longmen grottoes (龍門石窟)

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Longmen Grottoes ()

Luoyang, HenanLongmen Grottoeschangcy0326

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Longmen Grottoes The Longmen Grottoes or Longmen Caves are one of the finest examples of Chinese Buddhist art. Housing tens of thousands of statues of Buddha and his disciples, they are located 12 km (7.5 mi) south of present day Luoyang in Henan province, Peoples Republic of China.

There are as many as 100,000 statues within the 1,400 caves, ranging from an 1 inch (25 mm) to 57 feet (17 m) in height. 30% date from the Northern Wei Dynasty and 60% from the Tang, caves from other periods accounting for less than 10% of the total. Starting with the Northern Wei Dynasty in 493 AD, patrons and donors included emperors, Wu Zetian of the Second Zhou Dynasty, members of the royal family, other rich families, generals, and religious groups.

In 2000 the site was inscribed upon the UNESCO World Heritage List as an outstanding manifestation of human artistic creativity, for its perfection of an art form, and for its encapsulation of the cultural sophistication of Tang China. 12 7.5 1,400 10 1 25 57 (17) 30 60 10 2000

Qianxisi

Qianxisi CaveReached by modern, concrete stairs up the face of a cliff, Qianxisi, or Hidden Stream Temple Cave, is a large cave on the northern edge of the west hill. Made during Gaozong's reign (653-80), the cave has statues of a huge, seated, early Tang Buddha (Amitabha Buddha), Avalokitesvara and Mahasthamaprapta flanked by Bodhisattvas, and are carved with a sophisticated expression typical of Northern Wei style.

( 20 ) 653-80

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(The Three Binyang Caves)

From left to right, South Binyang Cave, Middle Binyang Cave and North Binyang Cave.

( 104 )Binyang North Cave

Middle Binyang Cave Middle Binyang Cave, is carved in the Northern Wei style on the west hill, on the northern floor. It was built by Emperor Xuanwun to commemorate his father Xiaowen, and also his mother. In the main wall of this cave, five very large Buddhist statues are carved all in Northern Wei style. The central statue is of Sakyamuni Buddha with four images of Bodhisattvas flanking it. Two side walls also have Buddha images flanked by Bodhisattvas. The Buddhas, arranged in three groups in the cave, are representative of Buddha of the past, the present, and the future. The canopy in the roof is designed as a lotus flower. 5 ( 140 )

South Binyang CaveSouth Binyang Cave, has five very large images which were carved by Li Tai, the fourth son of Li Shimin, the first Tang Emperor. He made them in 641 AD in memory of his mother Empress Zhangsun. The central image in a serene appearance is that of Amitabha Buddha seated on a pedestal surrounded by Bodhisattvas, also serene looking in blend of the Northern Wei and the Tang Dynasty styles. ( 159 ) 641

Across the Wye River is Xiangshan Temple

10,000 Buddhas Cave

Ten Thousand Buddhas Cave Ten Thousand Buddhas Cave was built in 680 by Gaozong and Wu Zetian. It houses 15,000 Buddhas carved in small niches, different from each other, with the smallest Buddha being 2 cm (0.79 in) in height.

680 15,000 2 0.79

85 s

1930~1935

Laolong Cave

Laolong Cave ( 669 )The Laolong or the Old Dragon Cave created during the Tang Dynasty period, named after the Old Dragon Palace has many niches dated to Gaozongs reign. 54 12323350

Lotus Cave

Lotus CaveLotus Cave, dated to 527, belongs to be the Northern Wei period. The Grotto has a large lotus flower carved in high relief on its ceiling. Several small Buddhas are carved into the south wall. Also seen are shrines in the south and north wall in the niches.

( 712 ) ( 525-527 )

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Lotus Cave

Fengxian Temple Cave Fengxian Temple Cave is the Ancestor Worshipping Cave, which is the largest of all caves carved on the west hill built between 672 and 676 for Empress Wu Zetian. The carvings are claimed to be the ultimate in architectural perfection of the Tang dynasty. The shrine inside the cave measures 39m x35m. It has the largest Buddha statue at the Longmen Grottoes.

Of the nine huge carved statues, the highly impressive image of Locana Buddha is sculpted on the back wall of the Fengxian. The image is 17.14m high and has 2m long ears. Bodhisattva on the left of the main image of Buddha is decorated with a crown and pearls. Also shown is a divine person trampling an evil spirit.

The main image of Locana's features are plumpish and of peaceful and natural expression. Each of the other large statues are carved with expressions matching their representative roles.

These were carved at the orders of Empress Wu Zetian, and are considered uniquely representative of the Tang dynasty's "vigorous, elegant and realistic style." The huge Locana statue is considered as "the quintessence of Buddhist sculpture in China.

( 1280 ) 672 676 39x35 17.14 4 1.9

Fengxian Temple Cave

Locana Buddha Statue Niche

Locana Buddha Statue

Panorama of the Buddhist sculptures in the main Longmen Grotto.

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A divine person trampling an evil spirit

150

95 10 Medical Prescription CaveMedical Prescription Cave, has small inscriptions of 150 medical prescriptions for a wide range medical problems such as common cold to insanity. These are seen carved right at the entrance on both walls. These carvings are dated from the late Northern Wei period right through to the early Tang Dynasty.

Medical Prescription Cave

Guyang Cave Guyang Cave is recorded as the oldest Longmen cave with carvings in the Northern Wei style. Also found here are 600 inscriptions in fine calligraphy of the writings of the Northern Wei style.The cave has three very large images - the central image is of Sakyamuni Buddha with Bodhisattvas on either side. The features of the images are indicative of the Northern Wei style, typically of slim and emaciated figures. There are about 800 inscriptions in the walls and niches inside the cave, the largest such numbers in any cave in China. ( 1443 ) 600 - 800

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()Panoramic Xishan Longmen Grottoes

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The Endhttp://www.slideshare.net/changcy0326 Music Chinese music https://www.youtube.com/embed/WkS79FNfPe0?autoplay=1&autohide=1&showinfo=0&rel=0 [] () Longmen Grottoes, UNESCO World Heritage List 31:31