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REDD+DVREDDCIFOR 2012 by the Center for International Forestry Research.All rights reserved.Angelsen, A., Brockhaus, M., Sunderlin, W.D. and Verchot, L.V. (eds) 2012 Analysing REDD+: Challenges and choices. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.A.M.W.D.L.V... 2015. REDD+.(CIFOR)ISBN 978-602-1504-63-5 Cyril Ruoso/Minden Pictures1. Habtemariam Kassa, 2. Manuel Boissire, 3. Douglas Sheil1 10 Yayan Indriatmoko 2 Neil Palmer/CIAT 3 12 Yves Laumonier 4 Brian Belcher 5 Tony Cunningham 6 16Agung Prasetyo 7 Michael Padmanaba 8 Anne M. Larson 9 Amy Duchelle 11 Meyrisia Lidwina 13 Jolien Schure 14 Csar Sabogal 15 Ryan Woo 17 Edith Abilogo 18 Ramadian BachtiarCIFOR REDDCIFORCIFORJl. CIFOR, Situ GedeBogor Barat 16115IndonesiaT +62 (251) 8622-622F +62 (251) 8622-100Ecifor@cgiar.orgcifor.orgForestsClimateChange.orgCIFORCIFOR(CIFOR)CIFORCIFOR(CGIAR)mailto:cifor@cgiar.orghttp://cifor.orghttp://ForestsClimateChange.org16REDD+ V REDD+() REDD+16.1(forest reference level;RL)(forestreferenceemissionlevel;REL)REDD+278 | : REDD+(businessasusual;BAU)(UNFCCC2011c)1()()REDD+REDD+(financial incentives benchmark; FIB)REDD+()()(UNFCCC 2011cBox 16.1)(Huettner et al. 2009;Obersteiner et al. 2009; Estrada 2011)(MeridianInstitute2011b;Romijnetal.2012)(2)()1 (RL)(REL)REDD+| 279REDD+Box 16.1UNFCCC COP17UNFCCC (2011c)UNFCCCUNFCCCUNFCCCREDD+(Grassietal.2008)NGO2004REDD+(FIB)UNFCCC (2011cBox 16.1)VCSREDD+(14)280 | : REDD+UNFCCC(Box 16.1)Meridian Institute (2011a;2011b)REDD+14REDD+16.216.3316.416.216.2.1(BAU)REDD+ (crediting baseline) (Angelsen 2008a) (compensation baseline)(Meridian Institute 2011b) (financialincentivebenchmark;FIB)(Ecofys2012)| 281REDD+i) REDD+ii)UNFCCC(UNFCCC 2009a: Decision 4/CP.15) (national circumstances)(16.1)()16.1 (BAU)(FIB)()()()282 | : REDD+()16.3.616.2.316.2.23(GutmanandAguilar-Amuchastegui2012)1. (10)(AmazonFund)1052. 3. (Huettneretal.2009)()Soares-Filhoetal.(2006) Ecofys (2012)3(Box16.2)| 283REDD+IIASAGLOBIOMOSIRIS(Martinetetal.2009)REDD+UNFCCCREDD+16.2.3 Ecofys (2012)3(16.1)UNFCCC(CBDRRC)REDD+CBDRRC (REDD+) REDD+REDD+REDD+(Angelsen2008a;MeridianInstitute2009)REDD+284 | : REDD+Box 16.21a()2(3)3()16.23()(0.57)(0.51)(0.21)116.210.57195%016.2 950.8 1.0 1.20.60.40.20-0.2-0.4-0.6-0.8(GDP)GDP | 285REDD+16.4(0.350.060.03)(Mather andNeedle1998;Mather et al. 1999)()Ecofys(2012)a ()()(log-log)()1286 | : REDD+16.1(Box 16.3) 123IPCC1()2()3()IPCC23()IPCC3()IPCCTier1()Tier23Tier23()Tier23()()()(REDD+3)| 287REDD+REDD+125REDD+()5REDD+()IPCC288 | : REDD+Box 16.3REDD+REDD+REDD+Meridian (2009)COP16 (UNFCCC2010)123()IPCCREDD+(IPCC 2003)1223| 289REDD+ () Tier()Tier()Tier 1()Tier 2()Tier 3()COP17(12/CP.1710())() 1RL 2 316.2290 | : REDD+16.316.3.1UNFCCC(2011c)REDD+(Box16.3)REDD+REDD+(Herold2009;Romijnetal.2012)IPCC(GPG)(Box16.315)(16.1)16.3.2111()()()100 tC/ha105(Amazon Fund 2009)(BAU)200209100tC/ha(2011)| 291REDD+21(Tier 2)10(Ecofys 2012)Box 16.2223(Box16.4)3223(Soares-Filho et al. 2006)REDD+(GOFC-GOLD2011)(UNFCCC2009a)16.3.3(Meridian Institute 2011b; Romijn et al. 2012)UNFCCCIPCC GPG (IPCC 2003)COP Decision 1./CP.16 (UNFCCC 2010)(LULUCF)292 | : REDD+123IPCC2316.3.4UNFCCC()()()()Box 16.2MeridianInstitute (2011b)| 293REDD+Box 16.4(PhamandKei2011;Sugardiman2011)(Indonesian National Carbon AccountingSystem, INCAS)AUSAID(NFI)LandsatTM/ETM30(2000200320062009)()5(2)UN-REDD5NFI20105REDD+(MRV)REDDMRVMRV20122014REDD+3(Box 16.3)UNFCCC(UNFCCC(4/CP.15))294 | : REDD+16.3.5REDD+3316.3.6REDD+REDD+(UNFCCC2011c)(15)IPCCREDD+16.4()(1)(| 295REDD+16.2(Ecofys 2012)1.()232.133.(