integrated recovery & low-carbon reconstruction - and update from pakistan

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An update of our / DFID's shelter and WASH projects in Northern Sindh. This time with a calculation of carbon dioxide emissions reductions (!) And all about building with lime..


  • How humanitarian response can address key vulnerabilities, innovate, showcase best Value for Money; and help people adapt to changing climates The Pakistan experience. Magnus Wolfe Murray
  • Shelter roofing kit with steel beam Water filter: multiple years of use (vs. aquatabs, etc.) Solar light x 1 @ 5.00 each Link immediate relief to recovery resilience continuum wherever possible
  • Upon return, most families have used this roofing kit a second time to cover temporary shelters (that are NOT flood resistant). Now these same materials will be used a third time to cover a durable flood-resistant home.
  • A roofing kit by Local NGO HANDS being used as to build a quite permanent-looking shelter. The family built the walls themselves using vernacular technology (earthen bricks and mud plaster).
  • And used again for the 3rd time For a Flood-Resistant Shelter
  • Cost: Emergency: 60 / family Robust shelter: 130 Admin, etc.: 15 Total: 205 / family The alternative: Emergency only: 60 / family every year assuming climate change drives extreme weather events.
  • 0 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 12,000,000 14,000,000 16,000,000 18,000,000 Affected Population Comparison across humanitarian crises
  • Large tent, 130 - 180 range. Limited adaptability cant be used to reconstruct the home. And expensive! An overview of conventional response
  • 18 / Unit Cheap but not very good (not much protection and dignity)
  • Cheaper tent (100)
  • In contrast a DFID / IOM designed family shelter 60 / family including a solar light
  • Whole families: better protection, enhanced dignity
  • The Roofing Kit idea 58 per unit Used as temporary shelter Later to build a roof Double the value of a tent And half the price
  • Solar lights
  • OK but what does it mean? Research: Protection for women? Economic savings? Potential for small businesses? Ref. Grameen Shahkti - Bangladesh
  • good thick Walls (better for keeping the house cool)
  • Many villages built these chora structures, which seem to cope with the heat much better (hot air rises and escapes through the small gaps in the thatch) while the steep roof ensures water flows away quickly in the rains.
  • I am illiterate therefore my daughter has a right to an education (!!!) Community development organisations (CBOs) Key for Social Capital and future development A well built structure, large enough to fit 50 people during this meeting. External temperature: 42 degrees Internal temperature: 36 degrees
  • A quick introduction to Lime An ancient building material that could be the key to flood resistant housing in Pakistan
  • Hydraulic lime can be poured directly into the foundation trenches and used to reinforce the lower parts of walls, as shown.
  • Lime pits are built to allow lime rocks to slake (soak) properly before being used with local earth and sand to create flood-resistant plasters and renders. One person is elected by the community to run these pits and manage the process.
  • Walls after 4 5 days heavy rain, still in good condition
  • The ring-beam as designed by Heritage Foundation, installed by IOMs partner NGO, SEWA. This is a lime- based concrete, using gravel bought in the local market; steel bolts are sunk into the walls to connect with the bamboo girders that will act as roof beams making roof and wall an integrated structure. Note that a piece of split bamboo replaces the conventional use of reinforced iron bar.
  • Four pieces of bamboo are wired together to create a beam spanning the 4m room. Five such beams are used in total. The ring beam distributes their weight to avoid point loading. Note the massive 18 (50cm) walls which reinforced with lime based plaster should be virtually indestructible.
  • Yasmeen Lari, head of Heritage Foundation explaining the different components
  • A traditional Sindhi round-house, built on a raised platform by Heritage Foundation as a training model. Lime mud render for water- resistance. Examples from DFID-funded work with IOM and Heritage Foundation, Sindh, 2012 Target: 17,500 one room shelters
  • View from inside the chora structure. These young men have now learned how to build flood resistant structures like these knowledge that could stay with them all their lives.
  • Local and Global Emissions total brick production in Pakistan Dioxins : 425.88 nanogramme / brick 32 CO2 Emissions : 37.4 million Tonnes Equal to: 40m Pakistanis CO2 / year 9 million cars CO2 / year
  • Social impact bricks in Pakistan (Should we ignore this element?) 33 Child LabourBonded Labour
  • Table 1: Conventional construction materials and practice Item Required amount per house (KG) quantity per house CO2e (Kg) emissions per Kg / brick CO2e (Tonnes) emissions per House Target no Houses Amount for 50,000 houses (CO2 Tonnes) Fired bricks (per brick figure - based on 0.23 CO2e per kg n/a 5,500 0.55 3.03 50,000 151,250 Cement (Average CEM I Portland Cement 94% clinker) 600 600 0.95 0.57 50,000 28,500 Steel (Bar & rod 'Rest of World' average recycled content value) 54 54 1.95 0.11 50,000 5,265 Total Tonnes of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions 185,015
  • Table 2: Environmental Building Systems - as adopted by DFID & HANDS/IOM Item (and items being replaced) Required amount per house (KG) quantity per house CO2 (Kg) emission per Kg / brick CO2 (Tonnes) emission per House Target no Houses Amount for 50,000 houses (CO2 Tonnes) Fired bricks used for 20% of project only 5,500 0.55 3.025 10,000 12,100 Lime - in place of Cement (CO2e reduced by 70% as biomass based - see below) 50 0.234 0.0117 50,000 585 Steel: one beam instead of two procured 26 1.95 0.0507 50,000 2535 Total 15,220 Difference and saving in tonnes of CO2: 169,795 Source: University of Bath, Embodied energy and carbon in Construction materials (2008) Available at:
  • VfM Lower cost = 50m saved Allowed for much greater coverage Low cost = easier to replicate for poor people RED supporting evidence study for replication and publication of guide
  • Lessons learned Main objective: flood resilience Environment impact: lets not make it worse Low cost = replicable LIME: community based training AT SCALE 100,000 safe houses at less cost than the post- flood cash transfer programme. Value? Knowledge management (Humanitarian Library)
  • WASH in Emergency: Quick and Effective But at what cost ? Cost Environment Ecology Water
  • After 6 months in the Sindhi sun $90 / unit Note: this picture is replicated across thousands of villages where similar latrines built. Lesson: we can do better than this!
  • Structure alternatives Earth Bags?
  • In May 2012 HANDS (local NGO based in Sindh) built this earth-bag latrine to test the idea. Total cost including slab and door: 33 / $50 / 5000 PKR
  • Alternative slab design. Liberia, 2003. These cost $5 / unit (compared to $35 / unit of plastic slabs). A viable alternative?
  • DOME shaped slab no need for iron or mesh. Can be moved when pit is full and re-used Lid section placed on top prevents flies, smells, etc. Very sturdy to stand on no wobbles like the plastic slab
  • The other system: Pour Flush & Septic Tank Latrines. Copes better with heavy water use. U-bend in slab means less smell. More costly: Cost per unit: $275 (25,000 Rps)
  • But th