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ELT METHODOLOGY 2 Mistakes and Feedback HCM University of Technology and Education Faculty of Foreign Languages Teacher : TRAN THI NHU TRANG, M.A. Contributors: Group 5 Nguyễn Như Minh Hiếu 13950037 Đinh Vũ Thanh Huệ 13950040 Nguyễn Thị Thúy Minh 13950053 Nguyễn Minh Châu 1295008

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ELT METHODOLOGY 2 Mistakes and FeedbackHCM University of Technology and EducationFaculty of Foreign LanguagesTeacher: TRAN THI NHU TRANG, M.A.Contributors: Group 5Nguyn Nh Minh Hiu 13950037inh V Thanh Hu 13950040Nguyn Th Thy Minh 13950053Nguyn Minh Chu 1295008

Main Contents Students make mistakes Mistakes and errors Assessing student performance Feedback during oral work Feedback on written work

DefinitionsA mistake refers to a performance error that is either a random guess or a slip, in that it is a failure to utilise a known system correctly (Brown, 2000: 218-219).An error is a systematic deviation when a learner has not learnt something and consistently gets it wrong. (Norrish, 1983) Mistakes are what researchers have referred to as performance errors (the learner knows the system but fails to use it) while the errors are a result of ones systematic competence (the learners system is incorrect) (Brown, 2000).

Types of MistakesJulian Edge (1993) divides mistakes into 3 broad categories:SLIPS: Student can correct themselvesERRORS: Student cannot correct themselvesATTEMPTS: ambitious language use, by using structures they have not learnt yet

Causes of ErrorsL1 interferenceEx: She is a girl beautiful ( She is a beautiful girl) You get upstairs in a left (lift) I met my friend in the model of the square (middle)Developmental errorsEx: A cowboy go

Causes of ErrorsOvergeneralizationEx: They plays toys in the bar She buyed a dressInterlanguage

Mistakes vs. Errors - Whats the difference? An error cannot be self-correctedMistakes can be self-corrected if the deviation is pointed out to the speaker(James, 1998)

Mistakes vs. Errors - Whats the difference?

Assessing Students performanceIgnore mistakes/ slipsEncourage risk takingPraise themAvoid over- complimenting themFoster self-assessmentShow genuine interest in their work

Assessing student performanceTeacher can assess students performance through:Tests-examsComments in and outside the class+ Oral comments: Ex: Good+ Written comments: Ex: Paragraph two is confusing because the sequence of events is not clear3. Marks and grades: if we want to give grades, we need to decide on what basis we are going to do and be able to describe to the students

Assessing student performance4. Reports: at the end of a term or year teacher write reports on their students performance5. Students assessing themselves: we can ask student at the end of an activity how well they think they have got on. Or tell them to add a written comment to a piece of written work they have completed, giving their own assessment of that workEx: What do you think, can we use this technique in our classrooms?

What is feedback?Feedback describes the situation when output from (or information about the result of) an event or phenomenon in the past will influence an occurrence or occurrences of the same (i.e. same defined) event / phenomenon (or the continuation / development of the original phenomenon) in the present or future. When an event is part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop, then the event is said to "feed back" into itself.(Arends, 2013)

What is feedback in ELT?Feedback is information given to the learner and/ or the teacher about the learners performance through their actions, attitude and words, which includes advice, praise, and evaluation. Feedback is a part of learning processFeedback is also the final step in the communication.

Statements about feedback Do you agree?The fact that the teacher gives feedback on student performance implies a power hierarchy: the teacher above, the student below.Very much agree12345 Totally disagree

Assessment is potentially humiliating to the assessed person.Very much agree12345 Totally disagree

Teachers should give only positive feedback, in order to encourage, raise confidence and promote feelings of success; negative feedback demoralises.Very much agree12345 Totally disagree

Penny Ur, 14

Why is feedback important in ELT?Feedback is an essential part of effective learningBasically,To tell you what your strengths and weaknesses areMoreover,To develop the students understandingTo improve their performance in the relation to the standard of the university To give them clear guidance on how to improve their learning

Types of feedbackFeedback during oral work

Asking questionGiving comment ShoutingFeedback on written work

Replying an email Writing comment

3 Common Mistakes Teachers Make When Giving FeedbackCommenting On The StudentNot Offering HelpWaiting Too Long (Killian, 2014)

Principles of giving feedbackGive feedback only when asked to do so or when your offer is accepted.Give feedback as soon as possible.Focus on the positive.Needs to be given privately wherever possible.Focus on behaviors that can be changed, not personality traits

Principles of giving feedbackUse I and give your experience of the behavior (When you said, I thought that you were).When giving negative feedback, suggest alternative behaviors.Be clear about what you are giving feedback on.Do not overload identify two or three key messages that you summarize at the end.

Giving and Receiving FeedbackWhy to Give and Receive?Additional way of gaining insight about your own practice and to validate your point of view. Should be a learning and growth opportunity vs. punitive or negative.


Giving and Receiving FeedbackFeedback can be conducted three waysAsking for FeedbackReceiving FeedbackGiving Feedback


Giving and Receiving FeedbackAsking for FeedbackSelect a peer whos opinion you respect and whose judgment you trust. Choose someone who is in a similar role as you. Alternatively, you could choose someone who you work closely with who is not in the same role.


Giving and Receiving FeedbackWhat to do:Prepare the information you want to discuss with your peer/colleague.Select a time and place without distractions for your conversationBriefly indicate what you would like to cover and why its important to youDiscuss and review some of your practice experiencesBe specific about your abilities, strengths, and areas for growth, learning and enhancement


Giving and Receiving FeedbackReceiving FeedbackThere is no point in asking others to give you feedback unless you are prepared to be open to it and consider the comments which differ from your own perceptions.


Feedback SandwichPeople seem to cope better with the Good News first, then the Bad News and finally ending with moreGood News. One way to do this is to use the feedback sandwich [that] has three features: First strengths are identified (praise). Weaknesses (development needs) are identified. Options for improvement are explored. End on a positive note. (Haines, 2004, p. 20)

Consider These Facets Of Feedback Legibility - can your students read - and understand - your written annotations? Importance - are you giving feedback on the highest priority aspects of the work? Quality - the format, tone and modee.g. it is better if marks and grades are absent if you want the comments to be read and acted upon Quantity - a manageable amount for students to take in (no more than 3 criticisms?) - try using the sandwich. Timing - frequency: how often? and timeliness of response: how long after the task is completed isfeedback just too late? Style - types of comments that are helpful and unhelpful.

CORRECTING: (Correction symbols) Many teachers use correction codes to indicate that students have made mistakes in their written work.

Giving and Receiving FeedbackGiving feedback Characteristics:Be Realistic Direct your comments toward matters on which they can act. Direct your feedback toward what is specifically asked for to meet your peers needs. Although your peer requested feedback, be attentive to feelings and non-verbal cues by each of you.Be SpecificGeneralizations are particularly unhelpful. Base your comments and feedback on concrete observable behavior or materials. Be supportive and constructive in your comments.


Giving and Receiving FeedbackBe Sensitive to the goals of the personJust because the other persons contributions have not met your goals, does not necessarily imply something is wrong. Be thoughtful in your comments and tone.Listen to what they have to sayBe TimelyProvide time for exchange of comments to create an opportunity for validating and exploring practice strengths, needs and ideas.


Giving and Receiving FeedbackBe DescriptiveDescribe your viewsDont be evaluative or say what the person should be feelingDont be emotionally manipulative Be Consciously non-judgmentalOffer your personal viewDo not act as an authority, even if you may be one elsewhereGive your personal reactions and feelings rather than value-laden statements by using:I feel..When you.


Giving and Receiving FeedbackDont CompareTreat each persons work as their own, not some part of a competition with others. Be cautious about giving feedback in a context in which comments you give may be compared to another. Be DiligentCheck your responsesIs it an accurate reflection of what you want to express?Have you perceived the contribution accurately?Nothing is more annoying than to receive feedback from someone who clearly hasnt bothered to pay attention to what you have done.


Giving and Receiving FeedbackBe DirectSay what you meanDont wrap it up with fancy words or abstract language. Be PositiveSay what you appreciate. Dont focus on what you react negatively towards. Find something that is genuinely felt, rather than being positive because you feel it is required.


Giving and Receiving FeedbackBe AwareNote your own emotional state before giving feedbackBeing anxious or defensive may distort your own commentsFeedback is never the time to relieve yourself at the expense of the other personMove to focus on the person to whom you are relating and their needs, not yourself by responding in any way.


Giving and Receiving FeedbackCharacteristics of Receiving FeedbackBe ExplicitMake it clear what kind of feedback you are seeking. If necessary, indicate what kinds you do not want to receive. Feedback from others in entirely for your benefit and if you do not indicate what you want, you may not receive it. Be AttentiveTake time to listen, understand and consider what is being said by rephrasing and being interested in the other persons point of view. Ask questions and be curious about how your peer sees you. Ask for suggestions on how to enhance your practice and grow professionally. Two questions you may want to keep in mind when asking for peer feedback:What do I do best?Is there some aspect of my practice I can improve?


Giving and Receiving FeedbackBe AwareNotice your own reactions, both intellectual and emotional.Be aware of any reactions of rejections or censorship on your partBe SilentRefrain from making a responseDont even begin to frame a response in your own mind until you have listened carefully to what has been said and have considered the implications.Do not use the excuse of correcting factual errors to avoid hearing and resonating with the substance of what has been saidDont be distracted by the need to explain If you feel you have provide an explanation, do it later after the feedback session.


Giving and Receiving FeedbackGiving Feedback: Check your reasons for accepting the invitation to give feedback. Make sure you are clear on what your peer is asking for by restating the request in your own words.


Feedback during Oral Work

Difference between ACCURACY ( non-communicative activities) and FLUENCY (communicative activities)

When should we provide teacher intervention?

Lynch (1997) Use gentle correctionthe best answer to the question of when to intervene in learner talk is: as late as possible.Processing language for communication is the best way of processing language for acquisition.When teacher intervene to correct or to supply alternative modes of expression to help students, they remove the need to negotiate meaning.

Rapport and feedback

Correction builds on the rapport between teacher and student.A good teacher should be able to correct people without offending them (Harmer, 1998)

Feedback during Accuracy Work

Two distinct stages: I. Show a student a mistake has been made. II. Help student do something about it.

Showing Incorrectness

1,Repeating: Again? Use of intonation and expression by the teacher.2,Echoing: Flight 309 Go to Paris?3,Statement and question: Thats not quite right. Do people think its all right?4,Expression: facial, gesture, without being cruel or mocking.

Showing Incorrectness

5, Hinting: Say the word: tense, word, plural. Shared metalanguage.6, Reformulation: If I had heard


If students are unable to correct themselves, focus on the correct version in detail.Foster peer correction in a genuinely cooperative atmostphere.Techniques must not undermine studentsself-esteem.


A) Reformulate what they say: Student: I am not agree with youTeacher: I dont agree with you .because B) Try not to interrupt the flow of the activity, or we may bring it to a standstill. C) Recording mistakes: Use chart to categorize learnersmistakes:Grammar and vocabulary, discourse management, pronunciation, appropriacy, interactive communication.

Feedback during fluency work:

We need to respond to content and not just language.Tolerance of errors during fluency sessions should be much greater than during ontrolled practice sessions.Gentle correction is necessary if communication breaks down or if students need prompting because they do not know what to say.

Feedback on written work

Workbook exercises Creative, communicative writing


RespondingHow the text appears to usHow successful it has been -> Suggesting how it could be improved


Responding to the draftResponding to the final written productSome common ways to give written responding:Writing the comments in the marginOn computers: editing program, comments in different colour.Separate piece of paper or computer document commentsShowing alternative ways of writing through reformulation.

CorrectingUsing correction code to indicate students mistakes in their written work.

Training students

Involving studentsSelf-correctionPeer-correction

What are the ways of varying the amount of marking ?Selective markingDifferent error codesDont mark all the papersInvolve the students

QUIZBa. Repeat the error, with questioning intonation, to highlight itb. Activate rules that students already know by giving a quiet or quick hint to help them correct themselvesc. Use a simple facial expression or hand movement to show the student is wrongd. Repeat correctly what the S has said, with no specific focus on correctione. Give a comment or question to indicate the students mistakes.

A1.Reformulation2.Echoing/Repeating3.Statement and question4.Hinting5.Gesture/ Signposting


Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching (4th edition). Pearson Education.Scrivener, J. (2005). Learning Teaching: A Guidebook for English Language Teachers (2nd edition). Macmillan Education.Boud, D. (1991). Implementing Student Self Assessment. HERDSA Green guide No. 5. 2nd Ed. Retrieved Oct. 15, 2010 from http://www.iml.uts.edu.au/assessment-futures/glossary/Giving-and-Receiving-Feedback.pdf College of Registered Nurses of British Columbia. (2006). Peer Feedback: Learning from Each Other. Retrieved October 15, 2010 from http://www.iml.uts.edu.au/assessment-futures/glossary/Giving-and-Receiving-Feedback.pdf



Horstman, M., Auzenne, M. (2006). The Peer Feedback Model. Manager Tools Podcast. Retrieved October 22, 2006 from http://www.manager-tools.com/2006/10/the-peer-feedback-model Arends, R. (2013). Studyguide for Learning to Teach. Content Technologies, Inc. Retrieved October 15, 2015 from https://books.google.com.vn/books?id=wiAroLptfLAC&pg=PT215&lpg=PT215&dq=Feedback+describes+the+situation+when+output+from+%28or+information+about+the+result+of%29+an+event+or+phenomenon&source=bl&ots=Qgf9GhMygz&sig=kijzp-A5u_pXANYN7U0LX2DI1D4&hl=vi&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Feedback%20describes%20the%20situation%20when%20output%20from%20%28or%20information%20about%20the%20result%20of%29%20an%20event%20or%20phenomenon&f=falsehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Huju0xwNFKU