他動詞型の結果構文における動補構造の研究(resultative construction in chinese)

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これまでの数多くの先行研究によると、結果構文の動補構造において、前項述語は基本的に活動・行為を表し、その行為による結果までは含意しないものであり、結果述語は<非対格性>や<非意志性>を意味特徴とする自動詞および形容詞であるという点が指摘されている(荒川清秀1982;Tai1984;望月圭子1990;Li,Yafei1993;瀋力1993;徐丹2000;石村広2000など)。しかし、前項述語と結果述語は単独の述語としてはどちらも使役の意味をもたないにもかかわらず、動補構造が形成されたときに、「虎を殴り殺す」というように使役他動詞と同じ意味機能が備わるようになる。これまでの先行研究では、使役の意味がどこから生じてくるのかという根本的な問題については十分な説明が与えられていない。また、動補構造を複合動詞として扱う傾向があるが、前項述語と結果述語との組み合わせの生産性の高さを考慮すると、それは首肯しかねる。それに対して、本稿では、結果構文において特定の動詞クラスが特定の統語的順序で配列されて成立する動補構造にみられる慣習化された合成パターンが使役スキーマ([CAUSE-BECOME])を記号化する構文(construc-tion)であると主張する。従って、記号ユニットとしてレキシコンに登録されているのは、往々にして具体的な複合動詞ではなくて、むしろ抽象的な意味を表す構文と具体的な意味を語彙化した動詞や形容詞であることになる。個々の結果構文が表す具体的な意味は、構文の抽象的な意味と動詞の具体的な意味が統合されることによって構築されることになる。本稿では、構文文法の立場から、動補構造に構文の存在を認めた上で、動詞と構文とのダイナミックな相互作用によって結果構文が如何にして構築されていくのかについて詳細に考察することを目的とする。

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2008

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1. ------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 3. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 4. ------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 0. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 1. (Aktionsart)------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 1.2. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7 2. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 2.1. ----------------------------------------------------------------- 11 3. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 4. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20 4.1. (frame)(profile)--------------------------------------------------------- 25 5. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31 5.1. (STATE) ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 35

5.2. (ACTIVITY) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 41 5.2.1. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 47 5.2.2. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 49 5.2.3. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 52 5.3. (ACHIEVEMENT) ----------------------------------------------------------------- 54

5.3.1. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 56 5.3.1. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57 5.4. (ACCOMPLISHMENT)------------------------------------------------------------ 63 5.4.1. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69 5.4.2. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 71 6. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 74

---------------------------------------------------------------------- 76 0. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 76 1. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 76 2. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 81 3. (Event Composition) 1996 -------------------------- 88 4. (Template Augmentation)RH&L1998 ---------------------------------- 91 5. Goldberg1995 ----------------------------------------------------- 93 6. (Construction) ----------------------------------------------------- 99 6.1. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------102 6.2. -------------------------------------------------------------105 6.3. ----------------------------------------------------------------------109 7. (usage-based model) -------------------------------------------------- 116 8. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------119 8.1. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------119 8.2. ----------------------------------------------------------------------134 8.2.1. TSCP ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------135 8.2.2. TCP ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------137

9. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------138

---------------------------------------------------------140 0. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------140 1. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------140 1.1. Dowty1991 -----------------------------------------------------------------141 2. ------------------------------------------------------------------147 2.. ----------------------------------------------------------148 2.2. -----------------------------------------------------------------161

2.2.1. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------173 2.2.2. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------175 2.2.2.1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------182 3. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------189

----------------------------------------------------------------190 0. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------190 1. Li,Yafei1995 ------------------------------------------------------------------------190 2. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------204 3. (transmission of force) -------------------------------------------------206 4. -------------------------------------------------------------------208 5. -------------------------------------------------------------214 5.1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------214 5.1.1. (active zone) -------------------------------------------------------------------222 5.1.2. ----------------------------------------------------------------------237

5.2. --------------------------------------------------------239 5.2.1. ---------------------------------------------------248 6. -------------------------------------------------------------253 6.1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------262 6.2. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------266 7. ------------------------------------------------------------------272 8. --------------------------------------------------------------------------283

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------291 0. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------291 1. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------292 2. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------295

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------297

1. 1(Transitive Resultative Construction) (causer)(causee) (causative event)(action) (result)

1)

si

le

laohu

wusong da

PERF

2) taotao

chi

mie

le

lazhu

PERF

( ) ()()

1

(transitive resultative construction)(intransitive

resultative construction)[SUBJ()-V()-RP()-OBJ( )][SUBJ()-V()-RP()]

1

()()()() ()() SUBJ OBJVerb(V)Resultative Predicate(RP) 2

3) [SUBJ()[V()RP()]OBJ()]

V-RP ()

(grammatical construction)1)()( )()()

2. ( 1982;Tai1984; 1990;Li,Yafei1993; 1993; 2000; 2000 )

2

& 1996 2003 (V)(RP)

(()()

2

([CAUSE-BECOME]) (construction)

3 Goldberg1995 Dowty1991

3

4. () ?

4

0. (State)(Activity)(Achievement)(Accomplishment) (Aktionsart) ( 1981;Tai1984; 1993) ()(clause)

1. (Aktionsart) Vendler1967Dowty1979 Vendler1967 What happened,be-ing,in an hour,for an hour (temporal duration)(temporal termination) (internal temporal structure)

(a) STATE(): Non-actions that hold for some period of time but lack continuous tenses. : know, believe, have, desire, love 1) Fred knows the girl.

5

2) Fred believes that Terry will come tonight. (b) ACTIVITY (): Events that go on for a time, but do not necessarily terminate at any given point. : run, walk, play, swim, push a cart, drive. 3) John walked for an hour. 4) John played violin all night. (c) ACCOMPLISHMENT() Events that proceed toward a logically necessary terminus. : consume, painting a picture, build a house, push a cart to the supermarket, 5) Harry painted a picture yesterday. 6) Harry learned French. (d) ACHIEVEMENT() Events that occur at a single moment, and therefore lack continuous tenses. : recognize, spot, find, lose, reach, die, arrive, win 7) Bill found his watch. 8) Bill won the game. (Vendler1967)

State()Activity( )Accomplishment() Achievement() Taylor2002 (bounded) (unbounded)

6

(temporal slices)(slice) ran for ten seconds running Vendler1967;Dowty1979;Pustejovsky1995;Rothstein2004 (Imperfective Paradox)3

9) a. John is running.(Therefore, John has run) b. John is building a house. (*Therefore, John has built a house) Pustejovsky1995:16

9)a John has runJohnrun 9)b John has built a house build a house (Pustejovsky1995)

1.2. 1981 1993 1981 (Va)(Vb) (1)4(post-verbal time phrase) 3

Dowty1979 Rothstein2004 Dowty1979 If is a activity predicate,then

x is (now) -ing entails that x has ed. If is an accomplishment verb, then x is (now) ing entails that x has not (yet) ed(Dowty1979:57). Rothstein2004 If x is p-ing holds at y, and p is an activity predicate, then at any subinterval of y containing a non-minimal event in p, x -ed is ture(Rothstein 2004:20)4

(1)V+(

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