re-examining listening comprehension

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Presentation given in Panama, July 2010

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  • 1. Re-examining Listening Comprehension
    JoAnn Miller, Editorial Macmillan

2. Getting recordings
What to look for in a recording
Where to find recordings
The Internet
Recording original material
Using recordings
Our plan for today
3. ESL/EFL materials and authentic recordings
Clear presentation
Correct level for your students
Different dialects
Native / Non-native speakers
Different age groups (children, older people)
What to look for in a recording
4. Textbooks
Record from radio
Record your own
Use live from Internet
Download from Internet (podcasts) and play as mp3
Where to find recordings
5. Live from the Internet: ESL Sites with and without Exercises
6. RANDALLS ESL CYBER LISTENING LAB
Listen:
First Date
Santa
7. Downloadable ESL sites
8. English Listening Room
Note:
Only play on computer (RealPlayer)
9. 10. 11. Non-ESL Sites
12. 13. 14. Live
15. 16. 17. How to record original materials
18. 19. Listen
20. 21. Now what do I do with my recordings?
22. Listening is..
an interpretive process, creative listening
an active process
often interactive
based on spoken English (purpose, syntax, organization, speed, less formal, paralinguistic features)
Essential Features
David J. Mendlesohn. Learning to listen. Dominie Press, Inc. 1994. pp. 9-21.
23. process the linguistic forms, hear words
decipher the intention of the speaker, process, judge
cope with listening in an interaction
understand the whole message
The smoke thickened. John collapsed.
comprehend the message without understanding every work
recognize different genres, set formulas
Students must be able to
David J. Mendlesohn. Learning to listen. Dominie Press, Inc. 1994. pp. 9-21.
24. Aspects of Listening Comprehension
Listening Discrimination
Schemata building
Top-down or Bottom-up
Listening strategies
Critical Thinking
Multi-skilled activities
25. Discriminate sounds and intonation patterns
Minimal Pairs:ship / sheep(/I/~/iy/)
Example:
That ship is big.
That sheep is big.
Listening discrimination
26. Past experiences lead to the creation of mental frameworks that help us make sense of new experiences
A students schemata has to be activated so that he/she can understand the conversation
Example:My sons thesis
Listen
Problems: cultural, educational, etc.
Schemata Building
David Nunan, Second Language Teaching & Learning, Newbury House, 1999. p. 201.
27. listening is a process of decoding the sounds that one hears in a linear fashion, from the phonemesto complete texts.
meaning itself is the last step in the process.
Includes:

  • listening to identify familiar lexical items

28. segmenting the stream of speech into constituents, 'abookofmine' = four words 29. using graphic clues to identify the information focus of the word 30. using grammatical cues to organize the input into constituentsBottom-up Processing
David Nunan, Second Language Teaching & Learning, Newbury House, 1999. p. 200-201.
31. Top-down Processing
listening activelyreconstructsthe original meaning of the speaker using incoming sounds as clues.
In the reconstruction process, the listener uses prior knowledge about the context and situation (schemata)
Includes:

  • Recognizing genre, situation, background

32. Inferring relationships, topic of the discourse, sequence 33. Adding missing details 34. Anticipating outcomesDavid Nunan, Second Language Teaching & Learning, Newburt House, 1999. p. 200-201.
35. Top-down processing
Conscious use of strategies by the students
Can be trained
Listening Strategies
David J. Mendlesohn. Learning to listen. Dominie Press, Inc. 1994. pp. 36-37.
36. Strategies can be taught
Academic language learning is more effective with learning strategies
Mentally active learners are better learners
Learning strategies transfer to new tasks
Strategies facilitate information management.
Strategy training teaches learners how to learn.
Listening Strategies: Justification
David J. Mendlesohn. Learning to listen. Dominie Press, Inc. 1994. pp. 38-39.
37. Setting (where and when)
Interpersonal relationships (who)
Mood, atmosphere, tone (how)
Topic (what)
Strategies
David J. Mendlesohn. Learning to listen. Dominie Press, Inc. 1994. Chapter 6.
38. Strategies 2: Guessing Strategies
Predicting: Use schemata to guess what will happen.
Inferencing: Build on what students hear to guess what will happen or what is really happening.
39. Critical Thinking?
Critical thinking is the examination and test of propositions of any kind which are offered for acceptance, in order to find out whether they correspond to reality or not.
The critical faculty is a product of education and training. It is a mental habit
William Graham Sumner, Sociologist, cited in Wikipedia (June 2006)
40. Critical thinking :
a set of cognitive skills
the ability and intellectual commitment to use those skills to guide behavior.
Critical thinking does not include just:
the acquisition and retention of information
or the possession of a skill-set which one does not use regularly
nor does critical thinking merely exercise skills without consideration of the results.
Wikipedia, June 2006.
41. In groups look at the picture. What is happening? Which do you think the story will describe? Why?
Example
New American Inside Out, Elementary, Workbook, Unit 7, p. 30.
42. Listen to the story. Which picture illustrates it?
Example, continued
43. Listen again and answer the questions:
--Where did the story take place?
--Who was the boy?
--What happened to him?
--How did he feel?
c. Discuss in groups:
What would you do in the boys situation?
Have you ever been in a life and death situation?
Example, continued
44. Pre-listening
Builds schemata
Listening
Strategy Building
Post-listening
Critical thinking
Listening Activity Organization
45. Pre-listening: schemata building
Listen to the story. Which picture illustrates it?
46. Listening
Strategy Building
Listen again and answer the questions:
--Where did the story take place?
--Who was the boy?
--What happened to him?
--How did he feel?
47. Discuss in groups:
What would you do in the boys situation?
Have you ever been in a life and death situation? Tell your partner about it.
Post Listening: Critical Thinking
48. Listen to a story and then retell it (gossip) (listening / speaking)
Listen to a radio show and then write an email to a friend about the ideas (listening / writing)
Talk to a friend about a TV program, watch it and then call your friend and comment on it (listening / speaking)
Read an article in a magazine and then listen to a radio program about the same topic (reading / listening)
Multi-skill Activities
49. Practice
What kind of activities would you devise for this recording.
Pre-listening, listening, post-listening
Schemata, strategies, critical thinking, multiskill
50.

  • What kind of activities would you devise for this recording.

51. Pre-listening, listening, post-listening 52. Schemata, strategies, critical thinking, multi-skillNew American Inside Out, Pre-Intermediate, Unit 11
53. 54. 55. Handout available at: www.efltasks.net
Take time to look around.there are a number of downloadable and online activities for all levels
56. Thank you very much
JoAnn Miller
miller@room20.org
joannmillerj@gmail.com
Copies of the handout are available at:
http://www.efltasks.net
(Presentations)
Links at Delicious: Jabbusch