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Perceiving Ourselves and Others in Organizations McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e 1 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Page 1: MGMT chp 3

Perceiving Ourselves and Others in Organizations

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e 1 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Page 2: MGMT chp 3

Changing Self and Other-Perceptions of Female Firefighters

Camp Fully Involved, a six-day intensive firefighter course for teenage girls, builds self-confidence and dissolves the stereotype that firefighting is only for men.

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Self-Concept Defined

An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations “Who am I?” and “How do I feel about myself?” Compare perceived job with our perceived and ideal selves. Includes three self-concept dimensions and four “selves”

processes

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Complexity• People have multiple self-views

Consistency• Similar personality and values across multiple selves

Clarity• Clearly and confidently described, internally consistent,

and stable across time. People have better well-being with:

• multiple selves (complexity)• well established selves (clarity)• selves are similar and compatible with traits

(consistency)

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Self-Concept Dimensions (3 C’s)

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Self-enhancement• Promoting and protecting our positive self-view

Self-verification• Affirming our existing self-concept

Self-evaluation• Evaluating ourselves through self-esteem, self-

efficacy and locus of control

Social self• Defining ourselves in terms of group membership

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

reserved5

Four “Selves” of Self-Concept

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Drive to promote/protect a positive self-view • competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, valued

Positive self-concept outcomes:• better personal adjustment and mental/physical

health • inflates personal causation and probability of

success

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

reserved6

Self-Concept: Self-Enhancement

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Motivation to verify/maintain our self-concept Stabilizes our self-concept People prefer feedback consistent with their

self-concept Self-verification outcomes:

• More likely to perceive information consistent with our self-concept

• We interact more with those who affirm/reflect our current self-concept

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

reserved7

Self-Concept: Self-Verification

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Self-esteem• High self-esteem -- less influenced, more

persistent/logical

Self-efficacy• Belief in one’s ability, motivation, role perceptions,

and situation to complete a task successfully• General vs. task-specific self-efficacy

Locus of control• General belief about personal control over life

events• Higher self-evaluation with internal locus of control

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights

reserved8

Self-Concept: Self-Evaluation

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Self-Concept: Social Self

• Social identity -- defining ourselves in terms of groups to which we belong or have an emotional attachment

• We identify with groups that support self-enhancement

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Employees at other firms

People living in other countries

Graduates ofother schools

An individual’s

social identity

Edward Jones Employee

AmericanResident/Citizen

Indiana U.Graduate

Contrasting GroupsSocial Identity

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Perception Defined

The process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us• Determining which information

gets noticed• how to categorize this

information• how to interpret information

within our existing knowledge framework

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Selective Attention

Selecting vs ignoring sensory information

Affected by object and perceiver characteristics

Emotional markers attached to selected information

Confirmation bias• Information contrary to our

beliefs/values is screened out

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Categorical thinking• Mostly nonconscious process of organizing

people/things Perceptual grouping principles

• Similarity or proximity• Closure -- filling in missing pieces• Perceiving trends

Interpreting incoming information• Emotional markers automatically evaluate

information

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Perceptual Organization/Interpretation

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Internal representations of the external world Help make sense of situations

• Fill in missing pieces• Help to predict events

Problem with mental models:• May block recognition of new

opportunities/perspectives

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Mental Models in Perceptions

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Stereotyping

Assigning traits to people based on social category membership

Occurs because:• Categorical thinking• Innate drive to understand and

anticipate others’ behavior• Enhances our self-concept

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Social identity and self-enhancement reinforce stereotyping through:Categorization -- Categorize people into groups

Homogenization -- Assign similar traits within a group; different traits to other groups

Differentiation process -- Assign less favourable attributes to other groups

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Stereotyping Through Categorization, Homogenization, Differentiation

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Stereotyping Problems• Overgeneralizes – doesn’t represent everyone in

the category• Basis of systemic and intentional discrimination

Overcoming stereotype biases• Difficult to prevent stereotype activation• Possible to minimize stereotype application

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Stereotyping Problems/Solutions

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Attribution Process

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Perception that behavior is caused by person’s own motivation or ability

Internal Internal AttributionAttribution

External External AttributionAttribution

Perception that behavior is caused by situation or fate -- beyond person’s

control

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Attribution Rules

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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External AttributionExternal Attribution

FrequentlyFrequently

ConsistencyConsistency

SeldomSeldom

Internal AttributionInternal Attribution

FrequentlyFrequently

DistinctivenessDistinctiveness

SeldomSeldom

SeldomSeldom

ConsensusConsensus

FrequentlyFrequently

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Fundamental Attribution Error• attributing own actions to internal and external

factors and others’ actions to internal factors

Self-Serving Bias• attributing our successes to internal factors and

our failures to external factors

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Attribution Errors

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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Cycle

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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SupervisorSupervisorformsforms

expectationsexpectations

ExpectationsExpectationsaffect supervisoraffect supervisor’’ss

behaviorbehavior

SupervisorSupervisor’’ssbehavior affectsbehavior affects

employeeemployee

EmployeeEmployee’’ssbehavior matchesbehavior matches

expectationsexpectations

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...at the beginning of the relationship (e.g. employee joins the team)

...when several people have similar expectations about the person

...when the employee has low rather than high past achievement

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Effect is Strongest...

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Halo effect• One trait affects perception of person’s other traits

False-consensus effect• overestimate how many others have similar beliefs

or traits like ours

Primacy effect• First impressions

Recency effect• Most recent information dominates perceptions

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Other Perceptual Effects

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1. Awareness of perceptual biases

2. Improving self-awareness• Applying Johari Window

3. Meaningful interaction• Close, frequent interaction toward a shared goal• Equal status • Engaged in a meaningful task

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Strategies to Improve Perceptions

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Known to Self Unknown to SelfKnown

to Others

Unknownto Others

OpenOpenAreaArea BlindBlind

AreaArea

UnknownUnknownAreaArea

HiddenHiddenAreaArea

Know Yourself (Johari Window)

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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OpenOpenAreaArea

BlindBlindAreaArea

HiddenHiddenAreaArea

UnknownUnknownAreaArea

DisclosureDisclosure

FeedbackFeedback

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Meaningful Interaction at Herschend Family Entertainment Herschend Family Entertainment CEO Joel Manby worked incognito along-side employees as part of the television program Undercover Boss. The experience helped Manby improve his perceptions of the workplace as well as his own leadership behavior.

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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An individual’s ability to perceive, appreciate, and empathize with people from other cultures, and to process complex cross-cultural information. • awareness of, openness to, and respect for other views

and practices in the world • capacity to empathize and act effectively across

cultures• ability to process complex information about novel

environments• ability to comprehend and reconcile intercultural

matters with multiple levels of thinking

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Global Mindset

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1. Self-awareness activities – understand own values, beliefs, attitudes

2. Compare mental models with people from other cultures

3. Cross-cultural training

4. Immersion in other cultures

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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Developing a Global Mindset

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Perceiving Ourselves and Others in Organizations

McShane/Von Glinow OB 6e 28 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved