ppt presentasi onsite kel-4-final

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  • Oleh: Kelompok 4 (empat)Diera Christanti ElpinaSindy Astrinasari Perception and Individual Decision Making

  • PersepsiPersepsi dapat didefinisikan sebagai sebuah proses yang dilalui individu guna mendapat arti atau pengertian yang mendalam atas lingkungan dengan cara mengorganisasi dan menafsirkan inderawi mereka.

  • Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi PersepsiOrang yang melakukan persepsiSituasi yang dihadapi oleh si pencerapSasaran yang diamati

  • Hubungan antara persepsi dan pembuatan keputusan individuPengambilan keputusan oleh individu dalam suatu organisasi adalah memilih dari antara dua atau lebih alternative yang tersedia.Pengambilan keputusan ini terjadi sebagai akibat adanya masalah yang muncul di dalam organisasi.Masalah muncul di dalam organisasi karena adanya perbedaan antara kenyataan yang dihadapi dengan sesuatu yang diharapkan.

  • Pembuatan Keputusan IndividualEnam langkah pembuatan keputusan rasional:mengidentifikasi masalahmengidentifikasi kriteria keputusan yang pentingmemberikan bobot pada kriteria yang telah diidentifikas sebelumnyamengembangkan berbagai alternatifmengevaluasi alternatif-alternatif yang adamemilih alternatif yang terbaik

  • Pembuatan Keputusan IndividualAsumsi-asumsi dari model rasional sendiri, terdiri dari:Kejelasan masalahpilihan-pilihan yang diketahuiPilihan yang jelaspilihan-pilihan yang konstantidak ada kendala waktu atu biayahasil maksimum

  • Pembuatan Keputusan IndividualMeningkatkan kreativitas dalam pembuatan keputusanRasional yang dibatasiIntuisiBias dan kesalahan umum

  • faktor yang memengaruhi bagaimana orang dalam membuat keputusanPerbedaan individuKendala organisasi

  • Perbedaan individuDipengaruhi oleh: kepribadian, jender, kemampuan mental, dan perbedaan budaya

  • Kendala organisasiBeberapa kendala organisasi yang bisa memengaruhi individu dalam mengambil keputusan adalah :evaluasi kinerjasistem penghargaanperaturan-peraturan formalsistem kendala waktu yang diterapkan organisasipresiden pembuatan keputusan yang pernah dibuat oleh organisasi pada waktu-waktu yang lalu.

  • Etika.Pendekatan utilitarianisme (utilitarianisme), merupakan salah pendekatan etis yang mendominasi dan diterapkan oleh organisasi dalam pembuatan keputusan.

    Utilitarianisme adalah suatu pendekatan yang digunakan oleh organisasi dalam membuat keputusan berdasarkan pada outcome dari keputusan yang diambil, dimana output itu akan memberikan manfaat kepada banyak orang.

  • Meningkatkan kreativitas dalam pembuatan keputusanAgar keputusan yang telah dibuat dapat lebih efektif dan optimal, pembuat keputusan dengan model rasional tetap membutuhkan kreativitas, yaitu kemampuan menciptakan ide-ide yang baru dan bermanfaat

  • KesimpulanPengambilan kuputusan individual, baik ditignkat bawah maupun atas, merupakan suatu bagian yang penting dari perilaku organisasi. Tetapi bagaimana individu dalam organisasi mengambil keputusan dan kualitas dari pilihan mereka sebagiah besar dipengaruhi oleh persepsi mereka.Perlu diperhatikan bahwa setiap keputusan menuntut penafsiran dan evaluasi terhadap informasi. Karena itu, data yang diterima perlu disaring, diproses, dan ditafsirkan. Misalnya, data mana yang relevan dengan pengambilan keputusan. Persepsi dari pengambil keputusan akan ikut menentukan hal tersebut, yang akan mempunyai hubungan yang besar pada hasil akhirnya


    **We begin this chapter with a definition of the seven learning objectives defined for chapters contents. We will discuss each of these in some detail.*Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. It is important to the study of OB because peoples behaviors are based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.*Attribution theory suggests that when we observe an individuals behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. That determination depends largely on three factors: These are Distinctiveness,Consensus,Consistency. Well talk more about each these in a minute.*First, lets clarify the differences between internal and external causation.Internally caused behaviors are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual. Externally caused behavior is seen as resulting from outside causes; that is, the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation. *There are a couple of confounding concepts that impinge on Attribute Theory. First, a Fundamental Attribution Error is that we have a tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors. In addition, Self-serving Bias is a tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors such as ability or effort while putting the blame for failure on external factors such as luck. *We use a number of shortcuts when we judge others. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortions.

    Lets begin with selective perception. Any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived. Since we cant observe everything going on about us, we engage in selective perception. As a classic example take Dearborn and Simon, who performed a perceptual study in which 23 business executives read a comprehensive case describing the organization and activities of a steel company. The results along with other results of the study, led the researchers to conclude that the participants perceived aspects of a situation that were specifically related to the activities and goals of the unit to which they were attached. A groups perception of organizational activities is selectively altered to align with the vested interests they represent.

    *The second shortcut is called the Halo Effect.The halo effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. This phenomenon frequently occurs when students appraise their classroom instructor. Propensity for halo effect to operate is not random.

    The reality of the halo effect was confirmed in a classic study. Subjects were given a list of traits such as intelligent, skillful, practical, industrious, determined, and warm, and were asked to evaluate the person to whom those traits applied. When the word warm was substituted with cold the subjects changed their evaluation of the person. The experiment showed that subjects were allowing a single trait to influence their overall impression of the person being judged. Research suggests that it is likely to be most extreme when the traits to be perceived are ambiguous in behavioral terms, when the traits have moral overtones, and when the perceiver is judging traits with which he or she has had limited experience. *The third shortcut is the Contrast Effects. We do not evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction to one person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered. For example, an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants can distort perception. Distortions in any given candidates evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule. *A number of organizations in recent years have been empowering their non-managerial employees with job-related decision-making authority that historically was reserved for managers. Usually,Decision-making occurs as a reaction to a problem. There is a discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state, requiring consideration of alternative courses of action. One persons problem is anothers satisfactory state of affairs. Every decision requires interpretation and evaluation of information. The perceptions of the decision maker will address these two issues: Data are typically received from multiple sources. Which data are relevant to the decision and which are not? Alternatives will be developed, and the strengths and weaknesses of each will need to be evaluated. *