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Exhibition of Population and Social Issues

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  • Institute for Population and Social Research Mahidol Universitywww.ipsr.mahidol.ac.th

    Exhibition of Population and Social Issues

    2

    Exhibition 2 : People Counting People

  • Exhibition of Population and Social Issues

  • Exhibition of Population and Social Issues

    Exhibition of Population and Social Issues is a part of the learning process on both academic aspects and social activities of the Institute for Population and Social Research.

    Although the exhibition shown in this room is always limited by the area size, it is hoped to be a little sparking stone that can light a huge fire of further study on a particular issue.

    Only one researcher in Social or Population Science born by the inspiration from any exhibition in this room will be counted as a great success and worthwhile.

    1: Exhibition1:PrachasangkomUdompathanaBuilding

    2: Exhibition2:PeopleCountingPeople

    2

  • PeopleCountingPeople

  • Counting is a human instinct, derived from our observation of various things surrounding us. Ancient people started counting with their fingers, stones, robe knots and shells, which later developed into the numeric system.

    When humans startedcounting.

    3,000 - 4,500 4,600 Du r i ng 3 , 0 00 - 4 , 5 00 B .C . , Nebuchadnezzar, the King of Babylonia, won the war against the Kingdom of Judah. More than 4,600 Jewish people in Jerusalem were taken captive.

    3,000 700,000 In 3,000 B.C., the Qin Dynasty forced more than 700,000 laborers to build the monastery of the Qin Shi Emperor.

    4

  • 2,500 100,000 20

    In 2,500 B.C., an Egyptian Emperor employed more than 100,000 slave laborers to build the Great Pyramid in 20 years.

    360

    Laws 5,040

    In 360 B.C., Plato, an ancient Greek philosopher, stated in his book Laws that a city state of 5,040 citizens was the optimum size to yield an ultimate goodness.

    27 300,000

    27 B.C., Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus formed an army of about 300,000 soldiers to protect the Roman Empire.

    5

  • .. 2230 1,900,000

    Around 1687, La Loubere, the French ambassador in the reign of King Narai the Great, recorded that there were approximately 1,900,000 Siamese.

    1 144,000 9 70,000 4

    In the Reign of King Rama I, King Bodawpaya (Padung) of Burma mobilized an army of 144,000 soldiers, divided into 9 troops, to attack Siam. The Siamese organ-ized an army of 70,000 soldiers, to fight against the Burmese.

    3 6,000,000

    In the Reign of King Rama III, Padre Pallegoix estimated that there were 6,000,000 people in the Kingdom of Siam.

    6

  • 4 4,500,000-5,000,000

    In the Reign of King Rama IV, Sir John Bowring estimated the number of Siamese at 4,500,000-5,000,000.

    .. 2431

    In 1888, Krom Phra Naresra drafted a proposal on counting people in the Kingdom.

    5

    King Rama V ordered the first modern population census in Siam.

    7

  • 18 .. 2452 - 2453 8,131,247

    The first population census that successfully covered all 18 Monthon was conducted in 1909 - 1910, and counted a total number of 8,131,247 people residing in the Kingdom.

    11 .. 2553 65.9

    The 11th Population Census conducted in 2010 counted 65.9 million people residing in Thailand.

    8

  • DevelopmentofcountingpeopleinSiam

    In the past, the counting of the population in Siam began with the need to know the number of underprivileged people. Administrators had used the system of SakLake (Number marking tattoos) as an important instrument to control underprivileged people,

    in order to maintain their power and interest. The method of SakLakewas among the first evidence of counting people

    in Siam.

    9

  • HowmanySiamesewereestimatedinforeign records.

    .. 2230 1,900,000

    La Loubere, a French Ambassador and civil servant during the Reign of King Narai, the Great, in approximately 1687, recorded that there were 1.9 million people in Siam. However, he noted that this number might be an underestimate, since many people were living in the forest and the mountain.

    3 6,000,000

    Padre Pallegoix, in the Reign of King Rama III, estimated the size of the Siamese population to be 6 million. He also classified people living in Siam by races.

    10

  • 4 4,500,000 - 5,000,000

    Sir John Bowring, a British Ambassador arriving in Siam during the Reign of King Rama IV, estimated that there were 4.5 5.0 million people residing in Siam. In these Westerners vision, no matter how many people were actually in Siam at the time, the population was small compared with the huge geographic area of the country.

    11

  • ModerndaycountingofthepopulationinSiam.

    King Rama V created a revolution in every aspect of life to make the country advance to the same level of other civilized countries, such as in public administration, education, public health, sanitation, communication and transportation. In connection with population, he gave an order to conduct the population census and to begin civil registration.

    12

  • 17 7 .. 2398 20 .. 2468

    Phra Chao Borommawong Thoe Krom Phra Naresra Varariddhi was King Rama IVs son in the 17th rank, with Chao Chom Manda Klin as his mother. His previous name was Phra Ong Chao Krisda Bhiniharn. He was born on May 7th, 1855 and died on August 20th, 1925. He initiated the effort to register the house accounts and accounts of births and deaths including the in- and out-movers. He proposed his ideas to King Rama V and designed the modern process of population census and civil registration in Thailand.

    13

  • Krom Phra Nares ra shandwriting and relateddocuments.

    1250 (.. 2431)

    In the year of the rat, the zero-ending year, 1250, J.E*. (1888), Krom Phra Naresra drafted his idea that there should be a population counting in the Kingdom of Siam, to be undertaken by conducting a population census and establishing a system of birth and death registration.

    : Source : National Archives of Thailand

    *J.E. Jula Era.

    14

  • 7 ..110 (..2434) 111 10 1 1

    On October 7th, 110 R.E.* (1891), Krom Phra Naresra proposed the idea to King Rama V to conduct a population census in the next year, which was Rattanakosin Era 111, and to repeat it every decade in the year ending with 1, just as other countries were conducting a population census in the Christian Year ending with 1.

    : Source : Nat iona l Arch ives o f Thailand

    *R.E. Rattanakosin Era.

    15

  • 16

  • 17

  • Reasons that the household census was unsuccessful during e a r l i e r p e r i o d s : The l o c a l administration had not been perfectly managed. The survey officers i.e. Kamnan, Phuyai Baan, although they could read, they could not write and did not understand the survey form.

    : Source : National Archives of Thailand

    18

  • .. 2446 12 18 2

    In 1903, a household census was conducted, but only 12 out of 18 Monthon were successfully done, i.e. Nakhon Si Thammarat, Krung Kao, Nakhon Ratchasima, Ratchaburi, Prachin Buri, Nakhon Chaisi, Nakhon Sawan, Phitsanulok, Phuket, Chumphon, Chanthaburi, Petchabun. The unfinished Monthon were Krung Thep (Bangkok), Payup, Udorn, Isaan, Burapha, Saiburi, including those two towns, Kalantan and Trungkanu, that used the Malaysian local administration.

    : Source : National Archives of Thailand

    19

  • Responsible agencies for doing the household census were the Ministry of Metropolitan Affairs for Monthon Krungthep (Bangkok) and the Ministry of Interior for other Monthon.

    : Source : National Archives of Thailand

    20

  • 18 .. 2452 .. 2453 8,131,247

    The household or population census that completely covered all 18 Monthon was completed in Bangkok in 1909 and in the rest of the Monthons in 1910 It counted a total of 8,131,247 people residing in the Kingdom of Siam.

    Note: The household census is the population census at present. The registration of births, deaths and in and out migrants is the civil registration at present.

    : Source : National Archives of Thailand

    21

  • ChairmanKingRamaV

    His Royal Highness Crown Prince Maha Vajiravudh

    Krom Luang

    Naresra Varariddhi

    Krom Luang

    Devawongse Varopakarn

    Krom Khun

    Sommot Amornbandha

    Krom Luang

    Damrong Rajanubhab

    Krom Muen

    Chantaburi Naruenat

    Chao Phraya Yamaraja

    Mom Chao

    Charunsakdi Kritakara

    Phraya Wongsanuprabaddh

    Listofparticipants

    12128The meeting of Privy Council, on 12th August Rattanakosin Era 128

    22

  • 23

  • 24

  • 25

  • 26

  • 27

  • Krom Phra Naresras handwriting, Letter of birth for filling the account : Source: National Archives of Thailand

    28

  • Krom Phra Naresras handwriting, Form of birth certificate : Source: National Archives of Thailand

    29

  • K r om Ph r a Na r e s r a s handwriting, Account form for Krom Phrasurassawadi to record deaths to check with the number of births

    : Source : National Archives of Thailand

    30

  • Krom Phra Naresras handwriting, Form of death certificate : Source: National Archives of Thailand

    31

  • 128 (.. 2452) Monthly account of births registered in Krung Thep in October, 1909. : Source : National