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  • www.unescap.org/apef

  • Statistical Perspectives

    ChaveemonSTypewriterST/ESCAP/2662

    ChaveemonSTypewriter

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  • Focus Areas for Enhanced Energy Security

    ENERGY ACCESSWorking towards universal access to modern energy services

    can advance inclusive social and economic development.

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Adopting efficiency measures can signi�cantly enhance economic competitiveness and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    RENEWABLE ENERGYDeveloping new and renewable energy sources can diversify

    the energy mix and create new job opportunities.

    ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT

    Shifting consumption towards sustainable energy can minimise environmental impacts and improve the future outlook for the

    well-being of our citizens and planet.

    ENERGY ECONOMICS

    Improving �scal policy and �nancing mechanisms can incentivise

    and strengthen markets for sustainable energy.

    ENERGY TRADE AND INVESTMENT

    Promoting trade and investment can optimise the developmentand utilisation of current and emerging energy resources.

    ENERGY CONNECTIVITY

    Developing infrastructure and harmonised energy policies can

    increase regional economic integration and resilience.

    Member states listed in blue are considered “Asia-Paci�c Developed Countries”. Other member States are considered “Asia-Paci�c Developing Countries”.

    The statistics presented in this publication primarily cover member States located in the Asia-Paci�c region. However, Associate and Non-regional members appear in select charts and tables. Due to data limitations, only selected countries are used in several of the statistical representations. Additionally, "Paci�c (AUS, NZ)" indicates that data for the Paci�c subregion represents only Australia and New Zealand.

    This publication is for reference only. Graphs and charts are based on data sources consulted for this publication. Additional data sources may exist that are not represented. In some cases, data sets may not be complete. ESCAP cannot con�rm methodologies of data sources.

    East andNorth-East Asia

    ChinaJapanKorea, Democratic People’s Republic of(Korea, DPR)Korea, Republic of(Korea, Rep. of)Mongolia

    North andCentral Asia

    ArmeniaAzerbaijanGeorgiaKazakhstanKyrgyzstanRussian FederationTajikistanTurkmenistanUzbekistan

    South-East Asia

    Brunei DarussalamCambodiaIndonesiaLao PDRMalaysiaMyanmarPhilippinesSingaporeThailandTimor-LesteViet Nam

    South and South-West Asia

    AfghanistanBangladeshBhutanIndiaIran, Islamic Republic of (Iran, IR)MaldivesNepalPakistanSri LankaTurkey

    Paci�c

    AustraliaFijiKiribatiMarshall IslandsMicronesia, Federated Stated of (Micronesia, FS)NauruNew ZealandPalauPapua New GuineaSamoaSolomon IslandTongaTuvaluVanuatu

    AssociateMembers

    American SamoaCook IslandsFrench PolynesiaGuamHong Kong, ChinaMacao, ChinaNew CaledoniaNiueNorthern Mariana Islands

    Non-regional Members

    FranceUnited Kingdom (UK)NetherlandsUnited States of America

    ESCAP MEMBER STATES 03

  • Per Capita Final Energy Consumption, 2010

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Databasebased on data from IEA

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Databasebased on data from WPP2010

    Data sources: World Bank, UNDP, and ESCAPStatistical Database based on data from IEA

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Databasebased on data from IEA

    Energy Consumption and Human Development

    Per Capita EnergyConsumption byGlobal Region

    The HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    INDEX (HDI), developed by

    UNDP, is a measure of human

    development and is a compos-

    ite statistic of life expectancy,

    education, and income indices.

    The index is published annually.

    In this chart, the 2010 index was

    used to match against the most

    recent data for energy

    consumption.

    0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500

    Paci�c (AUS, NZ)

    North and Central Asia

    South-East Asia

    East and North-East Asia

    South and South-West Asia

    Per capita kg of oil equivalent (kgoe)

    1,777

    1,551

    593

    220

    37

    0

    1,000

    2,000

    3,000

    4,000

    5,000

    6,000

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

    Asia-PacificAfricaLa�n America and Carib.North AmericaEuropeOther countries/areas

    Very High

    East and North-East Asia member StateNorth and Central Asia member StateSouth-East Asia member StateSouth and South-West Asia member StatePaci�c member State Countries outside Asia-Paci�c

    BASIC NEEDS OVERCONSUMPTION

    Low

    High

    Medium

    HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    0.8

    0.9

    1.0

    0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000

    Per capita energy consumption 2009/2010 (kg of oil equivalent)

    04 Energy Context Energy Context 05

  • Total Energy Consumption and Populationby Global Region

    Total Energy Consumption and Populationby Asia-Paci�c Subregion Asia-Paci�c Urbanisation TrendsAsia-Paci�c Per Capita Energy Consumption

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Databasebased on data from IEA and WPP2010

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Databasebased on data from IEA

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Databasebased on data from WPP2010

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Databasebased on data from IEA and WPP2010

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

    East and North-East Asia

    South-East Asia

    South and South-West Asia

    North and Central Asia

    Pacific (AUS, NZ)

    Asia-Paci�c Population

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    3,000

    3,500

    4,000

    4,500

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

    Asia-Pacific

    Asia-Pacific developing countries

    Asia-Pacific developed countries

    Africa

    La�n America and Carib.

    North America

    Europe

    Asia-Paci�c Population

    Rest of World Population

    Future

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020

    0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    3,000

    3,500

    4,000

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

    East and North-East Asia North and Central Asia Pacific (AUS, NZ)

    South and South-West Asia South-East Asia Asia-Pacific World

    06 Energy Context Energy Context 07

  • 0

    2,000

    4,000

    6,000

    8,000

    10,000

    12,000

    14,000

    16,000

    18,000

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

    Asia-Pacific

    Asia-Pacific developing economies

    Asia-Pacific developed economies

    Africa

    La�n America and Caribbean

    North America

    Europe

    3,098 mtoe

    Coal33%

    Oil30%

    Gas16%

    Nuclear3%

    Hydro2%

    Renewables

    1990 2010 2030

    16%

    5,534 mtoe

    Coal43%

    Oil24%

    Gas16%

    Nuclear4%

    Hydro2%

    Renewables11%

    8,109 mtoe

    Coal40%

    Oil22%

    Gas17%

    Nuclear6%

    Hydro3%

    Renewables12%

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    10000

    12000

    2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035

    New Policies Scenario

    Current Policies Scenario

    450 Scenario

    Global Cumulative Carbon Dioxide (C02) Emissions GDP in 2005 Constant Prices Asia-Paci�c* Total Primary Energy Demand Outlook in the New Policies Scenario**

    Asia-Paci�c Total Primary EnergyDemand 1990-2035, by Scenario**

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Databasebased on data from MDG Indicators database

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Databasebased on data from NAMAD Source: Based on data from IEA World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2012

    * Data excludes the following ESCAP member States: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Georgia, Iran IR, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan.

    ** See References and Notes section for an explanation of the IEA Current Policies Scenario, New Policies Scenario and 450 Scenario.

    0

    5,000

    10,000

    15,000

    20,000

    25,000

    30,000

    35,000

    Asia-Pacific

    Africa

    La�n America and Caribbean

    North America

    Europe

    Other Countries/Areas

    08 Energy Context Energy Context 09

  • Data sources: IEA WEO 2011, UNDPNote: Due to rounding, total differs from the sum of all countries.Data source: IEA WEO 2012 Data source: IEA WEO 2011

    Access to Electricity and Human Development,Selected Countries, 2010

    People without Access to Electricity, 2010 Rural and Urban Electri�cation Rates,Selected Countries, 2010

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    0.8

    0.9

    1.0

    20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

    Access to Electricity 2010 (% of Population)

    Cambodia

    Afghanistan

    Timor-Leste

    Bangladesh

    Myanmar

    Lao PDR

    Pakistan

    Nepal

    India

    Indonesia

    Sri Lanka

    Philippines Mongolia

    Thailand

    Singapore

    Brunei Darussalam

    Malaysia

    Iran, IR

    China

    The HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI)is a composite sta�s�c of life expectancy, education, and income indices.

    y = 0.24 + 0.04x R2 = 0.71

    Number of people without electricity access (millions)

    293 India 16 Philippines 2.1 Viet Nam

    88 Bangladesh 10 Cambodia 1.2 Iran, IR63 Indonesia 8 Thailand 0.7 Timor-Leste56 Pakistan 7 Nepal 0.4 Mongolia

    26 Myanmar 5 Sri Lanka 0.2 Malaysia

    22 Afghanistan 4.2 China 8 Rest of Asia

    18 Korea, DPR 2.2 Lao PDR

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    Singapore

    China

    Brunei Darussalam

    Malaysia

    Viet Nam

    Iran, IR

    Thailand

    Sri Lanka

    Philippines

    Nepal

    Mongolia

    India

    Indonesia

    Pakistan

    Lao PDR

    Bangladesh

    Myanmar

    Afghanistan

    Timor-Leste

    Cambodia

    Korea, DPR

    Rural electrifica�on rate Urban electrifica�on rate

    %

    628million people

    10 Energy Access Energy Access 11

  • Data sources: UNDP, UN Data Data source: IEA WEO 2012Data source: United Nations Statistics Division based on data from the MDG Indicator Database

    Solid Fuel* Use and Gender Inequality,Selected Countries

    Percentage of Population Using Solid Fuels*2010

    People Using Traditional Biomass2010 (millions)

    Afghanistan

    Armenia

    Australia

    Bangladesh

    Cambodia

    China

    India

    Indonesia

    Iran,IR

    Japan

    Kazakhstan

    Korea, Rep. of

    Kyrgyzstan

    Lao PDR

    Malaysia

    Maldives

    Mongolia

    MyanmarNepal

    New Zealand

    Pakistan

    Papua New Guinea

    Philippines

    Russian Fed.

    Singapore

    Sri Lanka

    Tajikistan

    Thailand

    Tonga

    Turkey

    0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    0.8

    0.9

    1

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

    Percentage of Population Using Solid Fuels, 2010

    The GENDER INEQUALITY INDEX (GII)is composite measure reflec�ng

    inequality in achievements between

    women and men in three dimensions:

    reproductive health, empowermentand the labour market.

    y = 0.24 + 0.003x R2 = 0.48

    772 India

    387 China

    149 Bangladesh

    128 Indonesia

    111 Pakistan

    49 Viet Nam

    47 Philippines

    171 Rest of Asia

    1,814million people

    using traditional biomass

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

    AustraliaBrunei Darussalam

    Cook IslandsIran, IR

    JapanKorea, Republic of

    Malaysia

    NauruNew Zealand

    Niue

    PalauRussian Federa�on

    SingaporeTurkey

    Turkmenistan

    AzerbaijanMaldives

    Kazakhstan

    UzbekistanArmenia

    TuvaluThailand

    Marshall Islands

    KyrgyzstanTajikistan

    FijiBhutan

    Micronesia

    TongaChina

    GeorgiaPhilippines

    Samoa

    IndonesiaViet Nam

    IndiaPakistan

    Mongolia

    Papua New GuineaSri Lanka

    Kiriba�

    NepalVanuatu

    AfghanistanCambodia

    Solomon Islands

    BangladeshKorea, DPR

    Myanmar

    Timor-LesteLao PDR

    %

    * Solid fuels include coal, charcoal,

    wood, crops or other agricultural

    waste, dung, shrubs, grass, straw,

    and others. Tradi�onal biomass

    includes wood, charcoal,

    agricultural residues and

    animal dung.

    12 Energy Access Energy Access 13

  • Data source: WHO Household Energy Database

    Primary Cooking Fuel Mix for Selected Asia-Paci�c Countries, 2010

    Data source: WHO Data source: WHO

    Estimated DALYs Per 1,000 Capitafrom Indoor Air Pollution, 2004

    Estimated Deaths fromIndoor Air Pollution, 2004

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    Viet Nam

    Vanuatu

    Uzbekistan

    Turkmenistan

    Tonga

    Thailand

    Tajikistan

    Sri Lanka

    Solomon Islands

    Russian Federa�on

    Philippines

    Pakistan

    Nepal

    Myanmar

    Mongolia

    Marshall Islands

    Malaysia

    Lao PDR

    Kyrgyzstan

    Kazakhstan

    Indonesia

    India

    Georgia

    China

    Bhutan

    Bangladesh

    Azerbaijan

    Armenia

    Afghanistan

    %

    RURAL

    Coal Charcoal Wood Dung Cropwaste

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    %

    URBAN

    Electricity LPG Natural gas Biogas Kerosene Other

    Solid Fuels Cleaner Fuels

    2.2 2.5 2.5 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3 4.1 4.2 4.5

    7.1 7.5 8.0 8.4 8.5 8.5 8.6 8.8 9.2

    10.8 16.0 16.9

    78.5

    Tonga

    Tuvalu

    Philippines

    Viet Nam

    Samoa

    Mongolia

    Sri Lanka

    China

    Marshall Islands

    Indonesia

    Azerbaijan

    Solomon Islands

    Bhutan

    Uzbekistan

    Bangladesh

    India

    Nepal

    Kyrgyzstan

    Papua New Guinea

    Pakistan

    Myanmar

    Lao PDR

    Cambodia

    Tajikistan

    Afghanistan

    DALYs/1000 Capita

    The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.

    • Kazakhstan 100• Solomon Islands 100 • Bhutan 200 • Georgia 200 • Iran 300 • Mongolia 300 • Armenia 400 • Russian Federation 600 • Azerbaijan 1,100 • Papua New Guinea 1,600 • Kyrgyzstan 2,100 • Lao PDR 2,600 • Tajikistan 3,300 • Turkey 3,400 • Sri Lanka 4,300 • Uzbekistan 6,200 • Cambodia 6,600 • Philippines 7,200 • Nepal 8,700 • Thailand 10,500 • Myanmar 18,100 • Viet Nam 23,800 • Indonesia 45,300 • Bangladesh 49,400 • Afghanistan 54,000 • Pakistan 56,100 • India 488,200 • China 548,900

    Myanmar

    Viet Nam

    Indonesia

    Bangladesh

    Afghanistan

    Pakistan

    India

    China

    14 Energy Access Energy Access 15

  • Global Regional Primary Energy Intensity

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Database based on data from IEA Data source: ESCAP Statistical Database based on data from MDG Indicators database

    Asia-Paci�c SubregionalPrimary Energy Intensity Global Regional Carbon Intensity Asia-Paci�c Subregional Carbon Intensity

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    400

    450

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

    Asia-Pacific Asia-Pacific developing economies

    Asia-Pacific developed economies Africa

    La�n America and Caribbean. North America

    Europe

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

    East and North-East Asia South-East Asia

    South and South-West Asia North and Central Asia

    Pacific (AUS, NZ)

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1,000

    1,200

    1,400

    1,600

    1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

    East and North-East Asia South-East Asia

    South and South - West Asia North and Central Asia

    Pacific

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    800

    900

    1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

    Asia-Pacific Africa

    La�n America and Carib. North America

    Europe Asia-Pacific developing economies

    Asia-Pacific developed economies

    16 Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency 17

  • Selected Energy Use and Intensity Reduction Targets Energy Efficiency and Economic Competitiveness, 2010

    The GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS

    INDEX is a composite statistic

    published annually by the World

    Economic Forum. The index is

    comprised of over 100 variables

    under 12 pillars including:

    institutions, infrastructure,

    macroeconomy, health and

    primary education, higher

    education, goods market

    efficiency, labour markets,

    �nancial markets, technological

    readiness, market size, business

    sophistication, and innovation.

    Data source:World Economic Forum

    The ENERGY EFFICIENCY FACTOR

    value is derived from subtracting

    �nal energy intensity (total �nal

    consumption per unit GDP

    [kgoe/2005 Contant USD]) from

    1. A higher value represents

    greater efficiency.

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Database based on data from IEA and NAMAD

    Sources: China Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011-2015), APEC Sydney Joint Declaration, Japan Energy Conser-vation Centre, Republic of Korea National Energy Basic Plan (2008 - 2030), ASEAN Centre for Energy, Indone-sian National Energy Conservation Master Plan (2005), Sustainable Singapore Development Blueprint (2009), Thailand 20-Year Energy Efficiency Development Plan (EEDP) 2011-2030, Vietnam National Energy Efficiency Program (VNEEP, 2006 -2015), Comprehensive Plan for Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Republic of Kazakhstan (2012-2015), Energy Efficiency and Energy Sector Development National Program of the Russian Federation (2013-2020), New Zealand Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy (2011-2016)

    Note: TPES = Total Primary Energy SupplyTFC = Total Final ConsumptionBAU = Business as usual

    2021

    Energy Use Energy Intensity

    Reduction Target (%)

    Baseline Year

    Target Year(TPES) (TFC)

    East and North-East AsiaChina • 16 2010 2015Hong Kong, China • 45 2005 2030Japan • 30 2003 2030Korea, Rep. • 45 2006 2030South-East AsiaBrunei Darussalam • 25 2005 2030Cambodia • 10 BAU 2030Indonesia • 1%/yr 2025Lao PDR • 10 BAU 2030Malaysia • 10 2011 2030Myanmar • 5 BAU 2020

    • 10 BAU 2030Philippines • 10 BAU 2030Singapore • 20 2005 2020

    • 35 2005 2030Thailand • 15 2005 2020

    • 25 2005 2030Viet Nam • 8 2006 2015South and South-West AsiaIndia • 5 2010 2015North and Central AsiaKazakhstan • 10 2011 2010

    • 25 2011 2020Russian Federation • 40 2007 2020PacificNew Zealand • 1.3%/yr 2010

    Armenia

    Australia

    Azerbaijan

    Bangladesh

    Brunei Darussalam

    Cambodia

    China

    Georgia

    Hong Kong, China

    IndiaIndonesia

    Iran, IR

    Japan

    Kazakhstan

    Kyrgyzstan

    Malaysia

    Mongolia

    Nepal

    New Zealand

    Pakistan

    Philippines

    Korea, Rep.

    Russian Federa�on

    Singapore

    Sri Lanka

    Tajikistan

    Thailand

    TurkeyViet Nam

    3

    3.5

    4

    4.5

    5

    5.5

    6

    0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

    Energy Efficiency Factor

    y = 3.12 + 1.87xR²=0.54

    18 Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency 19

  • Technological Contributions to Global Emissions Reductions to Achieve the 2OC Scenario

    Sectoral Contributions to Global Emissions Reductions to Achieve the 2OC Scenario

    LIMITING GLOBAL WARMING

    The 6°C Scenario (6DS) is largely an

    extension of current trends and is

    broadly consistent with the Current

    Policies Scenario*. By 2050, energy

    use almost doubles (compared with

    2009) and total Green House Gas

    (GHG) emissions rise even more. In

    the absence of efforts to stabilise

    atmospheric concentrations of GHGs,

    average global temperature rise is

    projected to be at least 6°C in the long

    term.

    The 4°C Scenario (4DS) takes into

    account recent pledges made by

    countries to limit emissions and step

    up efforts to improve energy

    efficiency. It is broadly consistent with

    the New Policies Scenario.

    The 2°C Scenario (2DS) describes an

    energy system consistent with an

    emissions trajectory that recent

    climate science research indicates

    would give an 80% chance of limiting

    average global temperature increase

    to 2°C. It is broadly consistent with the

    450 Scenario. It sets the target of

    cutting energy-related CO2 emissions

    by more than half in 2050 (compared

    with 2009) and ensuring that they Note: CCS = Carbon Capture and StorageSource: IEA, Energy Technology Perspectives 2012

    *See the References and Notes section for a furtherexplanation of the various scenarios. Source: IEA, Energy Technology Perspectives 2012

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    2009 2020 2030 2040 2050

    End-use fuel and electricity efficiency 31% CCS 22%

    End-use fuel switching 9% Renewables 28%

    Power genera�on efficiency and fuel switching 3% Nuclear 9%

    6°C Scenario

    2°C Scenario

    4°C Scenario

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    2009 2020 2030 2040 2050

    Power genera�on 42% Industry 18% Transport 21%

    Buildings 13% Other transforma�on 7%

    6°C Scenario

    2°C Scenario

    4°C Scenario

    20 Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency 21

  • Asia-Paci�c Installed Renewable EnergyCapacity Including Hydro (GW), 2009/2010

    Cumulative Installed Wind Power Capacityin Top Ten Countries, 1990-2012

    Asia-Paci�c RenewableEnergy Production Trends

    Source: EPI from Worldwatch, CREIA, DOE, GWEC, EWEA

    Data source: REN 21

    Data source: IEA

    RPS = Renewable Portfolio Standard

    Source: REN21 Renewables 2012 Global Status Report

    Renewable Energy Policies, Selected Countries

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    2000 2005 2010

    Portugal

    Canada

    France

    ItalyUnited Kingdom

    India

    Spain

    Germany

    United States

    China

    0

    5,000

    10,000

    15,000

    2000 2005 2010

    Solar (PV, Thermal)

    0

    2,000

    4,000

    6,000

    8,000

    2000 2005 2010

    Wind

    02,0004,0006,0008,000

    10,00012,00014,000

    2000 2005 2010

    Biofuels and Waste

    293.663.0

    23.2

    89.7

    22.4

    East and North-East Asia

    North and Central Asia

    South-East Asia

    South and South-West Asia

    Pacific

    491.9 GW

    0

    20,000

    40,000

    60,000

    80,000

    100,000

    120,000

    140,000

    2000 2005 2010

    Hydro

    0

    5,000

    10,000

    15,000

    20,000

    25,000

    30,000

    35,000

    40,000

    2000 2005 2010

    Geothermal

    • na�onal-level policy • state/provincial policy

    Fiscal Incentives Public Financing Regulatory Policies

    CountryArmenia •Australia • • • • •Bangladesh • • •China • • • • • • • •India • • • • • • • • •Indonesia • • • • • • • •Iran, IR • • •Japan • • • • • •Kazakhstan • •Korea, Rep. • • • • • • • •Kyrgyzstan • • •Malaysia • • • • • •Marshall Isl. •Mongolia • •Nepal • • • • •New Zealand •Pakistan • • • •Palau •Philippines • • • • • • • • • •Russian Fed. •Singapore • •Sri Lanka • • • • • • • •Thailand • • • •Turkey • •Viet Nam • • •

    22 Renewable Energy Renewable Energy 23

  • Asia-Paci�c Renewable Energy Production, by Subregion(excluding Hydro and Solid Biomass)

    Asia-Paci�cRenewable EnergyProduction, 2010

    (excluding Hydro)

    Asia-Paci�cEnergy Production

    2010

    Source: IEA Data source: IEA

    * Includes: biogas, sludge gas, land�ll gas, renewablemunicipal waste, biodiesel, and biogasoline.

    Data source: IEA

    Renewables** as % of Total Energy Production

    Renewables (excluding Solid Biomass***)as % of Total Energy Production

    *** Solid biomass includes a multitude of woody materials such as �rewood, wood chips, bark, sawdust, shavings, chips, sulphite lyes, and animal waste.

    ** Includes: hydro, geothermal, solar PV, solar thermal, tidal, wind, municipal waste (renewable), solid biomass, charcoal, land�ll gas, sludge gas, other biogases, biogasoline, biodiesel, and other liquid biofuels.

    0

    5,000

    10,000

    15,000

    20,000

    25,000

    30,000

    35,000

    2000 2005 2010

    East and North-East Asia

    0

    5,000

    10,000

    15,000

    20,000

    25,000

    30,000

    35,000

    40,000

    2000 2005 2010

    South-East Asia

    0

    1,000

    2,000

    3,000

    4,000

    5,000

    6,000

    2000 2005 2010

    North and Central Asia

    0

    1,000

    2,000

    3,000

    4,000

    5,000

    6,000

    2000 2005 2010

    Paci�c (AUS, NZ)

    0

    1,000

    2,000

    3,000

    4,000

    5,000

    6,000

    2000 2005 2010

    South and South-West Asia

    2% 2%

    89%

    1%6%

    Biofuels and Waste* Solar

    Solid Biomass Wind Geothermal

    East and North-East Asia North and Central Asia South-East Asia

    South and South-West Asia Pacific (AUS, NZ)

    0%

    1%

    2%

    3%

    4%

    5%

    6%

    2000 2005 2010

    0%

    5%

    10%

    15%

    20%

    25%

    30%

    35%

    2000 2005 2010

    Fossil fuels and nuclear88%

    Renewables10%

    Hydro2%

    24 Renewable Energy Renewable Energy 25

  • Asia-Paci�c Electricity Production from Renewables (excluding Hydro)

    Asia-Paci�cRenewableElectricity

    Production2010

    Asia-Paci�cTotal Electricity

    Production2010

    Data source: IEAData source: IEA

    Source: IRENA, 2012

    Source: UNEP, 2008

    Source: ILO, 2012

    Potential Employment Creationthrough Off-Grid Renewable Electricity

    Renewable Energy Employment 2009/10

    Average Employment over Life of Power Plants(Estimated jobs per megawatt of average capacity)

    Biofuels and Waste15%

    Solar4%

    Wind47%

    Solid Biomass

    17%

    Geothermal17%

    0

    20,000

    40,000

    60,000

    80,000

    100,000

    120,000

    140,000

    160,000

    180,000

    2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

    Biofuels and Waste Solar

    Wind Solid Biomass

    Geothermal

    Hydro14%

    Renewables 2%

    Fossil fuels and nuclear

    84%

    Jobs per megawatt

    Solar 30

    Small Hydro 4

    Biomass 15

    Wind 22

    Manufacturing, Construction,

    Installation

    Operations & Maintenance/

    Fuel Processing Total

    Solar PV 5.76–6.21 1.20–4.80 6.96–11.01Wind Power 0.43–2.51 0.27 0.70–2.78Biomass 0.4 0.38–2.44 0.78–2.84Coal-Fired 0.27 0.74 1.01Natural Gas-Fired 0.25 0.7 0.95

    -

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1,000

    1,200

    1,400

    1,600

    1,800

    China India USA

    Biogas

    Small Hydro

    Biomass

    Solar Thermal

    Solar PV

    Wind

    26 Renewable Energy Renewable Energy 27

  • Total CO2 Emissions by Asia-Paci�c Subregion

    Global CO2Emissions

    2009

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Database basedon data from MDG Indicators database

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Database basedon data from MDG Indicators database

    Global Per Capita CO2 EmissionsPer Capita CO2 Emissionsby Asia-Paci�c Subregion

    Asia-Paci�c54%Africa

    4%

    Latin America and Carib.

    5%

    North America

    19%

    Europe14%

    Other countries/areas 4%

    30.1 billion tonnes0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    East and North-East Asia South-East Asia

    South and South-West Asia North and Central Asia

    Pacific

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

    Asia-Pacific Asia-Pacific developing economies

    Asia-Pacific developed economies Africa

    La�n America and Carib. North America

    Europe Other countries/areas

    World

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

    East and North-East Asia South-East Asia

    South and South-West Asia North and Central Asia

    Pacific Pacific (excl AUS, NZ)

    28 Energy and Environment Energy and Environment 29

  • Asia-Paci�c Electricity Productionby Resource

    Median Lifecycle GHG Emissions fromElectricity Generation Technologies

    Source: Adapted from IPCC SRRES, 2011

    CSP = Concentrating solar power

    Data source: IEA Data source: WHO Global Health Observatory Data source: WHO Urban Outdoor Air Pollution Database

    Outdoor Air Pollution AttributableDALYs per 100,000 Capita, 2004

    PM10 levels in Selected Asia-Paci�c Cities*

    0

    1,000

    2,000

    3,000

    4,000

    5,000

    6,000

    2000 2005 2010

    Coal Natural Gas Hydro Nuclear Oil Renewables(other thanhydro)

    4 8 12 1846

    2245

    16

    469

    840

    1001

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1,000

    renewable

    non-renewable

    WHO Air Quality Particulate Matter (PM10) Level Targets

    WHO Air Quality Guideline

    20

    WHO interimtarget-3

    30

    In addition to other health benefits,

    Recommended value representing anacceptable and achievable objective tominimize health effects

    these levels reduce mortality risk by another approximately 6% compared to WHO-IT2 levels

    WHO interimtarget-2

    50

    In addition to other health benefits, these levels lower risk of premature mortality by approximately 6% compared to WHO-IT1

    WHO interim target-1

    70These levels are estimated to be associated with about 15% higher long-term mortality than at AQG

    10 11

    2329 33

    4347 49

    54

    64

    77

    96 96

    106

    121

    134

    189198

    279

    20

    30

    50

    70

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    This chart indicates annual mean concentra�on

    of par�culate ma�er of less than 10 microns

    of diameter (PM10) [ug/m3] in ci�es.

    These par�cles are able to penetrate deeply

    into the respiratory tract and therefore

    cons�tute a risk for health by increasing

    mortality from respiratory infec�ons and

    diseases, lung cancer, and selected

    cardiovascular diseases.

    4 5 932 35 39

    48 4965

    78

    117127

    174

    207

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250The disability-adjusted life year(DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the

    number of years lost due to ill-

    health, disability or early death.

    Outside ofWHO targetrange

    *Data ranges from 2003-2010

    30 Energy and Environment Energy and Environment 31

  • Asia-Paci�c Diesel and Gasoline Pump Prices, 2012

    Data source: World Bank statistical database based on data from GIZ Data source: GTZ “Power in G-20 and N-11 Countries – At What Cost?” 2010

    Household Electricity Tariffs for Selected ESCAP Member States, September 2010

    $0.00

    $0.50

    $1.00

    $1.50

    $2.00

    $2.50

    $3.00

    Diesel

    Gasoline

    Yellow and blue lines indicate the retail

    prices of diesel and gasoline in the

    United States. These cost-covering retail

    prices include industry margin, VAT and

    include approximately US 10 cents for

    two road funds (federal and state). This

    fuel price, being without other specific

    fuel taxes, may be considered as the

    interna�onal minimum benchmark for a

    non-subsidised road transport policy.

    2012 crude oil average

    $0.00

    $0.10

    $0.20

    $0.30

    $0.40

    $0.50

    $0.60

    1st kWh

    51st kWh

    501st kWh

    1001st kWh

    32 Energy Economics Energy Economics 33

  • Total Oil, Natural Gas, Coal and ElectricitySubsidies as Share of GDP for Selected

    Asia-Paci�c Countries, 2011

    Global Share of Fossil FuelSubsidies Received by theLowest 20% Income Group2010

    Data Source: IEA

    Data Source: IEA Data Source: IEA

    Data Source: IEA

    Data source: IEA WEO 2011

    Average Fossil Fuel ConsumptionSubsidisation Rate of Selected

    Asia-Paci�c Countries, 2011 Fossil Fuel Subsidies for SelectedAsia-Paci�c Countries, 2011

    Subsidies by Fuel ($billion), 2011

    2012 4th Quarter Percentage ofTaxes in Automotive Diesel Prices for

    Non-Commercial Use

    0.3

    4.3

    4.6

    15.5

    18.4

    18.4

    18.6

    23.2

    24.1

    32.2

    35.4

    35.8

    44.9

    60

    61

    70

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

    Korea, Rep.

    Philippines

    China

    Viet Nam

    Russian Federa�on

    Malaysia

    India

    Indonesia

    Sri Lanka

    Kazakhstan

    Pakistan

    Azerbaijan

    Bangladesh

    Uzbekistan

    Turkmenistan

    Iran, IR

    % as share of full cost of supply

    0.4

    0.7

    1.9

    2.2

    2.4

    2.5

    2.6

    3.1

    3.3

    3.4

    5.1

    5.3

    17

    22.7

    28.1

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30

    China

    Philippines

    Sri Lanka

    Russian Federa�on

    India

    Indonesia

    Malaysia

    Azerbaijan

    Kazakhstan

    Viet Nam

    Bangladesh

    Pakistan

    Iran, IR

    Turkmenistan

    Uzbekistan

    % share of GDP

    6%

    Gasoline

    5%

    LPG

    15%

    Kerosene

    10%

    Natural Gas

    6%

    Diesel

    9%

    Electricity

    Oil NG Coal TotalIran, IR 41.39 23.4 0 64.79India 30.86 3.03 0 33.89Russian Fed. 0 21.87 0 21.87Indonesia 15.72 0 5.56 21.28China 18.45 0 1.39 19.84Uzbekistan 1.06 9.09 0 10.15Pakistan 2.79 5.54 0 8.33Malaysia 5.35 0.89 0 6.24Turkmenistan 0.83 4.36 0 5.19Kazakhstan 3.19 0.33 0.58 4.10Bangladesh 0.87 1.89 0 2.76Azerbaijan 0.65 0.83 0 1.48Philippines 1.46 0 0 1.46Viet Nam 1.02 0.16 0.02 1.20Sri Lanka 0.82 0 0 0.82

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    Coal

    Natural gas

    Oil

    13.3 13.3

    31.9 34.537.1 38.7

    57.7

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    %

    34 Energy Economics Energy Economics 35

  • Global New Investment* in RenewableEnergy by Sector, 2004-2011

    * New investment volume adjusts for re-invested equity.Total values include estimates for undisclosed deals.

    Data source: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, UNEPData source: Bloomberg New Energy Finance as published in The PewCharitable Trusts report Who's Winning the Clean Energy Race? 2012 edition

    Data source: Bloomberg New Energy Finance as published in The PewCharitable Trusts report Who's Winning the Clean Energy Race? 2012 editionData source: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, UNEP

    Note: WTE = waste to energy

    Global New Investment* in Renewable Energyby Region, 2004-2011

    Distribution of Clean Energy** Investment forSelected ESCAP Member States, 2006-2012

    Total Clean Energy** Investment for SelectedESCAP Member States, 2012

    ** Clean energy includes: all biomass, geothermal, and wind generation projects of more than 1 MW; all hydro projects between 1 and 50 MW; all marine energy projects; all biofuels projects with a capacity of 1 million litres or more a year; and all solar projects, excluding those less than 1 MW in size. Efficiency & low carbon technology investment is comprised of �nancial investment in technology companies covering energy efficiency, smart grid, energy storage, advanced transportation, carbon capture and storage, and general clean energy services companies. Investment in efficiency and low-carbon technology projects by governments and public �nancing institutions was excluded.

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

    Wind Solar Biofuels

    Biomass & WTE Small hydro Geothermal

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

    United States

    Brazil

    America (excl. U.S. & Brazil)

    Europe

    China

    India

    Asia and Oceania (excl. China & India)

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    Efficiency & low carbon tech/services

    Biofuels

    Wind

    Solar

    Other renewables

    65.1

    35.6

    16.3

    8.3 6.94.9

    1.4 0.9 0.20

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    36 Energy Economics Energy Economics 37

  • Global Net Energy Imports Asia-Paci�c Subregional Net Energy Imports

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical Database based on data from IEA Data source: ESCAP Statistical Database based on data from IEA

    Note: “Coal” is comprised of coal and peat. “Renewables” includes hydro.

    Data source: IEA

    Asia-Paci�c Top 5 Importers and Exporters by Energy Resource, 2010(ktoe)

    -800

    -600

    -400

    -200

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1,000

    East and North-East Asia South-East Asia South and South-West Asia

    North and Central Asia Pacific (AUS, NZ)

    China237,682

    Japan184,613

    India167,193

    Korea, Rep. of121,571

    Singapore58,005

    Japan115,329

    China86,442

    Korea, Rep.72,949

    India49,379

    Russian Fed.15,310

    Japan82,788

    Korea, Rep. of39,279

    Turkey31,311

    China12,587

    India10,295

    Philippines78

    Thailand66

    Korea, Rep. of18

    Malaysia4

    Hong Kong, China3

    1

    2

    3

    4

    IMPORTERS

    Australia190,144

    Indonesia155,882

    Russian Fed.85,948

    China14,531

    Kazakhstan13,766

    Russian Fed.248,266

    Iran, IR129,491

    Kazakhstan65,527

    Azerbaijan44,730

    Indonesia17,385

    Russian Fed.154,131

    Indonesia35,952

    Malaysia24,137

    Australia20,886

    Turkmenistan19,549

    Indonesia290

    Malaysia101

    Thailand34

    Russian Fed.0.1

    ---1

    2

    3

    4

    EXPORTERS

    CRUDE OIL

    COAL

    NATURAL GAS

    RENEWABLES

    -1,000

    -800

    -600

    -400

    -200

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1,000

    1,200

    ESCAP

    ESCAP developing economies

    ESCAP developed economies

    La�n America and Caribbean

    North America

    Europe

    Africa

    Other countries/areas

    World

    38 Energy Trade and Investment Energy Trade and Investment 39

  • Global Cross Border New Investment in Clean Energy, 2011* Asia-Paci�c** Cumulative Gross Capacity Additions by

    Source under the New Policies Scenario*** 2012-2035

    Source:Bloomberg New Energy Finance White Paper “North-South Clean Energy Investment Flows:An $8bn Step to a $100bn Goal”.

    *New build asset �nance for renewable energy projects only.Investment volumes show cross-border investments only.Domestic investments are excluded.

    Data source: IEA WEO 2012 Data source: IEA WEO 2012

    Asia-Paci�c** Needed Investment in Electricity-Supply Infrastructure under the New Policies Scenario*** 2012-2035 ($2011 billion)

    ** Excludes the following ESCAP member States: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Georgia, Iran IR, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan.

    *** New Policies Scenario: A scenario in the IEA World Energy Outlook which takes account of broad policy commitments and plans that have been announced by countries, including national pledges to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and plans to phase out fossil energy subsidies, even if the measures to implement these commitments have yet to be identi�ed or announced.

    **** Includes geothermal, concentrating solar power and marine.

    893

    589

    30

    213

    597

    409

    334

    118

    25 214

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    500

    600

    700

    800

    900

    1,000

    Renewable 1,508

    Non-Renewable

    1,512

    North-South18%

    North-North70%

    South-South9%

    South-North3%

    Public Funds13%

    Private Funds87%

    $44.3 billion

    1,062

    411

    19

    557

    968

    793

    582

    241

    144

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1,000

    1,200

    Plant Infrastructure Investment,by Resource

    Transmission948

    Distribution 2,899

    Non-Renewable

    2,049Renewable

    2,728

    Plant Infrastructure 4,777

    $8,624 (billion)

    40 Energy Trade and Investment Energy Trade and Investment 41

  • Energy Self-Sufficiencyin Asia and the Paci�c Major Oil Trade

    Movements, 2011

    Major Gas TradeMovements, 2011

    *Data was unavailable for Afghanistan, Maldives, Timore-Leste and Tuvalu.Note: Energy self-sufficiency values for this chart were derived by subtracting the ratio of production over TPES from one.

    Oil trade movements are represented in million tonnes

    Gas trade movements are in billion cubic metres

    Source: Adapted from BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2012

    Data source: ESCAP Statistical databasebased on data from IEA and IRENA

    Self-sufficient

    Between 0 and 25% below self-sufficiency

    Between 25 and 50% below self-sufficiency

    Between 50 and 75% below self-sufficiency

    Between 75 and 100% below self

    Data unavailable*

    -sufficiency

    -100%

    0%

    100%

    200%

    300%

    400%

    500%

    SELF SUFFICIENT

    88.0

    26.614.1

    9.7

    117.1

    66.4

    35.2

    23.5

    12.1 10.2

    32.0

    14.3

    17.38.6

    6.7 6.3

    3.8

    3.9

    15.7

    3.0 7.6

    44.116.8

    4.4

    13.5

    29.1

    19.8

    17.47.1

    41.3

    9.8

    5.0

    19.0

    133.8

    59.8

    27.1

    41.1

    23.7

    29.5

    35.5

    68.3

    18.4

    95.5

    111.2

    42.2

    27.1

    29.5

    57.6

    298.2

    126.0 175.1

    48.6

    61.1

    110.7

    34.3

    15.6

    22.128.4

    61.5

    137.849.5

    28.4

    26.0

    226.6

    Oil

    Pipeline gas

    LNG

    42 Energy Connectivity Energy Connectivity 43

  • Russian Federa�on

    China

    Iran

    India

    Australia

    Kazakhstan

    Turkmenistan

    Indonesia

    Pakistan

    Azerbaijan

    Malaysia

    Uzbekistan

    ThailandViet Nam

    Korea, DPR

    Brunei Darussalam

    New Zealand

    Papua New Guinea

    Bangladesh

    Myanmar

    Korea, Rep. of

    Japan

    HVDC OHL 600 kV

    HVAC OHL 750 kV

    pipeline (coal

    gasifica�on)

    Rail

    HVDC UG 500 kV

    3.0

    3.5

    4.0

    4.5

    5.0

    5.5

    6.0

    Coal -generated electricity cost by transport options**(¢/kWh)

    Resource Measurement Data SourceOil Proved reserves BP 2012

    Gas Proved reserves BP 2012

    Coal Proved reserves BP 2012

    Hydro Technical poten�al (kWh) ESCAP 2008

    Solar Total poten�al (KWh/m²/day) NREL 2008

    Wind Area (km²) Class 3-7 Wind at 50m NREL 1990

    Geothermal kWh GEA 1999

    Uranium Proved reserves EEP 2008

    High

    Medium

    • Medium-LowLow

    Unknown

    X Not applicable

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    100%

    Fossil Fuel Reserves Nuclear Renewable Energy Technical Poten�al

    East and North-East Asia

    North and Central Asia

    South and South-West Asia

    South-East Asia

    Pacific

    WIND

    SOLAR

    HYDRO

    BIOMASS

    GEOTHERMAL

    OCEAN

    Asia-Paci�c Proved Fossil FuelReserves at end of 2011

    Asia-Paci�c RenewableEnergy Resources

    Asia-Paci�c RenewableEnergy Resource Distribution

    * Includes anthracite, bituminous,sub-bituminous and lignite

    Fossil fuels data source: BP Coal-generated electricity cost source:ABB Review 1/2008

    Note: Proportions represented are independent of eachother and therefore are not directly comparable.

    Note: Information unavailable forArmenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia,Turkey and the Russian Federation

    ** Calculated from scenario of transporting 1,000 MWover distance of 1,000 km.

    HVDC UG = High Voltage Direct Current UndergroundHVAC OHL = High Voltage Alternating Current Overhead LinesHVDC OHL = High Voltage Direct Current Overhead Lines

    Note: Pie charts were generated using million tonnes oil equivalents for the three fossil fuel resource types. Size of chart is approximate representation of total fossil fuel resources.

    Note: The information on resources should be taken as an indication only. It refers to a general trend of available resources, and does not pre-judge thefeasibility of individual projects. The thresholds are indicative, and do not refer to any technological choice. The IRENA analysis is based on literature.

    OilNatural

    Gas Coal*

    Thousand million tonnes

    Trillion cubic

    metres

    Million tonnes

    Australia 0.4 3.8 76,400Azerbaijan 1.0 1.3 -

    Bangladesh - 0.4 -Brunei Darussalam 0.1 0.3 -

    China 2.0 3.1 114,500India 0.8 1.2 60,600

    Indonesia 0.6 3.0 5,529Iran 20.8 33.1 -Japan - - 350

    Kazakhstan 3.9 1.9 33,600

    Korea, DPR - - 600Korea, Rep. - - 126Malaysia 0.8 2.4 -

    Myanmar - 0.2 -New Zealand - - 571

    Pakistan - 0.8 2,070Papua New Guinea - 0.4

    Russian Federa�on 12.1 44.6 157,010Thailand 0.1 0.3 1,239

    Turkmenistan 0.1 24.3 -

    Uzbekistan 0.1 1.6 -

    Viet Nam 0.6 0.6 150Other Asia Pacific 0.1 0.3 3,708Total 43.4 123.5 456,453

    of

    44 Energy Connectivity Energy Connectivity 45

  • GENERATION

    •Develop evolu�onary regula�on to support more variable and distributed approaches

    •Develop regulatory mechanisms to encourage business and markets to enable wider system flexibility

    TRANSMISSION

    •Con�nue Smart Grid deployment to increase visibility and reliability

    •Assess status of regional transmission systems and future requirements

    DISTRIBUTION

    •Determine policy to use Smart Grids to leverage investments

    •Promote real-�me energy usage info and pricing

    INDUSTRIAL SERVICE RESIDENTIAL

    Wide-area monitoring & control

    Renewable and distributed generation integration*

    Information and communication technology (ICT) integration

    Electric vehicle charging infrastructure

    Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI)

    Distribution grid management

    Transmission enhancement applications**

    Customer-side systems (CS)

    •Prac�cal sharing of Smart Grid costs & benefits•Cyber security

    Development TrendModerate Fast

    Central Asia – South Asia Regional Electricity Market (CASA 1000)CountriesAfghanistanKyrgyzstanPakistanTajikistan

    Capacity1,300 MW

    InvestmentApprox. US$ 950 million

    StatusWorld Bank board of approval expected in 2013

    GMS Power Market

    CountriesCambodiaChinaLao PDRMyanmarThailandViet Nam

    Capacity *•2,767 MW exis�ng•5,545 MW committed

    thru 2015•31,400 MW iden�fied

    projects

    StatusComple�on target by 2028

    ASEAN Power Grid

    CountriesBrunei Darussalam CambodiaIndonesiaLao PDRMalaysiaMyanmarPhilippinesSingaporeThailandViet Nam

    Capacity**More than 32,000 MW

    InvestmentApprox. US$ 5.9 billion

    Status•9 interconnec�ons

    opera�onal•Remaining 7 ready

    by 2020

    SAARC Market for Electricity (part of SAARC Energy Ring)CountriesAfghanistanBangladeshBhutanIndiaIran, IRKyrgyzstanMaldivesMyanmarNepalPakistanSri LankaTajikistanTurkmenistanUzbekistan

    InvestmentApprox. US$ 1 billion over next 5 years on priority projects

    StatusDra� Framework Agreement under considera�onby SAARCStudy on Regional Power Exchange forthcoming in 2013

    Uzbekistan

    12,000

    Hong Kong, China

    11,047

    Thailand

    7,287

    India

    5,610

    Viet Nam

    5,599

    Top 5 Electricity Importers (GWh), 2010

    Russian Fed.

    19,091

    China

    19,059

    Uzbekistan

    12,087

    Iran, IR

    6,707

    Hong Kong, China

    2,609

    Top 5 Electricity Exporters (GWh), 2010Smart Grid Technology, Maturity Levels, Development Trends and Action Areas

    Selected Asia-Paci�c MultilateralCross-Border Power Interconnections

    Source: adapted fromOECD/IEA 2011 Technology Roadmap: Smart Grids

    * Battery storage technologies are less mature than other distributed energy technologies** High Temperature Superconducting technology is still in the developing stage of maturity

    * Capacity under the GMS Master Plan ‘base case’** Approximation based on available information for about 14 out of 16 interconnections

    Note: This is not an exhaustive list. Bilateral initiatives are not included.

    SAARC non-member Sources: World Bank World - Central Asia South Asia Electricity Transmission and Trade Project (CASA 1000), 2012; SAARC Website www.saarc-sec.org; ADB Update of the GMS Regional Master Plan 2010; ASEAN Economic Community Handbook for Business 2012, ASEAN Community Project Information Sheets 2012; HAPUA website www.hapuasecretariat.org

    46 Energy Connectivity Energy Connectivity 47

  • Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment (2012), Frankfurt, Bloomberg New Energy Finance and UNEP, 2012. Bloomberg New Energy Finance, North-South Clean Energy Investment Flows: An $8bn Step to a $100bn Goal” white paper (2012).

    BP, Statistical Review of World Energy (2012). Available from www.bp.com/statisticalreview.

    ESCAP, Asian Energy Highway: Energy resource efficiency and security through regional energy planning and power trading. Working paper. Bangkok.

    ESCAP, ESCAP statistical database(2013). Available from http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/statdb/DataExplorer.aspx.

    IEA, Energy Technology Perspectives (2012). Paris. OECD and IEA.

    IEA, Technology Roadmap: Smart Grids (2012). Paris. OECD and IEA.

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    Overview of ScenariosPresented in IEA’s World Energy Outlook Current Policies Scenario: A scenario that assumes no changes in policies from the mid-point of the year of publication.

    New Policies Scenario: A scenario which takes account of broad policy commitments and plans that have been announced by countries, including national pledges to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and plans to phase out fossil-energy subsidies, even if the measures to implement these commitments have yet to be identi�ed or announced.

    450 Scenario: A scenario which sets out an energy pathway consistent with the goal of limiting the global increase in temperature to 2°C by limiting concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to around 450 parts per million of CO2.

    All web-based sources were accessed between April and May 2013.

    48 References and Notes

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