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  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8 Center for Global Communications, 1998

    IP Telephony

    1.IP Telephony 2.IP Telephony 3.IP Telephony 4. IP Telephony 5.IP Telephony 6.IP Telephony 7.IP Telephony

    IP TelephonyIP IP IP VoIPVoice over IP

    IP Telephony

    IP TelephonyIP Telephony

    IP TelephonyIPTelephonyIP Telephony

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

    2

    1

    1997 1

    IPInternet Protocol2

    IP

    IP Telephony Fax

    IP Fax IPTelephony

    1.IP Telephony

    1.1IP Telephony

    IP TelephonyIP Telephony 1995 2 VocalTec3Internet Phone IP Telephony 3 IP Telephony1996 7 Intel4Intel Internet Phone Microsoft5Netscape6 IP TelephonyNetscape NetscapeNavigator CoolTalk Microsoft NetMeeting IP Telephony 1996 8 IDT7Net2Phone

    1 15,000 1996 VocalTec Dialogic8Internet Telephony GatewayServerPSTN

    IP Telephony

    1 ActivMedia 1996 25 1997 218 1 8.7 2 Voice 1998 6 3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

    3

    IP QoSQualityof Service

    1.2IP Telephony

    IP Telephony IPTelephony

    Fax IP IP

    Frost & Sullivan9IP Telephony 5 Khanna and Repentigny1997a

    Voicemail filewav

    Fax

    Voice Telephony

    Desktop Videoconferencing

    Application Sharing and Document Sharing

    Document Sharing

    1.3IP Telephony

    IP Telephony 3 1

    1. PCPC 2. PC3.

    1.PCPC PC PC

    PC

    9 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

    4

    VocalTec Internet PhoneIntel Internet Video PhoneMicrosoft NetMeetingNetscape Netscape CoolTalk/Conference

    2.PC1.IP PC IDTNet2PhonePC IDT IDT IDT 800 ISP

    IDT PC

    ID PINPersonal Identification Number

    CTIComputer Telephony Integration1998

    3.IP

    PC ID PIN PC IP Telephony ITSPInternet Telephony ServiceProvider ITSP ISP

    FreePort i SP-10010IC FAX320011 Fax Casio PhoneMate IT-38012

    10 .11 .12 .

    1

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

    5

    1.4 Fax

    Fax IP TelephonyFax Fax ISP UUNET TechnologiesUUNET13 1997 7 Fax UUFAX14Fax1 65KB 30 1516PSTN Fax 1997 4,400 2000 56 Fax 2000 Fax 74 40 2 Fax ITSP Fax

    ITSP FaxFax Fax Fax DDI17 LCR -LCR-ALPHA5 Fax DDI Fax -ALPHA5Fax Fax FaxFax Fax FaxFax PCFax PC 18F@xEm@il19PCFax Fax Fax NTT20

    F 21FaxPC Fax TIFF MIME SMTP PC Fax

    Fax Fax Fax 22IETFInternet Engineering TaskForce231998 6 ITU T.37

    2.IP Telephony

    2.1IP Telephony Pros

    13 .14 .15 .16 .17 .18 .19 .20 .21 .22 .23 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    2.1.1

    IP TelephonyIP Telephony IP AP AP24 AP IP ISP IP

    flat-rateusage-based1 IP Telephony

    LAN IP

    ITSP 1 6877 2023

    3 3NTT 90* KDD 450*DDI, JT, TWJ 90* ITJJT, IDC 440*TTNet 63 Kallback 146**** 61** 91**AT&T@phoneAT&T Jens 69*** AT&T@phoneAT&T Jens 99***

    1 1998 5 27 * ** 10 3 *** **** 1.08 1 135

    25

    2 17 29261997

    1160 1KDD 410** 1 236 0.58**** 69 0.17***

    21997 1-1p.101

    * ** 1998 5 KDD 440 *** KDD 410 0.540.16

    IP Telephony Geoequipos

    24 25 .26 1 1996 160

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

    7

    Geoequipos Telecom Peru IDDInternational Direct Dialing 1,800Telecom PeruVocalTecInternet Phone 150200 1/10 Cukier1998

    2.1.2

    IP

    Fax IP VoIP:Voice over IP IP

    TDMTime Division Multiplexer 10 TDM 1

    IP IP IP TDM IP IP TDM 27

    2.1.3

    IP Telephony IP LAN

    ConvergenceIP Telephony

    CTI CTI Call Center1998 30 2001 112 Gartner Group 2000 35Fax28Web-Enabled Call CenterWECCWECC eFusion29 eBridgeCall Center 1

    Push-To-Talk 27VoIP ATM VToAVoice trafficover ATM VoFRVoice over Frame Relay28 Essl Technologies. The Web-Enabled Call Center: Reaching Out to the Online Community..29 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

    8

    1/10 deJong1998

    WECC Essl Technologies Managing Director Steven Dresner Internet

    Telephony TCP/IP Multimedia TelephonyDresner1997IP Telephony

    2.2IP Telephony Cons

    2.2.1

    IP Telephony

    ID PIN

    ID PIN 3

    2.2.2

    IP Telephony200250

    IP

    3 IP Telephony VoIP PC IP

    IP

    TCPTranmission Control Protocol30TCP TCP

    IP

    2.2.3Interoperability

    IP TelephonyIP Telephony

    30 IP-Telephony TCP UDPUser Datagram ProtocolUDP TCP QoS

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    IP Telephony ITSP

    IP Telephony

    3.IP Telephony

    3.1IP Telephony

    3.1.1

    IP Telephony PC PCPC PCIP Telephony PC 1997 45 PC 311998 5 10 1997 28.8 1/41998

    1998 1 PC 4832[51] 10 1997 6.41 1996 3.31 2 2005 41.82010 54.91998 3 IAJ331998 23 7.08 1,009 7,300 1 9.5 23.4

    2.3 27.6 IP Telephony34

    1997 2005 2010 1,155 4,136 4,459

    287 6.4

    1,929 41.8

    2,755 54.9

    31998 1-1-9

    3.1.2

    35

    31 Computer Intelligence 1998/3.32 ZD Market Intelligence 1998/5. Computer Intelligence 1998 4 ZD Market Intelligence Ziff-Davis 33 .34 Internet Watch. .35

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    1996 10 31

    36

    37

    1997 7 8 38

    1997 12 8 8 26 39

    3.1.3 IP Telephony

    PC IP Telephony 1995 2 VocalTec InternetPhone

    Pulver IP Telephony 4 VocalTec Internet Phone Microsoft NetMeeting 2

    1997 1996

    1 VocalTec Internet Phone (757) 1 VocalTec Internet Phone (1176)2 NetMeeting (414) 3 TeleVox (316)3 CU-SeeMe (305) 5 NetMeeting (314)4 TeleVox (276) 2 Intel Internet Video Phone (216)5 CoolTalk (249) 6 CU-SeeMe (202)6 Intel Internet Video Phone (231) 4 CoolTalk (173)7 Net2Phone (228) 10 WebPhone (169)8 FreeTel (160) 8 FreeTel (135)9 Freephone (155) NA VDOPhone (111)10 WebPhone (154) 7 Net2Phone (107)

    4IP Telephony1996, 1997 40

    IP Telephony IP Telephony1998 3 41 1 Lucent TechnologiesLucent

    42Alcatel43Northern Telecom44Ericsson45Siemens Telecom Networks46NEC47 36

    37 8/26 :38 .39 .40 Voice on the Net CoalitionVON 1 5 2 3 3 1 41 Computer Intelligence 1998/3.42 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    48 VoIP 2Cisco Systems493Com50AscendCommunications51Bay Networks52 VoIP 3 IP Telephony

    Act Networks53Clarent54Inter-Tel55Hypercom56Mockingbird57NetSpeak58Vienna Systems59VocalTec VoIP NetSpeak MCI Communications60 IP Telephony

    3.1.4IP Telephony

    IP TelephonyIP Telephony

    IP Telephony IP TelephonyPulver.com IP Telephony Voice on the Net CoalitionVON61 IP Telephony1996 9 26 240 IP TelephonyTalking NetVoice on the NetVON 2

    International Data GroupIDG62

    Vortex9863 1998 5 Com CiscoLucentMCI Vortex Advisory Board 200

    3.1.5 IP

    IP Telephony 1,2 WDMWavelength Division Multiplexing DWDMDense Wavelength Division Multiplexing IP IP Telephony 43 .44 .45 .46 .47 .48 .49 .50 .51 .52 .53 .54 .55 .56 .57 .58 .59 .60 .61 .62 .63 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    Qwest CommunicationsInternationalQwest641998 3 LCI InternationalLCI65 4 Qwest 1999 16,000 125 48 96 10 Qwest AT&T66MCI WorldCom67Sprint683

    Level3 CommunicationsLevel369WilliamsCommunicationsWilliams70 2000

    Level3 IP IP IP TelephonyQoS RSVP RSVP

    IP Qwest 13 ISP EUnet71 IP IP ISP IP IP Telephony

    3.1.6IPv6

    IPv6 IP IPv6 128 1 1,00072 32 IPv4 IP

    IP IP IP IPv6 IP IP IP IPv6

    3.2IP Telephony

    3.2.1

    IP Telephony

    64 .65 .66 .67 WorldCom: .68 .69 .70 .71 .72 1 1 1

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    1 0.020.08 0.040.16

    ITSP 1 5 IDT 1 1 1 5

    ITSP ISP 73

    IP

    1996 3 ACTAAmerica's Carriers Telecommunication AssociationITSP FCCFederal Communications Commission74 FCC 7ISP ITSP 1998 4 FCC ITSP IP Telephony Pulver.com75VocalTecIDTITXCInternet Telephony eXchange Carrier76

    FCC Pulver.com

    FCC 23 IP TelephonyPulver1998

    EUEuropean Union77PCPC PC EU EU 1998 1 EU

    2000 1 1 EU1998Reuters1998

    3.2.2

    ISP

    1 73 FCC Enhansed Servide Provider74 .75 .76 .77 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    4050 ISP 19.95

    ISP

    1998 ISP IBM78 19.95 100 19.95 100 1.95AT&T WorldNet 150 19.95 100 99

    ISP UUNET

    PC

    4. IP Telephony

    IP Telephony IP Telephony

    4.1

    IP Telephony 4

    ISP IP Telephony IP ITSP

    4.1.1ISP

    ISP 1997 ISP IP Telephony TeleportCommunications GroupTCG79 ISP CERFnet 1997TCG CERFnet80 1998 3 CERFtone1

    TCG 1998 AT&T ICG Communications811998 1

    ISP Netcom82 1998 166 IP TelephonyFax VPN

    78 .79 .80 .81 .82 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    ICG 5.9 7.2 2

    ISP M&A

    4.1.2 IP Telephony

    ITSP IP TelephonyTier1 ISP 10 IP Telephony

    AT&T 1998 5 AT&T Connect'N Save83

    7.5 8 8.5 2550100 3 1 45 AT&T One Rate International Plan50 MCI US West84 IP TelephonyWard1998

    4.1.3 IP

    Qwest 1998 2 Q. Talk IP IP TelephonyQ. Talk 1 7.5

    6 1998 25 1999 125

    IP Level3 Williams IP IP TelephonyLevel3 IP Telephony IP Williams 11,000 2001 27 32,000 IP IP Telephony

    4.1.4 ITSP

    ITSP 185 ITSP

    IDT

    83 .84 .85 500 IDT 270

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    DC 50 5 800 86 13

    71 20 32 49 27 65

    87 IDT

    IDT 1998 5 IDT IP TelephonyNet2Phone IBM 88 IBM Net2Phone 8 IDT 75 IBM Net2Phone

    Delta389800 20

    81 35 19 30 48 69

    IDT 90 Delta3 RSL Communications91 250 Delta3 RSL Communications

    IP Telephony

    Delta3 1998 5 1998 14 40 Delta3 Internet Phone Lite92 240 PC

    ITXC AT&T WorldNet 1997 7 ITSP ITXC ITSP

    1998 4

    86 NTT 87 88 .89 .90 Delta3 Delta391 .92 Internet Phone Lite

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    WWeXchange ITSP ITXC

    ITSPWWeXchangeITSP Network ofIP Telephony Networks Delta3 VIP Calling93 15 WWeXchange

    ITXC 1998 5 Intel VocalTec Chase Capital Partners94 1,000 95

    4.2

    1997 8 ISP ISP IPTelephony

    ISPITSP

    3

    4.2.1ISPITSP

    ISP 1997 8

    90 3 10 1997 5 6 Global Exchange CarrierGXC96 23GXC IP Telephony Vienna Systems ISP IP Telephony

    AT&T ISP AT&T Jens971997 8 IP TelephonyAT&T@phone98 99 3 AT&T Jens AT&T@phone AT&T 1998 5

    99100

    PC 1997 10 27.0 IDT IDT PC Net2Phone

    93 .94 .95 .96 .97 .98 .99 .100 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    4.2.2

    ISP 101

    1998 5 26 Nifty Serve 168 Nifty Serve 3,000

    Nifty Serve RSLRSL Communications IP Telephony

    IP TelephonyNTT 1997 6

    NTT NTT NTT NTT 1021998 4 ITSP IPTelephony Inter-Tel IP Glocalnet103 Telbatelecomunicacoes104 IP Telephony

    NTT NTT 105 ARCSTARIP Fax IP-VPN

    KDD KDD KCOM106KCOM 1998 4 KCOM 1997 7 9 Fax 3 450 KCOM 3 90 500KDD 1/5 KDD NTT ITXC

    6 1998 4 KDD KDD 107OK 180 3 *8131

    101 .102 .103 .104 .105 .106 .107 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    1998

    4.2.3

    IP TelephonyNEC 108 VoIP 109 PBXE-3200 ISS110 IP Telephony

    111 1997 IP Telephony BusinessWorksVoIP Internet Telephony ServerCTI Internet Call CenterWWW Fax INTUITY AUDIXMultimedia Messaging System 3 IP Telephony

    IP Telephony VocalTec 1998 3 112113 2

    114 1998 4 FRAD Frame RelayAssembly/Disassembly6560MPR PROVANGUARD 320 VoIP Voice over Frame RelayVoFR VoIP VoIP VoFR VoFR VoIP

    PBX PBX T1 1.5Mbps TTC 2Mbps NEC T1 PBX TTC

    4.3

    EU 1998 1 IP Telephony

    1151997 8 VocalTec 21.1

    1161998 4 T-NetCall

    108 .109 .110 .111 .112 .113 .114 .115 .116 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    117

    20 118

    19 99 FT1191998 3

    IP Telephony FT

    FT IP Telephony FT 3 IP Telephony FT

    Cukier1998 France Telecom InteractiveFTI120eFusion121

    eStream FT Wanadoo IP TelephonyFT IP Telephony

    1998 6 IP TelephonyVoice onthe NetVONEurope '981226 8 11 3 IP Telephony IP Telephony

    IP Telephony

    4.4

    IP Telephony

    Khanna and Repentigny1997b

    4.4.1

    ISP iNET1231998 3 IP Telephony 4555

    390 0.25 450 580

    117 .118

    20 119 .120 .121 .122 .123 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    720 850

    1998 124 IP Telephony Samsung Electronics125 Sungmi Telecom Electronics126Korea Telecom127

    4.4.2

    1997 Computer Protocol128Fax DSPDigital Signal ProcessorCpIP Voice GatewayCpIP Voice Gateway FCCEU

    4.4.3

    Lucent PT. Telkomunikasi IndonesiaPT.Telkom129PT Telekom 9,000 IP Telephony PT.Indonesia Satellite CorporationPT. Indosat1301997 4 Global Link131IP Telephony132

    4.4.4

    ISP OzEmail133OzEmail Phone13415 1.25 5.50 25

    4.4.5

    Telecom New ZealandTNZ135 1996 VocalTec IP Telephony1997 1 31 1361998 5

    4.4.6

    124 125 .126 .127 .128 .129 .130 .131 .132 .133 .134 .135 .136 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    Taiwan Telecommunications Network ServiceTTN137

    IP Telephony VocalTec

    5.IP Telephony

    IP Telephony

    IP TelephonyFax

    IP TelephonyIP Telephony

    PCPC PC IPTelephony

    5.1

    AT&T Jens AT&T@phone ID PIN

    NTT ID 1 AT&TJens ID 138NTT 7 139Fax 1 Fax Fax NTT WebDeFax140 InfoImaging Technologies141142

    Aplio143Aplio/Phone IP Telephony 1997 11 ISP 1 199 2

    137 .138AT&T@phone 186139.140 WWW FAX 141 .142 FAX

    143

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    379 Dunn19981998 H.323 H.323 InnoMedia144

    1997 11 InfoTalk ISP IP Telephony1 279.95 Aplio/Phone ISP

    5.2

    IP Telephony IP

    QoS

    5.2.1QoS

    QoS IP

    QoS RSVPresource ReSerVation Protocol RSVP Packeteer145PacketShaperVoIPRSVPRSVP IP

    RSVP QoS 3 IP TOSType Of Service6 4 QoS 2 IETF 3 MPLSMuti-Protocol Label Switching TOS ATM QoS

    WIDE NEC IPv6QoS IPv6 015

    144 145

    TTL

    F

    Ver HL TOS

    IP

    IP

    Precedence D T R

    05 6

    Delay

    Throughput

    Reliability

    8

    VerHLFTTLTime To live

    2TOS

    1998p.98 2-7

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    815

    5.2.2

    IPUDPRTP 3 40 5

    5.2.3PC

    PC PC PC Quicknet Technologies1461997 3 ISA Internet PhoneJACK1 200 NetMeeting IPTelephony DSP PC CPU

    5.3H.323

    PCPC PC

    InteroperabilityH.323 H.323 1996 ITU-T- Study Group 15 IP H.323 3147

    146 147 1997p.116 DataBeam

    LAN

    IP

    TCP UDP

    T.123

    H.245

    Q.931

    RAS

    RTP, RTCPT.122, 125

    T.124

    T.Share T.126 T.127G.711G.722

    G.723.1G.728

    G.729annex A

    H.261

    H.263

    H.323

    3.H.323

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    5.3.1H.323

    H.323 10

    H.323

    G.71164kb/s G.723.16.3kb/s5.3kb/sG.7298kb/sG.711

    G.723.1 G.729 H.261 H.263H.263

    H.261 Huffman H.261 H.263

    VideoconferencingPicture Format

    Image SizeIn Pixels

    H.261 H.263

    Sub-QCIF 12896 Optional RequiredQCIF 17644 Required RequiredCIF 352288 Optional Optional4CIF 702576 N/A Optional16CIF 1,4081,152 N/A Optional

    5ITU Formats for Videoconferencing148

    H.323 CALL H.245 Q.931 RASRegistration, Administration, Status 3 H.245 H.323

    Q.931 RAS 149

    H.323 H.323

    H.323 H.323

    148 DataBeam DataBeam LotusIBM1998 5 149 RAS LAN IP

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    H.323 3

    H.323 H.323 H.323

    H.323

    H.323

    H.323 H.32x 6 H.320 ISDNH.324 LAN H.32x 4

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    H.320 H.321 H.322H.323H.324

    Approval Date 1990 1995 1995 1996 1996Network Narrowband

    switched digitalISDN

    BroadbandISDN,ATM LAN

    Guaranteedbandwidth packetswitchednetworks

    Non-guaranteedbandwidth packetswitchednetworks(Ethernet)

    PSTN or POTS,the analog phonesystem

    Video H.261, H.263 H.261, H.263 H.261, H.263 H.261, H.263 H.261, H.263Audio G.711

    G.722G.728

    G.711G.722G.728

    G.711G.722G.728

    G.711G.722G.723G.728G.729

    G.723

    Multiplexing H.221 H.221 H.221 H.225.0 H.223Control H.230

    H.242H.242 H.230

    H.242H.245 H.245

    Multipoint H.231H.243

    H.231H.243

    H.231H.243

    H.323

    Data T.120 T.120 T.120 T.120 T.120CommonInterface

    I.400 AALI.363AJM I.361PHY I.400

    I.400&TCP/IP TCP/IP V.34 Modem

    6H.32x 150

    IP Telephony IP

    H.323 H.235

    150 DataBeam

    H.323H.320H.323H.324

    ISDN

    H.324 H.320

    H.323

    4.H.32x

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    5.3.2H.323

    H.323 ITU IP TelephonyH.323 PC IP TelephonyH.323 IP Telephony

    G.729 annex A 8kb/s AT&T G.723.1 6.3kb/s 5.3kb/sIntelMicrosoft 2 G.723.1 G.729 annex A G.729 annex A CS-ACELPConjugate Structure Algebraic Code Excited Liner PredictiveG.723.1 G.723.1 30ms G.729 annex A 10ms

    PC IP Telephony H.323 ITU International MultimediaTeleconferencing ConsortiumIMTC1511996 3 Event-120ITU T.120 Intel Microsoft 100

    IP Telephony152 IP TelephonyIMTC IMTC 1 Voice over IPVoIPForum15340 H.323 VoIP Forum 1997 5 G.723.1 154

    5.3.3IP Telephony Memorandum of UnderstandingMoU

    1998 4 AT&TITXCVocalTecBellcore MoU IP TelephonyIP Telephony MoU155IP Telephony CDRCall Data Record 1998 9CDR

    CDR CDR IP Telephony IP CDR

    ITU

    151 .152 .153 1996 5 10 IMTC .154 .155 .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    6IP Telephony

    IP Telephony

    IP TelephonyFrost & Sullivan IP Telephony 1995

    180 1996 997 2001 IP Telephony 18 9,000 Khanna and Repentigny1997a

    Economist 156 IP Telephony 0.47 15 252003 IP Telephony ISP 70 2001 100 157

    VONIP Telephony 1997 1 5,0001998 2 2,500 3 2000 25 Mitchell1998 Net Insider TechWeb Internet2001 2002 1530 IP IP 5 7 PSTN IP IP Telephony2002 20 158

    Killen & Associates159IP Telephony1997 7 4,1002002 630 2002 IP Telephony 4833

    IDCInternational Data Corporation160 24161 IDC IP Telephony 1995 350 1999 5 6,000 Tarifica 2001 AT&T 6 2,000 9 5,000 A PhoneZone.Com1997

    Forrester 2002 10 2004 20 10

    1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 156 .157 "Internet Telephony. Growing up." The Economist. May 2, 1998.158 .159 .160 .161 Aplio Market Opportunity

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    Frost & Sullivan 18.9*Ecconomist 70Jeff Pulver 2.253 25 20*Killen & Associates 630IDT 5.6Forrester 10 20

    7IP Telephony* IP Telephony

    7IP Telephony

    IP ITSP VONIntermediary H.323 VoIP

    IP Telephony

    5

    1

    RSVP 100 PSTN

    IP VPNVirtual Private Network IP TelephonyDWDM QwestLevel3Williams IP IP Telephony

    IP NGINext Generation Network Internet2

    IP Telephony

    IP

    RSVP RSVP ISP

    2

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    IP Telephony 2 1 21

    1997

    IP MCI 2010 90 101998

    IP 2

    incumbent IP Telephony

    12

    3 Fax CTI Fax

    Fax Fax store and forwardG3 Fax Fax Fax 1.4 Fax

    CTI

    WECC

    WECC

    l "Comparative Analysis of Internet Telephony Gateways." A PhoneZone.Com Tutorial.October 1997. .

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    l Cukier, Kenneth. "Is it for you?" CommunicationsWeek International. May 4, 1998..

    l deJong, Jennifer. Customer Service moves to the Web. Netscape Enterprise Developer.March 5, 1998. .

    l Dresner, Steven. "Internet Telephony: More Than Just Voice on the Net." TeleprofessionalMagazine July/August 1997. .

    l Dunn, Ashley. "More Phone, Less Computer, Behind New Generation on Internet Phone."CyberTimes, The New York Times on the Web, January 7, 1998.

    l EU. "Status of voice on the Internet under Directive 90/388/EEC." Official Journal No. C6,January 10, 1998. p. 4. .

    l BP1998 6 1 No.271pp.76-101

    l "Internet Telephony. Growing up." The Economist. May 2, 1998.l Khanna, Kiran and Franois de Repentigny. "Internet Telephony: Form and Functionality."

    July 1997. Frost & Sullivan. .

    l and. "Internet Telephony: An Opportunity forAsia?" July 1997. Frost & Sullivan. .

    l 1997 BP1997 11 3 No.257pp.98-117

    l 1996 BP1996 11 4 No.233pp.90-110

    l 1998USIT NIKKEI MAIL Cyber1998 5 7 Evening

    l 1998VoicePHP 1998 6 l Mitchell, Dan. "Is IP Telephony a Real Threat to Telcos?" Herring Communications.

    February 12, 1998.l 1998

    BP1998 5 18 No.270pp.90-108l "Net phones not subject to EU rules." Reuters, Special to CNET NEWS.COM January 13,

    1998. .l Pulver, Jeff. Interviewed by John Boland. TechWeb Internet 1998.

    .l 1998

    BP1998 5 No.10pp.72-93l 1998NEWS WATCH BP1998 4

    20 No.268p.96l 1998Focus on FAX

    BP1998 4 6 No.267pp.136-144l 1998 1 10

    .l Ward, Jacob. "Net Calls Look Good - For Now." The Industry Standard. May 11, 1998.

    .

    IP Telephony ML

    l Dialogic WorldView IP Telephony:.ML

    l High Bandwidth Web Page **Video on the Net**: .l ISW: .l Internet Telephony, Internet Telecommunications Project:

  • GLOCOM Review 3:7/8

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    .l Internet telephony, VON: .l Internet Telephony & Fax, Instant Search:l .l IP xStream: .ML l Tele.com: .l The Internet Telephony ConsortiumITC, MIT: .l The X over IP News, Pulver.com: . ML