unmxm;+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fhvnf; 'Drdkua&pD jynfaxmifpkxlaxmifzdk‹qdkwm[m usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyfwckwnf;&JŒ wm0efvnf; r[kwfygbl;? wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;&JŒ wm0efjzpfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_ atmifjrifzdk‹qdkwm[m vlwkdif;vlwkdif;&JŒ wm0efjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usr c%c% ajym&ygw,f? 'Drdkua&pD&zdk‹qdk&if usaemfwdk‹udk bmtcGifhta&;awG ay;rvJvdk‹ ar;r,fhtpm; 'Drkdua&pD&zdk‹twGuf usaemfwdk‹ b,fvdk0dkif;0ef;ulnD&rvJqdkwm tcktcsdefrSm ar;&r,fhar;cGef;jzpfygw,f? 'Dar;cGef;udk ar;+yD;awmh rSefuefwJh tajzudk &SmEkdifr,fqdkrS udk,fvdkcsifwJh 'Drkdua&pDudk &r,f/ 'Drdkua&pD&w,fqdkrS vlwkdif;vlwkdif;&JŒ tcGifhta&;udk tmrcHr,fh pepfwckudk xlaxmifEkdifr,f? 'Dvdk vlwkdif;vlwkdif;&JŒ vl‹tcGifhta&;udk tmrcHr,fh tkyfcsKyfr_pepfwckudk tajccH+yD;rS wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk; auseyfr_&Ekdifr,fh jynfaxmifpkyHko¾mefudk usrwdk‹ azmfxkwf&rSmjzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk jynfaxmifpkyHko¾mef azmfxkwfzdk‹qdkwm[m wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;u oabmxm;}uD;}uD; xm;&r,f/ tjrifus,fus,f &Sd&r,f? jynfaxmifpktusKd;udk udk,fha'otusKd;xuf ydkxm;&r,f? Armrsm;[m ArmtusKd;twGuf r[kwfbl;? ucsifrsm;[m ucsifawG&JŒtusKd;twGuf r[kwfbl;? wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;u jynfaxmifpktusKd;twGufqdkwJh pdwf"mwfawGeJ‹ vkyfzdk‹vdkygw,f? usrwdk‹ vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;wJhacwfrSm 'Dwkdif;jynf rwdk;wufwm[m nDnGwfr_ r&Sdvdk‹bJ? usrwdk‹rSm&SdwJh EkdifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm;[m udk,fhtusKd;xuf wkdif;jynftusKd;udk a&SŒrxm;vdk‹ usrwdk‹ wkd;wufr_ r&SdcJhbl;vdk‹ xifygw,f? wygwD tm%m&Sifpepf pdk;rdk;oGm;&w,fqdkwmvnf; jynfolvlxk[m rSefuefwJh EdkifiHa&;todtjrifawG r&Sdvdk‹bJ jzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh aemufwcg xyf+yD;awmh tm%m&Sif rjzpfapcsifbl;? usrwdk‹EkdifiHudk 'Drdkua&pDpepft& tm;vHk; pdwfcsrf;oma&;twGuf xlaxmifapcsifw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if EkdifiHolEdkifiHom;tm;vHk;[m udk,fhrSm&SdwJh EdkifiHa&;wm0efawGudk xrf;aqmifzdk‹ vdkygw,f?

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("gwfyHkrsm;vmygonf?) tay: ucsifwkdif;&if;om; 0wfpHkwrsKd;udk 0wfqifxm;pOf atmuf yifvHkY 1989 ckESpfwGif pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;cJhpOfu tay: - ucsifwkdif;&if;om;rsm;ESifhtwl atmuf - u&ifacgif;aqmifwOD;ESifhtwl EkdifiHa&;qdkwm vlwkdif;vlwdkif;eJ‹qdkifwJh udpPyg? EdkifiHwEkdifiH wdk;wufzdk‹/ wnfwHhckdif+rJzdk‹qdkwm tm;vHk;0dkif;+yD; óud;pm;zdk‹vdkygw,f? vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m wkdif;jynftay:rSm ppfrSefwJh apwemxm;&ygvdrfhr,f? udk,fhtzJG‹tpnf;tusKd;udkyJ vkyfaer,f/ udk,fhtodkif;t0kdif;tusKd;yJ vkyfaer,f qdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh ppfrSefwJhapwemvdk‹ rac:Edkifygbl;? usrwdk‹EdkifiH (26) ESpftwGif;rSm usqif;cJh&wm[m wkdif;jynfudk ppfrSefwJh apwemeJ‹ rtkyfcsKyfvdk‹bJ? wkdif;jynfudk ppfrSefwJhapwemeJ‹ tkyfcsKyfcJhw,fqdk&if 'DEkdifiH[m trsm;}uD; wdk;wufEdkifygw,f? ucsifjynfe,f wckwnf;rSmyifv#if o,HZmwypPnf; b,favmufaygrsm;w,fqdkwm od+yD;om;yg? wEdkifiHvHk;udk òcH+yD;awmh =unfhvdkufr,fqdk&if usrwdk‹EdkifiH[m tifrwefrS csrf;omygw,f? 'Davmufcsrf;omvsufeJ‹ jynfolvlxk[m qif;&Jae&w,f/ pdk;&drfae&w,f/ a=umifh=uae&w,fqdkwmawmh rrSefuefwJh tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfa=umifhyJ? pD;yGm;a&;atmifjrifr_qdkwm rSefuefwJhtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf&SdrS jzpfrSmyg? 'DtcsdefrSm pD;yGm;a&;ukd OD;rwnfbJeJ‹ EdkifiHa&;udk OD;wnfzdk‹vdkygw,f? EkdifiHa&;atmifjrifr_awG&rS pD;yGm;a&;bufudk wcgjyef+yD;awmh usrwdk‹ udk,fvdkcsifwJh ðyjyifr_awG vkyf&rSmjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh jynfolawGtaeeJ‹ tcktcsdefrSm ppfrSefwJh 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf 0dkif;0ef;ulnD=uygvdk‹ usr arwWm&yfcHcsifygw,f? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;[m vufwJG+yD;awmh wnDwnGwfwnf;eJ‹/ owWd&Sd&SdeJ‹ udk,fh&JŒwkdif;jynfaumif;usKd;twGuf rSefrSefuefuef vkyfoGm;r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m ydk+yD;awmh csrf;om+yD; wdk;wufwJh jynfaxmifpk}uD;rSm aeEkdifrSmjzpfygw,f? 'DvdkOD;wnfcsufeJ‹ 0dkif;+yD;awmh óud;pm;oGm;=uygvdk‹ usr arwWm&yfcH&if;eJ‹ ed*Hk;csKyfygw,f? 18 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm; nDnGwfa&; Trdef‹cGef;udk 1989 ckESpfwGif &efukefòrd‹Y ajym=um;onf[k ,lq&aomfvnf; ajym=um;onfh ae‹&ufESifh ae&mudk pmwnf;taejzifh odEkdifpGrf; r&Sdyg?

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usrudk 'Drkdua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;&JŒ udk,fpm;vS,fvdk‹ owfrSwfvdkufwJhtcgusawmh 'gudk *k%f,lygw,fvdk‹ ajym&rvm;vdk‹ usr pOf;pm;ygw,f? 'gayrJh wu,fpOf;pm;vdkufwJhtcgusawmh 'g usrtwGuf *k%f,lp&mr[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹ a&G;xkwfvdkufwJhtiftm;pkrsm;twGuf *k%f,lp&mvdk‹ usr jrifygw,f? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh usrudk a&G;xkwfvdkufwJhtiftm;pkrsm;[m nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹ udk,fhtzJG‹tpnf;twGuf&,fvdk‹ rpOf;pm;bJeJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_atmifjrifa&;twGuf ydk+yD;awmh aumif;zdk‹twGuf vlwa,mufudk udk,fpm;vS,fa&G;vdkufr,fqdk+yD;awmh vkyfEkdifwJhtajctae a&mufvmwm[m tifrwefrS *k%f,lp&myJvdk‹ usr jrifygw,f? usr&,fvdk‹r[kwfygbl;/ b,fol‹udkyJjzpfjzpf 'Dvdktiftm;pk}uD;rsm;[m udk,fpm;vS,fwa,muftaeeJ‹ a&G;xkwfvdkufEkdifw,fqdkwm[m tifrwefrS aumif;wJhvuQ%myg? 'gudkvnf; vlwkdif;uae+yD;awmh todtrSwfðyw,fqdkwm[m AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif&JŒ rdef‹cGef;xJrSmudk ygoGm;ygw,f? usreJ‹ tckvdk aqG;aEG;&r,f/ wkdifyif&r,fqdkvkd‹&Sd&if &Spfq,feJ‹ wa,muf jzpfaewmayghvdk‹ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu ajymoGm;ygw,f? 'g[m nDnGwfr_&JŒtiftm;udk todtrSwfðyoGm;wmygyJ? 'Dnd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;r_qdkwm[m usrwdk‹tm;vHk; vdkvm;aeygw,f? ckewkef;u OD;wifarmif0if;ajymoGm;wJh 'DudpPxJrSm 1962 ckESpfwkef;uvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;[m ppftm%m&Sifrsm;eJ‹ nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;ydkifcGifhawmif;cJhw,f? nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;jcif;tm;jzifh ajyvnfr_udk &SmcJhw,f? 'gayrJh r&cJhygbl;? Aid to Civil Power vnf; roHk;bJeJ‹? Aid to Civil Power qkdwmvnf; usru 'Dvdkt*Fvdyfpum;ajymcsifvdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif ajymcJhwJh toHk;tE_ef;twdkif; usr oHk;vdkuf&wmjzpfygw,f? Aid to Civil Power t&vnf; rvkyfbJeJ‹ ausmif;om;rsm;udk ESdrfeif;vdkufwm OD;ae0if;&JŒvufxufrSm pcJhygw,f? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹ ("gwfyHkrsm;vmygonf) tay: - 0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif;OD;Ek/ AdkvfcsKyfa[mif; OD;wifOD;wdk‹ESifhtwl 13 pufwifbm 1988 atmuf – vkyfazmfudkifzuf ausmif;om;rsm;ESifhtwl 1989 ckESpfY awG‹&pOf (tquf jyefvmygonf) bmudk =unfh&rvJ? b,fvdkpOf;pm;&rvJ? tcktcsdefrSmvnf; usr xyfwvJvJajymaeovdkyJ OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹tm%mt& usrwdk‹ wkdif;jynfudk qufvuf+yD;awmh tkyfcsKyfaeygw,f? 'gudk usrwdk‹ a&Smifvdk‹rjzpfygbl;? usrwdk‹ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;tm;vHk;wdk‹[m 'gudk rsufESmcsif;qdkif&ygvdrfhr,f? 1962 ckESpfu ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk owfjzwfcJhw,f? 'Drdkua&pDtaqmuftODjzpfcJhwJh ausmif;om;or*~udkvnf; òzdcJGcJhw,f? tJ'Dvdk òzdcJGcJhwm/ owfjzwfcJhwm[m OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹t&yJ? OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹t&/ OD;ae0if;&JŒ oabmxm;t& nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;r_qdkwmvnf; rjzpfcJhbl;? OD;ae0if;&JŒ oabmxm;t&/ OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹t& Aid to Civil Power qdkwmudkvnf; oHk;cGifhr&bJeJ‹ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udkvnf; owfjzwfcJhw,f? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; (2) &ufavmufuae+yD;awmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif[m Aid to Civil Power t& vkyfwm[m “u|ef” oabmxm;a&mufw,f qkdovdkyJ ajymcJhygw,f? 'DvdkajymcJhwJhtjyif nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;zdk‹qdkwmvnf; rjzpfbl;qdkwJh oabmxm;udkvnf; ajymcJhygw,f? 'Dawmh 'g[m b,fol‹oabmxm;awGvJ? usrtaeeJ‹awmh OD;ae0if; oabmxm;awGvdk‹ jrifygw,f? usr 'Dvdkajym&wJhta=umif;[m orkdif;[m usrwdk‹EkdifiHrSm (62) ESpfuae p+yD;awmh tckxd jzpfcJh&wJh 'kuQaygif;rsm;pGm[m OD;ae0if;&JŒ tjypfrsm;omjzpfw,fvdk‹ qHk;jzwfcsufcsrvm;qdkwm tckuwnf;u usr ajymEdkifygw,f? 'gudk usr AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifa&m/ OD;ae0if;a&m odatmifvdk‹ 'Duae‹ ajymoGm;csifygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ OD;ae0if;udk b,favmufyJ umuG,fay;ay;/ umuG,fvdk‹ r&ygbl;? orkdif;u qHk;jzwfcsufcsrSmyg? tck oHk;aewJh enf;vrf;rsm;[m OD;ae0if;&JŒ enf;vrf;rsm;jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrtaeeJ‹ OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹tm%m[m qufvuf+yD;awmh &Sifoefaew,fvdk‹ ajym&wmyg? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹tm%m[m qufvuf&Sifoefjcif; r&Sdygbl;qdkwm jycsifvkd‹&Sd&if

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'Denf;'Dvrf;awGawmh quf+yD;awmh oHk;vdk‹rjzpfygbl;? nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;jcif;udk vufrcHwm[m OD;ae0if;&JŒ enf;awGyg? jynfolvlxkudk vufeufenf;eJ‹ ESdrfeif;wm[m OD;ae0if;&JŒ enf;awGyg? “ppfwyfqdkwm rdk;ay:axmif+yD;awmh rypfbl;? wnfhwnfhypfr,f” vdk‹ ajymoGm;wm[mvnf; OD;ae0if;yJ jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh usrwdk‹ 'DtcsdefrSm trsm;}uD;yJ owdxm;&r,f? OD;ae0if;&JŒ avoHudk AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifuwqifh v$ifhaejyef+yD? 'Dvdkv$ifhaewJhtcsdefrSm usrwdk‹ twdwfu jzpf&yfawGudk jyefpOf;pm;+yD;awmh 'Drkdua&pDtiftm;pkawG[m tifrwefrS owdxm;&r,f? pOf;pm;qifjcif&r,fhtcsdefrSm a&mufaew,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ odzdk‹vdkygw,f? aemufwcg tidkufrdvdk‹awmh rjzpfygbl;? usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m tEW&m,f&Sdw,fqdkwm em;vnf&r,f? 'DtEW&m,f[m b,fuvmw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹tm;vHk;vnf; od&r,f? todtrSwfðy&rSmjzpfygw,f? tcktcsdefrSmqdk&if usrwdk‹ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;awG[m wae‹xufwae‹ ydk+yD;awmh xkd;ESufcsufawG cHae&ygw,f? apmapmu obmywd}uD; OD;wifOD; ajymoGm;wJhtwkdif; usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyfxJu acgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;yHkqD;yHk[m w&m;Oya'eJ‹ rnDnGwfbl;? 'Dhtjyifvnf; OD;wifarmif0if; ajymoGm;wJhtwdkif;yJ/ t&ifwkef;u ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfwJh a'gufwmarmifarmifausmfwdk‹/ OD;vSa&$wdk‹udkvnf; zrf;qD;xm;ygw,f? zrf;qD;xm;yHkawGuvnf; wckrS w&m;Oya'eJ‹ rudkufnDygbl;? w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;qdkwm 'DEdkifiHrSm vHk;vHk;r&Sdygbl;? e0w tpdk;&taeeJ‹ wm0ef}uD; (4) &yfxJrSm w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&; ygayr,fhvnf; w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;twGuf vHk;vHk;rxrf;aqmifcJhbl;qdkwmawmh tifrwefrS xif&Sm;ygw,f? 'Dvdk w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&; r&SdwJh EkdifiHrSm jynfolvlxkudk umuG,fzdk‹wm0ef[m usrwdk‹ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkawGrSm &Sdygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;[m jynfolvlxkudk tumtuG,fay;&r,f/ tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;awGomru jynfolvlxk 'kuQqif;&Ja&mufrSm/ xdrSm/ emrSmtwGuf usrwdk‹ tifrwefrS pdk;&drfygw,f? 'D[mawGtwGuf tumtuG,fawG ay;&r,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹[m rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mudk zDqef&r,fvdk‹ ajymaewmyJ? qlylr_vdkcsifvdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? qlylr_qdkwm[m usrwdk‹twGuf vdkvm;oifhwJhudpPvnf; r[kwfbl;? jynfolvlxktwGuf tusKd;jzpfr,fhudpPvnf; r[kwfbl;? 'gayrJh 'DtcsdefrSm rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mudk/ w&m;Oya'udk csKd;azmufaewJh trdef‹tm%mawGudk usrwdk‹ rwGef;vSef rzDqef&ifawmh jynfolvlxk aemufxyf 'kuQa&mufvdrfhr,fqdkwJh todtjrifawGeJ‹ usrwdk‹ 'Dtm%mawGudk zDqefae&wmjzpfygw,f? 'gha=umifh 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;[m nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹ quf+yD;awmh zDqefoGm;zdk‹ tifrwefrS ta&;}uD;ygw,f? urBmhorkdif;rSm tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;&JŒ &Jabmf}uD;wa,mufjzpfwJh rmwifvlomuif; u wcgwkef;u ajymoGm;ygw,f? olwdk‹rSm tdyfrufwck&Sdw,fwJh? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹tm;vHk;rSmvnf; tdyfrufwck&Sd&r,f? b,fvdktdyfrufvJ? 'Drdkua&pD tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;awG jrefrmEkdifiHrSm xGef;um;a&;twGufyJ? 'gayrJh tdyfrufrufaevdk‹ r+yD;bl;? 'Dtdyfrufudk usrwdk‹ taumiftxnfazmfEkdif&r,f? 'Dtdyfrufudk taumiftxnfazmfEkdifzdk‹[m usrwdk‹tm;vHk;&JŒ wm0efjzpfygw,f? tm;vHk;&JŒ wm0efrdk‹vdk‹ tm;vHk;uae+yD;awmh nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹ xrf;aqmif&r,f? 'DudpPtwGuf usr yxrOD;qHk; 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_xJ yg0ifvmuwnf;u aqmf=ocJhygw,f? nDnGwf=uyg/ nDnGwf=uyg? tJh'Dtcsdefwkef;u ta&;tcif;umvtwGif;wkef;u qdkvdk‹&Sd&if ygwDzJG‹pnf;a&;twGuf usrudk ajymwJh/ ar;jref;cJhwJhvlawG &Sdygw,f? usr ajymcJhygw,f? nDnGwfr_òyduJGrSmpdk;vdk‹ ygwDawGawmh raxmifhoifhbl;xifw,fvdk‹ ajymcJhygw,f? tJh'Dwkef;u 'g[m usrwdk‹ jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;ordkif;udk jyef+yD;awmh =unfhvdkufvdk‹&Sd&if xif&Sm;ygw,f? ygwDrsm;axmifvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹[m pdwf0rf;uJGwwfw,f? 'g usrwdk‹wkdif;jynf&JŒ tm;enf;csufyJ? nDnGwfr_bufrSm odyf+yD;awmh tm;roefbl;? nDnGwfr_rSm tm;roefvdk‹/ nDnGwfr_òyduJGrSm pdk;&drfvGef;vdk‹ usr[m ygwDtzJG‹tpnf;rsm; raxmifcsifbl;? 'gayrJhvnf; (18) &ufae‹ pufwifbmaemufydkif;usawmh EkdifiHa&;t& v_yf&Sm;ydkifcGifh twkdif;twmwcktxd &Sdatmifvdk‹qdk+yD;awmh ygwDtzJG‹tpnf;rsm; w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwif+yD;awmh 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm; v_yf&Sm;vmcJh&ygw,f? 'Dvdk ygwDrsm;axmif+yD;awmh v_yf&Sm;cJh&ayr,fhvnf; trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;wck

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jzpfw,fqdkwmvnf; tm;vHk;od+yD;om;yJ? trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwfeJ‹omvkyfzdk‹ ta&;}uD;ygw,f? usrwdk‹&JŒ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m wufwufºuGºuG/ owWd&Sd&SdeJ‹ 1988 u EkdifiH&JŒ tpOftvmtwdkif; v_yf&Sm;r_xJrSm yg0ifcJhw,f? 'Dvdkyg0ifcJhwJh ausmif;om;rsm;a&SŒa&;twGuf usrwdk‹[m ±kef;uef&r,f? 'Dvdkyg0ifcJhwJh ausmif;om;rsm;[m aemifjyef+yD;awmh ynmudk at;at;aq;aq;eJ‹ qufvufoif+yD;awmh ynmjynfhpHkwJhtcgusawmh wkdif;jynftusKd;udk xrf;aqmifvmEkdifr,fh tajctaea&mufoGm;atmifvdk‹ usrwdk‹tm;vHk; ulnDay;&r,f? vli,frsm; a&SŒwufEkdifzdk‹twGuf vlvwfrsm;/ vl}uD;rsm;uae+yD;awmh a&SŒu vrf;cif;ay;&rSmjzpfygw,f? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'Drdkua&pDvrf;udk usrwdk‹tm;vHk; 0dkif;+yD;cif;aeygw,f? 'Dvdk tm;vHk;0dkif;+yD;awmh cif;aewJhae&mrSm wa,muftay:wa,muf apwem&Sd&Sd/ wa,muftay:wa,muf em;vnfr_&Sd&SdeJ‹ ulnDoGm;r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if vrf;}uD;[m jrefjrefqefqef +yD;oGm;rSmyg? 'Dvrf;}uD;cif;w,fqdkwm EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm; at;at;csrf;csrf;/ omom,m,m/ ºuGºuG&G&GeJ‹ av#mufoGm;zdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? jynfolvlxk at;at;csrf;csrf;/ omom,m,m/ *k%foduQm&Sd&SdeJ‹ av#mufoGm;zdk‹jzpfygw,f? usrwdk‹[m vrf;cif;orm;rsm;qdkwJh pdwf"mwfxm;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? jrefrmjynfw0Srf;vHk;rSm av#muf+yD;awmh =unfhvdkufvdk‹qdkvdk‹&Sd&if vrf;tvkyform;rsm;[m tyifyef;qHk;yJqdkwm tm;vHk; jrifygvdrfhr,f? tkwfawGudkvnf; cJG&w,f/ aeylusJusJ}uD;xJrSm 'DtkwfawGudk cif;&w,f? uwW&mqDylyleJ‹ tvkyfvkyf&w,f? tckacwfawmh uwW&mqDu enf;enf;eJ‹ oGm;vdk‹ tvkyfawmh enf;enf;oufomwmayghav? 'gayrJh 'DtvkyfawG[m r+yD;jywfao;ygbl;? tJhawmh usrwdk‹[mvnf; 'Dtwkdif;ygyJ? tifrwefrS yifyef;EGrf;e,fwJh tvkyfawGudk vkyf&r,f? aeylusJusJ}uD;xJrSm aeylcH&r,f? 'D rawmfrw&m;whJ w&m;Oya'tkwfawGudk qef‹usifwJhtaeeJ‹ usrwdk‹uae cJGypf&r,f? 'DtkwfawGudk cJGypf+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkeif;EkdifwJh tajctaejzpfatmifvdk‹ usrwdk‹ vrf;udk acsmarmatmifvkyfoGm;&r,f? 'DvdkacsmarmatmifvkyfoGm;rS usrwdk‹&JŒ tdyfrufudk taumiftxnfazmfEkdifygr,f? tdyfrufomrufwJh vlqdkwm tifrwefrS tm;enf;wJhvlyg? 'gayrJh udk,fhtdyfrufudk taumiftxnfazmfEkdifwJh vlqdkwm[m wu,fhtm*ol&Jaumif;}uD;yJ? tdyfrufwckudk ruf+yD;awmh taumiftxnfazmfzdk‹qdkwm[m usrwdk‹&JŒ tck wm0ef}uD;w&yf jzpfvmygw,f? usrwdk‹rSm wm0ef}uD; 1/ 2/ 3/ 4 awG &Sdzdk‹rvdkygbl;? wm0ef}uD;w&yf &Sdzdk‹om vdktyfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDatmifjrifa&;twGufyJ? usrwdk‹[m usrwkd‹&JŒ vlr_a&;t&yJvm;? bma=umifhvJawmh rodbl;? usrwdk‹&JŒEkdifiHrSm nDnGwfr_qdkwm odyf+yD;awmh r&SdcJhbl;? wa,mufeJ‹wa,muf remvdkw,f/ 0efwdkw,fqdkwm tifrwefrS rsm;cJhw,f? 'gvnf; usr c%c% rdwfaqGrsm;eJ‹vnf; aqG;aEG;ygw,f? usrwdk‹&JŒ vli,frsm;eJ‹vnf; aqG;aEG;w,f? vl}uD;awGeJ‹vnf; aqG;aEG;w,f? bmjzpfvdk‹ usrwdk‹EkdifiHrSm 'DavmufawmifrS remvdk0efwdkpdwfawG rsm;ovJ? usr EkdifiHawG trsm;}uD; a&mufzl;ygw,f? EkdifiHjcm;om;awG awmfawmfrsm;rsm;eJ‹ usr aqG;aEG;zl;w,f? 'DudpPawG ajymzl;w,f? wjcm;EkdifiHawGrSmvnf; remvdk0efwdkpdwfawG r&Sdbl; r[kwfygbl;? vlawG&SdwJh todkif;t0dkif;rSm qdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'D0efwkdpdwfawG &SdrSmyJ? 'gayrJh usrwdk‹EkdifiHrSmawmh xl;xl;jcm;jcm; 'Dremvdk0efwdkpdwfawG[m usrwdkŒ&JŒ EkdifiHa&;atmifjrifr_awG r&atmifvdk‹ 0if0if+yD;awmh ±_wfaew,fqdkwm jrif&ygw,f? 'g bmjzpfvdk‹vJ? usr 'Djy\em&JŒ Zpfjrpfudk &Sm&r,f? 'Djy\em&JŒ Zpfjrpfudk&SmrS 'Djy\emudk usrwdk‹ ajyvnfatmif ajz&Sif;EkdifrSmjzpfygw,f? tckvdk 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkawGu tm;vHk;pka0;aewm[m yxrOD;qHk; 'Djy\emudk ajz&Sif;zdk‹ vrf;pOfay:udk a&mufvm+yDvdk‹ usr jrifygw,f? 'Djy\emudk usrwdk‹ ajz&Sif;&r,f? ygwDwcku tm%m&Sif}uD;vdk‹ emrnf}uD;aevdk‹ igwdk‹ rvdkvm;bl;qdkwJh pdwfawG&Sdaevdk‹ rjzpfygbl;? 'DrSm usr awmif;yefcsifygw,f? 'DrSm usr tm%mqdkwJh pum;vHk;av; oHk;rdw,f? 'D tm%mqdkwJh pum;vHk;udk tcktcsdefrSm usrwdk‹ roHk;wm taumif;qHk;yJvdk‹ xifygw,f? 'Dvdk e0w tpdk;&taeeJ‹ tm%mqufoHk;r,f/ tm%mqufoHk;r,fqdk+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkudk +cdrf;ajcmufaewm[m tifrwefrS &Sufp&maumif;ygw,f? usr =um;wkdif;/ =um;wkdif; e0wtwGufvnf; &Sufw,f? usrwdk‹EkdifiHtwGufvnf; &Sufw,f?

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'DvdktkyfcsKyfaewJh vlwpk[m vufeufudkvnf; udkifxm;w,f/ tm%mudkvnf; udkifxm;w,f? ajymifajymifwif;wif; vufeufrJhwJh jynfolvlxkudk tm%mqufoHk;r,fvdk‹ ajymaewm[m tifrwefrS roifhawmfwJhudpPyg? 'gudk usrwdk‹ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkawGu 0dkif;+yD;awmh uef‹uGuf&r,f? 0dkif;+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkudk tumtuG,fay;&r,f? bmjzpfvkd‹ 'D EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awG zJG‹xm;ao;vJ? jynfolvlxkeJ‹ tm%mydkifrsm;=um;xJrSm tcktcHwck&Sdzdk‹ zJG‹xm;wmaygh? tpwkef;u bmjzpfvkd‹ 'DEkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awG rSwfyHkwifcGifhay;ovJ? EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGudk rSwfyHkwifcGifhay;w,fqdkuwnf;u EdkifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;[m jynfolvlxk&JŒ EkdifiHa&;vdkvm;csufawGukd ajymqdkydkifcGifh&SdwJh tzJG‹tpnf;awGqdkwm todtrSwfðyxm;wmeJ‹ twlwlyJ? 'Dawmh jynfolvlxk (39) oef;eJ‹aqG;aEG;zdk‹/ nd‡E_dif;zdk‹/ wkdifyifzdk‹qdkwm rvG,fwma=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ 'DEkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGeJ‹awmh aqG;aEG;oifhw,f/ nd‡E_dif;oifhw,f/ wkdifyifoifhw,fqdkwm tm;vHk;uvnf; odrSmjzpfygw,f? 'gwifruao;bl;? 'D (200) ausmfuae+yD;awmh wajz;ajz;aqG;aEG;zdk‹/ wkdifyifzdk‹/ nd‡E_dif;zdk‹ vG,fatmifqdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹uae+yD;awmh udk,fpm;vS,fawG wae‹eJ‹wae‹ ydk+yD; enf;vmatmifvdk‹ qdk+yD;awmh óud;pm;aeygw,f? 'gayrJh 'Dbufu b,fvdkyJ óud;pm;óud;pm; e0wbufuvnf; óud;pm;csifrS atmifjrifEkdifrSmyg? nd‡E_dif;zdk‹/ aqG;aEG;zdk‹qdkwm ESpfOD;ESpfzufpvHk;u vkyfrSjzpfwmyg? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ ordkif;&JŒ tjypfwifcHjcif;udk rvdkvm;bl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh OD;ae0if;&JŒ enf;emawGudk quf+yD;awmh oHk;oGm;vdk‹ rjzpfygbl;? OD;ae0if;uJhodk‹ jynfolvlxkeJ‹ nd‡E_dif;jcif;/ wkdifyifjcif;/ aqG;aEG;jcif; rvdkvm;wJh taetxm;awGudk usrwdk‹ ajymif;vJ&r,f? vlxkeJ‹ raqG;aEG;csifbl;/ rwkdifyifcsifbl;/ rnd‡E_dif;csifbl;qdkwm vlxkudk todtrSwfrðywmbJ? jynfolvlxkudk ae&mrxm;wmbJ? 'Dawmh tcktcsdefrSm EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;eJ‹awmifrS rnd‡E_dif;bl;/ rwdkifyifEkdifbl;qdk&if jynfolvlxkeJ‹ b,fvkdvkyfnd‡E_dif;/ wkdifyifEkdifrvJ? jynfolvlxkeJ‹ b,fvdkvkyfem;vnfr_ ,lEkdifrvJ? (200) ausmfeJ‹ em;vnfr_ r,lEdkifbl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if (38) oef;ausmfeJ‹ em;vnfr_,lEkdifzdk‹ tifrwefrS cJ,Of;ygvdrfhr,f? t"duawmh 'D (38) oef;ausmfeJ‹ em;vnfr_,lEkdifzdk‹twGufyJ? 'gudk OD;wnfyg? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif[m tckcsdefrSmawmh wdkif;jynf&JŒ tpdk;&t}uD;tuJwa,muf jzpfaeygw,f? wkdif;jynf&JŒ tpdk;&&JŒ t}uD;tuJwa,mufqdkwm[m t}uD;tuJwa,mufyDyDawmh qufqH&r,f? t}uD;tuJwa,mufyDyDawmh vkyfaqmifoGm;oifhw,fvdk‹ usr xifygw,f? 'ga=umifh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifudk usr ajymvnf; ajym/ pmvnf; a&;xm;ygw,f? 'Duae‹ usr ajymcsifygw,f? usrwdk‹[m nd‡E_dif;csifw,f/ aqG;aEG;csifw,f/ wkdifyifcsifw,fqkdwm pum;&nfvkyJGvkyfcsifvdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? t±_H;tEkdif qHk;jzwfcsifvdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? jynfolvlxktwGuf taumif;qHk; tajz&Smcsifvdk‹ jzpfygw,f? 'g[m usrwdk‹ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;&JŒ &nf&G,fcsufjzpfygw,f? 'Dtwdkif;yJ usrwdk‹ quf+yD;awmh vkyfoGm;ygr,f? aemifusvdk‹&Sd&if or*~}uD;udkòzdvdkufovdk xyf+yD;awmh 'Drkdua&pDtaqmufttHkrsm; ròzdEdkifatmifvdk‹ usrwdk‹uae+yD;awmh tckuaep+yD; wEkdifiHvHk;udk tumtuG,fay;oGm;EkdifwJh tiftm;pk}uD;jzpfzdk‹ ta&;}uD;ygw,f? 'Dtiftm;pk}uD;[m wkdif;jynftwGuf taumif;qHk;tajzudk qufvuf+yD;awmh &SmoGm;ygr,f? wae‹eJ‹wae‹ tajzqdkwmvnf;/ taumif;qHk;tajzqdkwmvnf; ajymif;vJ&ifvnf; ajymif;vJaeygvdfrfhr,f? usrwdk‹[m wkdif;jynftajctaeawG ajymif;vJovdk vdkuf+yD;awmh ajymif;vJEdkifwJh t&nftcsif;awG &Sd&r,f? jynfolvlxk tajctaeajymif;vJovdk vdkuf+yD;awmh ajymif;vJEkdifwJh t&nftcsif;awG &Sd&r,f? wae&muae tumtuG,fay;vdk‹ rvHkavmuf&if aemufwae&muae a&$Œ+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkudk tumtuG,fay;&r,f? 'g[m usrwdk‹&JŒ t"du 'Drdkua&pDwm0efyg? 'D 'Drdkua&pDwm0efudk usrwdk‹tm;vHk; 0kdif;+yD;awmh nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹ xrf;aqmif=uyg? 'Dor*~}uD;udk wae‹usvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;[m aemifròyduJGEkdifatmifvdk‹ jyef+yD;awmh wnfaqmuf&rSmjzpfygw,f? 'DvdkwnfaqmufwJhtcgrSm or*~}uD;[m ausmif;om;or*~wifr[kwfbl;? 'Drkdua&pDor*~}uD;/ 'Drkdua&pDtaqmufttHk}uD;jzpf&r,f? 'DEkdifiHrSm aemifacwftqufquf wnfwHhckdif+rJoGm;r,fh 'Drkdua&pDtaqmufttHk}uD;udk usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m yifyef;w}uD;eJ‹ aqmufoGm;zdk‹

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usrwdk‹ Zlvkdifv (7) &ufae‹[m or*~òyduJGwJhae‹vnf; jzpfygw,f? ausmif;om;vli,frsm; usqHk;wJhae‹vnf; jzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh 'Dae‹[m ynma&;eJ‹vnf; oufqdkifw,f? EkdifiHa&;eJ‹vnf; oufqkdifygw,f? tJ'Dawmh 'Dae‹eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ EkdifiHa&;udpPrsm;/ ynma&;udpPrsm; ajymwJhtcg twdwf/ ypPKy`efeJ‹ tem*wf[m qufpyfaew,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ owdxm;zdk‹vdkygw,f? 'Dawmh twdwfu jzpfcJhwJh EkdifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk avhvmwJhtcgrSm tckypPKy`efrSm b,fvdkjzpfaew,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ =unfh&r,f? ausmif;om;or*~udk bmjzpfvdk‹òzdcJGoGm;ovJ? b,folu òzdcJGoGm;ovJ? b,fvdkta=umif;a=umif;awGa=umifh òzdcJGoGm;ovJqdkwm usrwdk‹ jyef+yD;awmh =unfh&rSmyJ? b,fvdkenf;awGeJ‹ òzdcJGoGm;ovJqdkwm usrwdk‹ jyef+yD;awmh =unfh&ygvdrfhr,f? 1962 ausmif;om;rsm;udk ypfowfjcif;/ ausmif;om;or*~udk òzdcJGjcif;rjzpfcifrSm ausmif;om;rsm;[m tJh'Dwkef;u ppftm%mydkifrsm;eJ‹ aqG;aEG;yg? nd‡E_dif;ygqdk+yD;awmh awmif;qdkcJhw,f? 'gudkvnf; jiif;cJhw,f? 'Dppftm%mydkifrsm;[m ausmif;om;rsm;eJ‹ ausmif;om;or*~ta&;udk ajz&Sif;wJhae&mrSm Aid to Civil Power vkyfoifhvkyfxkdufwJh pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk rvdkufembJ &uf&ufpufpuf owfjzwfcJhw,f? tJ'Dawmh ajz&Sif;wJhenf;/ nd‡E_dif;wkdifyifwJhenf;udk jiif;qefcJhwJh Aid to civil Power qkdwJh wyfrawmfwcktaeeJ‹ xdef;oifhxdef;xdkufwJh pnf;rsOf;awGudk rxdef;cJhwmuawmh OD;ae0if;yJ? tJh'D[mudk tm;vHk;&ifqkdif&r,f? usr 'Dvdkajymae&jcif;ta=umif;[m OD;ae0if;udk oufouf yk*~Kdvft& wkdufcdkufcsifvdk‹r[kwfbl;? tck ypPKy`efjzpfaewJh udpPawGeJ‹ qufEG,faevdk‹yg? wae‹wkef;u AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif[m rdef‹cGef;ajymoGm;ygw,f? tJ'Drdef‹cGef;xJrSm Aid to Civil Power qdkwm ol t,Hkt=unfr&Sdbl;qdkwmudkvnf; ajymoGm;ygw,f? 'Dhtjyif nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;wkdifyifjcif;udk rvkdvm;bl;qdkwJh oabmxm;udkvnf; azmfjyoGm;ygw,f? tJ'Dawmh tJ'Doabmxm;awG[m OD;ae0if; oabmxm;awGeJ‹ wxyfxJygyJ? OD;ae0if;&JŒ oabmxm;awGeJ‹ wxyfxJrdk‹vdk‹ tckxdwdkifatmif OD;ae0if;&JŒ =oZmtm%m[m jrefrmEkdifiHay:rSm v$rf;rdk;aew,fqdkwm tifrwefrS xif&Sm;ygw,f? usrwdk‹ EdkifiHa&;jy\emawGudk rSefrSefuefuef r&ifqdkifEkdifvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh b,fenf;eJ‹rS ajz&Sif;EkdifrSmr[kwfygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usr 'DudpPawGudk azmfjywmyg? tcktcsdefrSm AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif[m b,fvdkyJ OD;ae0if;[m t+idrf;pm;oGm;+yDvdk‹ajymajym/ OD;ae0if;vkyfwJhtwdkif; quf+yD; vkyfr,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if OD;ae0if;&JŒ tm%matmufrSm&Sdw,fvdk‹yJ usrwdk‹ owfrSwf&rSmyJ? jynfolvlxkeJ‹ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk vufeufenf;eJ‹ quf+yD;awmh acsr_ef;OD;r,f/ xdcdkufOD;r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmhvnf; OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹t& vkyfw,fvdk‹yJ usrwdk‹ owfrSwf&rSmyJ? 'Dawmh e0w tpdk;&taeeJ‹ wu,fyJ OD;ae0if;&JŒ =oZmtm%matmufuae+yD;awmh vGwfuif;w,fqdkwm jycsifvdk‹&Sd&if OD;ae0if;enf;awGudk quf+yD;awmh roHk;ygeJ‹awmh? or*~udk òzdcJGwJh OD;ae0if;/ ausmif;om;rsm;udk owfjzwfcJhwJh OD;ae0if;&JŒ enf;awGudk vHk;vHk;quf+yD;awmh roHk;ygeJ‹awmh qdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹ 'Duae‹ quf+yD;awmh awmif;qdk&rSmyJ? 'g EdkifiHa&;t&jzpfygw,f? EkdifiHa&;t& EkdifiHa&;jy\ersm;udk EkdifiHa&;enf;eJ‹ ajz&Sif;w,fqdkwm nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;wkdifyifwJhenf;yg? t&ifwkef;u EkdifiHjcm;udkvdkeDtpdk;&rsm;awmifrS 'Denf;udk oHk;cJhygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹tcsif;csif; 'Denf;udk ydk+yD;awmh oHk;oifhygw,f? tcsif;csif; nd‡E_dif;&r,f/ aqG;aEG;&r,f/ wkdifyif&r,f? trsm;aumif;usKd;twGuf aqG;aEG;&rSm/ nd‡E_dif;&rSm/ wkdifyif&rSmjzpfygw,f? nd‡E_dif;/ aqG;aEG;/ wkdifyifw,fqdkwm pum;&nfvkyJGr[kwfygbl;? t±_H;tEkdif&SmwJhyJGr[kwfygbl;? jynfolvlxktwGuf taumif;qHk; tajz&SmwJhyJG jzpfygw,f? 'gudk usrwdk‹tm;vHk; OD;wnf&r,f? ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m vGwfvyfa&;r&cifuwnf;u EdkifiHa&;rSm yg0ifcJhw,f/ ygvnf; yg0ifoifhygw,f? usrwdk‹tm;vHk;rSm wm0ef&Sdygw,f? ausmif;om;rsm;[m EkdifiHa&;wm0efrsm;vnf; &Sdw,f? ynma&;wm0efvnf; &Sdw,f? ynma&;wm0efqdkawmh ausmif;om;rsm;[m ynm&Smzdk‹yJ? 'gayrJh wefzdk;&SdwJhynmqdkwm bmvJ? usrtjrifawmh wefzdk;&SdwJhynmqdkwm trsm;aumif;usKd;twGuf oHk;EdkifwJh ynmomjzpf&r,f? trsm;aumif;usKd;twGuf roHk;EkdifwJh ynm[m wefzdk;r&SdEkdifbl;? 'ga=umifh usrwdk‹

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ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m trsm;aumif;usKd;twGuf oHk;EkdifwJh ynmrsKd;udk &Sm&r,f? 'Dvdk&SmwJhae&mrSm ynmrmefwufzdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? ausmif;om;or*~ òzdcJGa&;udpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ reufwkef;u tcrf;tem;rSm yg0ifcJhwhJ t&ifwkef;u ausmif;om;a[mif; OD;wifarmif0if;[m ajymoGm;ygw,f? tJh'Dtcsdeftcgwkef;u tjyifrSm wyfawGu&Sdw,f/ wyfrawmfom;rsm;[m &Sdw,f/ twGif;rSm ausmif;om;rsm;[m &Sdw,f/ tJovdk wyfrawmfom;rsm;u ausmif;om;rsm;udk aoewfawGeJ‹ csdefxm;wJhtcgusawmh ausmif;om;rsm;[m a'gojzpf+yD;awmh atmfvdkuf=uw,fwJh? rif;wdk‹ oHk;a,mufaygif;vdk‹rS (7) wef;atmif&JŒvm;vdk‹ ajymvdkuf=uw,fwJh? (=obmoHrsm;) usreJ‹ em;vnfr_vJG+yDvdk‹ xifygw,f? usr rajymoifhbl;vdk‹ ajymrvdk‹/ 'Dvdk[m rajymoifhygbl;? 'Dvdk (ajymwm[m) ynmrmefygw,fvdk‹ usr xifygw,f? &Jabmfrsm;/ wyfrawmfom;[mvnf; usrwdk‹&JŒ EkdifiHol/ EkdifiHom;tcsif;csif;yJ? 'DvdkwyfrawmfxJudk 0ifoGm;&wJh wyfrawmfom;rsm;[m b,fvkdtajctaeu vmvJqdkwm usrwdk‹ jyef+yD;awmh pOf;pm;&r,f? awmfawmfrsm;rsm;[m qif;&JEGrf;yg;wJh rdom;pkxJu vmwmyg? usrwdk‹wkdif;jynf qif;&Jaevdk‹ tJh'Dvdk qif;&JEGrf;yg;wJh rdom;pkawG &SdaewmyJ? tJh'Dvdk rdom;pkxJu vlawG[m wyfrawmfxJudk 0if=uw,f? wyfrawmfxJrSm wm0efxrf;aqmif=uw,f? tJ'Dawmh ynmqdkwmeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ wcgxJ ajymoGm;r,f? 'Dwyfrawmfom;rsm;[m [kwfw,f/ oHk;a,mufaygif;vdk‹ (7) wef;atmifcsifrSvnf; atmifr,f? 'gayrJh 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹[m ESdrfzdk‹rvdkygbl;? ta&;tcif;wkef;u jynfolvlxkatmfoGm;wJh aºuG;a=umfoHwck&Sdw,f? AdkvfcsKyfay;wJh ppfynm/ ausmif;om;jynfol owfzdk‹ r[kwfbl;wJh? tJ'Dawmh wyfrawmfom;rsm;udk ppfynmay;xm;w,f? ppfynmqdkwm bmvJ? jynfolvlxkudk umuG,fzdk‹/ jynfolvlxktusKd; xrf;aqmifwJhynmyJ? tJh'Dvdk jynfolvlxktusKd; xrf;aqmifwJh ynmr&Sdvdk‹om wyfrawmfom;rsm;udk ynmr&Sdbl;vdk‹ usrwdk‹ ajym&rSmyJ? (7) wef;ratmifvdk‹ r[kwfbl;/ q,fwef;ratmifvdk‹ r[kwfbl;? wuUodkvfra&mufvdk‹ r[kwfbl;? rSefrSefuefuef jynfolvlxktusKd; xrf;aqmifzdk‹ ay;xm;wJhynmukd tvJGoHk;pm; vkyfvdk‹omjzpfw,f? 'Dawmh ynmqdkwm[m wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;om ydkifqkdifwmr[kwfygbl;? wyfrawmfom;rsm;vnf; ydkifqdkifEkdifw,f? rSefuefwJh ppfynmudk ydkifqdkifEdkifw,f? 'gayrJh usrwdk‹ (26) ESpftwGif;rSm ausmif;om;awGudkvnf; rSefuefwJh awG;ac:wwfwJhynmukd ray;xm;bl;? wyfrawmfom;awGudkvnf; rSefuefwJhppfynmudk ray;xm;bl;? tJh'Dvdk ray;wmvnf; OD;ae0if;yJ? w&m;cHudkawmh usrwdk‹tm;vHk; od&r,f? rsufESmcsif;qkdif&r,f? 'DvdkvlrsKd; aemif 'Dwkdif;jynfrSm ray:vmatmif usrwdk‹ vkyf&r,f? OD;ae0if; bmjzpfvdk‹ 'Dwkdif;jynfudk b,favmuf=um=um tkyfpdk;oGm;vJ? usrwdk‹tm;vHk;a=umifhyJ? jynfolvlxku bmjzpfvdk‹ vlwa,muf&JŒ =oZmtm%m/ rSefrSefrvkyfEkdifwJh vlwa,muf&JŒ =oZmtm%m/ wefzdk;&SdwJh ynmudk em;rvnfwJh vlwa,muf&JŒ =oZmtm%mudk 'Dwkdif;jynfay:rSm 'Davmuf=um=um v$rf;rdk;cGifhay;oGm;ovJ? 'g usrwdk‹tm;vHk;rSm wm0ef&Sdygw,f? tck 'DrSm&SdwJh ausmif;om;vli,frsm;uawmh wm0eftuif;vGwfqHk;yJ? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh tckawmifrS (26) ESpft&G,fr&SdwJh vli,fawG trsm;}uD;ygyJ? i,fi,fav;awGrdk‹vdk‹ rvkkyfEkdifbl;vdk‹ ajymEdkifygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; tm;vHk;uawmh wm0ef&SdwmyJ? b,fvdkrS usrwdk‹[m 'Dwm0efatmufu ±kef;uef+yD;awmh xGufvdk‹rjzpfygbl;? EdkifiHwEkdifiH&JŒ uH=urRmudk zefwD;wm[m EkdifiHol/ EkdifiHom;taygif;jzpfw,f? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m wm0ef&SdcJh+yD? t&ifwkef;u tjzpftysufawGtwGuf wm0ef&SdcJh+yD? rSm;wJhEkdifiHa&;vrf;pOfawG/ rSm;wJhynma&;vrf;pOfawGeJ‹ usrwdk‹wdkif;jynf[m E$JcJh&+yD? aemifusvdk‹&Sd&if rSefuefwJh EkdifiHa&;vrf;pOfeJ‹ rSefuefwJh ynma&;vrf;pOfawGom 'Dwkdif;jynfrSm &Sdzdk‹vdkygw,f? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹&JŒ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m tcktcsdefrSm ausmif;awGydwfaew,f? ynma&;eJ‹ uif;uGmaew,fqdkwm ausmif;ynma&;eJ‹ uif;uGmaew,f? avmuxJrSm ynm&Smae&w,f? avmu}uD;xJrSm ynm&SmaewJhtcg EkdifiHa&;todkif;t0dkif;xJrSm ynm&SmwJhtcgrSmvnf; wefzdk;&SdwJhynm&Smzdk‹ vdkygw,f? trsm;tusKd;twGufqdkwJh ynm &Sm=uygw,f? trsm;tusKd;twGufqdkwJh ynm[m ausmif;wcgrS raezl;wJh vlawmifrS &SmEdkifygw,f? 'DvdkynmawG usrwdk‹EkdifiHol/ EkdifiHom;awGrSm

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tm;vHk;&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if 'Dwkdif;jynfu EdkifiHa&;pepfuvnf; rSefuefr,f? vlr_a&;pepfuvnf; rSefuefr,f? vlr_a&;pepf/ EkdifiHa&;pepf/ ynma&;pepf/ pD;yGm;a&;pepfqdkwm tm;vHk; qufEG,faeygw,f? 'gvnf; tm;vHk;od+yD;om;yJ? 'Dawmh rSefuefwJhynm &Sma&;qdkwm rSefuefwJh EkdifiHa&;vkyfa&;vnf; jzpfygw,f? wcgxJeJ‹ ausmif;om;rsm;[m EdkifiHa&;a&m/ ynma&;a&m atmifatmifjrifjrif vkyfoGm;Ekdifygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm ausmif;rsm;ydwfaewmawmifrS atmifatmifjrifjrif vkyfoGm;Edkifygw,f? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if ckESpf Zlvdkifv (7 Zlvdkif) owd&wJhtcgrSm tifrwefrS 0rf;enf;w,f? wdk‹&JŒwdkif;jynfrSm tifrwefrS ±dkif;±dkif;pdkif;pdkif; ðyrloGm;=uw,f? ,Ofaus;wJh wkdif;jynfwckrSm rjzpfoifh/ rjzpfxdkufwJh jzpf&yfawG[m jzpfoGm;=uw,f? ,Ofaus;wJhwkdif;jynfwck jyef+yD;awmhjzpfatmif usrwdk‹ óud;pm;&r,f? 'Dvdk,Ofaus;wJh wkdif;jynfwckjzpfzdk‹qdkwmuvnf; ausmif;om;vli,frsm;&JŒ vufxJrSm &Sdygw,f? apmapmu 0d"l&OD;cspfarmif ajymoGm;wJhtwkdif;yJ tem*wfqdkwmuvnf; vli,fawG&JŒ vufxJrSm trsm;qHk;yJ&Sdygw,f? 'Dtem*wfudk csDwufoGm;wJhtcsdefrSm rSefrSefuefuef csDwufoGm;=uyg? usrwdk‹wdkif;jynf&JŒ a&SŒa&;udk t+rJyJ=unfhyg? 'ga=umifh usrwdk‹ wrifoufouf wyfrawmfom;rsm;&JŒ ynma&;udk xnfh+yD;awmh ajymwmyg? wyfrawmfeJ‹jynfol tpOft+rJuGJGaevdk‹awmh rjzpfygbl;? 'Dwyfrawmfom;rsm;[m tifrwefrS qif;&JwJh todkif;t0dkif;rsm;u vmw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ owdxm;&r,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vkd‹ usrwdk‹rSm =uifempdwfawG &Sd&r,f? 'Dwyfrawmfom;rsm;[m usrwdk‹ wuUodkvfausmif;om;awGvkd ynmoif&wJh tcGifhta&;awG r&SdcJhbl;? wyfrawmfxJrSm OD;ae0if;wdk‹vkd yk*~KdvfrsKd;ay;vdkufwJh ppfynmawG/ rrSefruefwJh ppfynmawGom &SdcJhw,f? 'Dawmh 'DvdkrrSefruefwJh ppfynmawGtpm; rSefuefwJhtrsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwfawG usrwdk‹ jyef+yD;awmh oGif;ay;&r,f? 'g tm;vHk;rSm wm0ef&Sdygw,f? EdkifiHwEdkifiH[m tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifEkdifiHjzpfzdk‹/ wnfwHhckdif+rJ/ *k%foduQm&SdwJhwyfrawmf &Sdzdk‹ vdkygw,f? tcktcsdefrSmawmh txl;ojzifh pdwf0rf;uJGaewmuawmh ausmif;om;awGeJ‹ wyfrawmf=um;xJrSmyJ? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh wyfrawmfvufxJrSm tcH&qHk;u ausmif;om;awGyJ? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ ausmif;om;awG&JŒ pdwfxJrSm tifrwefrS emusnf;ae=uw,f? c%c%yJ usrudk ajymygw,f? ppfqdkvdk‹ a&awmifppfraomufzl;vdk‹ usrudk ajymygw,f? a& ppfraomufvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh ydk;0if±HkyJ&Sdw,f? tJ'Dawmh usrwdk‹ 'DvdkpdwfawG xm;vdk‹rjzpfbl;? ausmif;om;rsm;[m ynmoifwJhvlawGyJ? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ ydk+yD;awmh oabmxm;}uD;&r,f? ydk}uD;awmh tjrifus,f&r,f? oabmxm;}uD;}uD; tjrifus,fus,feJ‹ cGifhv$wfEkdifwJh pdwf"mwfawG &Sd&r,f? ynmr&SdwJhvleJ‹ ±kef;aevdk‹/ ebrf;owfaevdk‹vnf; roifhawmfygbl;? 'Dawmh udk,feJ‹ wef;wlnDwljzpfatmif ynmay;+yD;rS ebrf;owfwmrS ebrf;owf&usKd; eyfygw,f? 'ga=umifh óud;pm;=uyg? ppfynmrsm; jyef+yD;awmh oifay;Ekdif&r,f/ ppfynmqdkwm jynfol‹twGuf/ jynfol‹udk umuG,fzdk‹/ jynfoludkowfzdk‹ r[kwfbl;qdkwm usrwdk‹ jyef+yD;awmh oifay;&r,f? tcktcsdefrSm usrwdk‹ owdxm;&ygvdrfhr,f? rae‹wae‹wkef;u AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifajymoGm;wJh rdef‹cGef;xJrSm jynfolvlxkukd +cdrf;ajcmufwJh t&dyfta,mifawG ygw,fvdk‹ usr jrifygw,f? 'Dvdk +cdfrf;ajcmufwJh t&dyfta,mifqdkwm usr vHk;vkHk;rESpfoufygbl;? 'Dvdk tm%mudk udkif+yD;awmh/ vufeufudk udkif+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkudk +cdrf;ajcmufw,fqdkwm tifrwefrS roifhawmfygbl;? enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ‹ r[kwfrrSefuefwmawG ajym+yD;awmh 'Drdkua&pDa&;udk xdk;ESufaew,f? 'gawGu qdk;vS+yD? ckusawmh tm%mpufoHk;r,fqdk+yD;awmh +cdrf;ajcmufvmwJhtcgusawmh tifrwefrS vGefaeyg+yD? usrwdk‹EkdifiHrSm tm%mpuf quf+yD;awmh oHk;oGm;r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh b,fvdkrS tzwfq,fEkdifrSm r[kwfbl;? jynfolvlxkuvnf; b,fawmhrS cGifhv$wfEkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? tm%mpufoHk;wJh tavhtx}uD;udkawmh usrwdk‹ 'Duae+yD;awmh &yfqkdif;&awmhr,f? e0w taeeJ‹ EkdifiHtay:rSm apwem&Sd&if/ e0w taeeJ‹ OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹tm%mudk vGefqef&JwJh owWd&Sd&if tm%mpufqdkwJh pum;vHk;ukd vHk;vHk; quf+yD;awmh roHk;ygeJ‹awmh? jynfolvlxkeJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDvdkvm;wJh tiftm;pkawGeJ‹ nd‡E_dif;/ aqG;aEG;/ wdkifyif&JwJh owWdudkom

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arG;jrLyg? tJh'grS wu,fhowWdyg? aoewf}uD;&Sdvdk‹ ypf&Jw,fqdkwm[m owWdr[kwfygbl;? bmrS vufxJrSm r&SdbJeJ‹ trSefw&m;t& tajz&SmcsifwJh owWdrsKd;om usrwdk‹ vkdcsifygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;/ 'Drkdua&pDvdkvm;wJh tiftm;pkrsm;uvnf; twdwfujzpf&yfrsm;udk pOf;pm;+yD;awmh rSefrSefuefuefvkyfzdk‹ oEMdÏmefcs=uyg? usr 'g xyfwvJvJajymaewJhudpPyg? rSefrSefuefuefvkyf&if usrwdk‹ wae‹r[kwfwae‹ atmifjrif&r,f? jynfolvlxk&JŒ rSefuefwJhtiftm;/ nDnGwfr_tiftm;udk b,folrS a&&SnfvGefqefEkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? e0w vnf; vGefqefEkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? wyfrawmfvnf; vGefqefEkdifrSm r[kwfbl;? e0wwdk‹/ wyfrawmfwdk‹qdkwmuvnf; jynfolvlxku au|;arG;xm;wJh tzJG‹tpnf;awGjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh jynfolvlxktay:rSm tifrwefrS aus;Zl;&Sdygw,f? aus;Zl;&Sifudk aus;Zl;rodwwfvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh 'kuQa&mufp+rJyJ? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹&JŒ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;taeeJ‹ pdwf"mwfrusygeJ‹? +cdrf;ajcmufwma=umifh ra=umufygeJ‹? 'gayrJh owWdqdkwmawmh &Sdyg? usrudk q&mawmf}uD;wyg;uae+yD;awmh rdef‹vdkufovdkayghav? t&ifwkef;u azazhudkvnf; rdef‹cJhygw,fqdk+yD; usrudk xyf+yD;awmh rdef‹vdkufygw,f? ajcmufwkdif;vnf; ra=umufygeJ‹/ ra=umufbJvnf; raeygeJ‹ayghav? ajcmufwkdif;vnf; ra=umufygeJ‹/ ra=umufbJvnf; raeygeJ‹qdkwm[m owdxm;&r,f? tumtuG,f,l&r,f? 'Dvdk+cdrf;ajcmufaew,fqkdwm em;vnf&r,f? b,fvdkoabmeJ‹ +cdrf;ajcmufaeovJqdkwm usrwdk‹ em;vnf&r,f? usrwdk‹&JŒ taumif;qHk;tumtuG,fuawmh nDnGwfr_tiftm;yJ/ pnf;urf;yJ? usrwdk‹ nDnDnGwfnGwf pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ vkyfoGm;r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹udk &ef&Smzdk‹ tifrwefrS cJ,Of;ygvdrfhr,f? tckvdk ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd wnDwnGwf tcrf;tem;}uD; usif;yoGm;Ekdifw,fqdkwm[m tifrwefrS tm;wufp&mjzpfygw,f? reufwkef;uvnf; ygwDaygif;rsm;pGm[m (7) &ufae‹ Zlvkdifv tcrf;tem;rsm;udkvnf; usif;yoGm;ygw,f? 'DvdknDnGwfr_tiftm;[m wae‹xufwae‹ wufvmw,fqdkwm jrifawG‹&ygw,f? 'DvdkwufvmwJh nDnGwfr_tiftm;eJ‹yJ usrwdk‹ atmifyef;udk qifEkdifygw,f? udk,fvdkcsifwJhyef;wdkifudk a&mufoGm;rSmyg? wajz;ajz; r[kwfbJeJ‹ ydk+yD;awmh jrefjrefqefqef a&mufa&;twGuf usrwdk‹ ydk+yD;awmh óud;pm;&r,f? 'Dhaemuf wv/ ESpfvtwGif;rSm qdkvdk‹&Sd&if tcrf;tem;trsKd;rsKd; usif;y&r,fqdkwm usr ajymcJhygw,f? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifuae+yD;awmh (7) &ufae‹ Zlvkdifv/ (19) &ufae‹ Zlvdkifvqdk+yD;awmh }udrf;armif;aew,fvdk‹ ajymoGm;ygw,f? usr }udrf;armif;aewm r[kwfygbl;? owday;aewmyg/ jynfolvlxkudk? 'Dtcrf;tem;awG&Sdw,f? 'Dtjzpftysuftm;vHk;[m usrwdk‹EkdifiHrSm EdkifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk vufeufenf;eJ‹ ajz&Sif;cJhvdk‹jzpfw,f? aemifxyf+yD;awmh vufeufenf;eJ‹ EkdifiHa&;jy\emrsm; rajz&Sif;Ekdifatmifvdk‹ usrwdk‹ óud;yrf;oGm;&r,f? pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd/ at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ óud;yrf;oGm;&r,f? 'gyJ usr xyfwvJvJ ajymoGm;wmyg? usr pyDumraumif;vdk‹ atmfrdvdk‹ }udrf;armif;aew,fxifovm;awmh rodygbl;? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxku 'gudk pdwfxJrSmxm;yg? aemif 'Dwkdif;jynfrSm EkdifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk vufeufenf;eJ‹ rajz&Sif;a&;/ rajz&Sif;Ekdifatmifvdk‹ usrwdk‹ óud;pm;&r,f? quf+yD; óud;pm;oGm;&rSmyJ? 'D ESpfv/ oHk;v&JŒ jy\emrsm;udk usrwdk‹ atmifatmifjrifjrif ausmfv$m;Ekdifvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh 'Drdkua&pDudk jrefjrefqefqef &Ekdifw,fvdk‹ usr ,Hk=unfygw,f? t&ifht&ifwkef;u ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m wkdif;jynf&JŒtusKd;udk xrf;aqmifcJhovdk tckacwf ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[mvnf; quf+yD;awmh wdkif;jynf&JŒtusKd;udk xrf;aqmifoGm;Ekdifr,fvdk‹ usr ,Hk=unfygw,f? 'D,Hk=unfcsuftwdkif;yJ tm;vHk; nDnDnGwfnGwf/ owWd&Sd&Sd/ owd&Sd&SdeJ‹ qufvufcsDwufoGm;=uygvdk‹ awmif;yef&if;eJ‹ usr ed*Hk;csKyfygw,f?

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20 wyfrawmf[m b,fol‹twGufvJ vl‹abmifopfygwD±Hk; taemf&xmvrf;wGif 10-7-89 ae‹u ajym=um;onf?

* * * tcktcsdefrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwkd‹[m Zlvkdifv 7 &ufae‹wkef;u ausmif;om;vli,frsm; usqHk;cJhjcif;/ or*~òzdcJGcH&jcif; tcrf;tem;udk ESpfywfvnf usif;ycJh+yD;yg+yD? Zlvdkifv 19 &ufae‹rSm tmZmenfae‹jzpfwJh azazeJ‹wuG tjcm;EkdifiHhacgif;aqmifrsm; usqHk;wJhae‹vnf; vmygOD;r,f? tJh'Dawmh 'DtcsdefrSm usrwdk‹tm;vHk; pOf;pm;p&mawG trsKd;rsKd;&Sdygw,f? t&iftywfu qdkvdk‹&Sd&if EkdifiHawmf+idrf0yfydjym;a&; OuUX AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu rdef‹cGef;awmfawmf&Snf&SnfyJ ajymoGm;ygw,f? 'Drdef‹cGef;udk usr jyef+yD;awmh oHk;oyfvdkufwJhtcgusawmh bmawGay:vmovJ? eHygwf (1) uawmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifwdk‹taeeJ‹ nd‡E_dif;/ aqG;aEG;/ wkdifyifjcif;udk r,Hk=unfbl;qdkwm jyygw,f? 'gudkawmh usrwdk‹ uef‹uGufygw,f? EkdifiHa&;jy\emudk EkdifiHa&;enf;eJ‹ nd‡E_dif;&r,f/ aqG;aEG;&r,f/ wkdifyif&r,f? 'grSvnf; jynfolvlxk rembl;aygh? aemufwckuvnf; usr awG‹cJh&wmuawmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif&JŒ rdef‹cGef;xJrSm jynfolvlxkudk +cdrf;ajcmufwmygw,fvdk‹ usr jrifygw,f? 'Dvdk +cdrf;ajcmufw,fqdkwm eJeJrS roifhawmfygbl;? wdk‹bufrSm vufeuf&Sdvdk‹ oHk;csifwkdif; oHk;Ekdifw,fvdk‹ ajymwJh oabm[m eJeJrS roifhawmfygbl;? 'g[m tpdk;&taeeJ‹ oHk;oifhoHk;xkdufwJh pum;vHk;rsm;vnf; r[kwfygbl;? ajymoifhajymxdkufwJh udpPrsm;vnf; r[kwfygbl;? xm;oifhxm;xdkufwJh oabmxm;rsm;vnf; r[kwfygbl;? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if wyfrawmfua&m/ e0w ua&m xyfwvJvJajymygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m wyfrawmf&JŒ zcifyg/ trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif}uD;yg? tJh'Dawmh tck usrwdk‹ jyef+yD;awmh pOf;pm;&r,f? Zlvkdifv 19 &ufae‹qdkvdk‹&Sd&if/ azazqHk;oGm;wm 42 ESpfjynfhawmhr,f/ tJh'Dawmh 'Dvdk 42 ESpfjynfhwJhtcrf;tem; rwkdifcif usrwdk‹ pOf;pm;&r,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m wyfrawmf&JŒ zcifvdk‹ qdkvdk‹&Sd&if wyfrawmf[m azazvdkcsifwJhtwkdif; vkyfae&JŒvm;? wyfrawmf&JŒ zcifqdkwJh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; csrSwfvdkufwJh vrf;pOftwdkif; 'Dwyfrawmf[m quf+yD;awmh vkkyfae&JŒvm;qdkwm usrwdk‹ ar;&vdrfhr,f? 'Dvdkar;wJhtcgusrS usr b,fvdkjrif&ovJqdkawmh azaz[m wyfrawmf vrf;rSm;oGm;rSm tifrwefrS pdk;&drfcJhw,f? xyfwvJvJ ajymcJhw,f? rif;wdk‹vufxJrSm vufeuf&Sdvdk‹ vkyfcsifwkdifvkyfvdk‹&r,f rxifeJ‹? jynfolvlxkudk +cdrf;ajcmufwm/ ESdyfpufwm/ zdpD;wm/ 'gawGrvkyfeJ‹qdkwm xyfwvJvJajymcJhw,f? 'Dwyfrawmf[mvnf; vlwa,mufxJtwGuf r[kwfbl;? tzJG‹tpnf;wcktwGuf r[kwfbl;qdkwmvnf; xyfwvJvJajymcJhw,f? wyfrawmf vrf;rSm;oGm;rSmudk azaz tifrwefrS pdk;&drfcJhw,f? 'DavmufawmifrS pdk;&drfaevsufeJ‹ bmjzpfvdk‹ vrf;rSm;oGm;&ovJ? OD;ae0if;[m wyfrawmfudk vrf;rSm;ay: wifay;vdkufw,f? tck 'DrSm wyfrawmfxJrSm &SdaewJh wyfrawmfom;rsm;/ t&m&Sdrsm; pOf;pm;yg? wyfrawmf&JŒ zcifqdkwm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;qdk+yD;awmh twdtvif;a=unmxm;+yD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m wyfrawmfudk b,fvdktaetxm;&SdapcsifovJqdkwm jyef+yD;awmh oHk;oyfyg? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wyfrawmfvm;/ Adkvfae0if;wyfrawmfvm;qdkwm qHk;jzwf&awmhr,f? usr 'gudk &Sif;&Sif;yJ ajymjyr,f? c%c% trsKd;rsKd;ajymaevdk‹ tvum;yJ? aemufqHk;awmh 'Dar;cGef;yJ? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JŒ vrf;pOfudkvdkufr,fh wyfrawmfvm;/ Adkvfae0if;&JŒ rqv vrf;pOfudkvkdufr,fh wyfrawmfvm;? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JŒ vrf;pOfudkvdkufr,fh wyfrawmfqdkvdk‹&Sd&if jynfolvlxkeJ‹ waoG;xJ/ wom;xJjzpfoGm;r,fvdk‹ ,kH=unfygw,f? aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif}uD;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif}uD;&JŒ vrf;pOfudk vdkuf&r,f? trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif}uD;&JŒ vrf;pOf[m 'Drdkua&pDvrf;pOfygyJ? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ tcktajctaeeJ‹

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tifrwefrS qDavsmfwJhudpPawGudk azazajymoGm;cJhygw,f? 'gudk eJeJ usr zwfjyygr,f? 'Drdkua&pDqdkwmbmvJ? usrwdk‹ b,fvdktcGifhta&;awG &oifhovJqdkwm aoaocsmcsm azaza&;oGm;wm/ ajymoGm;wm &Sdygw,f?

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tJh'Dawmh 'DtcGifhta&;awGrS usrwdk‹ b,favmuf&SdovJ jyef=unfhyg? vGwfvyfpGmazmfjycGifh/ pnf;±Hk;cGifh? usrwdk‹rSm vGwfvyfpGmpnf;±Hk;cGifhr&Sdygbl;? 'Dvdk vGwfvyfpGm pnf;±Hk;cGifhawGudk usrwdk‹ awmif;aewmawGudk e0wu vspfvsL±_xm;w,f? 'g trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif}uD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JŒ vrf;pOfudk av;pm;wmjywmvm;? r[kwfygbl;? vGwfvyfpGm tpnf;ta0;ac:cGifhESifh pDwef;vrf;av#mufcGifh? tckawmh usrwdk‹EdkifiHrSm vGwfvyfpGm pDwef;vrf;av#mufvdk‹&Sd&if aoewfeJ‹ypfr,fvdk‹csnf;yJ +cdrf;ajcmufcHae&ygw,f? 'g[m OD;ae0if;&JŒ pepfawGyJ? OD;ae0if;&JŒ tusifhawGyJ? bmjzpfvdk‹ OD;ae0if;[m t+idrf;pm;oGm;+yDqdkvdk‹&Sd&if OD;ae0if;&JŒ tusifhawGudk quf+yD;awmh usifhaeovJqdkwm usrwdk‹ ar;&rSmyJ? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ e0weJ‹ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifudk ajymcsifwmuawmh OD;ae0if; t+idrf;pm;oGm;yg+yDvdk‹ rajymygeJ‹? usrwdk‹[m wu,fyJ OD;ae0if;[m wyfrawmftay:rSma&m/ e0wtay:rSma&m =oZmr&Sdawmhbl;qdkwm ,Hkapcsifw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if OD;ae0if;&JŒ usifhxHk;/ usifhenf;awGudk vHk;vHk;z,fvdkufygawmh? OD;ae0if;&JŒ usifhxHk;usifhenf;qdkwm vufeufeJ‹ jynfolvlxkawGudk zdESdyfwJhenf;yJ? jynfolvlxkudk vufeufeJ‹ +cdrf;ajcmuf+yD;awmh xdef;odrf;wJhenf;yJ? rw&m;ojzifh zrf;qD;wJhenf;awGyJ? jynfolvlxk&JŒ vGwfvyfr_udk csKyfcs,fxm;wJh enf;awGyJ? 'D[mawG[m OD;ae0if;&JŒ enf;awGyJ? tJh'Dawmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifeJ‹ e0w[m wu,fyJ OD;ae0if;&JŒ =oZmtm%matmufuae+yD;awmh ±kef;uef&JwJh owWd&Sdw,fqdkwm jycsif&if OD;ae0if;enf;awGudk quf+yD;awmh roHk;ygeJ‹?

aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; aqG;aEG;/ nd‡E_dif;/ wdkifyifjcif; rvdkvm;bl;qdkwmvnf; OD;ae0if;&JŒ xHk;wckyJ? tJh'Dawmh tcktxd AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifwdk‹/ e0wwdk‹qdkwm[m jynfolvlxkbufu &yfwnfaewJh 'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹tpnf;rsm;eJ‹ rnd‡E_dif;Ekdifbl;/ raqG;aEG;Ekdifbl;/ rwkdifyifEdkifbl;qdkwm OD;ae0if;&JŒ xHk;awGudk axmufcH&ma&mufygw,f? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if trsKd;rsKd;+cdrf;ajcmufaew,f? OD;ae0if;udk xdcdkufvdk‹&Sd&if usrudkvnf; aqmfr,fqdkwJh oabmxm;rsKd;eJ‹ ajymaewmawG =um;aeygw,f? 'Dawmh usr[m OD;ae0if;udk yk*~Kdvft& xdcdkufcsifvdk‹ ajymwmr[kwfygbl;? OD;ae0if;&JŒvkyf&yfawG[m wkdif;jynfudk emcJhapvGef;vdk‹/ 'Dvkyf&yfrsKd;awG aemufqufrjzpfapcsifvdk‹ ajym&jcif;jzpfygw,f? tcktcsdefrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹[m jy\emawGudk acgif;a&Smifaevdk‹awmh ajyvnfatmif ajz&Sif;EkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? 'Djy\emawGudk usrwdk‹ acgif;a&SmifcJhvdk‹ 'DEdkifiH[m 'kuQa&mufaewmyJ? usrwdk‹[m jy\emawGudk &ifqkdif&r,f? tckqdk&if AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif[m confrontation qdkwmudk head on xdyfwdkufawG‹jcif;vdk‹ ajymoGm;ygw,f? usrwdk‹[m wcgrS 'DvdkxdyfwdkufawG‹jcif;udk vdkcsifwmr[kwfygbl;? jy\emawGudk &ifqkdifajz&Sif;r,f/ usrwdk‹[m pm;yJG0dkif;wkdufyJG0ifcsifw,f? pm;yJG0dkif;wdkufyJGudkawmh owWd&Sd&SdeJ‹ r0if&JwJhvlawG bmjzpfvdk‹ aoewfudkifaeovJ? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹bufrSm ygwDaygif; (80) &Sdaevdk‹ wa,mufeJ‹ &Spfq,f jzpfaew,fvdk‹ ajymw,f? b,fhES,fh 'Dvdk ajymEkdifyghrvJ? 'Dvdkqdk&if usrwdk‹vnf; ajymEkdifygw,f? usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxkrSm

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aoewfwvufrSr&Sdvdk‹ okneJ‹ aoewfaygif; wodef;&Spfaomif; jzpfaeygw,f? rypfygeJ‹/ 'Dvdk tyfwacsmif;rSr&SdwJh jynfolvlxkudk vufeuftiftm;eJ‹ +cdrf;ajcmufaew,fqdkwm tifrwef raumif;wJhudpPwck jzpfaeygw,f? tifrwef atmufwef;uswJh EdkifiHa&;vkyfenf;vkyfxHk; jzpfygw,f? EkdifiHa&;udk jrifhjrifhjrwfjrwf vkyfzdk‹jzpfygw,f? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹ pm;yJG0dkif;wkdufyJG0if&r,f? wa,mufcsif;qdkvnf; pm;yJG0dkif;wdkufyJGyJ? ESpfa,mufcsif;qdkvnf; pm;yJG0dkif;wkdufyJGyJ? usrwdk‹ 0if&Jygw,f? pm;yJG0dkif;wdkufyJGqdkvdk‹ usrwdk‹bufuEkdifatmif/ e0wbufu±_H;atmif/ 'DvdkwdkufyGJr[kwfygbl;? pm;yJG0dkif;wdkufyJG&JŒ t"du &nf&G,fcsuf[mbmvJ? jynfolvlxktwGuf atmifjrifr_&Smzdk‹yJ? wwdkif;jynfvHk;twGuf taumif;qHk;tajz &Smzdk‹yJ? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹ tckvdk pm;yJG0dkif;wkdufyJG0ifcsifwm? pm;yJG0dkif;wkdufyJG0ifaewJh wdkufyJG0iftm;vHk;[m wkdif;jynf&JŒtusKd;udk a&SŒ±_+yD;awmh vkyfoGm;&rSmjzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk wkdif;jynf&JŒtusKd;udk a&SŒ±_+yD;awmh rvkyfoGm;Ekdifvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh 'Dwkdif;jynfudk rtkyfcsKyfoifhbl;vdk‹ usru ajym&rSmyJ?

tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if qefjy\em[m tifrwefrS }uD;xGm;aeygw,f? 'Dvdk qefjy\em}uD; }uD;xGm;vmawmhvnf; qefaps;wufjcif;[m EkdifiHa&;ygwDawGa=umifh qdk+yD;awmh pGyfpJGw,f? 'g wm0efudk r&ifqdkif&JwmbJ? tpdk;&wckjzpfae&if jy\emwckjzpfaerSawmh ajz&Sif;aygh? ajz&Sif;EkdifwJh t&nftcsif; r&Sdbl;vm;? ajz&Sif;EkdifwJh t&nftcsif; r&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if wm0efododeJ‹ ajz&Sif;EkdifwJh tpdk;&w&yfvufudk tm%m jrefjrefay;Ekdifzdk‹ pDpOf&r,f?

aemufqHk; òcH+yD;awmhajym&if usrwdk‹vdkcsifwmbmvJ? wm0efododeJ‹ wkdif;jynf&JŒjy\emrsm;udk ajz&Sif;ay;EkdifwJh owWd/ ajz&Sif;ay;EkdifwJh t&nftcsif;&SdwJh tkyfcsKyfr_pepfwck vdkcsifwmyJ? 'g[mvnf; usrwdk‹tm;vHk; &oifh&xdkufwJhtcGifhta&;yJ? wkdif;jynfwjynfudk tkyfcsKyfaerSjzifh jy\emawGudk acgif;a&Smif+yD;awmh wHwm;awGaqmufaevdk‹ rjzpfygbl;? jy\emqdkwm wHwm;eJ‹ ausmfvdk‹ r&ygbl;? &ifqkdifajz&Sif;jcif;tm;jzifhom ausmfvdk‹&rSm jzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh ckcsdefrSm AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifeJ‹ e0w[m aoaocsmcsm pOf;pm;=uyg? 18 &ufae‹ pufwifbmvu tm%modrf;w,f/ tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if Zlvdkifv 10 &ufae‹&Sdae+yD? 'D=um;xJrSm wkdif;jynftwGuf/ jynfoltwGuf/ b,fvdktusKd;aqmifcJhovJ? usrwdk‹ yef;+cHawGaqmufw,fvdk‹awmh rajzygeJ‹? wjcm;[mawGudk usr ar;wmyg? b,fvdk tusKd;aqmifcJhw,fqdkwm pOf;pm;yg? jynfolvlxkudk b,favmufrsm; tcGifhta&;awG ay;cJhovJ? aumif;+yD? EkdifiHa&;ygwDawGawmh zJG‹pnf;cGifhay;cJhw,f? 'DEkdifiHa&;ygwDawGudk vGwfvGwfvyfvyf vkyfydkifcGifhrS ray;bJ? wae‹eJ‹wae‹ qdkvdk‹&Sd&if zrf;qD;r_awG[m rsm;rsm;aew,f/ zrf;yHkqD;yHkawGuvnf; w&m;Oya'eJ‹ rudkufnDbl;? w&m;Oya'eJ‹udkufnDwJh tvkyfqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹ axmufcHygw,f? usr tifrwefrS pnf;urf;udk ±dkaow,f/ av;pm;w,f/ vkdvm;w,f? usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxkudkvnf; pnf;urf;&Sdapcsifw,f? pnf;urf;r&Sdbl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if usr tifrwefrS rcsifhr&Jjzpfw,f? 'gayrJh rw&m;wJhOya'/ rw&m;wJh vkyfaqmifr_awGudk usrwdk‹ acgif;iHk‹cHvdk‹awmh rjzpfbl;? tJh'Dvdk acgif;iHk‹cHvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹ ydjym;oGm;rSmyJ? 'Dvdk usrwdk‹ qufvkyfvdk‹ rjzpfbl;?

tm%mzDqefa&;eJ‹ ywfoufvdk‹ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu usrudk rvkyfygeJ‹vdk‹ ajymygw,f? usr 'Duae jyefajz&ygr,f? usrwdk‹udk tm%mzDqefa&; rvkyfapcsifvdk‹&Sd&if w&m;Oya'eJ‹rudkufnDwJh trdef‹tm%mawG rxkwfjyefygeJ‹? w&m;Oya'eJ‹ rudkufnDwJh trdef‹tm%mawG rxkwfjyef&if usrwdk‹ b,ftrdef‹tm%mrSvnf; usrwdk‹ zDqefzdk‹ vdkrSmr[kwfygbl;? tcktcsdefrSmawmh w&m;Oya'eJ‹ rudkufnDwJh trdef‹tm%mawG/ jynfolvlxk&JŒ tcGifhta&;awGudk xdk;ESufaewJh trdef‹tm%mawG xkwfxm;vdk‹ usrwdk‹rSm zDqefzdk‹ wm0ef&Sdw,f? 'Dwm0efudk rausyGefvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh usrwdk‹ quf+yD;awmh wwfEkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? 'Drkdua&pDatmifyef;udk quf+yD;awmh usrwdk‹ yefEkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? 'gayrJh tm%mzDqefa&;qdkwm[m pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ tm%mzDqefa&;qdkwm usrwdk‹jynfolvlxk em;vnfzdk‹ vdkygw,f? wcsKdŒqdkvdk‹&Sd&if zDqefw,fqdkwJh pum;vHk;udkyJ eJeJvef‹aew,fvdk‹ usr =um;&ygw,f?

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'g[m a=umufp&mr[kwfygbl;? zDqefw,fqdkwm[m vufrcHjcif;udk ajymwmyg? rvdkufemjcif;/ vufrcHjcif;? usrwdk‹ at;at;csrf;csrf; pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mawGudk rvdkufembl;qdkwmudk jy&r,f? tm%mzDqefw,fqdkwm[m qENjywmeJ‹ rwlygbl;? pDwef;vrf;av#mufwmeJ‹vnf; rwlygbl;? usrwdk‹ tm%mudk enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ‹ zDqefEkdifygw,f? Oyrmtm;jzifhqdkvdk‹&Sd&if yHkESdyfxkwfa0ydkifcGifh ray;wJh rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mudk usrwdk‹ zDqefw,f? b,fvdkenf;eJ‹ zDqefovJ? pm&Gufpmwrf;awG usrwdk‹ yHkESdyfw,f/ xkwfa0w,f? jynfolvlxktaeeJ‹ 'Dpm&Gufpmwrf;awGudk vdkvdkcsifcsifzwfw,f? wqifhxyf+yD;awmh xkwfa0ay;w,f/ jzef‹csday;w,fqdk&if 'g usrwdk‹tm;vHk; tm%mudk zDqefaewmyJ? usrwdk‹&JŒ &oifh&xdkufwJh tcGifhta&;twGuf zDqefaewmjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ trdef‹tm%mudk zDqefEkdifwJh jynfolvlxkjzpfw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ jy&r,f? bmjzpfvdk‹ usrwdk‹ 'Dvdkjyzdk‹ vdkovJ? tcktcsdefrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if jynfolvlxkudk vufeufenf;eJ‹ ESdrfeif;csifwJh tpdwftydkif;awG &Sdaewmudk;? b,fvdk &r,f&Sm+yD;awmh/ jynfolvlxkudk b,fvdkvufeufudkif+yD;awmh ESdrfeif;&rvJqdkwm pOf;pm;aewJh yk*~KdvfawG &Sdygw,f? 'ga=umifh usrwdk‹[m owdeJ‹ae&r,f? udk,fhbuf ru|HygapeJ‹? udk,fhbufu trSm;rygygapeJ‹? EkdifiHa&;qdkwm[m a&&Snfvkyfief;yg? 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;eJ‹ +yD;r,fhudpP r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹EdkifiHtwGuf vkyfzdk‹&mudpP trsm;}uD;&Sdygao;w,f? xrf;aqmifzdk‹ wm0efawGvnf; trsm;}uD;&Sdygao;w,f?

vufeufenf;qdkwm[m zufqpfenf;qdkwm azazvnf; ajymcJhw,f? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹EdkifiHrSm usrwdk‹ EkdifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm;/ vufeufrJh EkdifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm;udk aemufxyf+yD;awmh vufeufenf;eJ‹ ESdrfeif;r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh 'Dtpdk;&[m zufqpftpdk;&vdk‹ usrwdk‹ a=unm&rSmyJ? vufeufenf;eJ‹ ESdrfeif;zdk‹ rvdkygbl;? w&m;Oya'enf;eJ‹/ w&m;r#wwJhenf;eJ‹/ trSefw&m;enf;eJ‹ usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxkudk xdef;odrf;vdk‹ &ygw,f? usr 'Duae+yD;awmh e0wudk ajym&Jygw,f? tcktcsdefrSm qdkvdk‹&Sd&if vufeufudkifwyfzJG‹awG 'Dem;rSmr&Sdbl;? usrwdk‹ ,mOfjy&JawGyJ &Sdygw,f? ,mOfjy&JawGeJ‹yJ usrwdk‹tvkyf[m +yD;oGm;Ekdifygw,f? vufeufudkifwyfzJG‹awG vHk;vHk;rvdkygbl;? jynfolvlxk odwJhtwkdif;yJ vufeufudkifwyfzJG‹awG a&mufvm+yDqdkvdk‹&Sd&if jynfolvlxkxJu v_yfv_yf&Sm;&Sm;jzpfw,f? bmjzpfvdk‹ v_yfv_yf&Sm;&Sm;jzpfovJ? t&if usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxkudk vufeufenf;eJ‹ ESdrfeif;cJhvdk‹yJ? vufeufudkiftzJG‹tpnf;awGudk jrifvdk‹&Sd&if jynfolvlxk[m pdwfv_yf&Sm;wmaygh? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹udk pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd/ at;at;csrf;csrf; aeapcsifw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if vufeufudkifwyfzJG‹awGudk òrd‹xJuae+yD;awmh ±kyfodrf;vdkufyg? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ jynfolvlxk[m 'Dvdk vufeufudkifwyfzJG‹rsm;udk ±kyfodrf;vdkufvdk‹&Sd&if pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd/ at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ aeEdkifw,fqdkwm ajym&Jw,f?

aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; e0wukd ajymcsifw,f? wyfrawmfom;rsm;udk 'DavmufrESdyfpufaeygeJ‹? yifyef;ygw,f? 'DavmufawmifrS vSnfh+yD;vkyfae&wm? a&SŒwef;rSmvnf; wdkuf&ao;w,f? òrd‹xJrSmvnf; wcgxJ um;}uD;awGeJ‹ vSnfhae&ao;w,fqkdwm 'gvnf; roifhawmfygbl;? wyfrawmfom;rsm; xyfxJjyef+yD; em;=uygap? usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxk[m udk,fhpnf;urf;udk udk,fxdef;yghr,f? usrwdk‹[m udk,fhpnf;urf;udk udk,fxdef;EdkifwJh jynfolvlxkjzpfygw,f? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹EkdifiH[m qif;&Jaeygw,f? wDtD; 11 wpif; òrd‹wywf ywfvdk‹&Sd&if "gwfqDb,favmufukefovJqdkwm pOf;pm;=unfhyg? "gwfqDvnf; ukefw,f? &JabmfawGvnf; yifyef;w,f? jynfolvlxkvnf; ajcmufjcm;w,f? tJh'Dawmh 'g rvkyfoifh/ rvkyfxdkufwJh udpPawGyg? e0w[m bmudka=umufaevdk‹ 'DavmufawmifrS &JabmfawGudk òrd‹xJudk vSnfhckdif;aewmvJ? a=umufp&mrvdkbl;qdkwm usr ajymEdkifygw,f? usrwdk‹&JŒ jynfolvlxk[m rSefrSefuefuef pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd vkyfoGm;rSmyg? pdk;&drfp&m&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if/ a=umufp&m&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹eJ‹ aqG;aEG;yg/ wkdifyifyg? tajz&Smyghr,f? usrwdk‹vnf; ykxkZOfawGyJ? usrwdk‹bufuvnf;/ jynfolvlxkbufuvnf; a=umufwJh udpPawG&Sdwmaygh? pdk;&drfwJhudpPawG &Sdwmaygh? rauseyfwJhudpPawG &Sdwmaygh? 'DudpPawGudk nd‡E_dif;/ aqG;aEG;/ wkdifyif+yD;awmh ajyvnfatmif vkyfvdkufr,fqdk&if usrwdk‹EkdifiHtwGuf b,favmuf*k%foduQm&SdrvJ? e0wtwGufaum

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b,favmuf *k%foduQm&SdrvJ? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usr jrifoavmufawmh e0wbufuae+yD;awmh trSm;&Sdygw,fvdk‹ 0efcH&rSm rsufESmysufw,fvdk‹ xifygw,f? wu,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if vl}uD;rsm;taeeJ‹/ tm%m&SdwJh tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;taeeJ‹ rSm;wJh[mudk rSm;ygw,fvdk‹ 0efcH&wm[m tifrwefrS jrifhjrwfwJh vkyfief;wckyg? tJh'Dvdk *k%foduQm&SdwJh vkyfief;wckudk vkyf&J=uyg? jynfolvlxkudkawmh vufeufenf;eJ‹ ESdrfeif;r,fvdk‹awmh ajym&Jw,f? udk,frSm;wJhtcgusawmh rSm;w,fvdk‹ r0efcH&JwJh owWdrsKd;[m bmowWdrsKd;vJ? aemufqHk;usawmh owWdqdkwm[m trSefw&m;udk &ifqkdif&JwmyJ? trSefw&m;twGuf bmrqdk &ifqdkif&J&r,f? 'g[mrS wu,fhowWdyJ? udk,fhtm%mwnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;twGuf/ OD;ae0if; oabmusa&;twGuf vkyf&Jwm[m owWdr[kwfbl;?

'Dawmh usrwdk‹EdkifiHrSm tck jywfjywfom;om; em;vnf&r,f? (26) ESpftwGif;u rqvpepfudk xlaxmifcJhwm OD;ae0if;? wyfrawmfudk vrf;rSm;ay:wifcJhwm OD;ae0if;? wyfrawmfbufuvnf; 'gudk aoaocsmcsm em;vnfzdk‹ tcsdefa&mufvm+yD? wyfrawmf&JŒ zcifqdkwm/ wOD;wnf;aomzcifqdkwm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;omjzpfw,fqdkwm wyfrawmfom;rsm;u vufcH&r,f? usrtaeeJ‹ 'kwd,zcifqdkwJh toHk;tE_ef;udk vHk;vHk;vufrcHbl;? Arm pum;rSmvnf; r&Sdygbl;? vlwa,mufjzpfvmrSawmh zcifqdkwm wOD;yJ&SdEkdifw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ EkdifiHolEkdifiHom;tm;vHk; odygw,f? 'Dawmh wyfrawmfxJrSm zcifwOD;xJom &Sdygap? 'D wOD;wnf;aom zcif&JŒ n$ef=um;csufrsm;udk vdkufemyg? vdkufemjcif;tm;jzifh aemif wyfrawmftwGufvnf; *k%foduQm&SdEdkifr,f? jynfolvlxkeJ‹ wyfrawmf=um;xJrSmvnf; nDnGwfr_&SdEdkifr,f? 'Dwkdif;jynfvnf; wdk;wufEkdifr,f? usrwdk‹[m rSefuefwJhvrf;pOfay:rSm av#mufoGm;csifwJh jynfolvlxkjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh e0w taeeJ‹vnf; rSefuefwJhvrf;pOfay:rSm av#mufoGm;csifw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if jynfolvlxkeJ‹ tcsdefra&G; vufwJGEkdifygw,f? 'gayrJh OD;ae0if;vrf;pOftay:rSm av#mufoGm;csifw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh jynfolvlxkeJ‹ vrf;cJG&rSm jzpfygw,f?

aemufwck usr ajymcsifygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif[m OD;ae0if; t+idrf;pm;oGm;+yDvdk‹ ajymygw,f? OD;ae0if; t+idrf;pm;oGm;+yDvdk‹ajymvdk‹&Sd&if bmjzpfvdk‹ tpdk;&±Hk;awGrSm/ w&m;±Hk;awGrSm/ OD;ae0if;&JŒ "gwfyHkudk quf+yD;awmh csdwfqJGxm;ovJqdkwm usr ar;csifw,f? jynfolvlxktaeeJ‹vnf; 'gudk uef‹uGufapcsifygw,f? t+idrf;pm;,loGm;+yDjzpfwJh OD;ae0if;&JŒ "gwfyHkukd tpdk;&±Hk;rsm;/ w&m;±Hk;rsm;rSm rcsdwfygeJ‹awmh? usrwdk‹[m xHk;wrf;pOfvmt& EkdifiHhacgif;aqmif}uD;&JŒ "gwfyHkudkomcsdwfr,f? vuf&Sdtpdk;&&JŒ OD;pD;wa,muf&JŒ "gwfyHkudkomcsdwfw,f? 'guawmh xHk;wrf;pOfvmjzpfygw,f? tJh'Dawmh csdwfcsifvdk‹&Sd&if AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif&JŒ "gwfyHkudkawmh csdwfEkdifygw,f? OD;ae0if;"gwfyHkudkvnf; ðzwfcsygawmh? OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹tm%matmufuvnf; vGwfajrmufatmifvdk‹ wyfrawmfeJ‹ e0w[m ±kef;xGufygawmhvdk‹ usr 'Duae arwWm&yfcHvdkufcsifygw,f?

ed*Hk;csKyftm;jzifh ajymcsifwmuawmh usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m at;csrf;om,mr_udk vdkvm;ygw,f? usrwdk‹EkdifiH wdk;wufzdk‹twGuf/ at;at;csrf;csrf; aeEkdifzdk‹twGuf vdkvm;w,f? 'gtwGuf usrwdk‹[m e0wudk nd‡E_dif;yg/ aqG;aEG;yg/ wkdifyifygvdk‹ zdwfac:ygw,f? usr quf+yD;awmh zdwfac:wmyJ? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ 2§88/ 8§88 wdk‹udk r±kyfodrf;ay;rSmrdk‹vdk‹ raqG;aEG;Edkifygbl;qdkwJhoabmeJ‹ ajymoGm;ygw,f? usr jyefajymcsifwmuawmh usrwdk‹EkdifiHrSm 2§88 eJ‹ 8§88 tjyif jy\emawG trsm;}uD;&Sdygw,f? 'Djy\emtrsm;}uD;udk ajyvnfatmifqdkwm usrwdk‹ aqG;aEG;&r,f/ nd‡E_dif;&r,f/ wkdifyif&r,f? jynfolvlxk trsm;pk}uD;uvnf; 'gudk em;vnfw,fvdk‹ usrxifygw,f? quf+yD;awmhvnf; em;vnfapcsifygw,f? usrwdk‹[m rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mrsm;udk zDqefaewmuawmh aqG;aEG;/ nd‡E_dif;/ wkdifyifr_ r&Sdvdk‹ygyJ? wu,fyJ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ confrontation qdkwJh xdyfwdkufawG‹r_udk rvdkvm;bl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹eJ‹ pm;yJG0kdif;rSm xkdif+yD;awmh ajyvnfr_&Smygvdk‹ usr 'Duae ajymoGm;ygw,f? aus;Zl;wifygw,f? (pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ vlpkcJGay;=uyg? usrwdk‹&JŒ ,mOfxdef;&Jrsm;&JŒ n$ef=um;csufrsm;udk

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vdkufem+yD;awmh tm;vHk; pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ vlpkcJGay;=uyg? usrwdk‹[m pnf;urf;udk vdkvm;w,f/ Oya'udk vdkvm;w,fqdkwmjy=uyg? aus;Zl;wifygw,f?) 21

e0wESifh &ifqkdifaqG;aEG;a&; Trdef‹cGef;udk 1989 ckESpfwGif ajym=um;cJhaomfvnf; ajymqdkonfhae&mESifh ae‹&ufudk pmwnf;taeESifh odEkdifpGrf; r&Sdyg?

* * * AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif&JŒ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGudpPudk ajymoGm;cJh&ygw,f? 'DudpPawG ajym&if;eJ‹yJ usr

pOf;pm;rdw,f? wcsKdŒvl}uD;awGu ajymygw,f? usrwdk‹[m e0w aumif;a=umif;vnf; wcgwav ajymygOD;vdk‹ usrudk ajymygw,f? tJh'Dawmh e0w aumif;a=umif;ajymzdk‹ usr pOf;pm;aeygw,f? bmawGajym&rvJvdk‹/ bmawGajym&rvJqdk+yD;awmh pOf;pm;wJhtcgusawmh usrwdk‹ EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGudkawmh w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwifcGifhay;ygw,f? tJh'D[m [m e0w vkyfaqmifcsufrSm aumif;wJhtcsufwckjzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh 'Dvdk EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGudk w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwifcGifh ay;xm;+yD;awmh/ wu,fawmh EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;taeeJ‹ EkdifiHa&;udk xdxda&mufa&muf vkyfydkifcGifhusawmh ray;bl;vdk‹ usrawmh ajym&rSmyJ? tJhvdkajymvdkufjyefawmhvnf; wzufuawmh aumif;w,fvdk‹ajym+yD;awmh wzufuawmh tjypf&Smw,fvdk‹ tajymcH&rSmyJ? 'gayrJhvnf; tajymcH&ifvnf; cH&rSmyJ? tck usrwdk‹ jy\em[m 'gygyJ? wzufuawmh ay;oa,mifa,mifeJ‹ wzufuawmh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk ydwfyifae&wmudk awG‹&ygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹[m uef‹uGufae&wmyg? rae‹u AdkvfcsKyfrª;}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ qdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrtay:rSm rauseyfcsufrsm;/ usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyftay:rSm rauseyfcsufrsm; ajymoGm;w,f? 'Dvdk rauseyfcsufrsm; ajymoGm;wm[m usrwdk‹ vufcHygw,f? rauseyfwm&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if ajymyg? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ jyef+yD;awmh ajz&Sif;yghr,f? ta&;}uD;qHk; tcsufwcsufuawmh usrwdk‹udk oG,f0dkufaomenf;tm;jzifh uGefjrLepfawGvdk‹ pGyfpJGoGm;wJhtcsufygyJ? 'D[muawmh usr xl;xl;axGaxG odyf+yD;awmh rajymvdkygbl;? r[kwfrrSefbl;vdk‹yJ ajymcsifygw,f? 'g[m r[kwfrrSefwJh udpPwckudk xyfwvJvJ ajz&Sif;ae&wm[m t"dy`m,fawmh odyfr&Sdygbl;? usr[m uGefjrLepfvnf; r[kwfygbl;? uGefjrLepf0g'udk axmufcHolwOD;vnf; r[kwfygbl;? jrefrmEkdifiHrSm uGefjrLepfawG v$rf;rdk;a&;twGuf vkyfaewmvnf; r[kwfygbl;? jrefrmEkdifiHrSm jynfolvlxktm;vHk;[m 'Drdkua&pD tcGifhta&;rsm;/ tajccH vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm; &&Sda&;twGuf vHk;yef;aewmjzpfygw,fvdk‹ usr ajymcsifygw,f?

'kwd,udpPuawmh usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf[m xdyfwdkufawG‹csifw,f/ confrontation qdkwJh pum;vHk;udk AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu oHk;oGm;ygw,f? 'gvnf; usr &Sif;jy&ygvdrfhr,f? Confrontation qdkwm xdyfwdkufawG‹csifw,fqdkwJh oabmeJ‹ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu &Sif;jyoGm;ygw,f? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ 'Dvdkrjrifygbl;? usrwdk‹[m xdyfwdkufawG‹csifwm r[kwfygbl;? 'gvnf; usr xyfwvJvJajym&vGef;vdk‹ tm;vnf; tm;emygw,f? usrwdk‹[m jy\emrsm;udk &ifqkdif+yD;awmhom ajz&Sif;csifwmygvdk‹ usr ajymygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹awmh jy\emrsm;udk nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;wdkifyif+yD;awmh ajz&Sif;zdk‹qdkwm[m r&bl;qdkwJh taetxm;eJ‹ ajymoGm;w,fvdk‹ usr em;vnfygw,f? usrvnf;

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AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif ajymoGm;wmtm;vHk;ukd odyf+yD;awmh &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; em;rvnfygbl;? em;vnfoavmufom ajym&r,f? tJh'Dawmh 'Dvdk usrwdk‹eJ‹ raqG;aEG;Ekdifbl;vdk‹ ajymoGm;w,fvdk‹ usr em;vnfygw,f? 'gayrJh usruawmh pdwf"mwfrusygbl;? quf+yD;awmh awmif;qdkrSmyJ? aqG;aEG;yg/ nd‡E_dif;yg/ wkdifyifyg/ em;vnfr_&Smyg? usrwdk‹[m em;vnfr_ tifrwefrS vdkcsifygw,f? em;vnfr_ vdkcsifwm[mvnf; jynfolvlxktwGufyJ? tm;vHk; at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ vdkcsifwJhyef;wdkifudk tjrefqHk; a&mufoGm;a&;twGuf em;vnfr_ vdkcsifwm jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹taeeJ‹uawmh quf+yD;awmh awmif;yefygw,f? nd‡E_dif;yg/ aqG;aEG;yg/ wkdifyifyg/ em;vnfr_&Smyg? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ usreJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ trsKd;rsKd;ajymoGm;w,fqdkawmh usruawmh wckajymcsifygw,f? usru AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif[m wkdif;jynftay:rSm apwemrSefw,fvdk‹ usr ,Hk=unfcJhygw,f? tpuwnf;uvnf; usr ajymygw,f? usrudk =um;wJhvlwkdif; odrSmyg? usr ajymygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifuawmh a&G;aumufyJGrsm;udk vkyfay;csifw,fvdk‹ usr xifygw,f? 'gayrJh OD;ae0if;&JŒ =oZmtm%mudk rvGefqefEkdifvdk‹om tcktajctae[m wdk;wufr_r&Sdwmvdk‹ xifygw,fvdk‹ usr ajymcJhygw,f? 'g usr xifwJhtwdkif; rSefrSefuefuef ajymwmyg? 'Dawmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifudk usr apmfum;wmvnf; r[kwfygbl;? usr em;vnfygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifwdk‹twGuf OD;ae0if; qdkwmuawmh i,fa=umufoabmrsKd; jzpfaew,fqdkwm usr em;vnfygw,f? 'gvnf; usr apmfum;csifwJhpdwfeJ‹ ajymwm r[kwfygbl;? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu usrudk awG‹r,f? nd‡E_dif;r,f/ wkdifyifr,fqdk&if 'gawGudk usr rsufESmcsif;qdkif+yD;awmh ajymoGm;rSmyg? tckawmh 'DvkdvkyfcGifh ray;bl;qdkawmh jynfolvlxkuwqifh wdkifwnf&awmhrvdkjzpfae+yD? usr aoaocsmcsm pOf;pm;ygw,f? 'D (26) ESpf udpP? rqv (26) ESpftwGif; wkdif;jynfudk zsufqD;oGm;wJhudpP? usr 'gudk (26) ESpfvHk;vHk; wkdif;jynfukd zsufqD;oGm;wJhvl[m OD;ae0if;jzpfygw,fqdkwm usr ayghayghwefwefajymwm r[kwfygbl;? aoaocsmcsm pOf;pm;+yD;awmhrS/ wkdif;jynftajctaeudk avhvm+yD;awmhrS ajymwmjzpfygw,f? 'g jynfolvlxk trsm;pk}uD;uvnf; od+yD;om;vdk‹ usr xifygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifeJ‹ e0wxJu vl}uD;rsm;taeeJ‹/ wyfrawmfxJu t&m&Sdrsm;taeeJ‹ aoaocsmcsm avhvmvdk‹&Sd&if 'g[m ay:vGifygw,f? wkdif;jynfwwkdif;jynfrSm tkyfcsKyfol csrf;csrf;omomeJ‹ ae+yD;awmh wdkif;jynfu qif;&Jae+yDqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'D tkyfcsKyfwJhvl[m wkdif;jynftay:rSm b,fvdkapwem&SdovJqdkwm tifrwefxif&Sm;ygw,f? usrwdk‹EdkifiH ysufpD;cJh&w,fqdkwm ae‹csif;/ ncsif; ysufpD;cJh&wmr[kwfygbl;? (26) ESpfvHk;vHk; tifrwefrS óud;óud;pm;pm;eJ‹ OD;ae0if; vkyfcJhvdk‹om ysufpD;cJh&wmyg? tJh'Dawmh 'Dvdk óud;pm;yef;pm;eJ‹ vkyfEkdifwJh t&nftcsif;udkawmh todtrSwfawmh ðyygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; wkdif;jynfay:rSm oHk;oifhoHk;xdkufwJh t&nftcsif;wckawmh r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹[m tcktcsdefrSm OD;ae0if;&JŒ =oZmtm%mu ±kef;uef+yD;awmh rxGufEkdifvdk‹&Sd&if wkdif;jynf 'Dhxuf ysufpD;oGm;r,fvdk‹ ,Hk=unfygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ 'D ,Hk=unfcsuft& usrwdk‹ wifjyyghr,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ OD;ae0if;[m t+idrf;pm;oGm;+yDvdk‹ ajymygw,f? 'gvnf; usrwdk‹ vufcHygw,f? OD;ae0if;[m t+idrf;pm;orw}uD;vdk‹ ac:rvm;? OuUX}uD;vdk‹ ac:rvm;? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;csKyfvdk‹ ac:rvm;? b,fvdkac:&rSef;awmif rodawmhygbl;? tJ t+idrf;pm;awmh t+idrf;pm;ygyJ? 'gayrJh t+idrf;pm;wa,muftaeeJ‹ wkdif;jynf&JŒudpPawGrSm 0if±_yfaevdk‹ cufwmaygh? usrwdk‹/ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifwdk‹ e0wtaeeJ‹ rSefrSefuefuef wkdif;jynftusKd;ukd xrf;oGm;apcsifw,f? rSefrSefuefuef wdkif;jynftusKd;udk xrf;oGm;r,fqdk&if jynfolvlxkuvnf; 0dkif;+yD;awmh yHhydk;r,f/ ulnDr,fqdkwm usr ,Hk=unfygw,f? oufoufrJh usrwdk‹[m &efpaewm r[kwfygbl;? &efvnf; rpcsifygbl;? pOf;pm;=unfhyg? jynfolvlxkbufrSm vufeufvnf; r&Sdbl;? tm%mvnf; r&Sdbl;? vufeufr&SdwJh/ tm%mr&SdwJh vlxk[m bmjzpfvdk‹ vufeuf/ tm%m&SdwJh tzJG‹tpnf;udk &efpcsif&rSmvJ? b,f&efpcsifyghrvJ? usrwdk‹ tqifajycsifwmaygh? 'Dvdk pdwfxm;awGeJ‹ vkyfaewmudk bmjzpfvdk‹ em;rvnfovJ? bmjzpfvdk‹ oabmraygufvJqdkwm usrawmh pOf;pm;vdk‹ r&Ekdifatmif jzpfaeygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifuvnf; nwkef;u pOf;pm;w,fvdk‹ ajymcJhygw,f? usrvnf; pOf;pm;ygw,f? wcsdefvHk;

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pOf;pm;aewmyJ? 'D tajctaeawGudk ajyvnfatmif b,fvdkvkyf&rvJ? tJh'Dawmh usr pOf;pm;&if; pOf;pm;&if;eJ‹ xGufvmwJhtajzu wckyJ&Sdw,f? rsufESmcsif;qkdif xkdif+yD;awmh ajyvnfr_&Sm&r,f? 'Dvdk ajyvnfr_&SmEkdifrS usrwdk‹ qufvufcsDwufoGm;EkdifrSmyJ? 'Dvdk ajyvnfr_ r&SmEkdifvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxk[m 'DavmufyJ tiftm;enf;ovm;vdk‹ usrwdk‹ ar;&rSmyJ? usrwdk‹vlxk&JŒ tiftm;[m tifrwefrS rsm;ygw,f? pnf;urf;&SdwJh tiftm;/ pepfuswJhtiftm;/ at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ vkyfcsifwJhtiftm;/ 'gudk AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif em;vnfapcsifw,f? usrtaeeJ‹ rae‹wkef;u AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGudk em;axmif&if;eJ‹ pdwfxJrSm trsKd;rsKd;jzpfwmayghav? 'gayrJh wu,fawmh usrpdwfxJrSm tjyif;xefqHk;uawmh 0rf;enf;jcif;yJ? 0rf;enf;w,f usr? pOf;pm;&if; pOf;pm;&if;eJ‹/ em;axmif&if; em;axmif&if;eJ‹/ b,fhES,fh 'Dwkdif;jynf 'Dtajctaea&mufaeovJ? b,fhES,fh usrwdk‹&JŒ tcktcsdeftcgrSm EdkifiH&JŒ OD;pD;jzpfwJh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif[m 'DavmufawmifrS jynfolvlxktay:rSm em;vnfr_enf;aeovJqdkwm usr pdwfxJrSm jzpfaeygw,f? 'Dvdk em;vnfr_ enf;aejcif;[m tifrwefrS 0rf;enf;p&maumif;ygw,f? tck usr ajym&Jw,f? ajym&Jvdk‹ yGifhyGifhvif;vif; ajymr,f? usruawmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif[m rSefrSefuefuef vkyfay;csifwJh apwem&Sdw,fqdkwm ,Hk=unfw,f? 'Dvdk apwem&Sdvsufom;eJ‹ bmjzpfvdk‹ 'Dvdk r[kwfrrSefwJh udpPudk ajymaeovJqdkwm usr em;rvnfEkdifygbl;? 'Dawmh pOf;pm;p&m trsKd;rsKd; &Sdygw,f? bmjzpfvdk‹ 'Dvdk r[kwfrrSefwJh pGyfpJGcsufwifaeovJ? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifudk rSefuefwJh owif;awGudk ray;aevdk‹vm;? 'grSr[kwf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ pdwfxJrSm&SdwJh[mudk vGwfvGwfvyfvyf rajymEkdifvdk‹vm;vdk‹ usr ar;&rSmyJ? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu ajymoGm;ygw,f? usru/ usrvdk‹awmh rajymbl;vdk‹ayghav? 'gayrJh t"duajymoGm;wm usrqdkawmh usrvdk‹ 0efcHyghr,f? e0wtxJrSm qdkvdk‹&Sd&if pdwfoabmxm; uJGvJGr_&Sdw,fqdkwm wcsKdŒu ajymw,fqdkwmudk AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu rESpfòrd‹wJhtaeeJ‹ ajymoGm;ygw,f? [kwfw,f/ usr ajymygw,f? bmjzpfvdk‹ usr 'Dvdkajym&ovJqdkawmh +idrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&; tzJG‹0ifrsm; EkdifiHw0Srf;vHk;rSm vkyfaeyHkrsm;[m awmfawmfyJ pdwfnpfp&maumif;wJhudpP}uD; jzpfaeygw,f? trsm;jynfolodwJhtwdkif;yJ ae&m tawmfrsm;rsm;rSm qdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'Drdkua&pDbufudk xdk;ESufaew,f? wpnudk tm;ay;aew,f/ bufvdkufaew,f/ rsufESmvdkufaew,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ awG‹cJh&ygw,f? pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D; xGufwdkif;/ xGufwkdif; usrwdk‹ 'DudpPudk awG‹cJh&w,f? 'Dawmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ =um;aeyghr,fvdk‹ ajymcJh+yD/ wyfrawmfuvnf; =um;aeyghr,fvdk‹ ajymcJh+yD/ 'Dvdk ajymaewJhtxJu bmjzpfvdk‹ +idrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzJG‹xJu bufvdkufaevJqdkwm usrwdk‹ rar;rjzpfwJh ar;cGef;jzpfaeygw,f? tJh'Dawmh tajz[m ESpfck jzpfEkdifw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif[m ajymwmwrsKd;/ vkyfwmwrsKd;vm;? 'grSr[kwf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifajymovdk rvkyfwJhvlawG &Sdaevdk‹vm;vdk‹ usrwdk‹ ar;&vdrfhr,f? 'Dawmh usrtaeeJ‹ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif ajymovdk rvkyfwJhvlawG&Sdaevdk‹ jzpfwefyg&JŒqdk+yD;awmh e0wxJrSmvnf; oabmxm;ESpfrsKd;&Sdaeygw,fvdk‹ usr ajymwmyg? 'g e0wudk pdwf0rf;uJGapcsifvdk‹ ajymwmr[kwfygbl;? usrtaeeJ‹ tm;vHk;udk òcH+yD;awmh rapmfum;csifvdk‹yg? e0wxJrSm rSefrSefuefuefvkyfcsifwJh vl}uD;awGrsm; &Sdygvsufom;eJ‹ e0w[m rw&m;ojzifh vkyfaew,fvdk‹ usr rpGyfpJGcsifvdk‹ tJh'Dvdk cJGjcm;+yD;awmh ajymwmjzpfygw,f? 'Dtwdkif;yJ wyfrawmfxJrSmvnf; rSefrSefuefuefvkyfcsifwJholrsm; &Sdygvsufom;eJ‹/ rSefrSefuefuefvkyfcsifwJh t&m&Sdrsm;/ wyfrawmfom;rsm; &Sdvsufom;eJ‹ wyfrawmfwckvHk;udk òcH+yD;awmh rpGyfpJGcsifvdk‹ wyfrawmfxJrSmvnf; rSefrSefuefuef r#r#ww vkyfcsifwJhvlrsm;&Sdovdk/ rSefrSefuefuef w&m;r#r#wweJ‹ rvkyfcsifwJholrsm;vnf; &Sdw,fvdk‹ usr cJGjcm;+yD;awmh ajymwmyg? 'Dvdkajymwmudk usr[m wyfrawmfòyduJGa&;twGuf vkyfaew,fqdk+yD;awmh pGyfpJGygw,f? 'g[m vHk;vHk;r[kwfygbl;? usr wyfrawmfudk ròyduJGapcsifbl;qdkwJh[muvnf; xyfwvJvJ ajymae&wJh udpPyg? 'Dawmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifeJ‹/ e0weJ‹/ wyfrawmfwdk‹taeeJ‹ em;vnfapcsifygw,f? usrwdk‹u ajyvnfr_udk vdkcsifygw,f?

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tm%mzDqefa&; qdkwmuvnf; rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mrsm;zDqefa&; jzpfygw,f? qlylatmifv_H‹aqmfjcif; r&SdbJeJ‹ at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mrsm;udk zDqefzdk‹jzpfygw,f? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ rae‹wkef;uvnf; usr &Sif;jycJhygw,f? tcktcsdefrSmqdk&if trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf&JŒ twGif;a&;rª;jzpfwJh/ A[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzJG‹0ifwOD; OD;0if;wifudk rw&m;ojzifh r[kwfrrSefwJhpGyfpJGcsufawG wifygw,f? wif+yD;awmh/ pGyfpJGcsufudkwifawmhvnf; yk'fr 216 eJ‹ wifygw,f? yk'fr 216 qdkwm[m tmrcH ay;udkay;&r,fh yk'fr jzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk tmrcH ay;udkay;&r,fhyk'fr jzpfvsufom;eJ‹ wae‹wkef;u ±Hk;rSm ppfwJhtcgusawmh tmrcH ray;cJhygbl;? tpdk;&a&SŒaeu 'Dyk'fr[m tmrcHay;&r,fqdkwm rSefygw,fvdk‹ 0efcHygw,f? 'gayrJh txufu n$ef=um;csuft& tmrcHay;jcif;udk uef‹uGufygw,fvdk‹ wifjyoGm;ygw,f? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹wdkif;jynfrSm w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;jcif; r&Sdbl;qdkwm tifrwefrS xif&Sm;ygw,f?

'Dvdk taetxm;rsKd;udk usrwdk‹ uef‹uGufaewmyg? 'Dvdk wkdif;jynfwjynfrSm w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;r_ r&Sdbl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if jynfolvlxk&JŒ tcGifhta&;awG[m wae‹xufwae‹ qHk;±H_;oGm;ygvdrfhr,f? qHk;±_H;aew,fqdkwmvnf; usrwdk‹rsufapha&SŒrSmudk jrifae&ygw,f? 'Dvdk rsufapha&SŒrSm jrifae&vdk‹udk rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mrsm;/ w&m;Oya'eJ‹ rudkufnDwJhtrdef‹tm%mrsm;udk zDqef=uygvdk‹ usrwdk‹ ajymwmyJ? wae‹ujzpfoGm;ovdk w&m;±Hk;rSm tmrcHay;&r,fh yk'frwckudk tmrcHray;wJh trdef‹tm%m/ w&m;Oya'udk azmufcsKd;wJh trdef‹tm%mrsKd;udk usrwdk‹ uGef‹uGuf&r,f/ zDqef&r,f?

aemufwck usr ajymcsifygw,f? tJh'D tif;pdefw&m;±Hk;rSm/ 'Dvdk rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mESifh rw&m;wJh Oya'rsm;udk csKd;azmufoGm;wJh ±Hk;rSmqkdvdk‹&Sd&if OD;ae0if; "gwfyHk}uD;udk csdwfxm;ygw,f? 'gudkvnf; usr eJeJrS róudufygbl;? t+idrf;pm;vlwa,muf&JŒ"gwfyHkudk bmjzpfvdk‹ w&m;±Hk;wckrS csdwfqJGxm;ovJqdkwm ar;&rSmyJ? bmrS OD;ae0if;eJ‹ 'Dwkdif;jynfeJ‹ oufqkdifjcif;r&Sdawmhbl;vdk‹ usr ,lqygw,f? oufqkdifr_r&Sdawmhbl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if tpdk;&±Hk;rsm;/ EdkifiHeJ‹oufqkdifwJh ±Hk;rsm;rSm OD;ae0if;&JŒ "gwfyHkudk rcsdwfoifhygbl;? 'Dvdk "gwfyHkudk csdwfqJGxm;jcif;udku OD;ae0if; t+idrf;pm;oGm;+yDqkdwmudk vufrcHwmjzpfygw,f? orwa[mif;rsm;tm;vHk;&JŒ "gwfyHkudk csdwfqJGygqdk&ifawmh tifrwefrS rsm;ygw,f? yxrOD;qHk; orw}uD; pyfa&$odkufyHkudkvnf; csdwf&r,f? OD;bOD;yHkudkvnf; csdwf&r,f? wae‹u uG,fvGefoGm;wJh ref;0if;armif}uD;&JŒ yHkudkvnf; csdwf&r,f? OD;pdefvGifwdk‹/ a'gufwmarmifarmifwdk‹vnf; ygrSmayghav? yHkawGuawmh csdwfp&mawG trsm;}uD;yJ? 'Dawmh orwa[mif;rsm; "gwfyHkcsdwfwJh tpOftvmawmh 'Dwkdif;jynfrSm rjzpfoifhbl;vdk‹ usr xifygw,f? aemufqdkvdk‹&Sd&if ±Hk;awGrSm ae&m&SdawmhrSmr[kwfbl;? 'Dawmh usr AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifudk &J&J0hH0Hh wifjy&Jygw,f? OD;ae0if;&JŒ =oZmtm%mu vHk;0uif;vGwfw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ em;vnfEkdifatmifvdk‹/ ,Hk=unfEdkifatmifvdk‹ jyyg? OD;ae0if;vkyfcJhwJh enf;awGeJ‹ quf+yD;rvkyfygeJ‹? jynfolvlxkudk +cdrf;ajcmufw,f/ [ef‹wm;w,fqdkwm OD;ae0if;&JŒ enf;awGyg? 'Denf;awG[m quf+yD;awmh roHk;ygeJ‹vdk‹ usr ajymcsifygw,f?

'Dawmh e0w taeeJ‹ bmaumif;wmawG vkyfcJhovJqdkawmh usru pOf;pm;&if;/ pOf;pm;&if;eJ‹ pOf;pm;vdk‹&wmu yef;+cHawGyJ&Sdw,f? tJh'gawG aumif;w,fvdk‹ ajym&rvm;rodbl;? 'Dvdkajym&ifvnf; jynfolvlxku vufcHrSmr[kwfbl;? usrudk,fwkdifu yef;+cHwckrS ra&mufzl;bl;? tJh'Dawmh aumif;vm;/ raumif;vm; usr rajymEdkifbl;? 'Dawmh 'DvkdudpPawGrSm 'DvdktajctaeawGrSm usr e0w udk wifjycsifw,f? yef;+cHawGbmawG rvkyfaeygeJ‹? xHk;awG bmawG rokwfaeygeJ‹? jynfolvlxku 'gawG rvdkvm;bl;? wHwm;awGvnf; rvdkcsifygbl;? jynfolvlxkvdkcsifwJh wHwm;[m wckyJ&Sdw,f? 'Drdkua&pD jrefjrefqefqefa&mufr,fh wHwm;yJ? 'Dawmh tEW&m,ftrsKd;rsKd;udk ausmfv$m;+yD;awmh 'Drkdua&pD jrefjrefqefqefa&mufEkdifr,fh tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;qdkwJh wHwm;}uD;udk wnfaqmufay;yg? 'DwHwm;}uD;wckyJ wnfaqmufay;r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if jynfolvlxk[m trsm;}uD;auseyfaerSmyg? 'gtwGufyJ usrwdk‹ awmif;aewmyJ?

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usr AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifudk ajzapcsifwJhudpPawG trsm;}uD;&Sdygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu ajymoGm;wm[m usrwdk‹[m awG‹qHkvdk‹&Sd&if 2§88 ESifh 8§88 ±kyfodrf;zdk‹yJ ajymrSmyJ? 'gawG ruygbl;? usrwdk‹ ajymp&mawG trsm;}uD;&Sdygw,f? bmjzpfvdk‹ rawmfrw&m;wJhenf;awGeJ‹ usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxkudk +cdrf;ajcmufaeovJ? Oyrmtm;jzifhqdkvdk‹&Sd&if wpn[m EkdifiHawmfb¾mrsm;/ EdkifiHawmfypPnf;rsm; oHk;aewmudk b,fvdkta&;,lygovJ? 'Dvdkar;p&mawG usrwdk‹ trsm;}uD;&Sdygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ jynfolvlxkauseyfzdk‹twGuf vkyfay;p&mawG trsm;}uD;&Sdygw,f? usrwdk‹[m nd‡dE_dif;r,f/ aqG;aEG;r,f/ wkdifyifr,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if [dk[m'D[mqdk+yD;awmh uef‹owf+yD;awmh oGm;rSmr[kwfygbl;? nd‡E_dif;p&m/ aqG;aEG;p&m/ wkdifyifp&m trsm;}uD;&Sdygw,f? em;vnfr_vJGaewmvnf; trsm;}uD;&Sdygw,f? 'Dawmh tcktcsdefrSm jynfolvlxk[m tifrwefrS pdwfyifyef;/ udk,fyifyef;&Sdygw,f? qefaps;awGuvnf; }uD;w,f? ukefaps;awGuvnf; tifrwefrS }uD;w,f? jynfolvlxkuvnf; qif;&Jw,f? wae‹xufwae‹ 'Drdkua&pDtcGifhta&;rsm;[mvnf; enf;vmw,f? usrwdk‹bufu tzrf;tqD;cH&wJhvlawGuvnf; wae‹xufwae‹ rsm;vmw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'DvdktcuftcJawG=um;xJu v_yf&Sm;ae&wJh jynfolvlxk[m bmjzpfvdk‹ 'DavmufawmifrS 'kuQcHae&ovJqdkwm AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif oHk;oyfapcsifygw,f? tcGifhta&;rsm;udk vdkcsifvdk‹yJ? vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm; vdkcsifvdk‹yJ? tcktcsdefrSm vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm; qHk;±_H;ae&wm epfemvGef;vdk‹/ tepfem quf+yD;cH+yD;awmh &wJhtxd vkyfr,fqdkwJh ZJGeJ‹ jynfolvlxk[m v_yf&Sm;aewmyJ? 'gudk AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif em;vnfapcsifygw,f? jynfolvlxk[m wyfrawmfeJ‹ xdyfwdkufrawG‹csifygbl;? 'gvnf; usr odwmyJ? vufeufr&SdwJh jynfolvlxk[m aoewfudkifxm;wJh wyfrawmfom;awGeJ‹ b,fxdyfwdkufawG‹csifyghrvJ? usrwdk‹uvnf; rawG‹apcsifygbl;? usr c%c% ajymygw,f? usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxkxJrS aemufxyf wa,mufrS aoG;ajrrusapcsifygbl;? wpn0ifyJjzpfjzpf/ usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf0ifyJjzpfjzpf/ omref b,fygwD0ifrSr[kwfwJh jynfolvlxkyJjzpfjzpf/ b,fol‹bufurS aoG;ajrrusapcsifygbl;? wyfrawmfbufuvnf; jynfolvlxkeJ‹ yÉdyuQjzpfjcif;tm;jzifh b,fol‹udkrS aoG;ajrrusapcsifygbl;? 'g[m rjzpfoifhwJhudpPyg? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif rdef‹cGef;xJrSmvnf; ygoGm;ygw,f? usrwdk‹ wyfrawmfom;rsm;[m a&SŒwef;rSm trsm;}uD;yJ usqHk;ae&ygw,f? a&SŒwef;rSm usrwdk‹ wyfrawmfom;rsm; usqHk;w,fqdkwm 0rf;omp&mudpPr[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹EkdifiHtwGuf trsm;}uD; 0rf;enf;p&mudpPjzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk a&SŒwef;rSm usrwdk‹ wyfrawmfom;rsm; usqHk;aewmvnf; =umyg+yD? jynfwGif;ppf}uD;a=umifh 'DvkdyJ usqHk;ae=u&ygw,f? 'DjynfwGif;ppf}uD; +idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf (26) ESpftwGif; OD;ae0if; bmvkyfcJhovJ? bmrSrvkyfcJhygbl;?

22

owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJG trSwf – 6 Towif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGudk 1989 ckESpfwGif a':atmifqef;pk=unf. aetdrfY usif;yonf[k ,lq&aomfvnf; usif;yonfhae‹&ufudk pmwnf;taeESifh odEkdifpGrf;r&Sdyg?

* * * usrwdk‹ 'Dae‹ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrSmawmh &Sif;p&mawGu trsm;}uD;ygyJ? b,fup&rSef;awmif

rodygbl;? tJh'Dawmh &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; pvdkufwmuawmh e0w&JŒ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGuae pvdkufwm ydk+yD;awmh tqifajyvdrfhr,fvdk‹ xifygw,f? tck e0w[m qdkvdk‹&Sd&if =umoyaw;ae‹wkef;u

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owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGwck vkyfoGm;ygw,f? 'Dowif;pm&Sif;vif;yJG&JŒ t"du&nf&G,fcsufuawmh e0w&JŒbufu tjypfr&Sda=umif;/ usrwdk‹bufu tjypf&Sda=umif; qdkygawmhav? tJh'Dawmh 'DudpPav;awGudkawmh usr ajz&Sif;csifygw,f? b,fbufu tjypf&Sdw,f/ b,fbufu tjypfr&Sdbl;qdkwm usrwdk‹ ajymcsifvdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf&JŒ &nf&G,fcsufawGuawmh b,fvdkvJ/ usrwdk‹&JŒ vkyfief;awGu b,fvdkvJ/ usrwdk‹&JŒ oabmxm;awGu b,fvdkvJqdkwm rSefrSefuefuef &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; odEkdifatmifvdk‹ jzpfygw,f? yxrOD;qHk;uawmh e0w&JŒ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJG&JŒ t"du&nf&G,fcsufuawmh usrudk wdkufcdkufw,fvdk‹ jrifygw,f? 'g[m yk*~Kdvfa&;t& wdkufcdkufwmvnf; ygygw,f? EkdifiHa&;t& wdkufcdkufwmvnf; ygygw,f? tzufzufu wkdufcdkufw,fqdkawmh aemufqHk;usawmh usrudk trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyftaeeJ‹ wdkufcdkufw,fvdk‹yJ jrifygw,f?

wcsuf+yD;wcsuf &Sif;oGm;r,fqdk&if ta&;}uD;qHk; tcsufESpfcsuf&Sdygw,f? wcsufu bmvJqdkawmh usr[m wyfrawmf&JŒ òyduJGa&;udk OD;wnfaeygw,f? 'kwd,uawmh usr[m uGefjrLepfqefygw,f? trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf[m Auy enf;awGeJ‹ vkyfudkifaew,fqdkwJh tcsufESpfcsufjzpfygw,f?

yxrOD;qHk;tcsufeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usr[m wyfrawmfudk òyduJGatmif vkyfaew,fqdkwmuawmh usr &J&J0hH0Hh jiif;qefEkdifygw,f? usrajymwJh rdef‹cGef;wkdif;/ rdef‹cGef;wdkif;rSm wyfrawmfudk ròyduJGapcsifygbl;? wyfrawmfòyduJGvdk‹&Sd&if wkdif;jynfyJ emygvdrfhr,fqdkwm usr ajymcJhygw,f? 'gudk bmjzpfvdk‹ e0wu xnfh+yD;awmh rajymoGm;vJ? rdef‹cGef;wdkif;/ rdef‹cGef;wkdif;rSm usr wyfrawmfeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ ajymvdk‹&Sd&if tJh'D[m rygbJ r+yD;ygbl;? wyfrawmfòyduJGvdk‹ rjzpfbl;? wyfrawmfòyduJGvdk‹&Sd&if wdkif;jynfepfemr,fvdk‹ usr ajymoGm;ygw,f? 'D[mudk csefxm;+yD;awmh usr[m wyfrawmfòyduJGa&;twGuf vkyfaew,fqdkwm oufoufrJh rrSefruefenf;awGeJ‹ usrudk wkdufcdkufwmyJ? 'Dawmh e0w&JŒ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGwckvHk;[m rrSefruefenf;awGeJ‹ usreJ‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfudk wkdufcdkufoGm;w,fvdk‹ usr jrifygw,f? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ qdkvdk‹&Sd&if e0wu pGyfpJGwm[m usrwdk‹[m qlylatmifv_H‹aqmfaew,f? trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfu vkyfvdkufrSjzifh jy\emcsnf;yJ? tjcm;EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;uawmh xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf; at;at;csrf;csrf; vkyfoGm;ygw,fqdkwJh taetxm;eJ‹ ajymoGm;ygw,f?

'Dawmh usrwdk‹&JŒ pnf;±Hk;a&;tjzpftysufuav;awGudk jyef+yD;awmh &Sif;jycsifygw,f? yxrOD;qHk; usr pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;xGufwm[m atmufwdkbmv 1988 ckESpfujzpfygw,f? wkdif; (4) wkdif;eJ‹ &Srf;jynfe,fajrmufydkif;udk usr a&mufcJhygw,f? tJ'Dc&D;xGufwkef;uqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usr tifrwefrS qifqifjcifjcif ajymygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u usrajymcJhwJh udpPrsm;[m tzJG‹wGif;udpPyJ? tm%m±l;awG rvkyf=ueJ‹? trwfa&m*g rx=ueJ‹? ae&ma&m*g rx=ueJ‹? tcsif;csif; nDnGwf=u? 'Dtcsdefuaep+yD; ae&ma&m*g xvdk‹&Sd&if jy\emwufr,f? 'Drdkua&pDoabmxm;t& usifh}uH=u? 'DvdkyJ usr ajymoGm;wmyJ? usr wdkufcdkufwJhvl&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹twGif;xJu vlawGyJ? usrwdk‹tzJG‹twGif;u ae&mtwGuf/ emrnftwGuf vkyfwJhvlawGudk usr wkdufcdkufajymqdkoGm;wmyJ? e0w udkvnf; usr bmrS rajymcJhbl;? wpnawmifrS tifrwefrS usrajymwm enf;ygw,f? wcsKdŒae&mrSm wpn u 'Dvdk'Dvdkajym+yD;awmh pnf;±Hk;aew,fvdk‹ajymwm usr jyef+yD;awmh wkef‹jyefwm&Sdygw,f? tJ'Dpnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;wkef;u usr tifrwefrS qifqifjcifjcif ajymygw,f? 'Dpnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;wifrubl;? aemuf rGefjynfe,f pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;pOfvnf; 'Dtwkdif;ygyJ? rGefjynfe,f pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;xGufwkef;u qdkvdk‹&Sd&if y&dowf[m aomif;eJ‹csD+yD;awmh usrwdk‹udk vmóudygw,f? tJ'D[mudk e0w&JŒ toHk;tE_ef;t& tcGifhaumif;,l+yD;awmh a[majymcJhw,fqdkwm wcgrS r&Sdygbl;? usr t+rJyJ ajymcJhw,f? 'DtcsdfefrSm usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ a[majymydkifcGifhr&Sdygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ jynfolvlxkudk E_wfquf±HkE_wfqufygw,f? trsm;tm;jzifh usr ajymcJhwm[m usef;rmygap? csrf;omygap? wcgwavawmhvnf; &efolrsKd; ig;yg;tEW&m,frS uif;a0;ygapvdk‹ usr xnfh+yD;awmh ajymcJhygw,f? 'Dxufydk+yD;awmh usr rajymcJhygbl;? 'Davmufawmif usrwdk‹ xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf; qifqifjcifjcif vkyfygw,f? tJh'DvdkvkyfwJhtxJrSm rGefjynfe,fpnf;±Hk;a&;c&D; +yD;wJhtcgusawmh usrwdk‹&JŒ pnf;±Hk;a&;wm0efcHrsm;udk

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zrf;w,f? b,fvdkta=umif;jycsufeJ‹vJ? 2§88 ? vlig;a,mufxuf ydkw,fwJh? vluvnf; aomif;csDaeawmh vlig;a,mufxufawmh ydkwmuawmh rSefwmaygh? usr 'gawmh rjiif;ygbl;? 'gayrJhvnf; tm;vHk; at;at;csrf;csrf;yJ/ bmrS qlylr_r&SdcJhbl;? 'Dawmh e0wajymwm wjcm;EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;oGm;vdk‹&Sd&if vlxku aomif;aomif;jzjz óudqdkcJhayr,fh bmrS jy\emrjzpfcJhygbl;? usrwdk‹usrS jy\emjzpfw,fqdkwJh taetxm;eJ‹ ajymoGm;cJhw,f? 'Dawmh usr axmufjyEkdifygw,f?

yxrOD;qHk; pnf;±Hk;a&;xGufwkef;u jynfolvlxku aomif;eJ‹ odef;eJ‹ csD+yD;awmh óudqdkcJhayr,fh bmjy\emrS rwufcJhbl;? tm;vHk; at;at;csrf;csrf;yJ? vufckwfwD;w,f? usef;rmygapajymw,f? 'DavmufyJ? tm;vHk; at;at;csrf;csrf; jzpfcJhw,f? usrudk,fwkdifuvnf; bmrS w&m;a[myJGawG/ bmawG rvkyfcJhygbl;? tJ'Dvdk rvkyfcJhayr,fh usr rGefjynfe,f pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;u jyefvm+yD;wJhtcsdefrSm 'DZifbmv (20) &ufae‹rSm e0w taeeJ‹ n$ef=um;csufwck xkwf+yD;awmh wkdif;eJ‹ jynfe,fawGudk jzef‹vdkufygw,f? tJ'Dn$ef=um;csufu bmvJqdkawmh 2§88 udk jyif;jyif;xefxef/ jyif;jyif;xefxefeJ‹ 2§88 udk vdkufemzdk‹vkyf&r,fqdk+yD;awmh n$ef=um;csuf xkwfvdkufygw,f? tJ'Duwnf;u usrwdk‹udk wkdufcdkufvm+yDqdkwm tifrwefrS xif&Sm;ygw,f? bmrS rjzpfbJeJ‹ at;at;csrf;csrf; vkyfcJhvsufom;eJ‹ 'D vlig;a,mufxuf ydkygw,fqdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹&JŒ pnf;±Hk;a&;wm0efcHrsm;udk ta&;,lcJhw,f? 'g[m (20) &ufae‹ 'DZifbmu xkwfvdkufwJh n$ef=um;csufjzpfygw,f? 'DZifbmv (27) &ufrSm usrtar qHk;oGm;ygw,f? ararqHk;oGm;wJh udpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ e0w u vl}uD;rsm;[m vmygw,f? tultnDay;ygw,f? 'Dpsmye acsmacsmarmarmjzpfzdk‹twGuf usreJ‹ nd‡E_dif;wkdifyifygw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u usr[m tifrwefrS tqifajyEkdifatmifvdk‹ óud;pm;cJhygw,f? wcsKdŒuae+yD;awmh ararh&JŒ psmyeudk tcGifhaumif;,l+yD;awmh qlylzdk‹óud;pm;wJh tpdwftydkif;awGvnf; usr xdef;cJhygw,f? rvkyfygeJ‹/ 'D[m usrwdk‹tm;vHk; vufwJG+yD;awmh vkyf&r,fhudpPjzpfygw,f? e0weJŒ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfeJ‹ wjcm; 'Drdkua&pDvdkvm;wJh tpkta0;awGeJ‹ wyfrawmfeJ‹ tm;vHk;tqifajyatmifvdk‹ vkyf&r,fhudpPjzpfygw,f? tqifajyEkdifw,fqdk+yD; usrudk,fwkdifyJ tqifajyEkdifatmifvdk‹ tm;vHk; aoaocsmcsm tqifajyatmif vkyfcJhygw,f? 'gvnf; e0w u vl}uD;awG od+yD;om;yJ? rodwm r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹tdrfxJudk vm+yD;awmh ulnDwJh wyfrawmft&m&Sdrsm;/ wyfrawmfom;rsm;vnf; od+yD;om;yJ? rodwm r[kwfygbl;? b,favmuf usr wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfolvlxk=um;rSm tqifajyatmifvdk‹/ e0weJ‹ usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf=um;rSm tqifajyatmifvdk‹/ wyfrawmfeJ‹ usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfeJ‹ wjcm; 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;=um;rSm tqifajyatmifvdk‹ usr vkyfcJhw,fqdkwm[m e0w u vl}uD;rsm; od+yD;om;yg? tJh'Dvdk vkyfcJhom;eJ‹ usrwdk‹udk quf+yD;awmh nd‡nd‡E_dif;E_dif; wkdifwdkifyifyif rvkyfovJ? psmyeudpP+yD;vdk‹ usr yxrOD;qHk;xGufcJhwJh pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;[m {&m0wDwkdif; pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;jzpfygw,f? {&m0wDwkdif;rSm qdkvdk‹&Sd&if Adkvfrª;csKyfjrifhatmif[m tifrwefrS wif;rmw,f? 'Drdkua&pDbufawmfom;awGudk trsKd;rsKd; xdk;ESufaew,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ od+yD;om;yg? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usrwdk‹ e0wudk tm;vHk;wifjyygw,f? usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf wnfaxmifuwnf;u 'Drkdua&pDbufudk xdk;ESufwm/ e0w&JŒ =um;aer,fqdkwJh 0g'eJ‹ rudkufnDwJhvkyfief;awG/ 'DudpPawGtm;vHk; usrwdk‹ wifjyw,f? pma&;+yD;awmh usrwdk‹ wifjycJhw,f? uef‹uGufcJhw,f? uef‹uGufcJhvdk‹awmifrS e0wxJu e0wtzJG‹tpnf;xJrSm vkyfaewJh wyfrawmft&m&Sdwa,mufuawmifrS ajymygao;w,f? usr rSwfrdygao;w,f? uef‹uGufw,fqdkwJh toHk;tE_ef;udk roHk;ygeJ‹wJh? uef‹uGufw,fqdkwm tifrwefrS jyif;xefvGef;vdk‹ygwJh? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹awmifrS ajym&ygao;w,f? ruef‹uGuf&if bmvkyf&rSmvJ? 'DtcsdefrSm usrwdk‹[m uef‹uGuf&rSmyJ? 'Dvdkrw&m;wJhudpPawGudk uef‹uGuf&rSmyJ? usrwdk‹ quf+yD;awmh uef‹uGufygw,f? uef‹uGuf+yD;awmh wifjyygw,f? bmawGjzpfaew,f/ bmawGjzpfaew,f? e0wtaeeJ‹ ta&;,lay;yg? 'Duef‹uGufw,fvdk‹ ajymvdk‹ emw,fqdkawmh usrwdk‹ ajymif;+yD; “wifjyygw,f” qdk+yD;rS/ ajymif;+yD;awmh toHk;tE_ef;av;udk oHk;vdkufygao;w,f? 'DvdkeJ‹ usrwdk‹ wcsdefvHk; vkyfcJhygw,f? bmyJjzpfjzpf rGefjynfe,frSm 'Dvdkjzpfaeygw,f/

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{&m0wDwkdif;rSm 'Dvdkjzpfaeygw,f? [dkae&mrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'DvkdyJ rw&m;wJhenf;awGeJ‹ r0w rsm;[m 'Drkdua&pDbufawmfom;rsm;udk ESdrfeif;aeygw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹tm;vHk; w&m;0ifpmawGeJ‹ a&;+yD;awmh wifcJhygw,f? bmrS ta&;,ljcif;qdkwm usrwdk‹ rawG‹cJhygbl;? bmrSvnf; wkef‹jyefjcif;qdkwm r&SdcJhygbl;? usrwdk‹udkvnf; pmjyefw,f&,fvdk‹ r&SdcJhygbl;? {&m0wDwkdif; pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;pOfrxGufcifu usr[m Adkvfrª;csKyfcifnGef‹udk pma&;cJhygw,f? usr {&m0wDwkdif; pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;pOfeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹/ a&G;aumufyJGrsm;eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ Adkvfrª;csKyfcifnGef‹eJ‹ vm+yD;awmh aqG;aEG;wkdifyifcsifygw,f? 'Dvdkajym&wJh ta=umif;[m wif;rmw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ od+yD;om;/ {&m0wDwkdif;oGm;vdk‹&Sd&if Adkvfrª;csKyfjrifhatmif[m jy\em&Smr,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ od+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? jy\emawG rwufapcsifvdk‹? aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; usrtaeeJ‹ ararhpsmyeeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ tm;vHk;ajyvnfatmifvdk‹/ acsmarmatmifvdk‹ vkyfEkdifcJhw,f? wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfolt=um;rSm/ wyfrawmfeJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹tpnf;rsm;t=um;rSm/ e0weJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;t=um;rSm ajyvnfatmifvdk‹ vkyfEkdifcJhw,f? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹ wkdif;jynftay:rSm apwemxm;w,f/ tm;vHk; acsmacsmarmarmeJ‹ jzpfoGm;apcsifw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'DvdkyJ aqG;aEG;jcif;/ wkdifyifjcif;tm;jzifh ajyvnfr_udk &SmEkdifr,fvdk‹ usr ,Hk=unfvdk‹ 'Dtwdkif;yJ Adkvfrª;csKyfcifnGef‹udk usr pma&;cJhygw,f? Adkvfrª;csKyfcifnGef‹u tJ'Dwkef;uawmh pmjyefygw,f? tcsdefr&Sdwmrdk‹vdk‹/ wjcm;EkdifiHa&;ygwDawGuvnf; awG‹csifwJh[mawG odyfrsm;aewJhtwGufa=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ rawG‹Edkifygbl;vdk‹ pmjyefygw,f? 'geJ‹ usrwdk‹ {&m0wDwkdif;pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;pOfudk xGufcJhw,f? pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;pOfwav#mufvHk;rSm usrwdk‹udk trsKd;rsKd;wdkufcdkufw,f? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ tck usr xl;xl;axGaxG rajymawmhygbl;? tm;vHk; 'Du owif;axmufrsm;vnf; =um;+yD;wJhudpPjzpfygw,f? enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ‹ usrwdk‹udk wkdufckduf±Hkwifrubl;? jynfolvlxkudk twif;tusyf +cdrf;ajcmufcJhw,f? usrwdk‹udk xGuf=unfh&ifyif ypfowfr,fqdkwJhtxd +cdrf;ajcmufcJhw,f? 'DudpPawGeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹vnf; usrwdk‹ e0w udk wifjycJhwmyJ? bmrS ta&;r,lbl;? vspfv#L±_xm;vdkufw,f? 'g rqkdifovdkaevdkufw,f? rqdkifovdkaevdk‹ b,f&rvJ? qkdifwmaygh? e0w taeeJ‹ trsm;}uD;wm0ef&Sdwmaygh/ wkdif;jynftajctaeawGeJ‹ ywfoufvdk‹? tJ'Duwnf;u e0w apwem[m rSefyg&JŒvm;qdkwm odyfpOf;pm;&r,fh jy\em}uD;jzpfvm+yD? e0w[m wu,fyJ apwemrSefw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if bmjzpfvdk‹ 'DavmufawmifrS rawmfrw&m;jzpfaewJhudpPawGudk vspfv#L±_aeovJ? rawmfrw&m; r0wrsm;/ w0wrsm; vkyfaewmudk bmjzpfvdk‹ rodcsif[efaqmifaeovJ? bmjzpfvdk‹ usrwdk‹ wifjycsufrsm;udk *±krpdkuf/ *±kwpdkufvkyfzdk‹awmifrS r[kwfygbl;? enf;enf;yg;yg;av;rsm; 'Dpmudk &w,fqdk&ifawmifrS wckckyJ/ pm&w,fvdk‹awmif todtrSwfrðybl;? vHk;vHk; *±krpdkufwJhtaetxm;eJ‹aew,f? 'g[m tifrwefrS roifhawmfwmbJ? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfudk w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwifcGifhay;xm;w,f? wjcm;'Drdkua&pDvdkvm;wJh EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;udkvnf; w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwifcGifhay;xm;w,f? 'D w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwifcGifhay;xm;+yD;rSawmh w&m;0if rSwfyHkwifxm;wJh EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGudk vHkòcHr_ay;oifhygw,f? 'Dvdk vHkòcHr_ray;wJhtjyif wkdufcdkufaewmudk =unfh+yD;awmhrsm; vufckwfrsm; wD;aeovm;qdkwm pOf;pm;&wJhtajctaeudk a&mufoGm;ygw,f? tJh'Duae wajz;ajz; usrwdk‹[m e0wtaeeJ‹ usrwdk‹&JŒ &Sdoifh&SdxdkufwJh tcGifhta&;awGudk rumuG,fay;Ekdif&ifawmh udk,fh[mudkyJ umuG,fay;&awmhrSmyJ? usrwdk‹udk wdkufcdkufaewJh r0wrsm;/ w0wrsm;udk e0w u =unfh+yD; rxdef;&ifawmh usrwdk‹udk,fwkdifom udk,fh&JŒumuG,fa&;twGuf vkyf&r,fqdkwJh[m[m usrwdk‹ em;vnfvmygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usr aemufydkif; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;yJ ajymygw,f? e0wtaeeJ‹ =um;aewmrS [kwf&JŒvm;? AdkvfcsKyfrª;}uD;apmarmif[m e0w =um;aer,fvdk‹ ajymcJhw,f? wyfrawmf[m =um;aer,fvdk‹ ajymcJhw,f? 'gayrJh usrwdk‹ jrif&oavmufawmh wyfrawmfxJu e0w/ w0w/ r0w tp&SdwJh tzJG‹tpnf;awGxJu t&m&SdwcsKdŒ[m =um;aer_r&Sdygbl;? 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkawGudk wkdufcdkufaeygw,f? 'g[m usrwdk‹ uGufuGufuGif;uGif; jrifae&ygw,f? 'Dtwdkif;yJ usr ajymygw,f? 'Dawmh e0wxJrSmaum/ w0w/ r0wwdk‹xJrSmaum/ wyfrawmfxJrSmaum rSefrSefuefuef vkyfcsifwJholrsm;

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&Sdw,fvdk‹ usr ,Hk=unfw,f/ usr ajymcJhw,f? 'Dvdkajymcsifwm rSefrSefuefuef vkyfcsifwJhvlawGudk rapmfum;csifvdk‹yJ? usr wyfrawmfwckvHk;udk òcH+yD;awmh wdkufcdkufr_udk usr vHk;vHk;rvdkvm;ygbl;? jynfolvlxka&m/ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pka&m/ t&if 1988 ckESpfjzpf&yfawGa=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ emusnf;+yD;awmh wyfrawmfudk wdkufcdkufw,fqdkwm vlwkdif;todygyJ? 'D wyfrawmf/ wyfrawmfqdk+yD; wdkufcdkufwmudk róudufvdk‹ usru 'DvdkcJGjcm;+yD;awmh ajymwm/ wyfrawmfxJrSm tm;vHk;qdkwm r[kwfbl;? qdk;wJhvlawG&Sdovdk/ aumif;wJhvlawGvnf; &Sdw,f? wu,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'Dvdk wyfrawmfemrnfysufapwmu udk,fh&JŒ tm%mwnfwHhckdif+rJa&;twGuf vkyfaewJhvlenf;pk/ vlwpka=umifhom jzpfygw,fqdk+yD;awmh usr ajymcJhygw,f? 'DvdkajymcJhwmudk usr[m wyfrawmfòyduJGatmif vkyfaew,fqdk+yD;awmh e0w u usrudk pGyfpJGw,f? b,fvdkajymapcsifovJ? wyfrawmfxJrSm vlqdk;csnf;yJvdk‹ ajymapcsifovm;? rajymEkdifygbl;? 'g rSefwJhudpPrS r[kwfbJ? wyfrawmfxJrSm vlaumif;awG&Sd&if &Sdw,fvdk‹ usrwdk‹ ajym&r,f? wyfrawmfxJrSm vlqdk;awG&Sd&if &Sdw,fvdk‹ usrwdk‹ ajym&rSmyJ? usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfxJrSmvnf; vlaumif;awG&SdwmyJ? vlqdk;awGvnf; &SdwmyJ? 'gudk &J&J0hH0Hh ajym&Jygw,f? usrwdk‹xJrSm qdk;wJhvlawG&Sd&if usrwdk‹ xdef;oGm;r,f? 'D qdk;wJhvlawGudk aumif;atmifvdk‹ ðyjyifr,f? ðyjyifvdk‹r&&if xkwfypfvdkufr,f/ 'Dtwdkif;yJ usrwdk‹ vkyfoGm;rSmyJ/ 'Dawmh usrwdk‹[m e0weJ‹ wyfrawmfxJrSmvnf; 'Dtwdkif;yJ/ aumif;wJhvlawG&Sdovdk qdk;wJhvlawGvnf; &Sdw,fqdkwm axmufjyw,f? 'gudk wyfrawmfòyduJGatmif vkyfw,fqdk+yD; usrudk pGyfpJGygw,f? wyfrawmfòyduJGa&;qdkwm usr vHk;vHk;rvdkvm;ygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usr ajymygw,f? wyfrawmfudk òyduJGatmifvkyfw,fqkdwm yxr apmif;+yD;awmh ajymygw,f? wnfhwnfhawmh rajymbl;? EkdifiHa&;ygwDwcku/ EkdifiHa&;ygwDwck&JŒ acgif;aqmifac:olwOD;u pojzifhayghav/ trsKd;rsKd;toHk;tE_ef;av;awG vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfowif;pmu tifrwefrS awmfygw,f? 'Dvdk toHk;tE_ef;av;awGeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹? tJh'Dawmh 'DvdktoHk;tE_ef;av;awGeJ‹ usrwdk‹udk wkdufcdkufvmygw,f? wdkufcdkufvmwJhtcgusawmh usruawmh tJvdkapmif;+yD;awmh wkdufcdkufwmrsKd; em;rvnfbl;/ vkyfvnf; rvkyfcsifbl;? ajymp&m&Sd&if yGifhyGifhvif;vif; wnfhwnfhrwfrwfyJ ajymcsifw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹yJ usr ajymw,f? usrwdk‹udk 'Dvdkwkdufvmw,f? wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfol=um;rSm pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvdk‹ vkyfw,f? uJ 'Dvdkqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh usrwdk‹ &Sif;&Sif; 'DudpPawGudk udkifwG,f&awmhr,f? wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfol=um;rSm pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvkyfcJhwm b,folvkyfcJhwmvJ? OD;ae0if;vkyfcJhwmyJ? usr axmufjywmyJ? OD;ae0if;[m (26) ESpftwGif; rqvygwD wnfwHhckdif+rJa&;qdkwm[m olwa,muf&JŒtm%m wnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;twGuf vkyfcJhwmygyJ? tJ'DvdkvkyfwJhae&mrSm wyfrawmfudk ol‹&JŒ vufudkif'kwftaeeJ‹ oHk;cJhw,f? 'Dawmh usr 'gudk ajymcJhwm? OD;ae0if;[m wyfrawmfudk rdrd&JŒ tm%mwnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;twGuf vufudkif'kwftjzpf oHk;cJhvdk‹ wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfol=um;rSm pdwf0rf;uJG&w,f? wyfrawmf&JŒ *k%foduQm[m usqif;cJh&w,f? 'g[m usr ajymcJhw,f? rSefw,f? xyf+yD;ajymr,f? 'g wyfrawmfòyduJGa&;twGufr[kwfbl;? wyfrawmfudk tvJGoHk;pm;vkyfcJhwm emusnf;vGef;vdk‹ usr ajymcJhwm? 'Dvdkwyfrawmfudk tvJGoHk;pm;rvkyfoifhbl;qdkwm xkwfjycsifvdk‹ usr ajymwm? wyfrawmfxJrSm&SdwJh t&m&SdawGeJ‹ e0wxJrSm&SdwJh t&m&Sdrsm;[mvnf; vlwOD;wa,mufaumif;usKd;twGuf/ vlwOD;wa,muf tm%mwnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;twGuf rvkyfoifhbl;qdkwm usr xkwfjycsifvdk‹ ajymwmyJ? 'Dtwkdif;yJ usr quf+yD;awmh ajymoGm;rSmjzpfygw,f? 'gvnf; wyfrawmfòyduJGa&;twGuf ajymwmr[kwfygbl;? wyfrawmf[m *k%foduQm&Sd&SdeJ‹ 'Dwkdif;jynfrSm wnfwHhckdif+rJa&;twGuf usr ajymoGm;wmyg? wyfrawmfu nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹ jynfolvlxkbufu &yfwnfzdk‹twGuf ajymoGm;wmyg? wyfrawmf[m wEkdifiHvHk;twGuf jzpfygw,f? vlwa,muftwGuf r[kwfygbl;? vlwpktwGuf r[kwfygbl;qdkwm azaz wyfrawmfudk xlaxmifuwnf;u ajymcJhwJhudpPyg? 'Dtwkdif;yJ usr quf+yD;ajymoGm;rSmyJ? tJ'Dawmh 'D[majymwmudk b,fvdkwyfrawmfòyduJGatmif vkyfovJqdkwm usr ar;&rSmyJ? bmrS wyfrawmfudk òyduJGapcsifwJhpdwfawG rygygbl;?

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wcgxJ quf+yD;awmh ajym&rSm eJeJawmh uav;uvm;awmh qefygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; ajymp&m&Sdwmawmh ajymoGm;&rSmyJ? usruae+yD;awmhvnf; rdk‹rdk‹jrifhatmifvdk wyfrawmfudk o0%fv$mawGbmawG ydk‹+yD;awmh tm;ray;bl;qdkwJhudpPyg? 'g usr rae‹u tif;pdefrSmvnf; ajymcJhygw,f? usrtaeeJ‹awmh r,foa0grSm wyfrawmfom;awG wdkufaewm o0%fv$mawmh rydk‹cJhbl;? [kwfw,f? tckvnf; ydk‹zdk‹rpOf;pm;ygbl;? 'gayrJh r,foa0grSmoGm;+yD;awmh 'Dwyfrawmfom;rsm;udk ESpfodrfhygqdk&if usr ESpffodrfhr,f? reufjzefoGm;qdk&if usr oGm;r,f? usr oGm;&Jygw,f? usr wyfrawmfom;rsm;tay: apwemtjynfht0xm;ygw,f? ta0;uae+yD;awmh pma&;ae±HkeJ‹awmh rauseyfaeygbl;? wu,fyJ oGm;+yD;awmh usr ðypkay;yghr,f? tJ'Dawmh wu,fawmh wyfrawmftay:rSm apwem&Sdvm;/ r&Sdvm; e0w u odapcsifvdk‹&Sd&if usrudk r,foa0goGm;zdk‹ zdwfac:vdkufyg? usr oGm;yghr,f? 'Dvdk r[kwf/ rrSefwJh ao;odrfwJhenf;awGeJ‹ usreJ‹ wyfrawmf=um; pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvkyfaewm usr eJeJrS róudufygbl;? jynfolvlxkeJ‹ wyfrawmf=um;rSm usru pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvkyfw,fvdk‹ ajymw,f? trSefrSmuawmh usreJ‹ wyfrawmf=um;rSm pdwf0rf;uJGatmif tck e0w u vkyfaew,f? 'g bmjzpfvdk‹ vkyfaewmvJ? usr ar;&rSmyJ? OD;ae0if;&JŒ n$ef=um;csuft& vkyfaewmvm;qdkwm usr ar;csifygw,f? 'Dvdkar;wJhtcgusawmh b,fvdkjyefajzrvJ/ usru wyfrawmfudk òyduJGatmifvkyfw,fvdk‹ jyefajzrSmvm;? bmrS usr wyfrawmfudk òyduJGatmifvkyfwJhudpPawG rygygbl;? 'g yxrtcsuf? usr wyfrawmfudk ròyduJGapcsifbl;? wyfrawmfxJu rSefrSefuefuef *k%foduQm&Sd&SdeJ‹ EkdifiHawmf&JŒ opPmcHrsm; jzpfapcsifw,f? 'gawmh usr xyfwvJvJ ajymoGm;rSmyJ? 'kwd,udpPuawmh Auy udpP? usrwdk‹udk uGefjrLepf/ uGefjrLepfqdk+yD;awmh pGyfpJGwm=umyg+yD? enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ‹ pGyfpJGcJhw,f? OD;atmif}uD;u pGyfpJGcJhw,f? e0w u pGyfpJGcJhw,f? wyfrawmfxJu tcsKdŒu pGyfpJGcJhw,f? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ wyfrawmfxJrSm rrSefuefwJh 0g'jzef‹csda&;awG&Sdw,fvdk‹ usr ajymcJhw,f? usr xyf+yD;awmh ajymyghr,f? usr 'DudpPudk AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifudk rsufESmcsif;qdkif+yD;awmhudk ajymcJhw,f? wyfrawmfxJrSm usreJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ r[kwfrrSefuefwJh 0g'jzef‹csda&;awG vkyfaew,f? 'gudk usr róudufygbl;qdkwm usr ajymcJhygw,f? wyfrawmfxJrSm qkdvdk‹&Sd&if usrudk yk*~Kdvfa&;t& wkdufcdkufwmawG&Sdw,f? uGefjrLepfqdk+yD; wdkufcdkufwmawG&Sdw,f? tJ'Dawmh bma=umifhrsm; usrudk uGefjrLepfqdk+yD; wdkufcdkufovJ? wcgwavusawmh usrudk CIA qdk+yD;awmh wdkufcdkufvdkufao;w,f? tJ'Dawmh CIA eJ‹ uGefjrLepfqdkwm/ rwlbl;qdkwm/ em;vnf=u&JŒvm;? uGefjrLepfeJ‹ 'Drdkua&pD rwlbl;qdkwmvnf; em;vnf=u&JŒvm;? 'DvdkyJ usr ar;&awmhrSmyJ? [dkwae‹uvm;/ rae‹uvm;? vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfowif;pmxJrSm ygygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDeJ‹ uGefjrLepfqdkwm jy'g;wvrf; oHwvrf;ygwJh? rSefygw,f? usrwdk‹ odygw,f? usrwdk‹u 'Drdkua&pDyg? 'Dawmh vkyfom;jynfol‹taeeJ‹ 'Davmufodae+yDqdk&if usrwdk‹[m uGefjrLepfr[kwfEkdifbl;qdkwm odzdk‹vdkygw,f? usrwdk‹[m 'Drdkua&pDtwGuf vkyfaewJhtiftm;pkawGyg? 'D Auy / Auy qdk+yD;awmh ajymaewm usrqdk&if Auy / acgif;xJawmifrxnfhbl;? e0w uom Auy ta=umif; wcsdefvHk;pOf;pm;aewm? tJ'Dawmh Auy enf;vrf;awGudk usrwdk‹u oHk;aew,fwJh/ usrwdk‹[m trdef‹tm%m/ rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%m/ 'guvnf; e0w u oHk;pJGoGm;wJh toHk;tE_ef;ygaemf? usrwdk‹ajymwJhtwkdif;ygyJ/ rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mrsm;udkom usrwdk‹ zDqefrSmyg/ 'Dtwdkif; usrwdk‹ ajymoGm;ygw,f? 'gvnf; e0w owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrSmawmh rSefrSefuefuef tJh'Davmufawmh ajymoGm;ygw,f? usrwdk‹[m rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mawGudk zDqefzdk‹ &nf&G,fw,fvdk‹? [kwfygw,f? rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mawGudk usrwdk‹ zDqefrSmyg? rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%m zDqefa&;eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usrwdk‹ pOf;pm;vdk‹&Sd&if usr acgif;xJrSm Auy &,fvdk‹ b,fawmhrS ray:vmbl;? r[wWr*ENDwdk‹/ tJh'DvdkvlawGyJ usracgif;xJrSm ay:ay:vmygw,f? 'Dvdk r[wWr*ENDwdk‹vdk rSefrSefuefuefeJ‹ rdrdwdk‹&JŒ wdkif;jynftusKd;twGuf xrf;aqmifoGm;wJh yk*~Kdvf}uD;awG&JŒ rsufESmom usr rsufpda&SŒrSm ay:vmygw,f? e0w rsufpda&SŒrSmawmh b,fhES,fh Auy ay:ay:aerSef; usr rodygbl;? 'Dawmh usrwkd‹[m Auy enf;vrf;awGudk oHk;wmr[kwfygbl;? pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDenf;vrf;ususeJ‹

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rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mawG zDqefzdk‹qdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹ pDpOfwmjzpfygw,f? aoaocsmcsmvnf; usrwdk‹ ta=umif;=um;ygw,f?

(21) &ufae‹ ajreDukef;wkef;uqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹ r0w±Hk;ac:+yD;awmh aqG;aEG;wJhtcgwkef;u 'DAdkvfrª;}uD;udk usr ajymcJhygw,f? usrwdk‹[m rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mjzpfwJh usrwdk‹&JŒ vGwfvyfpGm yHkESdyfxkwfa0ydkifcGifhudk [ef‹wm;wJhtrdef‹udk zDqefrvdk‹jzpfygw,f? 'DvdkzDqefwJhae&mrSm usrwdk‹[m pepfwus pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd zDqefoGm;rSmyg? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ wm0ef,lr,fhyk*~KdvfawGvnf; &Sdygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'Dtm%mzDqefa&;eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ jzpfay:vmr,fhudpPrSefor#udk acgif;cHr,fhyk*~KdvfawG &Sd+yD;om;yg? usrwdk‹udk vm+yD;awmh ta=umif;=um;yg? 'DvlawG[m wm0ef,lyghr,fvdk‹ usr aoaocsmcsm ajymoGm;ygw,f? bmrS rw&m;wJhenf;awGeJ‹/ v#KdŒ0SufwJhenf;awGeJ‹/ rlawGeJ‹/ qlylwJhenf;awGeJ‹ vkyfzdk‹r[kwfbl;/ r&Sdbl;qdkwm &Sif;ygw,f? aoaocsmcsmudk usrwdk‹ b,fvdkvkyfrvJqdkwm ajymoGm;ygw,f? usrwdk‹[m quf+yD;awmh xkwfoifhwJhpm&Gufpmwrf;awGudk usrwdk‹ quf+yD;awmh xkwfyghr,f? 'Dpm&Gufpmwrf;awGudk quf+yD;awmh wwfEkdifor# jynfolvlxku jyef‹yGm;=uygvdk‹ usr awmif;cHyghr,f? 'Dtwdkif;yJ vkyfoGm;r,fqdk+yD;awmh usr yGifhyGifhvif;vif; ajymoGm;ygw,f? aemuf+yD;awmh usrwdk‹vkyfr,fh tcrf;tem;awGeJ‹ usif;yr,fhtcrf;tem;awGeJ‹ ywfoufvdk‹ aemuf wvESpfvtwGif; Zlvkdifv (7) &ufae‹/ Zlvkdifv (19) &ufae‹/ =o*kwfv (8) &ufae‹/ pufwifbmv (18) &ufae‹ pojzifh tJh'Dae‹awGeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usrwdk‹ tcrf;tem;awG usif;yoGm;zdk‹ tpDtpOfawG&Sdygw,f? 'Dtcrf;tem;awGeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ b,fv usif;yr,fqdkwm odcsifvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹udk aqG;aEG;yg/ wkdifyifyg/ nd‡E_dif;yg? b,fvdkjzpfapcsifw,fqdkwmvnf; usrwdk‹udk ajymyg? usrwdk‹ aqG;aEG;yghr,f? usr 'Dtxd ajymoGm;ygw,f? 'gawG bmjzpfvdk‹ xnfh+yD;rajymvJ? tqifajyEkdifr_twGuf usr óud;pm;wJhudpPawGudk zHk;uG,fxm;w,f? usru qlylatmif v_H‹aqmfaew,fvdk‹ wcsdefvHk; ajymoGm;ygw,f? usr qlylatmif wcgrS rv_H‹aqmfcJhbl;? qlylwmudk usr róudufbl;? aoG;ºuGwJh EkdifiHa&;vkyfenf;udk róudufbl;qdkwmvnf; usr c%c% ajymoGm;w,f?

aemufawmhvnf; wyfrawmfxJrSm r[kwfwJh 0g'jzef‹csda&;wck[m usru ausmif;om;awGudk trsKd;rsKd;aoG;qGay;aew,f? ausmif;om;awGudk toHk;ðyaew,f? ausmif;om;awGudk qlylatmifvdk‹ vkyfay;aew,f/ tm;ay;aew,fqdk+yD;awmh ajymaew,f? tJh'gvnf; vHk;vHk;rrSefygbl;? ausmif;om;awGudk usr ajymwmyJ? vufoD;vufarmif;wef;+yD;awmh vkyfwJhEdkifiHa&;rsKd; róudufbl;? wcsKdŒausmif;om;rsm;[m 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ rausreyfawmifrS jzpfoGm;ao;w,f? usr ajymw,f/ róudufbl;vdk‹ 'g aoG;xGufwJh EkdifiHa&;rsKd;yJvdk‹? EdkifiHa&;vkyfw,fqdkwm acgif;at;at;eJ‹ vkyf&wm? pifay:wuf+yD;awmh vufckyfcsLwJh EdkifiHa&;rsKd; róudufbl;qdkwm usr ajymoGm;w,f? tckvnf; usr 'Dtwkdif;yJ quf+yD;awmh ajymrSmyJ? ausmif;om;rsm;[m EkdifiHa&;vkyfzdk‹ wm0ef&Sdw,f? 'gayrJh EdkifiHa&;vkyfwJhae&mrSm rSefrSefuefuef vkyfoGm;&r,f? jynfolvlxkudk v_H‹aqmf+yD;awmh/ aoG;qlatmifvkyf+yD;awmh udk,fhudkudk,f xifay:ausmf=um;wJh vlwa,mufjzpfcsifvdk‹ vkyfwJh EkdifiHa&;rsKd; rjzpf&bl;qdkwm usr c%c% ajymw,f? 'gawGusawmh e0w u bmjzpfvdk‹ xnfh+yD;awmh rajymovJ? 'gvnf; oufouf r[kwfrrSefwJhenf;eJ‹ usrudk wkdufcdkufwmyJ?

aemuf+yD;awmh wcgxJ ajymoGm;ao;w,f? usru jrwfpGmbk&m;udk apmfum;ykwfcwfaeovdkvkd? 'gvnf; usrudk oufoufrJh wdkufcdkufwmyJ? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ jrwfpGmbk&m;[m omrefvlwa,mufomjzpfw,fvdk‹ ajymw,fqdk+yD;awmh usrudk pGyfpJGw,f? 'g tifrwefrS atmufwef;uswJh pGyfpJGcsufyJ? usr ajymoGm;wJh[m óud;pm;&if bk&m;jzpfEkdifw,f? 'g usrwdk‹ qdk±dk;pum;yJ? usr wDxGifwJhpum; r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹ ArmvlrsKd;rSefor# 'Dpum;udk od&r,f? óud;pm;vdk‹&Sd&if bk&m;jzpfEkdifw,f? óud;pm;=uyg? jrifhjrifh}uH=uyg? usru ajymw,f? jrwfpGmbk&m;[m vl‹b0uae+yD;awmh bk&m;jzpfoGm;wmyJ? tJh'Dawmh óud;pm;&if bk&m;jzpfw,fqdkwJh tqdkudk acgif;xJrSm pJGpJG+rJ+rJxm;+yD;awmh udk,fhudkudk,f jr‡ifhwif=uyg? 'gudk usr ajymoGm;wmyJ? jrwfpGmbk&m;udk b,fvdkrS apmfum;wmr[kwfbl;? 'gudkvnf; odvsufom;eJ‹ e0w[m

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uav;qefqef atmufwef;ususeJ‹ usrudk rrSefuefwJhenf;awGeJ‹ wdkufckdufoGm;ygw,f? 'Dawmh Ak'<bmomr[kwf=uvdk‹vm;? e0wrsm;[m/ e0w t&m&Sdrsm;[m Ak'<bmom0ifrsm; jzpfvdk‹&Sd&if odoifhodxdkufygw,f? jrwfpGmbk&m;qdkwm vl‹avmuurS yGifhEkdifwm? jA[Rmavmuwdk‹/ ewfavmuwdk‹uae ryGifhEkdifbl;? vl‹b0urS bk&m;yGifhEdkifw,fqdkwm e0w u vl}uD;rsm; rod=ubl;vm;? aemuf 'DavmufawmifrS Ak'<bk&m;udk udkif;±_dif;w,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if yxrOD;qHk; ig;yg;oDvudkom +rJatmifvkyf=uyg? usrqdkwmvnf; wcgrS yg%mwdygwm rusL;vGefcJhygbl;? rkom0g'qdkwmvnf; wcgrS rusL;vGefcJhbl;? tJh'Dawmh e0w vl}uD;rsm;[m wu,fyJ Ak'<bmomudk ±dkaow,f/ wu,fyJ usrwdk‹&JŒ Ak'<jrwfpGmbk&m;ukd ±dkaow,f/ av;pm;w,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if yg%mwdygwmeJ‹ rkom0g'udkawmh a&SmifusOf=uygvdk‹ usr ajym&rSmyJ?

tJh'Dvdk r[kwfrrSefwJhenf;awGeJ‹ wkdufcdkufaewm[m ajyvnfr_&Smaewmvm;? e0w u ajymoGm;awmh nd‡E_dif;zdk‹/ aqG;aEG;zdk‹/ wkdifyifzdk‹ pOf;pm;wJhtcg usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ twdkuftcdkufawG rsm;vGef;vdk‹yJ rnd‡E_dif;Ekdifovdkvdk/ raqG;aEG;Edkifovdkvdk/ rwdkifyifEkdifovdkvdk ajymoGm;w,f? b,fESpfcg&Sd+yDvJ? usrwdk‹ ajymoGm;wm/ aqG;aEG;yg/ nd‡E_dif;yg/ wkdifyifyg/ ajyvnfr_&Smyg? 'grSyJ wkdif;jynfoufomr,f? 'grSvnf; vlxk[m oufomr,f? c%c% ajymvsufeJ‹ EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm; (200) ausmfw,f/ b,fvdkvkyfaqG;aEG;EkdifrSmvJ/ tcsdefray;Ekdifbl;qdk+yD;awmh ajymoGm;w,f? tckusawmh b,fhES,fh wrsKd;ajymjyef+yD? tJh'Dvdk tckwrsKd;/ tckwrsKd; ajymvGef;vdk‹ usrwdk‹[m e0wtay:rSm ,Hk=unfr_r&SdEkdifwmaygh? 'gayrJh usr jyef+yD;awmh ajymyghr,f? e0w tm;vHk;ay:rSm r[kwfygbl;? e0wxJu vlenf;pkyJ? e0wxJu OD;ae0if;&JŒ opPmcHwcsKdŒuom 'Dvdkvkyfaew,fvdk‹ usru ,Hk=unfw,f? 'Dawmh usr ,Hk=unfcsuftwdkif;awmh usr ajymoGm;&rSmyJ? 'g[m rrSefbl;qdkvdk‹ usrudk ac:+yD;awmh &Sif;vif;yg? usrudk em;vnfatmifajymvdk‹&Sd&if usr em;vnfEkdifygw,f? usr 'Davmuf rxHkygbl;? oabmaygufatmif ajymEkdifvdk‹&Sd&if usr oabmaygufygw,f? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹udk oabmaygufapcsifvdk‹&Sd&if ac:yg/ aqG;aEG;yg/ &Sif;jyyg? 'Dvdk rw&m;wJhenf;awGeJ‹/ rrSefuefwJhenf;awGeJ‹ wdkufcdkufwm[m wkdif;jynftwGufvnf; trsm;}uD; *k%foduQmusygw,f? usrwdk‹EkdifiH&JŒ wckwnf;aom owif;pmu 'Dvdkenf;awGeJ‹ wdkufcdkufaew,f/ 'Dvdkatmufwef;usus a&;om;aew,fqdkawmh usrwdk‹EkdifiHtwGuf b,favmufepfemp&maumif;ovJ? b,favmuf0rf;enf;p&maumif;ovJ? usrvnf; 'DvHk;wdk‹/ om*pdk;wdk‹/ 'dk;uav;wdk‹ acgif;xJrSmudk vnfaewmyJ? bmawGrSef;udk rodbl; ajymvdkufwmawGuvJ? tpr&Sd/ tqHk;r&Sd? 'g[m tjypfvm;/ [dk[m tjypfvm;? usruawmh tm;vHk;òcH+yD;awmh ajymvdkufcsifw,f? wkdif;oljynfom;vlrsm; pdwfqif;&JapwJh udpPrSefor#[m tjypfyJ? 'gyJ usrajymr,f? bmyJjzpfjzpf wkdif;oljynfom;vlrsm; pdwfqif;&Japcsifw,fqdk&if pdwfqif;&Japw,fqdkwJh udpPqdkwm tjypfyJ? 'gawGudk qifjcif=uyg? r[kwfrrSefuefwmajymwmvnf; tjypfyJ? usrwdk‹ Ak'<bmomawGyJ? rkom0g'qdkwm tjypfaygh? 'g usrwdk‹tm;vHk; od+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? rkom;qdkwm rajymoifhygbl;? 'Dawmh trsKd;rsKd;enf;awGeJ‹ usrwdk‹udk wdkufcdkufvmw,f? usrwdk‹udk wdkufcdkufvmwJh txJrSmvnf; usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyfu vli,fwa,muf udkpkd;odef;udpPvnf; qJG+yD;awmh xnfhvdkufao;w,f? usrwdk‹ em;vnfoavmufu udkpdk;odef;udk 'DaxmufvSrf;a&;wdk‹/ tm%mydkiftzJG‹tpnf;rsm;u vdkufaew,fvdk‹ em;vnfygw,f? aemufqHk;usawmh 'g[m vlr_a&;udpPvdk‹ ajymygw,f? vlr_a&;udpP azmufjym;vdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfrSm pnf;awG/ urf;awG &Sdygw,f? 'Dpnf;rsOf;awGt&/ 'Dpnf;urf;xdef;odrf;a&;Oya't& usrwdk‹[m ta&;,lrSmjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh tckwrsKd;/ tckwrsKd;ajym/ ta&SŒuwrsKd;ajym/ aemufuwrsKd;ajym/ tvkyfuwrsKd; tajymuwrsKd;qdkawmh usrwdk‹rSm tifrwefrS pOf;pm;&cufygw,f?

'Dtm%mzDqefa&;qdkwmvnf; usrwdk‹ a=unmcJh+yD;+yD? rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mzDqefa&;? 'gudkvnf; e0w u todtrSwfðyygw,f? usrwdk‹[m rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%m zDqefr_ pDpOfw,fqdkwm

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ta&;}uD;wmu bmvJ? vGwfvyfpGm yHkESdyfxkwfa0ydkifcGifhyJ? t&iftywf owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGwkef;u 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usrwdk‹ ajym+yD;oGm;+yD;yg+yD? 1962 ckESpf yHkESdyfxkwfa0olrsm; rSwfyHkwifOya't& qdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹tzJG‹tpnf;[m vGwfvGwfvyfvyf xkwfa0ydkifcGifh&Sd&r,fh tzJG‹tpnf;yg? 'gayrJh 'DtcGifhta&;ukd ydwfyif+yD;awmh/ usrwdk‹udk trdef‹tm%meJ‹ ydwfyif+yD;awmh vGwfvGwfvyfvyf yHkESdyfxkwfa0ydkifcGifhr&Sdbl;? yHkESdyfxkwfa0jcif; rvkyf&bl;vdk‹ ajymwJhtcgusawmh usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ wajz;ajz; &oifh&xdkufwJh tcGifhta&;awG[m rwdk;vmwJhtjyif avsmhvmygw,fqkdwm uGufuGufuGif;uGif; jrifvmygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ 'Dtrdef‹tm%mudkawmh zDqef&r,f? usrwdk‹ xkwfoifhxkwfxdkufwJh pm&Gufpmwrf;awG quf+yD; xkwf&r,f? tck oHk;/ av;&uftwGif;rSm jzpfwJhudpPawG =unfhjcif;tm;jzifh usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ pm&Gufpmwrf;xkwfzdk‹qdkwm b,favmufvdkvJqdkwm xif&Sm;ygw,f? e0wtaeeJ‹ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGvkyfvdkufw,f? jrefrmhtoHuae a=unmvdkufw,f? vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfxJrSm xnfhvdkufw,f? ESpf&ufquf+yD;xnfhvdk‹ rauseyfao;bl;? 'Dae‹qdkvdk‹&Sd&if tydkpm&Gufuav;taeeJ‹awmifrS xnfhvdkufao;w,f? 'g[m usrwdk‹tay:rSm apwem&Sdvdk‹ 0g'jzef‹csda&;vkyfay;vdk‹/ vkyfay;csifwmvm;qdkwm wcsKdŒuawmh xifrSmayghav? ola&;xm;wm =unfhvdkufvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh apwemeJ‹vkyfwm r[kwfygbl;qdkwm xif&Sm;ygw,f? 'Dawmh vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfeJ‹ jrefrmhtoHudk wzufowf usrwdk‹udk wdkufcdkufzdk‹ oHk;pJGae&if usrwdk‹rSm vGwfvyfpGmyHkESdyfxkwfa0ykdifcGifh vdkaew,fqdkwm xif&Sm;ygw,f? e0wtaeeJ‹ wu,fyJ rSefrSefuefuef vkyfcsifw,fqdk&if usr tck owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrSm ajymoGm;wJhtcsufawGudk rSefrSefuefuef jynfhjynfhpHkpHk owif;pmxJrSm xnfhay;yg? rSefrSefuefuef vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfxJrSm ygvmr,f/ jrefrmhtoHay:rSm ygvmr,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ a=omf æ usrwdk‹uawmh rSm;+yDyJ/ e0w[m wu,fyJ apwemrSefrSefeJ‹ vkyfaewmyJvdk‹ajymzdk‹ usr tqifoifhygyJ? 'Dawmh 'DrSm vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfu vl}uD;rsm;vnf; &Sdygw,f? usr ajymwJhtcsuftvufrsm;udk rSefrSefuefuef jynfhjynfhpHkpHk xnfhay;yg? xnfhay;vdk‹&Sd&if usr e0wudk xyf+yD;awmhawmifrS awmif;yefvdkufOD;r,f? usr txifrSm;oGm;yg+yD? txifvJGoGm;yg+yD? e0w[m apwemrSefrSefeJ‹ vkyfoGm;wmygvm;qdk+yD; usr ajym&Jygw,f?

jrefrmhtoHrSmvnf; 'DajreDukef;udpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ ygvmwJhudpPudkvnf; usr &Sif;&ygOD;r,f? ajreDukef;rSmayghav? tJ'Dvdk jrefrmhtoHuajymovdk vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfu a&;ovdkawmh usr uAsmqefqef/ 0wˆKqefqefav;awmh rajymwwfygbl;? um;uav;wpD;u vmw,fayghav? ta&mifav;uvnf; b,fvdkvJ rodygbl;? eHygwfuvnf; b,fvdkvJ rodygbl;? um;uav;u wcgxJ wHcg;yGifhoGm;w,f? trsKd;orD;wa,mufu qif;vmw,f? qif;vmwJhtcgusawmh yef;csoGm;w,f? yef;csoGm;+yD;awmh 'DtrsKd;orD;udk r0w ±Hk;a&mufrS usrrSef;odw,fvdk‹ qdkygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'DudpP[mvnf; usr jyef+yD;awmh &Sif;jy&r,f? 'Dtwkdif;jzpfwmvJ r[kwfygbl;? tJh'Dae‹ prf;acsmif;rSm usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyftaeeJ‹ (21) &ufae‹ ZGefvta&;tcif; wESpfywfvnftcrf;tem;udk usif;ycJhygw,f? 'Dtcrf;tem; usif;ycJh+yD;wJhtcgusawmh a=omf æ tJ'Dtcrf;tem;rSmvnf; vlu usrwdk‹ jrifoavmufawmh ESpfaxmif/ oHk;axmifavmuf&Sdw,fvdk‹ jrifygw,f? 'gayrJh jrefrmhtoHuawmh ig;&mavmufyJjrifw,fvdk‹ qdkw,f? usrwdk‹tjrifcsif;uawmh odyfrwlbl;ayghav? usrwdk‹ 'D±Hk;uae jyefvmawmh/ jyefvmwJhtcgusawmh (wdyfacG =um;xJrSm jywfoGm;) a&mufvm+yD;awmh yef;pnf;av;csw,f/ yef;pnf;av;cs+yD;awmh tav;ðyw,f? odyfvnf;rrsm;ygbl; (15) a,mufavmuf? usrwdk‹rSm "gwfyHkawG&Sdygw,f/ =unfhcsifvdk‹&Sd&if/ (15) a,mufavmufyJ? tm;vHk; at;at;aq;aq;yJ? bmrS ±kwf±kwf&uf&ufvnf; r&Sdbl;? 'gayrJh usrwdk‹ jzwfvnf;oGm;wJhtcsdefrSm bmvJ/ [dkvufeufudkifwyfawGu vm+yD;awmh ajy;+yD;awmh =urf;=urf;wrf;wrf;yJ 'Dausmif;om;awGudk zrf;wm/ qJGwm usrwdk‹ awG‹vdkuf&ygw,f? tJh'Dawmh usrajymw,f? jyefoGm;r,f? 'Dvdk ausmif;om;awGudk zrf;wmqD;wm usrwdk‹ vspfv#L±_xm;vdk‹ rjzpfygbl;? usrwdk‹ausmif;om;awG r[kwfygbl;? 'g wjcm;wyfOD;wckvdk‹ usrwdk‹ em;vnfygw,f? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf0ifrsm; r[kwfygbl;? 'gayrJh usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf0ifrsm;r[kwfvdk‹

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vspfv#L±_xm;vdk‹&Sd&if e0w u usrwdk‹udk ygwDEkdifiHa&;yJvkyfw,f/ trsKd;om;EkdifiHa&;rvkyfbl;qdkwm ajymrSmudkvnf; pdk;&ao;w,f? 'gha=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ udk,fh&JŒ 'Drdkua&pDbufawmfom; tcsif;csif;yJ? usrtaeeJ‹ 'Dvdkawmh vspfv#L±_xm;vdk‹ r&bl;qdk+yD; usr yef;pnf;wckoGm;,l+yD;awmh jyef+yD;awmhcsygw,f? csvmwJhtcgusawmh usrwdk‹eJ‹ygvmwJh vli,fwa,mufudk zrf;oGm;w,f? usr bmrSrvkyfygbl;? zrf;&ifvnf; zrf;oGm;aygh? usr um;xJ0if+yD;awmh quf+yD;awmh xGufoGm;w,f? tJh'DtcsdefrSm aoewfawGeJ‹ ypfw,f? atmufu/ taemufuae aoewfazmufoHawG=um;w,f? tJh'Dawmh usr ajymw,f? jyefvSnfh&r,f? 'Dvdk aoewfazmufvdk‹ usrwdk‹[m quf+yD;xGufoGm;w,fqdk&if roifhawmfbl;? 'D[m[m aoewfazmufaewm[m jynfolvlxkudk +cdrf;ajcmufaewmyJ? jynfolvlxkudk +cdrf;ajcmufaewmudk usruae+yD;awmh OyuQmðy+yD;awmh ypfoGm;w,fqdkwm roifhawmfbl;qdk+yD; usr jyef+yD;vSnfhvmygw,f? aoewfypfwJhae&mudk jyef+yD;awmh vSnfhcJhw,f? vSnfhwJhtcg tl,m;zm;,m;eJ‹ &Jt&m&Sdwa,mufu “bmvJ/ armif;rajy;eJ‹ ypfr,f/” [m b,folu armif;ajy;aevdk‹vJ? wrifoufoufjyefvmwm? armif;ajy;zdk‹ r[kwfygbl;qdkwm? 'gudkvnf; olu ±dkif;±dkif;pdkif;pdkif; pum;r&SnfeJ‹ayghav? ypfr,f/ cwfr,feJ‹? aoewf}uD;uvnf; w&rf;&rf;eJ‹ vkyfaeygw,f? usrwdk‹udk pcef;a&SŒrSm &yfqdk+yD;/ usrwdk‹ pcef;a&SŒrSm&yfw,f? pcef;a&SŒrSm &yf+yD;wJhtcgusawmh usrwdk‹udk TE 11 }uD;ay:rSm wufckdif;ygw,f? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹tm;vHk; twlwlwufygw,f? tJh'Dtcsdefusawmh usrb,folvJqdkwm ab;ut&m&Sdrsm;u aumif;aumif;odw,fvdk‹ usr xifygw,f? 'DrwdkifcifrSmyJ a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk zrf;qdk+yD; t&m&SdwOD;u atmfaewm=um;awmh usr b,fvlrSef;odw,fqdkwm odyf+yD;awmh xif&Sm;w,f? 'gayrJh trsm;u rodbl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if usr vufcHygw,f? usrudk vlwkdif;uodw,fvdk‹ xifaevdk‹&Sd&if awmf=um usr aoG;}uD;&ma&mufOD;r,f? rodvdk‹yJaygh? usrwdk‹udk TE 11 ay:rSm wufqdkwm/ wufygw,f? wuf+yD;awmh Adkvfrª;}uD;udk,fwkdif a&mufvmygw,f? Adkvfrª;}uD;uawmh tifrwefrS ,Of,Ofaus;aus; vl}uD;yDyDoo &Sdygw,f? usrwdk‹ 'g rSefwmudk rSefwJhtwdkif; ajymrSmyg? usr oufoufrJh e0wrdk‹vdk‹/ wyfrawmft&m&Sdrdk‹vdk‹ apmfum;csifwJhpdwf vHk;vHk;r&Sdygbl;? usrwdk‹udk r0w±Hk;ac:oGm;w,f? r0w±Hk;a&mufwJhtcgusawmh usrwdk‹tm;vHk; xkdif+yD;awmh aqG;aEG;=uwmayghav? aqG;aEG;=uwJhtcgusawmh usr ajymygw,f? 'D 2§88 udkawmh vdkufemvdk‹rjzpfygbl;? vlig;a,mufeJ‹ EdkifiHa&;vkyfzdk‹qdkwmuawmh rjzpfygbl;? usrwdk‹[m bmrS qlqlylylvnf; vkyfrSmr[kwfygbl;? at;at;csrf;csrf;yJ vkyfoGm;rSmygqdk+yD;awmh usr ajymoGm;ygw,f? 'Dtm%mzDqefa&;udpPeJ‹ ywfouf+yD;awmhvnf; ajymoGm;ygw,f? +yD;awmh ajreD;ukef;rSm jzpfwJhudpPeJ‹ ywfoufvdk‹vnf; ausmif;om;av;awGudkzrf;vdk‹ usr jyefvm&wmygqdk+yD; usr &Sif;jyoGm;ygw,f? 'D[mawGtm;vHk; usr &Sif;jyoGm;+yD;om;yg? 'gayrJh 'gawGtm;vHk; jrefrmhtoHuvnf; r&Sif;jyoGm;ygbl;? 'Dawmh 'DudpPrSmvnf; usr[m wrifqlylatmif v_H‹aqmfcsifvdk‹ yef;pnf;oGm;csw,fqdkwm usr[m qlylatmifv_H‹aqmfcsifvdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? 'Dausmif;om;av;awGudk usrrsufpda&SŒrSm zrf;oGm;wmjrifvdk‹yg? ausmif;olav;wa,mufvnf; ygoGm;ygw,f? tJh'D[m jrifvsufom;eJ‹ bmrSrvkyfbl;qdk&if roifhawmfbl;xifvdk‹ 'g usr yef;pnf;cswmyg? 'Duav;rsm;[m at;at;aq;aq; yef;pnf;cs+yD;awmh ajy;zdk‹tqifoifhyJ? ajy;&ifvnf; ajy;ygapaygh? rodcsifa,mifaqmifvdk‹&Sd&if 'DudpP[m +yD;oGm;r,fhudpPyJ? at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ tm;vHk;+yD;oGm;rSm jzpfygw,f?

tJh'Dawmh ajreDukef;rSm vlwa,muf usqHk;oGm;w,fqdkwJh udpPeJ‹vnf; usrajymcsifygw,f? 'Dvl[m tvkyform;aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;ygwDu pnf;±Hk;a&;wm0efcHwa,muf jzpfygw,f? 'DvlusoGm;wJhtcgusawmh oGm;+yD;awmh aumufwm/ oGm;+yD;awmh u,fwm[m ausmif;om;rsm;yg? ausmif;om;av;rsm;[m 'DusoGm;wJh OD;odef;rdk;udk bkef;}uD;ausmif;udk o,foGm;w,f? bkef;}uD;ausmif;u oHCmawmfrsm;eJ‹ tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;u aq;±Hk}uD;udk ac:oGm;w,f? tJh'Dawmh 'DudpPudk tm;vHk;pOf;pm;=uyg? OD;odef;rdk;udk ypfcsvdkufwm[m vufeufudkifwyfxJu ypfcsvdkufwmyJ? oGm;+yD;awmh

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aumuf,l+yD;awmh u,fay;wm[m ausmif;om;av;awGygyJ? aq;±Hkudk ta&mufac:oGm;wm[mvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;eJ‹ oHCmawmfrsm;jzpfygw,f? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹ ausmif;om;rsm;/ &[ef;&Sifvljynfolvlxkrsm;[m qlylcsifwJhvlxkr[kwfbl;? owfjzwfcsifwJh vlxkr[kwfbl;? wa,muftay:wa,muf =uifemwJhvlxkqdkwm tifrwefrS xif&Sm;ygw,f? OD;odef;rdk;[m tvkyform; pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;ygwDxJu pnf;±Hk;a&;wm0efcHqdkwm oGm;+yD;awmh aumufwJh ausmif;om;av;awG odygw,f? 'Dausmif;om;av;awG oGm;+yD;aumufwJh tcgwkef;u ol toufrxGufao;ygbl;? olb,folqdkwm olajymEkdifygw,f? ol‹&JŒ u'fjym;awGbmawGvnf; ausmif;om;awGu awG‹ygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; igwdk‹&efol}uD;qdk+yD;awmh rypfxm;ygbl;? ausmif;om;av;rsm;u o,foGm;ygw,f? aq;±Hkta&muf vdkufydk‹ay;zdk‹ pDpOfygw,f?

tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹&JŒ 'Drdkua&pDvdkvm;wJh tiftm;pkawGudk bmjzpfvdk‹ 'DavmufawmifrS wdkufcdkufaevJ? usrwdk‹[m qlylatmif vkyfcsifwJhvlawG/ t=urf;zufcsifwJhvlawG/ t=urf;zufcsifwJhvlawG qdkvdk‹&Sd&if OD;odef;rdk;}uD;udk wpn}uD;[Jh qdk+yD; ypfcJhrSmaygh? 'DvdkpdwfawG r&Sdygbl;? usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxktcsif;csif;yJ/ usrwdk‹ pdwfraumif;bl;? OD;odef;rdk;wa,muf usoGm;w,f? OD;odef;rdk;qdkwm[m wpnwdk‹/ tvkyform;aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;ygwDwdk‹qdkwm usrwdk‹pdwfxJrSm rxm;ygbl;? jynfolxJu wa,mufusoGm;w,f? 'DavmufawmifrS usrwdk‹rSm toufvHkòcHr_ r&Sdbl;vm;? 'DvdktajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;wckjzpfwJh toufvHkòcHr_ usrwdk‹ r&SdEkdifbl;vm;? 'g[m tifrwefrS 0rf;enf;p&maumif;wJh tajctaejzpfygw,f? 'DvdktajccHtcGifhta&;awG vdkcsifvdk‹ usrwdk‹ 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSm yg0ifaewmyJ? 'Dvdk&nf&G,fcsufawGeJ‹ usrwdk‹ quf+yD;awmh vkyfoGm;rSmyJ? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹ rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%m zDqefw,fqdkwm/ 'Dvdk rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mawGudk rzDqefvdk‹&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if wajz;ajz; usrwdk‹rSm &SdpkrJhpk tcGifhta&;av;awGawmifrS aysmufoGm;csnf&JŒqdk+yD;awmh ,Hk=unfvdk‹ zDqefjcif;jzpfygw,f? yHkESdyfxkwfa0cGifheJ‹ywfoufvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; Edk0ifbmvuwnf;u usrwkd‹[m w&m;0if owif;pmwckxkwfa0zdk‹ awmif;qdkcJhygw,f? ray;cJhygbl;? aemuf+yD;awmhusvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; usrwdk‹[m pnf;urf;eJ‹/ pnf;eJ‹ urf;eJ‹ xkwfa0wJhudpPawGudk xkwfa0cJhw,f? tzJG‹csKyf0ifrsm;twGuf uef‹owfqdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹ xkwfa0cJhygw,f? aemufqHk;usawmh pmaypDppfa&;uae tcGifhawmif;&r,fqdkvdk‹ 'DvtwGif;rSmyJ usr&JŒ rdef‹cGef;aumufEkwfcsufrsm; xkwfzdk‹twGuf oGm;+yD;awmh pmaypDppfa&;udk usrwdk‹xJu cGifhawmif;cJhygw,f? bmrS rwHk‹jyefcJhygbl;? bmrS tajzray;cJhygbl;? usrwdk‹&JŒ pm&Gufpmwrf;awGudk xkwfa0wJh yHkESdyfpufwckudkvnf; csdyfydwfcJhygw,f? trsKd;rsKd;yJ +cdrf;ajcmufvmw,fqkdwm awG‹&ygw,f? 'g e0wtaeeJ‹ vGwfvyfpGm yHkESdyfxkwfa0cGifh ay;awmhrvdk‹/ usrwdk‹u 'Dvdkvkyfvdkufvdk‹qdkawmh/ ay;awmhrvdkqdkvdk‹&Sd&if bmjzpfvdk‹ tck wywfESpfywftwGif;uae+yD;rSm 1962 Oya't& usrwdk‹ &Sdoifh&SdxdkufwJh tcGifhta&;awGudk ydwfyifwJhtrdef‹udk xkwfvdkufovJ? tJh'Dawmh tajymu wrsKd;pDjzpfaew,f? tckwrsKd;ajym/ tckwrsKd;ajym? bmudkawmifrS usrwdk‹ ,Hk&rSef;rodygbl;? wu,fyJ ajyvnfapcsifw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if enf;wenf;yJ&Sdw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'g usr e0wudk 'Duae ajymvdkufygw,f? wu,fyJajyvnfapcsifw,f/ wu,fyJ usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfeJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkeJ‹ e0w=um;rSm ajyvnfr_vdkcsifw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if aqG;aEG;yg/ ac:yg/ ac:yg? usrwdk‹u atmufusaemufus &Sdw,fqdk+yD; vHk;vHk; pdwfxJrSm rxm;ygbl;? tckvm qdkvdk‹&Sd&if tckoGm;ygr,f? aqG;aEG;r,f? wkdifyifr,f? b,fvdkajyvnfatmifvkyf&rvJ? usrwdk‹ nd‡E_dif;r,f? 'g[m EkdifiHa&;enf;yg? usrwdk‹[m EdkifiHa&;enf;udk ,Hk=unfygw,f? 'D aemufESpfvtwGif;rSm jzpfoGm;wJhudpPrsm;[m EkdifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk vufeufeJ‹ajz&Sif;cJhvdk‹ jzpfwmqdkwm usrwdk‹ ,Hk=unfcsufjzpfygw,f? Zlvdkifv (7) &ufae‹/ Zlvkdif (19) &ufae‹/ =o*kwfv (8) &ufae‹/ pufwifbmv (18) &ufae‹? 'Dta&;tcif;awG[m bmudkjyovJ? usrwdk‹EkdifiHrSm EkdifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk EkdifiHa&;enf;eJ‹ rajz&Sif;bJeJ‹ vufeufudkifenf;eJ‹ ajz&Sif;cJhvdk‹ 'kuQa&mufw,fqdkwm jywmyJ? tJh'Dawmh 'DvdkudpPrsKd;awG usrwdk‹ vHk;vHk;rjzpfapcsifygbl;? EkdifiHa&;enf;eJ‹yJ

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ajz&Sif;csifygw,f? 'ga=umifh usrwdk‹ trdef‹tm%mudk zDqefaewJh ae&mrSmawmifrS EkdifiHa&;enf;eJ‹ zDqefoGm;wmyJ? usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxkudk ajymw,f? trsm;jynfol oabmrwlwJh trdef‹tm%m[lor#udk wm0eft& zDqef=uyg? wm0eft& zDqef&r,f? vlwkdif;vlwkdif;rSm wm0ef&Sdw,f? vlwkdif;vlwkdif;rSm tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;awGudk umuG,fzdk‹ wm0ef&Sdw,f? 'Dtwdkif;yJ usrwdk‹ ajymoGm;wmyJ? 'DtxJrSm qlylzdk‹ v_H‹aqmfwm rygygbl;? apmapmu usrajymcJhwJhtwkdif;yJ? ararhpsmyeudpPwkef;uawmh qlylcsifwJhtpdwftydkif;awGudk usrwdk‹ xdef;oGm;ygw,f? rvkyfygeJ‹/ 'g[m roifhawmfygbl;? tckvnf; usrwdk‹ xdef;oGm;rSmyJ? usrwdk‹bufuawmh usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyfudkawmh aumif;aumif;xdef;oGm;Ekdifygw,f? usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf vufwJG+yD;awmh vkyfaewJhtzJG‹tpnf;rsm;/ ausmif;om;rsm;udkvnf; xdef;oGm;Ekdifygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; tzsuform;awG &Sdw,fqdkwmvnf; usrwdk‹ odygw,f? 'Dtzsuform;awG[m 'Drkdua&pDudk rvkdvm;wJh vlawGuxnfhxm;wJh tzsuform;vdk‹yJ usrwdk‹ ,Hk=unfygw,f? b,fvdkyJjzpfjzpf/ b,favmufyJ at;at;csrf;csrf;vkyfzdk‹ óud;pm;/ óud;pm;/ wa,mufESpfa,mufu =um;0if+yD;awmh v_H‹aqmfvdkufvdk‹&Sd&if jy\emwufwwfygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; usrwdk‹ tcktcsdefrSmqdk&if pepfwusvkyfxm;wma=umifh 'Djy\emawGudk xdef;oGm;EkdifwJh tajctaea&mufae+yDqdkwm usr xifygw,f? usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfeJ‹ nd‡E_dif;wkdifyif+yD;awmh e0w u vkyfr,fqdk&if tm;vHk; tqifajyEkdifygw,f? 'Dawmh usr tm;vHk;òcH+yD;awmh ajym&r,fqdk&if/ bmjzpfvdk‹qdkawmh owif;pmq&mrsm;uvnf; ar;p&m&SdOD;rSmyg? tm;vHk;òcH+yD;ajym&&if wyfrawmfòyduJGa&;udk usr vHk;vHk;rvdkvm;ygbl;? wyfrawmfudk *k%foduQm&Sd&SdeJ‹ aeapcsifw,f? Auy eJ‹ usrqdkwmvnf; vHk;vHk;tqufr&Sdygbl;? usr uGefjrLepf0g'udk ,Hkvnf;r,Hk=unfbl;? tm;vnf;tm;ray;bl;? uGefjrLepfenf;vrf;awGeJ‹vnf; usrwdk‹ vkyfaewmr[kwfbl;? usrwdk‹u 'Drdkua&pDenf;vrf;t& vkyfaewmyJ? usrwdk‹[m qlylv_H‹aqmfr_qdkwmudkvnf; 0goemrygygbl;? qlylwmudkvnf; usrwdk‹ rvdkvm;ygbl;? tm;vHk; at;at;csrf;csrf;/ pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ vdkcsifwJh 'Drdkua&pDyef;wdkifudk a&mufoGm;apcsifygw,f? usr[m pnf;urf;trsm;}uD; tav;xm;w,fqdkwm e0w odygw,f? usr&JŒrdef‹cGef;awG 'DavmufawmifrS aphaphpyfpyf avhvmaew,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'Davmufqdk&ifawmh odaumif;yg+yD? t+rJyJ pnf;urf;&Sd&r,f/ pnf;urf;&Sd&r,fvdk‹ usr ajymygw,f? nDnGwf&r,f? pnf;urf;&Sd&r,f? wyfrawmfudk oufoufrJh/ tvum;oufouf ykwfcwfwm r&Sd&bl;qdkwm usr c%c%ajymwJhudpPqdkwm usrrdef‹cGef;a[mif;awGudk 'DavmufawmifrS aphaphpyfpyfavhvmxm;wJh e0wuawmh odrSmjzpfygw,f?

'gha=umifh ajyvnfr_ &Smapcsifw,f? wu,fyJ wkdif;jynftay:rSm apwemxm;w,f/ wu,fyJ jynfolawGvdkcsifwJh vGwfvyf+yD;awmh w&m;r#wwJha&G;aumufyJGrsm; vkyfay;csifwJhqEN &Sdw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if nd‡E_dif;yg? aqG;aEG;yg? wkdifyifyg? wzufowf ykwfcwfwdkufckdufwJh udpPawGudkawmh rvkyfaeygeJ‹vdk‹ usr ajymcsifygw,f?

23

jynfolvdkcsifwm atmifqef;vrf;pOf 1989 ck ZlvkdifwGif ajym=um;aom tmZmenfae‹ tóudrdef‹cGef;

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usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfudk 'Dvdktm;ay;wJhtwGuf trsm;}uD;yJ aus;Zl;wifygw,f? tcktcsdefrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹&JŒ vkyfief;awGudk trsKd;rsKd;yJ wdkufcdkufaew,fqdkwm trsm;od+yD;om; jzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh tck 'Dvdkjynfolvlxk}uD;[m pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ a&mufvmwmjrifwJhtwGufvnf; usr trsm;}uD;0rf;omw,f? 'DbufrSm vufeufudkifwyfawG r&SdwJhtwGufvnf; usrwdk‹ trsm;}uD;yJ 0rf;omygw,f? usrwdk‹ t+rJyJajymygw,f? vufeufukdifwyfrsm; r&Sd&if jynfolvlxk[m at;at;csrf;csrf;&Sdygw,f? vufeufudkifwyfrsm; a&mufrSom v_yfv_yf&Sm;&Sm;&Sdwmyg? 'ga=umifh e0w taeeJ‹ wyfrawmfom;rsm;udkvnf; oufomapcsifw,f/ jynfolvlxkudkvnf; pdwfoufomapcsifw,f qdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh usrwdk‹ pnf;±Hk;pka0;wJhae&mrSm vufeufudkifwyfzJG‹rsm;udk rv$wfzdk‹qdkwm tifrwefrS ta&;}uD;ygw,f? tcktcsdefrSm usrwdk‹u rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mrsm;/ trsm;jynfol oabmrwlwJh trdef‹tm%mrsm; zDqefa&;eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ trsKd;rsKd; wdkufcdkufajymqdkaeygw,f? 'Dvdk rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mrsm; zDqefw,fqdkwm Auy qefw,fvdk‹ ajymygw,f? 'g[m r[kwfygbl;? rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mrsm; zDqefw,fqdkwm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;vrf;pOfjzpfygw,f? usr 'DudpPudk &Sif;jyyghr,f?

ppf+yD;wJhtcg +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒtpdk;&uae+yD;awmh vGwfvyfa&;&atmifvdk‹ wdkufae&wJhtcsdefrSm rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mrsm;udk zDqef&r,fqdk+yD;awmh azazwdk‹ zqyv uae+yD;awmh ajymcJhygw,f? 'Dtwdkif;yJ aqmif&GufcJhygw,f? 1946 ckESpfrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'Dvdk rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mrsm; zDqef&r,fqdkwm[m zqyv nDvmcHrSmudk ajymoGm;ygw,f? jynfolvlxk&JŒ vGwfvyfpGm a[majymydkifcGifh/ pnf;±Hk;ydkifcGifh/ pDwef;vrf;av#mufydkifcGifhudk csKyfcs,fwJh +Adwdo#tpdk;&&JŒ tm%mudk zDqefw,fqdk+yD;awmh azazukd,fwkdifyJ ajymoGm;ygw,f? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mrsm; zDqefwm/ jynfolvlxk&JŒ vGwfvyfr_tcGifhta&;awGudk csKyfcs,fwJh trdef‹tm%mrsm; zDqefwm[m atmifqef;vrf;pOft& vkyfw,fqdkwm usr e0wukd ajymjycsifygw,f? tcktcsdefrSm e0wtaeeJ‹ qHk;jzwfzdk‹[m wckyJ&Sdygw,f? atmifqef;vrf;pOfudk vdkufrSmvm;/ ae0if;&JŒ rqv vrf;pOfudk vdkufrSmvm;? 'gyJ usr ar;&rSmyJ? jynfolvlxkudk vufeuftm;udk;eJ‹ ESdrfeif;w,fqdkwm[m atmifqef;vrf;pOf r[kwfygbl;? jynfolvlxk&JŒ &oifh&xdkufwJh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk zdESdyfw,f/ [ef‹wm;w,fqdkwmvnf; atmifqef;vrf;pOf r[kwfygbl;? zqyvtaeeJ‹ +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒtpdk;&&JŒ rw&m;whJ trdef‹tm%mrsm;udk zDqefaewJhtcsdefrSm jynfolvlxk[m tckxuf ydk+yD;awmh trsm;}uD; tcGifhta&;awG&Sdygw,f?

'gudk usr axmufjyr,f? tJ'Dwkef;uqdkvdk‹&Sd&if owif;pmawG[m vGwfvGwfvyfvyf yHkESdyfxkwfa0ykdifcGifh&Sdw,f? tJh'DvdktcsdefrSmawmifrS vGwfvGwfvyfvyf jynfolvlxktaeeJ‹ a[majym/ pDwef;vrf;av#mufykdifcGifh r&Sdvdk‹qdk+yD; azaz[m zqyvudk OD;aqmif+yD;awmh rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mrsm;udk zDqef&r,fqdk+yD;awmh aqmf=ocJhygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm usrwdk‹ jrefrmEkdifiHrSm jrefrmawGtkyfpdk;wJhtcsdefrS vGwfvyfpGm yHkESdyfxkwfa0ydkifcGifhawmifrS r&Sdbl;? 'DtcGifhta&;qdkwmvnf; w&m;Oya't& &Sdygw,f? 1962 ckESpf yHkESdyfxkwfa0ydkifcGifh Oya't&qdkvdk‹&Sd&if EdkifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;[m vGwfvGwfvyfvyf yHkESdyfxkwfa0ydkifcGifh&Sdygw,f? 'Dvdk&SdwJh tcGifhta&;awGudk [ef‹wm;wJhtrdef‹tm%mudk usrwdk‹ zDqefaewmyJ?

'DtcsdefrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if tmZmenfae‹tóudtcsdef jzpfygw,f? aemuftywfqdkvdk‹&Sd&if tmZmenfae‹jzpfw,f? tmZmenfae‹[m bmvJ? vufeuftm;udk;eJ‹ EkdifiHa&;jy\emudk ajz&Sif;wJhae‹wae‹yJ? OD;apmtaeeJ‹ EkdifiHa&;tm%mudk vdkcsifvGef;tm;}uD;vdk‹ EkdifiHa&;enf;eJ‹ r,lEkdifwJhtcgusawmh vufeufenf;eJ‹ ,lr,fqdk+yD;awmh óud;pm;vdkufwmyJ? 'gayrJh ratmifjrifcJhygbl;? aemufqHk;usawmh b,fvdkyJ vufeuftm;udk;/ vufeuftm;udk; jynfolvlxk&JŒ axmufcHr_r&SdwJh pepfrSefor#[m usqHk;&rSmjzpfygw,f?

tmZmenfae‹eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹vnf; usr eJeJajymcsifygw,f? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if e0w taeeJ‹ EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;[m (10) a,mufpD/ (10) a,mufpD oGm;Edkifw,f/ 'Dvkd pm&if;ay;+yD;awmh oGm;ygvdk‹

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ajymygw,f? usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyftaeeJ‹ 'Dvdkuef‹owfjcif;udk usrwdk‹ vHk;vHk;vufrcHygbl;? 'Dvdkuef‹owfwm[m tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;udk jynfolvlxku v_dufv_dufvSJvSJ *g&0ðywmudk rvdkvm;vdk‹vm;vdk‹ usr jyef+yD;awmh ar;&rSmyJ? usrwdk‹ vlxktaeeJ‹ vGwfvGwfvyfvyf 'DtcsdefrSm tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;udk *g&0ðyEkdif&r,f/ tav;ðyEkdif&r,f? usrvnf; jynfolvlxk vGwfvGwfvyfvyf oGm;+yD;awmh *g&0ðyEdkifwJh tajctaersKd;udk vdkvm;ygw,f?

tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'DtmZmenfae‹eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usrwdk‹vlxk[m tzJG‹csKyfu b,fvdktpDtpOf&SdvJvdk‹ odaecsifr,fvdk‹ xifygw,f? usrwdk‹uawmh jynfolvlxk vGwfvGwfvyfvyf pDwef;+yD;awmh tmZmenfukef;udk oGm;+yD;awmh tav;ðy&r,fh tajctaeudk usrwdk‹ OD;wnfygw,f? 'Dvdkvkyfwm[m qlylcsifvdk‹vnf; r[kwfygbl;? azazajymcJhwJhtwkdif;yJ? 1946 ckESpfwkef;u +Adwdo#tpdk;&udk ajymcJhygw,f? usKyfwdk‹[m qlyljcif; rvdkcsifygbl;? rqlylcsifygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ tcGifhta&;awGudk rcsKyfcs,fygeJ‹? tcGifhta&;awGudk csKyfcs,fwJhvlrsm;uom qlylatmif v_H‹aqmfjcif;jzpfygw,f? tmZmenfae‹usvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ tmZmenfukef;udk csDwufoGm;+yD;awmh tav;ðyzdk‹ jzpfygw,f?

bmrS qlylzdk‹ r[kwfbl;/ v_H‹aqmfzdk‹ r[kwfbl;/ aºuG;a=umfzdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹ vkyfp&m&Sdwmudk tmZmenfukef;usrS vkyfrSmyg? *g&0ðyr,f/ tav;ðyr,f/ wkdifwnfcsifvnf; wkdifwnfEdkifygw,f?

'Dawmh tmZmenfae‹rSm jynfolvlxktm;vHk;[m wnDwnGwfwnf;eJ‹ atmifqef;vrf;pOfudk axmufcHw,fqdkwm jy=uyg? 'g[m tifrwefrS ta&;}uD;ygw,f? e0weJ‹ wyfrawmftaeeJ‹ azazhudk wyfrawmf&JŒ zcif}uD;/ zcif}uD; ajym+yD;awmh azazh&JŒ n$ef=um;csufrsm;t& vdkufem=uygvdk‹ usr ajym&rSmyJ? yg;pyfuawmh zcif}uD;/ zcif}uD; ajymae+yD;awmh vufuawmh wjcm;vkyfckdif;wm vkyfaevdk‹ rjzpfygbl;? 'gudk usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxktm;vHk; oabmaygufapcsifygw,f?

tck e0w vkyfyHkvkyfenf;awGuawmh atmifqef;vrf;pOfeJ‹ rudkufnDygbl;? azaz[m nd‡E_dif;/ aqG;aEG;/ wkdifyifzdk‹ tifrwefrS vdkvm;cJhygw,f? +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒtpdk;&udkvnf; nd‡E_dif;yg/ aqG;aEG;ygqdk+yD; ajymcJhygw,f? bk&ifcH a':refprpf[m ppf+yD;cgp jyefvmwJhtcgwkef;u 'Dvdknd‡E_dif;/ aqG;aEG;/ wdkifyifjcif;udk rvdkvm;ygbl;? aemufawmhrS rjzpfomvdk‹qdk+yD;awmh aqG;aEG;/ nd‡E_dif;/ wdkifyifoGm;wmjzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk vlrsKd;jcm;tpdk;&uawmifrS aqG;aEG;Ekdif&if/ nd‡E_dif;Ekdif&if bmjzpfvdk‹ e0w u usrwdk‹eJ‹ raqG;aEG;Ekdif/ rwdkifyifEkdif&wmvJ? vlrsKd;jcm;e,fcsJŒtpkd;&avmufrS oabmxm;r}uD;Edkifbl;vm;? 'g usrwdk‹ ar;&rSmyJ?

tJ'Dwkef;u bk&ifcH[mvnf; e0w usrwdk‹udk wdkufcdkufovdk azazhudkvnf; wdkufcdkufcJhw,f? raqG;aEG;csifbl;qdkwmvnf; ajymcJhw,f? 'Dvdk rdef‹cGef;rsm;udk ajymvdk‹&Sd&if zrf;r,f/ qD;r,fqdk+yD;awmhvnf; +cdrf;ajcmufcJhw,f? tck e0w u b,fhES,fh e,fcsJŒtpdk;&&JŒ yHko¾meftwdkif; xyfaewmvJ? e,fcsJŒtpdk;&xufawmifrS qdk;ygao;w,f? rSefrSefajym&vdk‹&Sd&ifawmh? 'DtcsdefrSm e0weJ‹ wyfrawmf[m jyef+yD;awmh qifjcifygawmh? atmifqef;vrf;pOfuae+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkeJ‹ vufwJG+yD;awmh csDwufoGm;rvm;? rSm;aewJh ae0if; rqv vrf;pOfeJ‹yJ quf+yD;awmh oGm;rvm;?

tckqdkvdk‹&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JŒ rdef‹cGef;aumufEkwfcsufrsm;qdk+yD;awmh owif;pmxJrSm xnfhygw,f? ESpfckawmh xGufvm+yD? tJh'D[mukd usr eJeJaxmufjycsifygw,f?

tpdk;&t&mxrf;/ tr_xrf;awG[m rdrdwdk‹tay:udk w&m;ojzifh usa&mufvmwJh wm0ef0wW&m;awGudk vlxkeJ‹ wkdif;jynf&JŒ rsufESmudk axmufxm;+yD; jywfjywfom;om; aqmif&Guf=uapcsifw,f? w&m;ojzifhqdkwm ygygw,f? w&m;ojzifhqdkwm tifrwefrS ta&;}uD;ygw,f?

azaz[m w&m;ojzifh vkyfapcsifwJhqENawG trsm;}uD;&Sdw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'DvdkrS jywfjywfom;om; raqmif&Guf0Hh=u&ifvnf; aqmif&Guf0HhwJhvlawGudk ae&mz,fay;=uapcsifw,f? 'Dtwdkif;yJ usr ajym&rSmyJ? w&m;r#r#wweJ‹ jynfol‹&JŒtusKd;udk jywfjywfom;om; raqmif&Guf0Hh&J&if aqmif&Guf0HhwJhvlawGudk ae&mjrefjrefz,fay;yg? 'grSyJ at;rSmyJ? tpdk;&tr_xrf;/ t&mxrf;qdkwm trSefpifppfawmh udk,fh0wW&m;udk ausyGefatmif xrf;aqmifzdk‹yJ?

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AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif ajymoGm;ygw,f? wyfrawmf[mvnf; 0efxrf;awGyJwJh? tJhawmh 0efxrf;rsm;[m udk,fh&JŒ 0wW&m;udk ausyGefatmif xrf;yg? wyfrawmf&JŒwm0ef[m jynfolvlxkudk umuG,fzdk‹/ apmifha&Smufzdk‹ jzpfygw,f? jynfolvlxkudk ypfowfzdk‹ r[kwfygbl;qdkwm 'Duae‹ usrwdk‹ ajym&rSmyJ? 'Dvdk usr ajym&jcif;ta=umif;[m AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif&JŒ rdef‹cGef;[m oG,f0dkufaomenf;tm;jzifh jynfolvlxkudk +cdrf;ajcmufw,fvdk‹ usr em;vnfvdk‹ ajym&wmyg? igwdk‹aeapcsifovdk raevdk‹&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if ypfowfr,fqdkwJh oabmxm;a&mufygw,f? 'gudk usr eJeJrS vufrcHEkdifygbl;?

jynfolvlxk[m tpdk;& aeapcsifovdkaezdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? tpdk;&rsm;[m jynfolvlxk aeapcsifovdk aezdk‹ jzpfygw,f? rae‹uqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; ygygw,f? vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfxJrSm azazh&JŒ rdef‹cGef;aumufEkwfcsufwck/ EkdifiHa&;tm%mudk w&m;aomenf;rsm;xJu rnfonfhenf;ESifhrqdk w&m;twdkif; vkyf=uygwJh? w&m;aomenf;rsm;wJh? usrwdk‹ w&m;aomenf;eJ‹ vkyfaewmyJ? usrwdk‹ ajym+yD;+yD? tJh'D[mudk e0w &JŒ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrSmawmif ygygw,f? usrwdk‹[m rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mawGudk zDqefaewmyg? w&m;aomenf;eJ‹ EkdifiHa&;tm%mudkawmifrS usrwdk‹[m &atmifvkyfaewm r[kwfygbl;? w&m;aomenf;eJ‹ EkdifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk ajz&Sif;zdk‹ óud;pm;aewmjzpfygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'DvdkvkyfwJhvlawGudk “w&m;Oya'eJ‹ avsmfnDpGm usaemfwdk‹u tpGrf;ukefumuG,fay;rnfwJh”? b,frSmvJ w&m;Oya'eJ‹ avsmfnDpGm usrwdk‹udk umuG,fay;aewm? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf0ifawGeJ‹ jynfollvlxkudk rw&m;wJhenf;awGeJ‹ zrf;qD;aew,f? rw&m;wJhenf;awGeJ‹ zrf;qD;ae±Hkwifru usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf&JŒ twGif;a&;rª;jzpfwJh OD;0if;wifqdkvdk‹&Sd&if w&m;Oya't& tmrcH ay;&r,fqdkwJh tr_rSmawmifrS w&m;Oya'udk azmufcsKd;+yD;awmh tmrcH ray;bl;? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹udk rw&m;wJhenf;awGeJ‹ tkyfpdk;aevdk‹/ w&m;wJhenf;awGeJ‹ umuG,fr_ ray;aevdk‹ usrwdk‹[m rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mudk zDqefae&wmyJ? 'Dvdk rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mawGudk zDqefwJhae&mrSm usrwdk‹[m at;at;csrf;csrf;/ pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ vkyfoGm;r,fqdkwmvnf; xyfwvJvJ ajymygw,f? 'Dvdk xyfwvJvJajymaewJhtxJu oabmraygufwmawmh raygufcsifvdk‹bJvdk‹ usr xifygw,f?

wyfrawmfeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹vnf; wyfrawmfom;rsm;[m yifyifyef;yef; a&SŒwef;rSm wkduf&w,fqdkwmudk c%c% ajymygw,f? a&SŒwef;rSm yifyifyef;yef;wdkuf&w,f? aemufwef;rSm vHkòcHa&;vkyf&w,f? vHkòcHa&;twGuf usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfu wm0ef,lay;ygw,f? wyfrawmfom;rsm; at;at;aq;aq; aeyg? 'Dvdk jynfolvlxktpnf;ta0;awG vkyfwJhtcgusvdk‹&Sd&if pnf;urf;xdef;odrf;a&;/ vHkòcHa&;twGuf usrwdk‹ wm0efcH&Jw,f? wyfrawmfom;awGudk bmrS 'kuQray;csifygbl;? at;at;aq;aq; wyfwef;vsm;xJrSm 0if=uyg?

tJh'Dvkdaer,fqdk&if wyfrawmfom;awGvnf; oufomw,f/ usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxkvnf; oufomw,f/ wyfrawmftwGufvnf; trsm;}uD;*k%foduQm&Sdygw,f? wyfrawmfqdkwm rvkyfoifh/ rvkyfxdkufwJhudpPawG vkyfaevdk‹&Sd&if *k%foduQm trsm;}uD;yJ usygw,f? 'Dvkd *k%foduQmusapwJhudpPawGudk quf+yD;awmh rvkyfygeJ‹? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifeJ‹ e0w taeeJ‹ wu,fyJ wyfrawmfom;awGtay:rSm apwem&Sdw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if wyfrawmfom;awG zwfzwfarmaeatmifvkd‹ wòrd‹vHk;udk vSnfhvnf+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkudk r+cdrf;ajcmufckdif;ygeJ‹?

tmZmenfae‹udpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹vnf; usrwdk‹&JŒ jynfolvlxk[m vufeufudkifwyfrsm; r&Sdbl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if tm;vHk; at;at;csrf;csrf;/ pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ jzpfap&r,fvdk‹ usr tmrcH&Jygw,f? vufeufudkifwyfrsm;&SdrSom v_yfv_yf&Sm;&Sm;jzpfwmyg? 'Dawmh usr 'Duae+yD;awmh usreJ‹ raqG;aEG;/ rnd‡E_dif;/ rwdkifyifcsifwJh e0wudk 'Duae‹yJ ajym&rSmyJ? tmZmenfae‹rSm pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd/ at;at;csrf;csrf;jzpfzdk‹twGuf vufeufudkifwyfrsm; rcsxm;ygeJ‹? a0;a0;uae+yD;awmh ae=uyg?

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aemufwckvnf; usr ajymcsifygw,f? 'D e0w tpdk;&vufxufrSm ydk+yD;awmh tmZmenfae‹udk *k%f&Sd&SdeJ‹ vkyfoGm;r,fvdk‹ ajymygw,f?

tmZmenfae‹eJ‹ywfouf+yD; usr pOf;pm;ygw,f? orw}uD; ref;0if;armif vufxufwkef;u jynfaxmifpktpdk;&vufxufwkef;uayghav/ jynfaxmifpkygwDtpdk;&vufxufwkef;u qdkvdk‹&Sd&if tmZmenfae‹udk orw}uD; OD;0if;armifudk,fwkdif wufa&mufygw,f? aemufydkif; rqvtpdk;& wuf+yD;awmh wajz;/ wajz; orwuae 0ef}uD;csKyf/ 0ef}uD;csKyfuae aemufqHk;usawmh 0ef}uD;wa,mufyJ tmZmenfae‹tcrf;tem;udk wufygw,f? 'g[m bmoabmvJvdk‹ usrwdk‹ ar;&rSmyJ? wae‹eJ‹wae‹ tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;awG&JŒ u¾udk arS;rSdefzdk‹ wrifoufoufvkyfwmvm;? 'DvdkvkyfcsifwJh pdwfawGuawmh OD;ae0if;&JŒ pdwfawGyJvdk‹ usr xifygw,f? 'Dawmh wu,fyJ atmifqef;vrf;pOfudk vkyfcsifw,f? wu,fyJ wyfrawmf&JŒ zcif[m AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;yg qdkwmudk em;vnfw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if bmjzpfvdk‹ tmZmenfae‹rSm wyfrawmfu =unf;/ a&/ av (OD;pD;csKyf) awGu tav;rðyovJ? usr ar;&rSmyJ? wyfrawmf&JŒ zcifyJ? wyfrawmfuvm+yD;awmh tav;ðy&rSmaygh?

tJhawmh wu,fyJ zcifqdkwm em;vnfw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if =unf;/ a&/ av OD;pD;csKyfrsm; tm;vHk;wuf+yD;awmh tmZmenfae‹rSm tav;ðyyg? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifudk,fwkdifvnf; wuf+yD;awmh tav;ðyyg? tJh'D[mudk =unfh/ jynfolvlxk 'gudk avhvm=uyg? tmZmenfae‹us&if b,folawG oGm;+yD;awmh tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;awGudk tav;ðyovJ? b,favmuf tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;awGudk av;pm;ovJqdkwm jynfolvlxk oHk;oyf=unfh=uyg? tJh'DawmhrS odygvdrffhr,f? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹awmh tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;udk av;pm;aomtm;jzifh csDwuf+yD;awmh tav;ðyrSmyJ? 'gudkvnf; usr[m e0weJ‹ nd‡E_dif;/ aqG;aEG;/ wkdifyif+yD;awmh vkyfcsifygw,f? 'gayrJh tcktxd rnd‡E_dif;bl;/ raqG;aEG;bl;/ rwkdifyifbl;qdk+yD;awmh bl;}uD;yJ jiif;aewmyJ?

tcktcsdefrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹ EkdifiHrSm jy\emawG trsm;}uD;&SdwJhtxJrSm qefjy\em[m tifrwefrS }uD;ygw,f? 'Djy\emeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usrwdk‹ EdkifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGuyJ vkyfvkd‹ qefaps;}uD;ovdkvdk/ qefr&Sdovdkvdk ajymaeygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'D[mudkawmh usrwdk‹ ajymcsifygw,f? tpdk;&&JŒ vufxJrSm qefawG&Sdygw,f? wu,fyJ qefjy\emudk ajyvnfapcsifvdk‹&Sd&if tpdk;&[m vkyfEkdifygw,f? e0w u vkyfvdkufyg? e0w vufxJrSm&SdwJh qefawGudk jzef‹jzL;vdkufr,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'Dwkdif;jynfrSm qefjy\emrwufygbl;? qefjy\emudk wu,fyJ ajz&Sif;csif&if e0wrSm ajz&Sif;EdkifwJh pGrf;tif&Sdw,f? rajz&Sif;csifvdk‹om rajz&Sif;wmyJ? usrwdk‹ EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGeJ‹ bmrS rqkdifbl;? 'DEdkifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGtxJrSm qef0,f+yD;awmh odkavSmifEkdifwJh taetxm;&Sdwm/ ydkufqH&Sdwm wpn wckyJ &Sdygw,f? 'Dawmh qefawG 0,f+yD;awmh odkavSmif+yD;awmh qefaps;wufatmifvkyfwJh tzJG‹tpnf; EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;[m b,f[mvJvdk‹ &Smvdkufvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh wpn wckyJ awG‹rSmyJ? tJh'Dawmh e0wtaeeJ‹ 'Dvkdqefaps;}uD;atmifvkyfwJh tzJG‹tpnf;awGudk rauseyfvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh wpnudk ta&;,loifhw,fvdk‹ usr xifygw,f?

tck ar;cGef;av;awG wufvmygw,f? wufvmwJh ar;cGef;xJrSm AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifuae+yD;awmh ol‹&JŒrdef‹cGef;rSm usr[m wcgwkef;u (2) ESpfavmuf=umrS a&G;aumufyJGrsm;jzpfEkdifw,fvdk‹ ajymoGm;w,fvdk‹ qdkygw,f? usr tJh'Dwkef;u ajymcJhwm rSefygw,f? usr 0efcHygw,f? usr b,fawmhrS vdrfrajymygbl;? [kwfw,f? tJh'Dwkef;u u|HajymcJhw,f? wu,f ygwDrsm; awmifhawmifhwif;wif; jzpfatmifvdk‹ axmifzdk‹qdkwm tenf;qHk; (2) ESpfavmuf vdkr,f/ 'gvnf; rSefwJhtwdkif;yJ? tcktcsdefrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyfaum/ wjcm;EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGaum zJG‹pnf;wJhae&mrSm yDjyifoifhoavmuf ryDjyifao;bl;? tcsdefurS r&Sdao;bJ? 'gayrJhvnf; 'DavmufawmifrS jynfolvlxk 'kuQa&mufaewJh tcgusvdk‹&Sd&if ydk+yD;awmh jrefjrefqefqef a&G;aumufyJGawG vkyfoifhw,fvdk‹ usrwkd‹ xifygw,f? 'Dvdk a&G;aumufyJGawG jrefjrefqefqefvkyfrS jynfolvlxk oufomrSmyJ? tJ'Dawmh usr tJ'Dwkef;u (2)

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ESpf=umatmif apmifh&w,fvdk‹ ajymcJh&if usr rSm;ygw,f? usr 0efcHw,f? tcktcsdefrSmawmh usr jrifwmuawmh tjrefqHk; a&G;aumufyJGawG vkyfay;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? 'Dawmh usrbufu rSm;vdk‹&Sd&if usr 0efcHzdk‹ 0efrav;ygbl;? 0efcHyghr,f? e0wbufuvnf; trSm;t,Gif;awG&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if 0efcHygvdk‹ usru awmif;yefcsifygw,f?

'gayrJh bmyJajymajym a&G;aumufyJGawGjzpfwJh tcsdefusvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh usr ajymwJhtcsdefuae (2) ESpfavmufeD;yg;awmh jzpfoGm;yg+yD? tJh'Dawmh odyfvnf; usr rSm;w,fvdk‹awmh rqdkEdkifbl;aygh? usrwdk‹ EdkifiHa&;vkyfwJhae&mrSm rrSm;wJhvlqdkwm r&Sdygbl;? ta&;}uD;wmu rSm;vdk‹&Sd&if 0efcH&r,f? jyef+yD;awmh jyif&r,f? tckjy\emu e0w u ae+yD;awmh trSm;qdkwm[m b,fawmhrS r&Sdbl;vdk‹qdk+yD;awmh xm;aewmyJ? b,fawmhrS rSm;w,f&,fvdk‹ r0efcHbl;? vl}uD;wa,muftaeeJ‹/ txl;ojzifh vufeuf/ tm%mudk udkifxm;wJh vl}uD;rsm;taeeJ‹ usKyfwdk‹awmh rSm;w,fAsmvdk‹ 0efcHvdkuf&if b,favmuf *k%foduQm&SdovJ? jynfolvlxk[m b,favmuf av;pm;oGm;rvJ? 'gawGudk rpOf;pm;=ubl;? tcktcsdefusawmh 'Dvdk usKyfwdk‹rSm;w,fvdk‹ r0efcHbJeJ‹ usKyfwdk‹vufxJrSm aoewf&Sdw,fcsnf;yJ ajymaewmyJ? 'g tifrwefrS roifhawmfwJh udpPawGyg?

'gvnf; ckeudpPa=umifh ar;wmyJeJ‹ wlw,f? c%av;aemf? “tmZmenfae‹ csDwuftav;ðy&m tift,f'D trnfryg0ifI jynfolrsm; odk‹avm/ odk‹avm jzpfaeonfudk &Sif;vif;ay;&ef” wJh? usrwdk‹u q,fa,mufxJeJ‹awmh rcsDwufygbl;? q,fa,mufxJeJ‹ usrwdk‹acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;udk tav;ðywm[m apmfum;&ma&mufw,fvdk‹ xifvdk‹ q,fa,mufxJeJ‹ usrwdk‹ rcsDwufygbl;?

“uif;vGwfcGifhrSwfyHkwifwJh tift,f'Doabmxm;udk &Sif;vif;ay;yg” wJh? usrwdk‹oabm apmapmu ajymcJh+yD;yg+yD? 1962 ckESpf w&m;Oya't& yHkESdyfxkwfa0cGifhOya't&qdk&if usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m vGwfvGwfvyfvyf xkwfa0ydkifcGifh&Sdw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ vGwfvGwfvyfvyf yHkESdyfxkwfa0cGifhr&Sdbl;qdkwJh trdef‹tm%m rw&m;wm? usrwdk‹ vGwfvGwfvyfvyf yHkESdyfxkwfa0wmu rw&m;wm r[kwfygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ uif;vGwfcGifhqdkwm usrwdk‹ &Sdxdkufygw,f? avhvmzdk‹twGuf av#mufv$mawGawmifrS oGm;+yD;awmh ,l=unfhvdkufygw,f? b,fvdkuif;vGwfcGifh[m awmif;oifh/ rawmif;oifh/ uif;vGwfcGifhawmif;wJhae&mrSm rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mawGygw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ jrifygw,f? usrwdk‹&JŒ EdkifiHa&;tcGifhta&;awGudk csKyfcs,fwJh 0efcHcsufawGudk vufrSwfxdk;ckdif;xm;w,fqdkwm jrifygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹ 'D0efcHcsufawGudkvnf; rxdk;Ekdifbl;? uif;vGwfcGifhvnf; usrwdk‹ rawmif;Ekdifbl;?

“trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyfrS tm%m&&Sdygu jynfwGif;ppfudk rnfodk‹ oabmxm;ygovJ” wJh? jynfwGif;ppfudk uif;+idrf;atmif/ +yD;+idrf;atmif rvkyfcJhwmuawmh rqvyJ? usrwdk‹uawmh 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;& wufvdk‹&Sd&if jynfwGif;ppf uif;+idrf;oGm;atmifvdk‹ EdkifiHa&;enf;awG &Sm&r,f? vufeufenf;eJ‹ tESpfav;q,fausmf óud;pm;cJhwm jynfwGif;ppf[m r+yD;cJhbl;? usrwdk‹ EkdifiHa&;enf;eJ‹yJ &Smr,f? apwemrSefvdk‹ EkdifiHa&;enf;eJ‹vnf; &Smvdk‹&r,fvdk‹ usrwdk‹ ,Hk=unfygw,f? tck wyfrawmfom;rsm;[m yifyef;aewm/ a&SŒwef;rSm aoae&wm/ ysufpD;ae&wm[m 'D jynfwGif;ppfa=umifhyJ? 'DjynfwGif;ppf jzpfay:vmwm[mvnf; jynfolvlxka=umifh r[kwfygbl;? jynfwGif;ppf ruif;+idrf;wmvnf; jynfolvlxka=umifh r[kwfygbl;? rqvtpdk;&[m apwemrSefrSefeJ‹ jynfwGif;ppf uif;+idrf;a&;twGuf rvkyfcJhvdk‹ jzpfygw,f? 'Drkdua&pDtpdk;&vufatmufrSmawmh 'Djy\emudk EkdifiHa&;enf;eJ‹yJ ajz&Sif;&rSmyJ?

“ppftpdk;&u tvkyform;rsm;/ 0efxrf;rsm;udk EdkifiHa&;rvkyfatmif wm;qD;zdESdyfr_rsm;udk bma=umifh &Sif;vif;zGifhcsjcif; rðyao;ygovJ? ‚if;Oya'rsm;[m vGwfvyfa&;&+yD; Oya'vm;/ u|efoabmufacwfu Oya'vm; ajz=um;ay;yg&ef”? u|efoabmufacwfu 0efxrf;rsm;[m EkdifiHa&;vkyfydkifcGifh&Sdw,f? e0wacwfusrS 0efxrf;rsm;[m EdkifiHa&;vkyfydkifcGifhr&Sdwm? tJh'Dawmh [dkt&ifwkef;u u|efoabmufacwfqdk&if 'gudk bmacwfvdk‹ ac:&rSef;awmif rodawmhbl;?

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“ppftpdk;&u vuf&SdaumufcHaewm tcGeftwkyfrsm; 200 &mcdkifE_ef; wdk;jr‡ifhaumufcHaejcif;udk bma=umifh zGifhcswdkufyJGr0ifao;ovJ” wJh? ckajymvdkufwm wdkufyJG0if&rSmaygh? jynfolvlxkudk ESdyfpufcsifvdk‹ 'D tcGeftaumufrsm;udk wdk;jr‡ifhaumufcHaewmvm;? 'grSr[kwf e0w[m 'DavmufawmifrSyJ rJGaevdk‹ tcGefawG jr‡ifhwifae&wmvm;? tJh'Dawmh e0w u rJGawaevdk‹qdkvdk‹&Sd&if jynfolvlxkvnf; rJGawaewmyJ? b0wlcsif;yJ? trJGtawcHygvdk‹ usr ajym&rSmyJ? jynfolvlxkudk ESdyfpufcsifvdk‹ 'DtcGefawG jr‡ifhw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh 'D e0w&JŒ apwemrrSefbl;qdkwm &Sif;aewmyJ? jynfolvlxkudk ESdyfpufzdk‹ tpdk;&vm;? jynfolvlxkudk ulnDzdk‹ tpdk;&vm;? e0w[m qHk;jzwfyg? jynfolvlxkudk wu,fyJ ulnDcsifwJh apwem&Sd&if/ jynfolvlxktay:rSm =uifemwJhpdwfawG &Sdvdk‹&Sd&if tcktcsdefrSm trsKd;rsKd;EdkifiHa&;enf;awGeJ‹ zdpD;ESdyfpufwJhtjyif pD;yGm;a&;bufuvnf; ydk+yD;awmh wif;usyfatmifvdk‹/ toufarG;0rf;ausmif;bufuvnf; ydk+yD;pdwfnpfatmifvdk‹ tcGeftaumufudk rjr‡ifhwifygeJ‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹ ajym&rSmyJ?

trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfrSm t"du &efolESpfOD;&Sdygw,fwJh? trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf&JŒ &efol[m ppfrSefwJh 'Drdkua&pDudkvdkvm;wJh jynfolawG&JŒ &efolvdk‹ em;vnfygw,f? eHygwfwpf&efol[m trsm;jynfolvlxk od+yD;om;jzpfwJh OD;ae0if; trdef‹tm%mudk vufcHusifhoHk;aewJh ppft&m&SdtcsKdŒ jzpfygw,f? eHygwfESpf&efoluawmh trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf&JŒ tvHawmfatmufrSm 'Drdkua&pDaºuG;a=umfoHrsm;udk vufoD;vufarmif;wef;+yD; atmfaewJh tacsmiform;awG jzpfygw,f? 'gvnf; rSefygw,f? usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyfxJrSm tacsmiform;awG&Sdw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ rjiif;ygbl;? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh 'DavmufawmifrS}uD;wJh EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;xJrSm EdkifiHa&;tacsmiform;awGu &SdaerSmyJ? aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; rqvpepfatmufrSm (26) ESpfvHk;vHk; tacsmiform;awG woGifoGifarG;xkwfvdkufawmh usrwdk‹wkdif;jynfxJrSm tacsmiform;awG rsm;aewmaygh? wajz;ajz;eJ‹ 'Dtacsmiform;pepf ajymif;vJatmifvdk‹ usrwdk‹ óud;pm;yghr,f? óud;pm;oGm;ygr,f? 'gayrJh (26) ESpfvHk;vHk; vkyfcJhwJhudpPawGudk usrwdk‹u q,fvtwGif; jyef+yD;awmh rðyjyifEkdifwJhtwGufawmh awmif;yefygw,f? trsm;jynfol oabmrwlwJh trdef‹tm%mrSefor# wm0eft& zDqef=u[k tjynfhtpHkazmfjy&r,fhtpm; vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfowif;pmY “trsm;jynfol oabmrwlwJh” [laom emr0daooe csefxm;cJh+yD; csefvSyfcJhjcif;jzifh trsm;jynfol t"dy`m,faumufvJGEdkifygw,f? 'Dvdk rvkyfoifhyg? “trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf[m taxGaxG tm%mzDqefjcif; r[kwfbl;vdk‹ xifygw,f? zDqefaewJh Oya'rsm;udk vufvSrf;rDor# &Sif;jyay;ygcifAsm” wJh? vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfowif;pmu b,fwkef;ursm; rSefrSefuefuef a&;om;cJhzl;vdk‹vJ? 'g[m tHh=op&mrvdkygbl;? 'gayrJh tm%mzDqefa&;eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usr apmapmu &Sif;oGm;+yDqdkawmh usr quf+yD;awmh r&Sif;awmhygbl;?

“EdkifiHa&;ygwDawGeJ‹ pm;yJG0dkif;xkdifI raqG;aEG;Ekdifa=umif; AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif&JŒ jiif;qdkjcif;[m t+yD;tjywfjiif;y,fjcif;vdk‹ xifygovm;” wJh? t+yD;tjywfqdkwm b,fawmhrS r&SdEdkifygbl;? tajctae[m ajymif;vJaeovdk usrwdk‹ vkyfyHkudkifenf;awGvnf; ajymif;vJ&rSmyJ? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ t+yD;tjywf jiif;y,fw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh wdkif;jynftay:rSm apwemrJh±Hkwifrubl;/ tifrwefvnf; rdkuf&musr,fvdk‹ usr xifygw,f? ol‹taeeJ‹ t+yD;tjywfjiif;cJhvdk‹&Sd&if apmapmu usrajymcJhwJhtwkdif;yJ udkvdkeDe,fcsJŒtpdk;&awmifrS aqG;aEG;cJhw,f/ nd‡dE_dif;cJhw,f/ wdkifyifcJhw,f? tJhawmh e0wtaeeJ‹ udkvdkeDe,fcsJŒtpdk;&avmufawmh oabmxm;}uD;yg/ tjrifus,fygvdk‹awmh usrwdk‹u ajym&rSmyJ?

&&if& r&&ifcsqdk+yD; a&;xm;wJhvlawG[m 'Drdkkua&pDvdkvm;wJhvlawGvm; qdk+yD; ar;oGm;ygw,f? usr wckyJ owday;csifwmuawmh &&if& r&&ifcsqdkwm azazajymoGm;wJhpum;awGyg? tJh'Dawmh azazhudk rapmfum;ygeJ‹? usr 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹vnf; c%c% ajymygw,f? &&if& r&&ifcsvdk‹ajymwJh acwfwkef;u vlrsKd;jcm;tpdk;&udk awmfvSefwdkufcdkufaewJhacwfyg? 'ga=umifh tcktcsdefrSm udk,fhtcsif;csif;=um;xJrSm pdwf0rf;uJGaewJhtcsdefrSm 'Dvdk &&if& r&&ifcsqdkwJh oabmxm;awG tifrwefrS qifjcif&ygvdrfhr,f?

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usrwdk‹tcsif;csif; usrwdk‹ rcscsifygbl;? pOf;pm;=unfhav 'Dbufu tkwfwjcrf;awmif r&Sdbl;? [dkbufueJ‹ csvdk‹ usrwdk‹ b,fa&mufoGm;rSmvJ? 'Dawmh 'DvdkcscsifwJhpdwfawG usrwdk‹ r&Sdygbl;? usrwdk‹[m at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ nd‡dE_dif;jcif;/ aqG;aEG;jcif;/ wkdifyifjcif;rsm; enf;vrf;t& jynfolvlxkvdkcsifwJh yef;wdkifudk csDwufoGm;zdk‹ =um;csifygw,f? tJh'Dawmh e0w[m wu,fyJ jynfolvlxkudk at;csrf;csifovm;/ wu,fyJ qlylv_H‹aqmfr_ rvdkvm;bl;vm;? rvdkvm;vdk‹&Sd&if nd‡E_dif;yg? wu,fyJ Confrontaion head on vdk‹ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu ajymoGm;ygw,f? head on qdkwm xdyfwdkufawG‹wmayghav? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ head on vdk‹ oabmrxm;ygbl;? Confrontation qdkwm xdyfwdkufawG‹wmr[kwfygbl;? &ifqkdifwmyg? wa,mufeJ‹ wa,muf pm;yJG0kdif;rSmxkdif+yD;awmh &ifqdkifwJh Confrontation rsKd;om usrwdk‹ vdkcsifygw,f? tJh'Dawmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif&JŒ e0wtaeeJ‹ wu,fyJ xdyfwdkufrawG‹csifbl;/ ESmacgif;udk a&Smifcsifw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if pm;yJG0kdif;rSm xdkif+yD;awmh nd‡E_dif;yg? 'Dvdkvkyfjcif;tm;jzifh e0w[m wu,fyJ xdyfwdkufrawG‹csifbl;qdkwm jy&ygvdrfhr,f? usrwdk‹uawmh xdyfwdkufrawG‹csifygbl;? usrrSmvnf; ESmacgif;qdkwm wacsmif;yJ &Sdygw,f? 'Dawmh ESmacgif;udk usrwdk‹tm;vHk; a&Smifcsif=uwmaygh? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifwdk‹u a&Smifcsif=u&JŒvm;/ 'gudk ar;&rSmyJ? a&Smifcsifvdk‹&Sd&if wkdif;odjynfodjyyg? Confrontation udk a&Smifcsifvdk‹/ xdyfwdkufawG‹wmudk a&Smifcsifvdk‹/ ESmacgif;csif;±dkufwmudk a&Smifcsifvdk‹ aqG;aEG;yghr,f/ nd‡E_dif;yghr,f/ wkdifyifyghr,fqdkwm vl}uD;yDyD oabmxm;}uD;}uD;eJ‹ a=unmyg? vl}uD;qdkwm oabmxm;}uD;&w,f? wu,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif ajymoGm;wm[m usrwdk‹eJ‹rsm; aqG;aEG;vdkufvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹bufuae+yD;awmh axmufcHaewm ygwDaygif; (80)/ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu wa,mufxJqdkawmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifbufuyJ tm;enf;oGm;rvkdvdk ajymoGm;ygw,f? wu,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if pOf;pm;=unfhyg? usru oGm;vdk‹&Sd&if wa,mufxJ oGm;&rSm? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifaemufrSm wyfrawmfwckvHk; aoewfawGeJ‹ &Sdygw,f? +yD;awmh tiftm;&SdwJhvl/ tiftm;vnf;&Sdw,f/ tm%mvnf;&Sdw,f? aoewfvnf;&Sdw,f? 0gtm;jzifh/ touftm;jzifh usrxuf trsm;}uD; }uD;ygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ oabmxm;}uD;a=umif; jy+yD;awmh usrwdk‹eJ‹ awG‹yg? usrwdk‹u tm;enf;wJhbufuyg? tm;}uD;wJhbufu tm;enf;wJhbufudk oabmxm;}uD;&r,f? tav#mhay;&r,f? oD;cH&r,f? n‡mwm&r,f? 'DvdkpdwfawGxm;yg? tckawmh aoewfudkifxm;wJh vlcsnf;uyJ +cdrf;ajcmufaewmyJ? usrwdk‹uudk r+cdrf;ajcmuf&bl;? tJh'g roifhawmfygbl;? "EkjzLoGm;wkef;uvnf; usreJ‹ awG‹cJhygw,f? qkdif;bkwfwck/ tJ – wyfrawmfudk r+cdrf;ajcmufygeJ‹wJh? 'dk‹ra=umufwwfbl;wJh? usru jyefajym&r,f? tJh'Dwkef;u jynfolvlxkudk r+cdrf;ajcmufygeJ‹/ jynfolvlxkcrsm a=umufwwfygw,fvdk‹/ 'Davmuf 'Dvdk vufeufudkif+yD;awmh +cdrf;ajcmufaew,fqdkwm tifrwefrS roifhawmfwJhudpPyJ? tifrwefrS *k%foduQmudk usqif;apwJhudpPawGyJ? 'Dawmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifeJ‹ e0w0ifrsm;[m jynfolvlxkudk r+cdrf;ajcmufygeJ‹? wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfolvlxk=um;rSm &efrwdkufay;ygeJ‹? at;at;aq;aq;eJ‹ jy\emawG ajyvnfa&;twGuf nd‡E_dif;yg? usrwdk‹EkdifiHu jy\emawGqdkwm 2§88 eJ‹ 8§88 ESpfckxJ r[kwfygbl;? 'Dxufru jy\emawG trsm;}uD;&Sdygw,f? w&m;Oya'rpdk;rdk;wJh jy\em/ qefjy\em/ ukefaps;E_ef;jy\em? ckeuajymwJhtwdkif; tcGeftaumufjy\em/ jy\emaygif; aomif;ajcmufaxmif&Sdygw,f? 'Djy\emawGudk ajz&Sif;zdk‹vdk‹twGuf aqG;aEG;ygvdk‹ usrwdk‹u ajymwmyJ? aqG;aEG;jcif;/ wkdifyifjcif;qdkwm[m pum;&nfvkyJGr[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyftwGuf tEkdif,lzdk‹r[kwfbl;? 'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹tpnf;awGtwGuf tEkdif,lzdk‹r[kwfbl;? jynfolvlxktwGuf tEkdif,lzdk‹yJ? tJh'Dawmh wu,fyJ wkdif;jynftay:rSm apwemxm;w,f qdkvdk‹&Sd&if jynfolvlxktwGuf taumif;qHk;tajzudk azmfxkwfyg? tcGifhta&;rsm;udk csKyfcs,fwJhtrdef‹tm%mrsm;udk atmifqef;vrf;pOft&om zDqefaewmjzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mrsm; z,f&Sm;vdkufr,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹[mvnf; quf+yD;awmh zDqefzdk‹[m vdkawmhrSmr[kwfygbl;? trdef‹tm%mzDqefaew,fqdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyf0ifawGudk tcktcsdefrSm zrf;vdkufwm wae‹+yD;wae‹yJ/ wokwf+yD;wokwfyJ zrf;aewmyJ? 'gayrJhvnf; usrwdk‹ quf+yD;awmh

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qufvkyfoifhvkyfxdkufwm vkyfoGm;&rSmyJ? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh 'g[m atmifqef;vrf;pOfrdk‹vdk‹yJ? rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mrsm;udk zDqefzdk‹qdkwm[m azazudk,fwkdifu csrSwfoGm;wJh vrf;pOfjzpfw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ 'Dvrf;pOfudk waoGrwdrf; usrwdk‹ quf+yD;awmh av#mufoGm;rSmjzpfygw,f? pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ av#mufoGm;rSmjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹udk &efr&SmygeJ‹? &efrpygeJ‹? usrwdk‹[m &efvdkwmr[kwfygbl;? jynfolvlxkuvnf; &efvdkwm r[kwfygbl;? at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udkom vdkcsifwJh jynfolvlxkjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh tmZmenfae‹udk OD;wnfwJhtcsdefrSm usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;&JŒ vrf;pOfuae+yD;awmh quf+yD;av#mufoGm;r,fh taetxm;rSm&Sdygw,f? quf+yD;awmh av#mufoGm;csifygw,fqdkwm usru jynfolvlxkudk ajymcsifygw,f? jynfolvlxktaeeJ‹vnf; ,Hk,Hk=unf=unf usrwdk‹eJ‹ vufwGJ+yD;awmh 'Drkdua&pD&wJhtxd csDwuf=uyg? usrtaeeJ‹ jynfolvlxkukd b,fawmhrS r[kwfrrSefwJhudpPawGvnf; rajymygbl;? jynfolvlxkudk wywf±dkufzdk‹qdkwmvnf; usr b,fawmhrS rpOf;pm;ygbl;? usrtaeeJ‹ vkyfcsifwm &Sdvdk‹&Sd&if &Sif;jyyghr,f? bmjzpfvdk‹ usr 'gvkyfovJ/ bmjzpfvdk‹ vkyfoifhw,fvdk‹ xifovJ/ 'Dtrdef‹tm%mzDqefa&;vnf; usr &Sif;jy+yD;yg+yD? bmjzpfvdk‹ usrwdk‹ vkyfoifhw,fvdk‹ xifovJqdkwm tmZmenfae‹eJ‹ ywfoufvdk‹vnf; usruawmh usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ bmjzpfvdk‹ q,fa,mufwwJG/ tzJG‹wzJG‹rSm q,fa,muf/ wuf&r,fqdkwJh[mudk vufrcHovJqdkwmvnf; usr &Sif;jy+yD;oGm;yg+yD? wwfEkdifor# usrwdk‹ vkyfor#udpPawGudk jynfolvlxkudk &Sif;jyoGm;yghr,f? jynfolvlxkudk wifjyw,fqdkwm 'Drdkua&pDenf;yg? 'Dvdk wifjywJhtcg jynfolvlxktaeeJ‹ axmufcHcsifaxmufcHr,f/ raxmufcHcsifvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹tiftm;[m avsmhoGm;rSmaygh? usrwdk‹[m vlxkudk tm;udk;+yD;awmh vkyfaewJhv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;xJrSm yg0ifaewJh yk*~Kdvfrsm;jzpfygw,f? jynfolvlxkeJ‹ vufwJGrsm; jywfoGm;r,f/ jynfolvlxkeJ‹ pdwf0rf;uJGoGm;r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹vnf; usqHk;±HkyJ? usqHk;&ifvnf; usrwdk‹ vufcHygw,f? jynfolvlxk rvdkvm;wJhwae‹rSm EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;/ EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;[m usqHk;=u&rSmyJ? 'gudkvnf; usrwdk‹ vufcHygw,f? 'ga=umifh jynfolvlxktwGuf/ wkdif;jynftwGufqdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹ óud;pm;aewmjzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk apwemrSefrSefeJ‹ vkyfw,fqdkwmvnf; jynfolvlxku ,Hk=unfapcsifygw,f? oHo,&Sdvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;t& usrwdk‹udk wifjyyg? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ &Sif;jyyghr,f? aemifvmaemufom;rsm; aumif;usKd;twGuf tck&SdaewJh tckacwfjrefrmEkdifiHol/ EkdifiHom;rsm;[m owWd&Sd&Sd rSefrSefuefuefeJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDyef;wdkifa&mufwJhtxd quf+yD;awmh csDwufoGm;=uEkdifygapvdk‹ usr qkawmif;arwWmydk‹&if;eJ‹ ed*Hk;csKyfygw,f?

24

rdef‹cGef;aumufEkwfcsufrsm;

trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfrS xkwfa0aom rdef‹cGef;aumufEkwfcsufrsm;pmtkyfrS xkwfEkwfazmfjyonf? * * *

usrwdk‹[m usrwdk‹&JŒEdkifiHxJrSm tusOf;om;jzpfae&w,fqdkwm urBmu odapcsifw,f? (20-7-89) usr 'Duae‹up+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkeJ‹ yGifhyGifhvif;vif; qufqHyg&ap? usr EkdifiHjcm;rSm aecJhw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefygw,f? EkdifiHjcm;om;eJ‹ tdrfaxmifusw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefygw,f? 'gayrJh

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'gav;twGufeJ‹ usr wkdif;jynftay:rSmxm;wJh arwWm[m b,fvdkrS usqif;roGm;Ekdifygbl;? (a&$wd*HkapwDtaemufbufrkcf vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; 26-8-88) EkdifiHa&;avmueJ‹ a0;a0;uif;uif; aecJhcsifygw,f? tJh'Dvdk a0;a0;uif;uif; aecsifcJhvsufom;eJ‹ tckrS bmjzpfvdk‹ 'Dta&;tcif;rSm 0ifygaeovJvdk‹ ar;p&m&Sdygw,f? tJh'D[muawmh 'Dta&;tcif;[m wwdkif;jynfvHk;eJ‹qdkifwJh ta&;tcif;jzpfaeygw,f? usrrSmvnf; azazh&JŒorD; vkyfae+yD;awmh acgif;a&Smif+yD;awmh aevdk‹rjzpfawmhbl;? 'Dta&;tcif;}uD;[m wu,fawmh 'kwd,vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJG}uD;vdk‹ ac:&ifvnf; jzpfygw,f? (a&$wd*Hktaemufbufrkcf vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; 26-8-88) usr[m usrtaz&JŒ tpOftvmtwdkif; 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJGudk 0ifvdk‹EJ$cJh&ygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'Drkdua&pD&zdk‹&ef jynfolvlxktm;vHk; pnf;vHk;nDnGwfzdk‹vdkygw,f? nDnGwf&if bmrqdkjzpfEkdifygw,f? (a&$wd*HkapwDtaemufbufrkcf vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; 26-8-88) v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk OD;aqmifcJhwJh ausmif;om;awGeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usr ajymp&mav;awG&Sdygw,f? ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m tifrwefrS awmfygw,f? olwdk‹&JŒ vuf±kef;&nfudkvnf; jy+yD;yg+yD? tckvnf; quf+yD;awmh olwdk‹&JŒ ESvHk;&nfudk jyr,fqdkwm usr ,Hk=unfygw,f? (a&$wd*HkapwDtaemufbufrkcf vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; 26-8-88) tpdk;&qdkwm jynfolvlxkqENeJ‹udkufnDr,fh wkdif;jynftusKd;udk aqmif&Gufzdk‹ tcsdefuef‹owf apckdif;xm;wJh opPmt&SdqHk; jynfol‹0efxrf;yJjzpf&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ ewfarmufòrd‹ 1-11-88) tzJG‹csKyf&nf&G,fcsufudkuvnf; a&G;aumufyJG0ifa&muf,SOfòydifzdk‹ oufoufrSr[kwfbJ? 18 &uf pufwifbmv ppftm%modrf;+yD;wJhaemufydkif;rSm jyef‹}uJoGm;wJh 'Drkdua&pDtiftm;awGudk wpkw±kef;wnf;jzpfatmif pkpnf;+yD;/ tJh'Dpkpnf;xm;wJh tiftm;awGudk pepfwusjzpfatmif aygif;+yD;awmh vGwfvyf+yD; w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJGawG usif;yEkdifr,fhf tajctaersKd;udk zefwD;ay;zdk‹ygyJ? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ yk*Hòrd‹ 2-11-88) jrefrmrif;awGxJrSm usefppfom;eJ‹ bk&ifhaemif[m odyfcsD;usL;zdk‹aumif;w,f? olwdk‹ESpfa,mufpvHk;[m usefppfom;qdk&if taemf&xm/ bk&ifhaemifqdk&if wyifa&$xD;udk ykefuefjcm;em;EkdifwJh t&nftcsif;&Sdw,f? 'gayrJh usefppfom;a&m/ bk&ifhaemifyg opPm&Sd=uygw,f? vlawmfwa,muf/ t&nftcsif;&SdwJh vlwa,muf[m opPm&Sdzdk‹ odyfta&;}uD;w,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ yk*Hòrd‹ 2-11-88) ppf±_H;+yD;p *syefbk&ifajymcJhwJh pum;wck&Sdygw,f? usKyfwdk‹[m rcHEdkifwJhudpPawGudk cHEkdif&nf&Sdatmif vkyf&r,f? rjzpfEkdifwJhudpPawGudk jzpfEkdifatmifvkyfEdkifwJh t&nftcsif;&Sd&r,fwJh? tJh'DvdkyJ usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxkuvnf; 'kuQqif;&JcH+yD; ZJG&Sd&Sd/ owWd&Sd&SdeJ‹ rjzpfrae óud;pm;vkyfaqmif=ur,fqdk&if bmrS ratmifjrifEkdifp&mr&Sdygbl;? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ ausmufyef;awmif; 2-11-88) tqdk;qHk;tpdk;&qdkwm jynfolvlxk &GH&Smrkef;wD;wJhtpdk;&/ 'Dxuf eJeJaumif;wmu jynfolvlxku a=umufwJhtpdk;&/ 'Dxufydk+yD; aumif;wmuawmh jynfolvlxku csD;rGrf;wJhtpdk;&/ taumif;qHk;uawmh jynfolvlxku &SdrSef;awmif rodwJhtpdk;&wJh? usrwdk‹ tdrfwtdrfrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if tarvdkaygh? tar&SdrSef;awmif

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owdrxm;rdbl;? pm;csdefwef pm;&r,f? 0wfcsdefwef 0wf&r,f? tm;vHk; tqifoifhyJ? tJh'Dvdk jzpfae&r,f? em;vnfxm;&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ jrif;+cH 3-11-88) ("gwfyHkrsm;vmygonf) tay: - rdwˆDvmòrd‹e,fwGif pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;aepOf atmuf – uav;rsm;cspfwJh tefwDpk 'Drkdua&pDpepfrSm trwfvkyfcsifolawG[m tyifyef; tqif;&J cHEdkif&r,f? tpGrf;ukef tvkyfvkyf&r,f? udk,fusKd;riJhbJ trsm;tusKd;udk yDyDjyifjyif ausausyGefyGef xrf;aqmifEkdif&r,f? (jrawmifausmif;wdkuf/ rEWav; 6-11-88) EdkifiHa&;todtjrifqdkwm vlr_a&;todtjrifyJjzpfygw,f? udk,f[m tdrfeD;em;csif;wa,muf yDovdk‹&Sd&if wajz;ajz;eJ‹ vlr_a&;uae p+yD;awmh EdkifiHa&;orm;aumif;wa,muf yDoaerSmyJvdk‹ usr jrifygw,f? (ajrmufOuUvmyòrd‹e,f 10-12-88) 'Drdkua&pDpepfqdkwm vlwkdif; wa,mufeJ‹wa,muf av;pm;wJhpepfygyJ? (ajrmufOuUvmyòrd‹e,f 10-12-88) trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfudk xlaxmifcJhwm[m jynfolvlxk vdkcsifwJh 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_ atmifjrifa&;twGuf xlaxmifcJhwmyJjzpfw,f? jynfolvlxkeJ‹ usrwdk‹ wpnf;w±Hk;xJ rvkyfEdkifvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyf}uD;[m zsufzdk‹yJ &Sdawmhw,f? tJ'Dawmh tzJG‹0ifrsm;[m jynfolvlxk&JŒ oabmxm;udk em;vnf&r,f? jynfolvlxk&JŒ oabmtwdkif; vkyf&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ oxHkòrd‹ 14-12-88) vl‹tcGifhta&;qdkwm vlwkdif;vlwkdif; ydkifqdkifcGifh&Sdw,f? udk,fwifr[kwfbl;? udk,fh&efolrsm;yifv#if vl‹tcGifhta&;&Sd&r,f? tJh'Dawmh wae‹ usrwdk‹&JŒ 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_}uD; atmifjrifoGm;wJhtcgus&if ±_H;wJhvlawG[m olwdk‹tcGifhta&;awGudk jynfhjynfh00 cHpm;Ekdif&r,f? 'g[m usrwdk‹&JŒ 'Drdkua&pDwm0efjzpfw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ oxHkòrd‹ 14-12-88) rufvHk;ay;+yD;awmh pnf;±Hk;r_rsKd;udk usr rvdkcsifbl;? igwdk‹tpdk;&wuf&if 'gawG vkyfay;r,fqdkwJh pnf;±Hk;r_rsKd;awmh rvkyf=uygeJ‹? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ oxHkòrd‹ 14-12-88) 'Drdkua&pDpepf xlaxmifwJhtcgus&if ausmif;wdkif;/ ausmif;wkdif;rSm udk,fhwkdif;jynfrSm&SdwJh bmomxJu tenf;qHk; bmomESpf&yfudk vlwkdif;vlwdkif; oifr,f? ArmeJ‹ &Srf;jzpfjzpf/ ArmeJ‹ u&ifjzpfjzpf/ ArmeJ‹ rGefjzpfjzpf oifoifhw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKdufxdkòrd‹ 14-12-88) rGef/ Arm/ u&if/ ucsif/ &Srf; ponfjzifh cJGjcm;+yD;awmh rawG;ygeJ‹? igwdk‹tm;vHk;[m jynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om;rsm;jzpfw,f qdk+yD;awmh pdwfxJrSm xm;+yD; twlwlvkyfoGm;apcsifw,f? 'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHwck jzpfoGm;w,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;tm;vHk;&JŒ tcGifhta&;rsm;udk usrwdk‹ jynfhjynfhpHkpHk ay;csifw,f? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;&JŒ bmoma&;/ ,Ofaus;r_ ponfjzifh usrwdk‹

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tm;ay;csifw,f? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh trsm; tawG;tac:/ trsm; ,Ofaus;r_awGeJ‹ wnfaqmufxm;wJh EkdifiH}uD;[m b,folawG&JŒ tawG;tac:eJ‹ b,folawG&JŒ ,Ofaus;r_eJ‹ wnfaqmufcJhwJh EdkifiH}uD;xuf trsm;}uD; ckdifcHhvmayr,f/ trsm;}uD;vnf; wdk;wufEkdifr,f/ trsm;}uD;vnf; usrwdk‹twGuf tzdk;wefEkdifr,fvdk‹ ,Hk=unfygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKdufxdkòrd‹ 14-12-88) wcsKdŒu ck 'DrSmwrsKd;ajym/ [dkrSmwrsKd;ajym/ 'DrSm 'D[mvkyfr,fajym/ ck 'DrSm [dk[mvkyfr,fajym/ pdwfawGu ajymif;vdkuf/ tajymawGu ajymif;vdkuf/ 'gawGudk olwdk‹u 'g EkdifiHa&;yJvdk‹ ajymw,f? usruawmh 'g EdkifiHa&;yJvdk‹ em;rvnfbl;? 'g uvdrfuuspfvkyfwmyJvdk‹ em;vnfw,f? 'DvdkEkdifiHa&;awGudk usrwdk‹ vufcHvdk‹ rjzpfbl;? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ aygifòrd‹ 14-12-88) EdkifiHa&;y&d,m,fqdkwm wu,f aocsm=unfhvdkufawmh uvdrfuuspfvkyfwmcsnf;yJ? 'D EkdifiHa&;y&d,m,fqdkwmvnf; txifr}uD;ygeJ‹? y&d,m,fqdkwm pum;vHk;udk usr róudufbl;? udk,fhudk xdyg;vm&ifvnf; cHEkdif&nf&Sd&r,f? rSefrSefuefuefyJ vkyfyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ aygifòrd‹ 14-12-88) aemuf wdkif;jynfaumif;usKd;twGufqdk&if ckuaep+yD;awmh usrwdk‹vufcHr,fh acgif;aqmifrsm;[m pum;wnf&r,f? pum;rSef&r,f? trsm;oabmudk vdkufem&r,f? tJh'Dvdk acgif;aqmifrsKd;om usrwdk‹ vdkcsifygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ aygifòrd‹ 14-12-88) ArmvlrsKd;rsm;[m vlrsm;pk}uD;jzpfaevdk‹ wdkif;&if;om;rsm;udk av;pm;yg? wkdif;&if;om;rsm;&JŒ ,Ofaus;r_udk av;pm;yg? pdwf0ifpm;=uyg? avhvm=uyg? tJh'Dvdk wa,mufeJ‹wa,muf&JŒ ,Ofaus;r_/ wa,mufeJ‹wa,muf&JŒ ,Hk=unfcsufrsm;udk avhvmem;vnfrS usrwdk‹tcsif;csif; wu,fh oabmxm;wlawGtjzpfeJ‹ &EdkifrSmyg? (rGeftrsKd;om; 'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ armfvòrdifòrd‹) wkdif;jynfwjynfudk tkyfcsKyfwJh acgif;aqmif[m jynfolvlxk&JŒ axmufcHr_eJ‹ tkyfcsKyfwmyJjzpf&r,f? vufeuftm;udk;eJ‹ tkyfcsKyfw,fqdkwm rjzpfoifhbl;qdkwm arG;uwnf;u usrudk oifxm;wJh/ odcJhwJh oifcef;pmygyJ? (òrd‹e,ftzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ atmufvrf;r}uD;/ armfvòrdifòrd‹) rSefuefwJh EkdifiHa&;pepfrSm usrwdk‹vdkcsifwJh acgif;aqmifawGudk usrwdk‹u azmfxkwf&r,f? vdkcsifwJhyHk oGif;&r,f? udk,fvdkcsifwJhyHk udk,froGif;vdk‹&Sd&if acgif;aqmifvkyfwJholrsm;u wkdif;jynfudk olwdk‹vdkcsifwJhyHk olwdk‹ oGif;oGm;vdrfhr,f? t"dy`m,fu bmjzpfrvJqdkawmh tm%m&Sifpepf}uD; jzpfoGm;rSmyJ? (òrd‹e,ftzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ atmufvrf;r}uD;/ armfvòrdifòrd‹) 'D jrefrmjynf}uD;[m bmjzpfvkd‹ 'DavmufawmifrS ESpfq,fhajcmufESpfvHk;vHk; wygwDtm%m&SifpepfatmufrSm aecJh&vJ? bmjzpfvdk‹ 'Dvdkqif;&J'kuQawGudk cHcJh&ovJqdkwm usr pOf;pm;w,f? wcgjyef+yD;awmh pOf;pm;vdk‹&Sd&if jynfolvlxk}uD;u tcsif;csif; rnDvdk‹yJ? (rGeftrsKd;om; 'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf/ oHjzLZ&yf 16-12-88) tpdk;&[m rw&m;ojzifhvkyfovm;/ r[kwfrrSefwJhudpPawGudk vkyfovm;? udk,frvkyfbJeJ‹ olrsm;awGudk vkyf&ifvnf; rcH&bl;? udk,fh&efoludkyif rw&m;vkyfvdk‹&Sd&if rcH&bl;? 'Dae‹ udk,fh&efoludkvkyfw,f/ aemufae‹ udk,fhudkvkyf&if vkyfvdrfhr,f? (rGeftrsKd;om; 'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf/ oHjzLZ&yf 16-12-88)

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rw&m;ojzifh vkyfwJholawGudk rkef;zdk‹qdkwm uav;av;awGudk oifxm;&r,f? rw&m;wJhudpPrSefor#udk uef‹uGuf&r,f? rw&m;wJhudpPrSefor#udk igwdk‹ toufay;+yD;awmh ckcHr,fqdkwJh pdwfawGudk uav;vli,fawGxJrSm oGif;xm;yg? usrwdk‹udk,fwkdifuvnf; 'DvdkpdwfawGarG;yg? (rGeftrsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf/ oHjzLZ&yf 16-12-88) 'Drkdua&pDtyif}uD;[m &Sifoefvdk‹&Sd&if 'DtyGifhawG toD;awG[m usrwdk‹ vlvwfydkif;/ vl}uD;ydkif;awGu cHpm;csifrS cHpm;&r,f? 'gayrJh vli,fydkif;eJ‹ uav;av;awG }uD;vmvdk‹&Sd&if toD;tyGifhawG cHpm;Ekdif&r,fqdk&if usrwdk‹ auseyfygw,f? (urm0uf 16-12-88) vlwa,muf[m arG;vm+yD;awmh udk,fhtwGuf udk,fvkyf+yD;awmh udk,fyJpm;+yD;awmh aooGm;+yDqdk&if bmvkyfawmhrSmvJ? vljzpf&usKd;reyfbl;? tJh'Dawmh wudk,faumif; r}uH=uygeJ‹? trsm;twGuf vkyf=uyg? trsm;tusKd;aqmifwJhvlrsm;[m vlomaooGm;r,f? b,fawmhrS emrnfraobl;? (urm0uf 16-12-88) vli,fawG&JŒb0udk om,mygap? vli,frsm;&JŒb0 om,mrS usrwdk‹&JŒ wdkif;jynf[m wdk;wufEdkifrSmyg? vli,frsm;&J‹b0 om,matmif zefwD;ray;Ekdif&if aemufacwftqufquf usrwdk‹vlrsKd;rsm; om,mr_ &EkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? (vl‹abmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD/ rk'Hkòrd‹ 16-12-88) t&if vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJGwkef;uqdkvdk‹&Sd&if vlrsKd;jcm;wa,mufudk wdkufcJh&wm? vlrsKd;jcm;udk wkduf&wmxuf udk,fhtcsif;csif; jyef+yD;wdkuf&wmu tifrwefrS pdwfnpfp&maumif;w,f? rjzpfoifh rjzpfxkdufwJh udpP}uD;yJ? (urmau; 17-12-88) wkdif;jynfwjynfrSm tpdk;&,f/ wyfrawmf&,f/ jynfolvlxk&,f waygif;wpnf;wnf; rjzpfEkdifvdk‹&Sd&if b,fenf;eJ‹rS wdk;wufr_r&SdEkdifygbl;? jynfolvlxkudkvnf; ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r,f/ wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfolvlxk=um;rSmvnf; pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvkyfr,fqdk&if 'Dwkdif;jynftay:rSm apwem enf;enf;rS r&Sdbl;vdk‹ usrwdk‹ owfrSwf&rSmyJ? (urmau; 17-12-88) jynfolvlxkeJ‹ wyfrawmf=um;rSmvnf; pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvkyfaew,f? 'Dvdk pdwf0rf;uJGatmif vkyfaewm[m jynfolvlxku vkyfaewmr[kwfbl;? usrwdk‹ EkdifiHa&;vkyfwJholawGuvnf; vkyfaewmr[kwfbl;? wyfrawmfudk udk,fusKd;twGuf oHk;csifwJholrsm;u vkyfaewmyJjzpfw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'DvdkpepfrsKd;udk usrwdk‹tm;vHk;uae+yD;awmh twdkuftcHvkyf&r,f? (urmau; 17-12-88) 'Drkdua&pDpepfatmufrSm qdkvdk‹&Sd&if trsm;pk&JŒ oabmwlnDcsuft& tenf;pku vkyf&w,fqdkayr,fh tenf;pkudk trsm;pku twdkuftcHvkyfw,f/ ESdyfpufw,f/ n‡Of;yrf;w,f/ trsKd;rsKd; taESmifht,Sufay;w,fqdkwm vHk;vHk;r&Sd&bl;? (urmau; 17-12-88) EkdifiHa&;orm;trsKd;rsKd;&Sdw,f? wcsKdŒuawmh wkdif;jynftusKd;twGuf vkyfcsifwJh EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;&Sdygw,f? wcsKdŒuawmh rdrdtusKd;twGuf vkyfcsifwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;&Sdygw,f? wcsKdŒuawmh EkdifiHa&;oufouf vkyfpm;csifwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;&Sdygw,f? EdkifiHa&;vkyfpm;wm tusifhjzpfae+yD;awmh EdkifiHa&;yJ vkyfpm;awmhr,fqdkwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;vnf;&Sdygw,f? 'D EkdifiHa&;orm;trsKd;rsKd;xJrSm wdkif;jynftusKd;udk aqmifEkdifr,fh EkdifiHa&;orm;rsKd;udk a&G;apcsifygw,f? tJh'Dvkd EkdifiHa&;orm;rsKd;[m Avig;wefeJ‹ jynfhpHk&ygr,f? (trsKd;om;+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDygwD/ acsmif;qHk 17-12-88)

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acgif;aqmifwa,muf&JŒ t&nftcsif;udk cef‹rSef;csifvdk‹&Sd&if t&ifwkef;u 'Dacgif;aqmif[m b,fvdkvkyfcJhovJ? wu,fyJ o,fydk;cJhovm;? wkdif;jynfuyJ 'Dacgif;aqmifudk o,fydk;cJhwmvm;? 'Dacgif;aqmifu wkdif;jynfudk o,fydk;cJhwmvm;qdkwm[m trsm;}uD;pOf;pm;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? (acsmif;qHk 17-12-88) trSefudkvkyf&wm trSm;udkvkyf&wmxuf tifrwefrSudk cufygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; aemufqHk;usawmh trSefvkyfwJholuom atmifjrif&rSmyg? trSefw&m;vkyfwJholawGuom ±_H;&ifvnf; Ekdif&r,f/ Ekdif&ifvnf; Ekdif&r,fqdkwm ajymvdk‹&ygw,f? trSefw&m;t& rvkyfwJholawGuawmh ±_H;&ifvnf; ±_H;&r,f/ Ekdif&ifvnf; ±_H;&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89) usrwdk‹ 1988 u usqHk;oGm;wJh ausmif;om;av;awGqdk&if toufomaysmufoGm;w,f/ olwdk‹udk qHk;±_H;w,fvdk‹ rqdkEdkifygbl;? olwdk‹[m atmifjrifjcif;yJ? tJh'D[mudk pdwfxJrSm pJGxm;=uyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89) 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;vdkcsifw,fqdkwm b,fol‹udkrS wdkufcdkufcsifvdk‹ r[kwfbl;? b,fol‹udkrS pJGðzwfcsifvdk‹ r[kwfbl;? jynfolvlxktrsm;}uD;[m pdk;&drfa=umifh=ur_uif;a0;pGmeJ‹ udk,fhtoufarG;0rf;ausmif;udk vGwfvGwfvyfvyf v_yf&Sm;Ekdifatmifvdk‹qdkwJh pdwfrsKd;eJ‹ 'Drkdua&pDtwGuf wdkufae=uwmyJ? tm;vHk;u 'DtcGifhta&;vdkcsif&if tm;vHk;u 0if+yD;awmh v_yf&Sm;&rSmyJ? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89) usrwdk‹acwfrSm usrwdk‹ ukodkvfuHa=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ 'Dwkdif;jynf jynfolvlxkudk ta=umufw&m;uae+yD;awmh vGwfajrmufatmif vkyfay;EkdifwJhtcGifhta&;awG &vmw,f? 'DtcGifhta&;udk vufv$wfqHk;±_H;rcHygeJ‹? 'Dvdkjynfaxmifpktopf wnfaxmifzdk‹ tcGifhta&;awGudk vufv$wfvdkuf&if usrwdk‹[m orkdif;ay;wm0ef rausyGefolawGtjzpf orkdif;rSm tifrwefrS tjypfwifp&mjzpfrSmyJ? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89) usrwdk‹u jynfolvlxkudk tm;udk;w,f? jynfolvlxkuvnf; udk,fhudkudk,f tm;udk;=uyg? udk,fhudkudk,f txifrao;=uygeJ‹? vlxk&JŒ tiftm;qdkwm tifrwefrS }uD;ygw,f? vlxk&JŒ tiftm;qdkwmudk rav;pm;bJ raeEkdifygbl;? usrwdk‹uvnf; av;pm;w,f? aemifvnf; tpdk;&tqufqufu av;pm;oifhw,f? jynfolvlxkudk av;pm;wJh tpdk;&rsKd;udk usrwdk‹u jzpfapcsifygw,f? 'grS wkdif;jynfrSmvnf; tusKd;jzpfapr,f? jynfolvlxkvnf; pdwfcsrf;omvmr,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89) 'DtcsdefrSm owWd&Sd&SdeJ‹ vkyfvdkufvdk‹&Sd&if aemifus&if usrwdk‹[m ra=umuf=u&wJhacwfudk a&mufoGm;Edkifygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm a=umuf+yD;awmh vkyfoifhoavmuf rvkyfcJhvdk‹&Sd&if aemuf quf+yD;awmh a=umufae&wJhpepfudk &Sifoefatmif vkyfay;ovdk jzpfoGm;ygr,f? vlwa,muftaeeJ‹vnf; trsm;}uD; *k%foduQmusygw,f? tJh'Dawmh tm;vHk;u rSefwmvkyf&vdk‹&Sd&if a=umufaevnf; vkyf&rSmyg? (jrwfarwWmoabFm/ a&$'*Fg;aus;&Gm 14-1-89) 'Drkdua&pDvdkcsifwJhvlrsm;[m rkef;wJhpdwfeJ‹ wdkufaewmr[kwfbl;? arwWmpdwfeJ‹ wdkufaewmyJ? jynfolvlxktay: arwWm&Sdvdk‹/ wkdif;jynftay: arwWm&Sdvdk‹/ jynfolvlxkcHae&wm/ wkdif;jynfcHae&wm/ jynfaxmifpk}uD; epfemaewmudk r=unfh&ufvdk‹ arwWmpdwfeJ‹ 'Drkdua&pDwkdufyJGudk 0ifaewmjzpfw,f? (jrwfarwWmoabFm/ a&$'*Fg;aus;&Gm 14-1-89)

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usrwdk‹ tck 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_txJrSm yg0ifvmwm[m tm%mvdkcsifvdk‹ yg0ifvmwmr[kwfbl;? wm0efudk xrf;aqmifcsifvdk‹ yg0ifvm=uwmyJ? usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyftwGufa&m/ v_yf&Sm;r_txJrSm yg0ifae=uwJh jynfolvlxktwGufa&m/ t"dupum;vHk;[m tm%mr[kwfygbl;? wm0efyg? jynfaxmifpkeJ‹ jynfolvlxktay:rSm&SdwJh wm0eft& 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSm tm;vHk;yg0ifae=uwmyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89) usrwdk‹[m rSefuefwJhenf;eJ‹ vdkcsifwmudk vkyfEkdifwJh t&nftcsif;awG &Sdatmifvdk‹ udk,fhudkudk,f ðypkysKd;axmif&r,f? wjcm;vlawGudkvnf; 'Dvdkt&nftcsif;awG&Sdatmif ðypkysKd;axmifay;&r,f? 'Dvdkqdk&if usrwdk‹[m tqifhjrifhwJhEkdifiHa&; vkyfEkdifr,f? tqifhjrifhwJhEdkifiHa&;vkyfEdkifrS tqifhtwef;jrifhwJh EkdifiHwckjzpfvmr,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89) wcsKdŒu 'Drkdua&pDqdkwm tm;vHk;u Adkvfcsnf;yJvdk‹xifw,f? wu,fawmh 'Drkdua&pDqdkwm tm;vHk;wef;wl&nfwlvdk‹ ajymwmr[kwfbl;? tm;vHk;[m wef;wlnDwltcGifhta&;&Sdw,fvdk‹ ajymwmyJjzpfw,f? tm;vHk;rSm&SdwJh wef;wlnDwl tcGifhta&;eJ‹ trsm;tusKd;aqmifr,fh olawGudk a&G;xkwfydkifcGifhqdkwm &Sdw,f? 'gudk ajymwmyJ? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89) &yfuGufnDvmcHawG vkyfwJhtcg tusifhpm&dwWaumif;wJhvludk a&G;cs,fyg? ynmtajrmftjrif&SdwJhvludk a&G;cs,fyg? tusifhpm&dwWeJ‹ t&nftcsif; ESpfck=um;rSm a&G;&r,fqdk&ifawmh usruawmh yGifhyGifhvif;vif; ajym&&if tusifhpm&dwWaumif;wJhvludk a&G;=uyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89) tpdk;&[m jynfolvlxk qif;&JaewJhtcgrSm ZdrfeJ‹aezdk‹ rpOf;pm;oifhbl;? aemufwufr,fh tpdk;&[m tifrwefrS ±kef;uef&r,fh tpdk;&yg? tJh'Dawmh aemufwufr,fhtpdk;&xJrSm 0dkif;0ef;+yD; ulnDyg0ifvdkwJh olrsm;[m ae&mvdkcsifvdk‹r[kwfbJ/ tm%mvdkcsifvdk‹r[kwfbJ/ csrf;omcsifvdk‹r[kwfbJ/ jynfol‹tusKd;zdk‹ tepfemcHvdkwJhvlrsKd; jzpfzdk‹vdkygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89) olrsm; rSm;vdk‹/ olrsm; r[kwfwmvkyfvdk‹ udk,fvnf; vkdufvkyf&r,fqdk&if udk,fvnf; olwdk‹eJ‹twl wef;wljzpfoGm;rSmyJ? uav;u idkvdk‹ vl}uD;uyg vdkuf+yD; ajcaqmifhidkvdk‹&Sd&if vl}uD;om oduQmusrSmaygh? uav;uawmh uav;rdk‹vdk‹ idkw,fqdk+yD; ab;uae cGifhv$wf=u&rSmaygh? vlrsm;awG *k%foduQmr&Sdvdk‹ udk,fu *k%foduQmr&SdwJhtvkyfudk vkyf&r,fqdkwm rjzpfap&bl;? rjzpfoifhbl;? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹ pnf;±Hk;a&;vkyfwJhtcg b,fol‹udkrS ykwfcwfwm/ rrSefuefwJhenf;eJ‹ wdkufcdkufwm rvkyf=uygeJ‹? rlawGudkyJ wkdufcdkuf=u&yghr,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89) 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJG0ifwJhtcgrSm yxrOD;qHk; usrwdk‹vdkcsifwmu vGwfvyfpGmawG;awmydkifcGifhyJ? vludkom csKyfxm;Ekdifr,f? pdwfudkawmh rcsKyfxm;Ekdifbl;? 'Dvdk rcsKyfxm;EkdifwJhpdwfa=umifh 'DavmufawmifrS 26 ESpfvHk;vHk; vGwfvyfpGm awG;awmydkifcGifhr&SdwJhtxJu jynfolvlxk[m 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;xJudk owWd&Sd&SdeJ‹ 0ifcJh+yD/ pcJh+yD? 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk qHk;cef;wkdifatmif/ atmifjrifatmif vkyfoGm;&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ vyGwWm 15-1-89) azazu ajymcJhw,f? vkyf&Jwm owWdr[kwfbl;? cH&Jwm[m owWdwJh? cH&Jw,fqdkwmvnf; trSefw&m;twGuf cH&Jwmudk ajymwm/ rrSefuefwJhudpPtwGuf cH&Jwm owWdr[kwfbl;? 'g[m vlrdkuf&JŒ

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xHk;yJ? usrwdk‹[m vlrdkufawGr[kwfbl;? tifrwefrS ynmtajrmftjrif&SdwJh vlxkqdkwm usr jzpfapcsifw,f? 'Dvdk tajrmftjrif&SdwJh jynfolvlxkurS acwfopf jrefrmEkdifiHawmf}uD;udk wnfaxmifEkdifrSmyg? (tzJG‹csKyf/ vyGwWm 15-1-89) udk,fhwkdif;jynftwGuf toufudkay;&w,fqdkwm tifrwefrS =unfEl;p&maumif;w,f? tifrwefrS oifhawmfw,f? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m rdrd&JŒwdkif;jynfudk tm;vHk;xufydk+yD;awmh cspf&r,f? rdrd&JŒ udk,fxufydk+yD; cspf&r,f? rdrd&JŒ rdom;pkxufydk+yD; cspf&r,f? rdrd&JŒ rdbrsm;xufvnf; ydk+yD;cspf&r,f? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh 'Dwkdif;jynfu 'Drdom;pk/ 'Drdbtm;vHk;udk arG;xkwfvdkufwJh wkdif;jynfyJ? tm;vHk;&JŒ aus;Zl;&SifyJjzpfw,f? jynfolvlxktm;vHk;&JŒ aus;Zl;&SifjzpfwJh EkdifiHudk t+rJyJ txGwftjrwfxm;&r,f? 'DEkdifiHtwGufqdk&if bmyJpGef‹&/ pGef‹& pGef‹EkdifwJh owWd&Sd&r,f? vlwdkif;vlwkdif;twGuf tpGef‹EdkifqHk;/ wefzdk;t&SdqHk;t&muawmh rdrd&JŒ toufyJ? tJh'Dawmh udk,fh&JŒwefzdk;t&SdqHk; toufudk pGef‹v$wfoGm;wJh 'Drdkua&pD&JabmfawGudk axmufxm;aomtm;jzifh usrwdk‹[m 'Drdkua&pDatmifjrifwJhtxd csDwufoGm;&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ vyGwWm 15-1-89) 'Dacwfu 'Drkdua&pDtkwfjrpfcswJh acwfyJ? tkwfjrpfcs+yD;awmhrS tay:u taqmuftOD}uD;udk wnfaqmuf&rSm? usrwdk‹[m tkwfjrpfcswJh vlawGqdkawmh yifyifyef;yef;eJ‹ vkyf+yD;awmh wu,fhtESpfom&udk cHpm;oGm;&csifrS cHpm;oGm;&r,f? udpPr&Sdygbl;? aemifvmaemufom;awG/ jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm;[m usrwdk‹ cscJhwJh tkwfjrpfay:rSm 'Drdkua&pDEkdifiH}uD;udk wnfwnfwHhwHh wnfaxmif+yD; 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;awGudk cHpm;oGm;&r,fqdk&if usrwdk‹twGuf trsm;}uD; *k%f,lp&mjzpfygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ vyGwWm 15-1-89) ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m b,fvdkyJ zdESdyfr_awG&Sd&Sd/ b,fvdkyJ olrsm;awG b,fvdkvkyfvkyf/ b,fvdkyJ olrsm;awG npfywfnpfywf/ wddk‹wawGuawmh oef‹oef‹&Sif;&Sif; pifpif=u,f=u,feJ‹ wkdif;jynftusKd;aqmifwJh vli,fawGjzpfatmifaer,f? aemifwacwfusvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; wkdif;jynftusKd; quf+yD;aqmifr,fh vl}uD;awGjzpfatmif aer,fqdkwJh &nf&G,fcsufawG xm;=uyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ vyGwWm 15-1-89) 'Dwkdif;jynf/ 'Dajr}uD;[m tifrwefrS csrf;omw,f? jynfolvlxk[m tifrwefrS qif;&Jaew,f? 'g rjzpfoifhwJh udpPyJ? 'Dwkdif;jynf/ 'Dajr}uD;[m 'DavmufawmifrS csrf;omae&if rSefrSefuefuef vrf;eJ‹ jynfolvlxktwGuf tusKd;aqmifoGm;r,fh tpdk;&rsm;[m jynfolvlxkudkvnf; csrf;omatmif vkyfay;Ekdif&r,f? (vGwfvyfa&;ausmufwkdifa&SŒ/ bDwGwfaus;&Gm 15-1-89) a0\EW&m[mqdk&if tvGefw&mrS jrifhjrwfwJh tavmif;awmfrif;w&m;jzpfayr,fhvnf; jynfolvlxkudk qef‹usif+yD; qifjzLawmfudk vªvdkufwJhtcg jynfESif'%fcH&w,f? jynfolvlxk&JŒ qENudk rvdkufavsmwJhrif;qdkwm rif;usifhw&m;q,fyg;eJ‹vnf; rudkufnDbl;? jynfolvlxkuvnf; vufrcHbl;qdkwm usrwdk‹ Ak'<bmomw&m;t&vnf; vufcHcJhw,f? c&pf,mefw&m;rSmvnf; rif;aumif;rif;jrwfrsm;[m *±k%meJ‹ arwWmeJ‹ qufqH&r,fqdkwm ygygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ b,fbmomyJjzpfjzpf/ bmomra&G;/ vlrsKd;ra&G; rif;aumif;rSef&if jynfolvlxkudk rqef‹usifoifhygbl;? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ ajrmif;jr 16-1-89) trsm;jynfol pdwf'kuQa&mufaewJh wdkif;jynfrSm pdwfcsrf;omwJhvlqdkwm tifrwefrS &Sufp&maumif;w,f? 'DavmufawmifrS udk,fhab;uvltrsm; qif;&J'kuQa&mufaevsufom;eJ‹ udk,fu pdwfcsrf;csrf;omomeJ‹

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aeEkdifw,fqdkwm udk,fhrSm vl‹ESvHk;om;r&Sdvdk‹bJvdk‹ owfrSwf&ygr,f? udk,fwa,mufxJ/ udk,fhrdom;pk/ udk,fhtodkif;t0dkif;yJ pdwfcsrf;om&if awmf+yDvdk‹qdkwJh olrsm;[m vlrqefygbl;? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ 0g;c,fr 16-1-89) usr[m wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfolvlxk=um;rSm vHk;vHk; pdwf0rf;ruJGapcsifbl;? tcktcsdefrSm wyfrawmf[m azazjzpfapcsifwJh jynfoludk umuG,fr,fh/ jynfoludk apmifha&Smufr,fh/ EkdifiH&JŒ *k%foduQmudk xdef;odrf;r,fh wyfrawmf}uD;&,fvdk‹ jzpfapcsifw,f? rjzpfwmudkawmh usr 0rf;enf;w,f? 'Dvdk wyfrawmf}uD;yJ jyef+yD;awmh jzpfoGm;apcsifw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ 0g;c,fr 16-1-89) azaz t+rJyJrSmcJhw,f? uav;awGudk bmudkrS ra=umufapeJ‹? olwdk‹a=umufzdk‹&m ESpfckyJ&Sdw,f? rw&m;wJhudpPudkvkyfzdk‹ a=umuf&r,f? rrSefwJhudpPudkvkyfzdk‹ a=umuf&r,f? avmurSm a=umufzdk‹qdkwm 'DESpfckyJ &Sdygw,fwJh? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹&JŒ rdbjynfolrsm;udkvnf; tJh'DvdkyJ em;vnfapcsifygw,f? (vl‹abmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD±Hk;/ 0g;c,fr 16-1-89) usrwdk‹vlrsKd;awGudk opPm&SdwJh vlrsKd; jzpfapcsifw,f? wa,mufeJ‹wa,muf wdkufcdkufwJh ae&mrSmawmifrS jrifhjrifhjrwfjrwf wdkufcdkufwJhenf;rsm;eJ‹ wdkufcdkufEdkifygw,f? &efolqdkwm jrifhjrwfwJh&efoleJ‹ ,kwfrmwJh&efol ESpfrsKd;&Sdygw,f? jrifhjrwfwJh &efolqdkwm ,kwfrmwJh rdwfaqGxuf trsm;}uD;ydk+yD;awmh wefzdk;&Sdygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹[m &efoljzpfaewJh olawGtay:rSmvnf; jrifhjrwfwJh pdwfxm;&Sd&r,f? (vl‹abmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD±Hk;/ ykodrf 17-1-89) aemif wkdif;jynfacgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfr,fh vli,frsm;[m tckuaep+yD;awmh udk,frSm;ovm;/ rSefovm;qdkwm oHk;oyf&JwJh owWdvnf;&Sd&r,f? rSm;wJhtcg udk,fhudkudk,f jyef+yD;awmh ðyjyifEdkifwJh t&nftcsif;vnf; &Sd&r,f? 'Dvdk usrwdk‹wdkif;jynfrS vli,frsm;[m udk,fhudkudk,f rSm;vdk‹&Sd&if oHk;oyfEkdifr,f/ 0efcHEkdifr,f/ rrSm;atmif ðyjyifEkdifr,fqdk&if ESpfq,fhajcmufESpftwGif;u ysufpD;cJhwJhudpPrSefor#udk usrwdk‹ jyef+yD;awmh jyifoGm;EkdifrSm jzpfygw,f? (vl‹abmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD±Hk;/ ykodrf 17-1-89) tck 'Drkdua&pDvdkcsifwJh pdwfqENrsm;[m jrpf}uD;ozG,fyJ pD;qif;aeygw,f? 'Djrpfa&awGudk b,folrS wm;EkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf[m 'Djrpfa&awGudk rSefwJhuefwJh vrf;uae+yD;awmh oGm;Ekdifatmifvdk‹/ jrpfa&awG[m v#H+yD;awmh tEW&m,frjzpfEkdifatmifqdkwJh wm0efawG&Sdygw,f? jynfolvlxk&JŒ tifrwefrS wufºuGwJh pdwfqENawGudk xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf;vkyfzdk‹ vdkygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSm nDnGwfr_eJ‹ xyfwlta&;}uD;wmuawmh pnf;urf;&Sdr_yJvdk‹ usrwdk‹ twefwef ajymaewmjzpfygw,f? (taemufòrd‹e,f±Hk;/ ykodrf 17-1-89) tckwkdufyJG[m jrefrmEkdifiHol EkdifiHom;tcsif;csif; wkdufyJGoabmrsKd;jzpfvdk‹ tifrwefrS &ifemp&maumif;ygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; 'Drdkua&pDtwGuf v_yf&Sm;w,fqdkwm trSefw&m;udk atmifjrifapcsifvdk‹/ trsm;tusKd;twGuf jzpfapcsifvdk‹ v_yf&Sm;wmyJ? udk,fusKd;tjrwfxGufcsifvdk‹vnf; r[kwfbl;? b,fol‹udkrSvnf; rqHk;±_H; repfemapcsifbl;? tJh'Dawmh trSefw&m;udk atmifjrifapcsifwJh pdwfapwemoef‹oef‹eJ‹ usrwdk‹tm;vHk; qufvkyfoGm;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ acsmif;0 18-1-89) jrefrmEkdifiHvdk qif;&JwJhEdkifiHrSm csrf;omae&wm tifrwef &Sufzdk‹aumif;ygw,f? usrwdk‹ EdkifiHolEdkifiHom;awG[m r&SufoifhwJhae&mrSm &Sufae=uygw,f? awmifolv,form; aus;vufvlxku

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xrif;ESpfeyfudk tEkdifEkdifpm;ae&wJhcsdefrSm wcsKdŒu ig;eyf/ ajcmufeyfpm;aewm &Sufp&myg? wu,f tusifhpm&dwWaumif;+yD; pdwfoabmxm; jrifhjrwfwJhvlrsm;taeeJ‹awmh jrefrmEdkifiHrSm rdrdcsrf;omzdk‹ óud;pm;&wm[m &Sufp&m b,favmufaumif;rvJvdk‹ awG;xif=urSmyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ [oFmw 24-1-89) ae&mvdkcsifw,fqdkwm udk,fhwa,mufxJtwGufyg? ae&may;csifw,fqdkwm trsm;tusKd;twGufyg? tJh'Dawmh ae&mrvdkcsif=uygeJ‹? ae&may;csif=uyg? t&nftcsif;&Sd+yD; tusifhpm&dwWaumif;wJholawGudk ae&may;=uyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ [oFmw 24-1-89) rdbawGu 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSmygwJh vli,fawGudk [ef‹wm;ae=uw,fqdkwm od&ygw,f? r[ef‹wm;=uygeJ‹? udk,fa=umufvdk‹ udk,fhom;orD;awGyg a=umufzdk‹ oifay;w,fqdk&if odyf+yD;qdk;wmaygh? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ [dkyHk; 12-2-89) acgracwfu pygwmEkdifiHrSm ajymavh&Sdw,f? ppfwdkufoGm;zdk‹ 'dkif;udkif+yD; xGufoGm;wJhtcg tdrfuae tarawG/ trawGu t+rJyJrSmvdkufw,f? 'dkif;udkif+yD;awmh jyefvm&ifvm/ 'dkif;ay:tdyf+yD;awmh jyefvm&ifvm/ ao+yD;awmh jyefvm&ifvm/ 'grSr[kwf ppfudkEkdif+yD;awmh jyefvm&ifvm/ ppf±_H;+yD;awmh jyefrvmygeJ‹qdkwJh t"dy`m,feJ‹ ajymwmyJ? usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m 'Dvdkpdwfxm;rsKd; &Sd&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ [dkyHk; 12-2-89) usrwdk‹[m aemif 'Drdkua&pDjynfaxmifpkopf xlaxmifa&;twGufudk yifvHknDvmcHvdk wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd; tm;vHk;yg0ifwJh nDvmcH}uD;wck ac:zdk‹vdktyfw,fvdk‹ xifygw,f? 'D nDvmcHuae+yD;awmh jynfaxmifpkwnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;twGuf wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;&JŒ &oifh&xkdufwJh tcGifhta&;rsm;/ udk,fydkifjyÏmef;csufrsm; pwJhudpPawGudk aoaocsmcsm aqG;aEG;+yD;awmh tm;vHk;&JŒ oabmwlnDcsuft& taumif;qHk;tajzudk &Smr,fqdkwJh &nf&G,fcsuf&Sdygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ yifvHk 12-2-89) jrefrmEkdifiHrSm ESpfaygif;av;q,fausmf vufeufudkifenf;eJ‹ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;udk &SmcJhygw,f? 'gayrJh ckxufxd r&ao;ygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;&zdk‹qdkwm EdkifiHa&;enf;eJ‹ &Sm&r,fvdk‹ ,Hk=unfygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ yifvHk 12-2-89) usrwdk‹[m tEkdif,lcsif&if tEkdif,lEkdifwJhpdwfawG arG;&ygr,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89) q,fh&Spf&uf pufwifbmrSm ppftpdk;&uae+yD;awmh tm%mt&yf&yfudk odrf;+yD;wJhaemuf wkdufyJGyHkpHajymif;&r,fvdk‹ ,Hk=unfvdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf zJG‹cJhwm jzpfygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89) b,fpepfrsKd;rqdk atmifjrifzdk‹qdkwm acgif;aqmifaumif;vnf; &Sd&r,f? aemufvdkufaumif;vnf; &Sd&r,f? tJh'Dawmh aemufvdkufaumif;wa,muf&JŒ t&nftcsif;[m bmvJqdk&if ta&;t}uD;qHk;uawmh acgif;aqmifaumif;rsm; azmfxkwfEkdifwJh t&nftcsif; &Sd&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89) vlwa,muf&JŒwefzdk;udk 'Dvl&JŒtoufudk =unfh+yD;awmh rqHk;jzwfEkdifygbl;? 'ga=umifh usrwdk‹[m vlwkdif;vlwkdif;&JŒ wefzdk;udk rSefrSefuefuef a0zef+yD;awmh ay;oifhay;xkdufwJh ae&mudkay;=uyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89)

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'DtzJG‹csKyf}uD; zsufodrf;ay;rS trsKd;om;a&;jzpfwJh 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_}uD; atmifjrifr,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹ zsufodrf;ay;zdk‹ tqifoifhygyJ? 'DtzJG‹csKyfu a&SŒu aeay;rS/ umuG,fay;rS 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;[m atmifjrifr,fqdk&ifvnf; usrwdk‹ a&SŒuae+yD; umuG,fay;yghr,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89) ausmif;om;or*~qdkwm EkdifiHa&;ygwD t&Sdeft0geJ‹vnf; uif;a0;&r,f? ygwD=oZmeJ‹vnf; uif;a0;&r,f? ausmif;om;or*~wck xlaxmifay;+yD;awmh EdkifiHa&;rvkyf&bl;qdkwm ppfrSefwJhor*~wck jzpfrSmr[kwfbl;? ausmif;om;or*~qdkwm 'Drdkua&pD&rS/ ausmif;awGtm;vHk;zGifhrS ausmif;om;tm;vHk;&JŒ oabmwlnDqENt& wifajr‡mufxm;wJh or*~rS jzpfEkdifrSmyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89) atmifqef;vrf;pOfqdkwm EdkifiHtwGuf taumif;qHk;vrf;pOfyJ? vrf;pOfwck&,fvdk‹r[kwfbl;? EkdifiHhtwGuf taumif;qHk;vrf;pOf? 'Dvrf;pOf[m usrwdk‹ wcsdefvHk; tajz&Smae&r,f? 'DESpftwGuf aumif;wJhvrf;pOf[m aemufESpftwGuf aumif;wJhvrf;pOf jzpfcsifrSjzpfr,f? aemufESpftwGuf aumif;wJhvrf;pOf[m aemif q,fESpf=um&if aumif;wJhvrf;pOfvnf; jzpfcsifvnf;jzpfr,f? 'gayrJh 'Dvrf;pOfawGtm;vHk;rSm wlnDwJh oabmwck&Sdw,f? vrf;pOfwdkif;/ vrf;pOfwkdif;[m EdkifiHtusKd;twGuf/ trsm;jynfoltusKd;twGuf OD;wnf+yD;awmh cif;vdkufwJhvrf;pOf[m atmifqef;vrf;pOfyJ? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89) jynfolvlxku apmifh=unfhr,fvdk‹ajym&if usru ar;csifygw,f? bmudk apmifh=unfhrSmvJ? olrsm;awG vkyfoGm;+yD;awmh 'Drdkua&pD&wJhtxd apmifh=unfhrSmvm;? usrwdk‹ apmifhvdk‹rjzpfygbl;? tJh'Dawmh tm;vHk; 0dkif;0ef;+yD;awmh vkyf=uyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ atmifyef; 15-2-89) 'Dwkdif;jynfrSm awmifolv,form; aus;vufjynfolvlxk[m wkdif;jynf&JŒ trsm;pk}uD;yJjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh aus;vufjynfolawG[m udk,fhudkudk,f txifrao;=uygeJ‹? tm;vHk;u 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_xJ yg0ifv_yf&Sm;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? usrwdk‹uvnf; aus;vufvlxk}uD;udk tm;udk;ae&wmyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ z,fcHk 16-2-89) qdkif;bkwfwifw,fqkdwm bHk&efoludk jyzdk‹yJjzpfw,f? 'g igwkd‹&JŒae&mvdk‹ tm;vHk;u wpkwpnf;wnf;eJ‹ bHk&efoludk jyvdkufwJhtaeeJ‹ qdkif;bkwfwifwmjzpfw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ z,fcHk 16-2-89) jynfaxmifpkwck xlaxmifzdk‹qdkwm ArmawG&JŒ uwdtay:rSm rwnfygbl;? jynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om;rsm;tm;vHk; wa,mufay:wa,muf opPm&Sdr_tay:rSm rlwnfygw,f? (arGawmf"mwfqifapwD/ rdk;+AJ 16-2-89) jrefrmEkdifiHrSm 'Drkdua&pD&&Sdzdk‹qdkwm jynfrrSmyJ 'Drkdua&pD&vdk‹rjzpfbl;? jynfe,fwcsKdŒrSmyJ 'Drdkua&pD&±HkeJ‹vnf; rjzpfbl;? jrefrmEkdifiHw0Srf;vHk;rSm 'Drdkua&pD&rS 'Drdkua&pDEkdifiHwck xlaxmifEkdifrSmyg? (arGawmf"mwfqifapwD/ rdk;+AJ 16-2-89) ausmif;om;vli,frsm; e,fpyfa&mufoGm;&wJhudpP/ vufeufudkif+yD; 'Dpepfudk wdkufcdkufcsifw,fqdkwJh udpPrsm;[m vuf&Sdtpdk;&&JŒ wm0efjzpfygw,f? t&ifESpfujzpfcJhwJh vufeufudkif+yD; jynfolvlxkudk 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_udk ESdrfeif;cJhwJhudpPrsm;&JŒ tusKd;qufyJ? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ z±l;qdk; 17-2-89) EkdifiHa&;tvkyf vkyfwJhtcgrSm jynfolvlxkeJ‹ usrwdk‹[m wwfEkdifor# yGifhyGifhvif;vif; qufqHcsifygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ wyfukef; 19-2-89)

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a&G;aumufyJGrSm vGwfvyfzdk‹/ w&m;r#wzdk‹qdk&mrSm jynfolvlxku vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;&zdk‹ vdkygw,f? vGwfvyfpGm ajymqdkydkifcGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm pnf;±Hk;ydkifcGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm pk±Hk;ydkifcGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm a&;om;ydkifcGifhqdkwJh tcGifhta&;awG &zdk‹vdkygw,f? 'DvdktcGifhta&;awG r&bJeJ‹ vGwfvyf+yD;awmh w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJGawG vkyfay;r,fqdkwm enf;enf;rS t"dy`m,fr&Sdygbl;? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ wyfukef; 19-2-89) ("gwfyHkvmygonf) txdef;odrf;cHae&pOf 1992 ckESpf arvY om;rsm;ESifh jyefvnfawG‹qHkpOf (aemufausmzHk; twGif;bufpm&Gufwjcrf;wGif xnfhoGif;&rnfh pmom;jzpfygonf) atmifqef;pk=unfudk AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. wOD;wnf;aomorD;tjzpf jrefrmEdkifiHolEkdifiHom;wkdif; od&Sd=u.? 1990 ckESpf a&G;aumufyJGY tjywftowf tEkdif&&SdcJhaom trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyfudk OD;pD;wnfaxmifcJholjzpfonf? 1991 ckESpfwGif EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkudk &&SdcJholjzpf+yD; urBmay:wGif emrnftausmf=um;qHk;/ vlodtrsm;qHk; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;vnf;jzpfonf? olr. a&;om;csufrsm;ESifh a[majymcsufrsm;udk jrefrmbmomjzifh xkwfoifhonfrSm =um+yDjzpfaomfvnf; ta=umif;trsKd;rsKd;a=umifh =uef‹=umcJh&onf? xdk‹a=umifh atmifqef;pk=unf. vufa&G;pifpmwrf;rsm;ESifh rdef‹cGef;rsm;udk jrefrmbmomjzifh yxrqHk;t}udrf pkpnf;wifjyxm;jcif;jzpfygonf? 1991 ckESpf pma&;ol EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk &&SdcsdefwGif xkwfa0cJh+yD; bmomaygif;rsm;pGmodk‹ jyefqdkcJhaom rl&if;t*Fvdyfpmtkyfudk tajccHI jrefrmjyefqdkxm;onf? odk‹aomfvnf; ,ckpmtkyfudkrl jrefrmpmzwfy&dowftwGuf t"du&nfpl;I ðypkxm;onfhtwGuf rl&if;pmtkyfyg aqmif;yg;tcsKdŒudk csefvSyfcJh+yD; aemufydkif;wGif a&;om;cJhaom pmwrf;ESifh rdef‹cGef;tcsKdŒudk xyfrHjznfhpGufxm;onf? pma&;olonf vGwf&uf rcef‹rSef;Edkifonfh txdef;odrf;cHb0rS &nfn$ef;csufESifh trSmpmudk a&;om;xm;ygonf? Tpmtkyfonf ae&mtESH‹tjym;rS jrefrm pmzwfy&dowftwGuf txl;wvnf pdwf0ifpm;zG,fjzpfrnf[k xkwfa0olu ,Hk=unfonf? rsufESmzHk;yef;csD OD;ay:odrf;

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