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ATILIM UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering Department of Energy Systems Engineering Vural Cantuğ Akkaş 100310004 4 ENE 499-SUMMER PRACTISE II Summer Training Report 2014

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Page 1: TEİAŞ STAJ RAPORU (1)

ATILIM UNIVERSITY

Faculty of Engineering

Department of Energy Systems Engineering

Vural Cantuğ Akkaş

100310004

4

ENE 499-SUMMER PRACTISE II

Summer Training Report

2014

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Atılım University/Faculty of Engineering/Department of Energy Systems Engineering

Summer Training Report

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Contents SUMMER TRAINING EVALUATION FORM...................................................................................................... iv

Weekly Schedules: 1st Week ................................................................................................................... v

Weekly Schedules: 2nd Week ................................................................................................................. vi

Weekly Schedules: 3rd Week ................................................................................................................ vii

Weekly Schedules: 4th Week ............................................................................................................... viii

Weekly Schedules: 5th Week ................................................................................................................. ix

Weekly Schedules: 6th Week .................................................................................................................. x

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................................. 1

1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 2

2. ABOUT THE COMPANY ....................................................................................................................... 3

3. PRACTICAL TRAINING ........................................................................................................................ 4

4. CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 24

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................................ 25

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Summer Training Report

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Atılım University/Faculty of Engineering/Department of Energy Systems Engineering

Summer Training Report

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SUMMER TRAINING EVALUATION FORM (To be filled by Atılım University Academic Staff)

Training Evaluation:

1) Is the company that the student has chosen to do his/her training at, appropriate?

Yes No

2) Is the score in the Training Register Form greater or equal to 2.5/4.00 ?

Yes No

3) Has the company executive officer approved the training?

Yes No

Student is: Succesful Unsuccesful in the training.

Report Evaluation:

1) Is the format and the content of the report appropriate?

Appropriate Not Appropriate

2) Is the content of the report original and satisfactory?

Yes No

Correction Offerings:

Student is: Succesful Unsuccesful in the training and report.

Training Evaluation Committee:

Member1 Member2 Member 3

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Atılım University/Faculty of Engineering/Department of Energy Systems Engineering

Summer Training Report

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Weekly Schedules: 1st Week

Date Tasks Accomplished

16/06/2014

A presentation was done about the job security. General information was given

about the occupational health & safety. I was delivered to my own specific

department. I was placed in the department of measurement system management.

17/06/2014

Some information about TEIAS was given by Chief Engineer of the

measurement system management. Some authorities and me went to Osmaniye

Organized Industrial Area which is the one of developing city of Çukurova

region.Couple counter were installed, 30kv level unit was learned and seen.

18/06/2014

Some authorities and me went to Osmaniye Organized Industrial Area, I learned

how to read AUTOMATIC METER READING (AMR).I learned what the

parameters are in counter.Also,we want to have signed a protocol with Osmaniye

Tedaş and organized industrial zone officials. Unfortunately, the protocol could

not be signed for technical reasons.

19/06/2014

Circuit breakers and arrester’s theoretical knowledge learned.Their types and

usage has learned.

20/06/2014

Substations, Voltage and currency transformers theoretically their working

principles were learned.Also,we went to Seyhan Substation-1, I had the chance to

see old type kV units and we has tried to solve technical problems in sending

information of counter.

Executive Officer

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Atılım University/Faculty of Engineering/Department of Energy Systems Engineering

Summer Training Report

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Weekly Schedules: 2nd Week

Date Tasks Accomplished

23/06/2014

I went to the Berke hydroelectric power plant for Annual maintenance of

counters. General information about control room was given. General information

about cycles and systems was given,also the working principle is described.And i

witnessed the starting and stopping of the all units.

24/06/2014

Electric Power Transmission theoretically was learned, also and distribution

transformers was learned.

25/06/2014

Breaker compartment was learned. How to test counter in the lab was seen and

learned. Main and backup counter was tested for the entire day.

26/06/2014 We went to the Kozan substation and there was seen. Automatic meter reading

were installed , preparation was made before Sunday.

27/06/2014 Electricity production and consumption of the Çukurova region were analyzed.

Executive Officer

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Weekly Schedules: 3rd Week

Date Tasks Accomplished

30/06/2014

Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) was learned, theoretically. (types, properties,

using area, methods,tests)

01/07/2014

After controlling, the consumption data ,where in substations, entered into the

system,EDW3000 was seen.

02/07/2014 Unit service transformers and industrial area datas entered into system.

03/07/2014

Electric generation plants data entered into system and the data ,which were

wrong, were corrected from the local area.

04/07/2014

Ottoproductor, Eligible consumer and reverse supply substation terminology

were learned. Feeder protection methods learned.

Executive Officer

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Weekly Schedules: 4th Week

Date Tasks Accomplished

07/07/2014

We visited the Atlas Coal Power Plant. I have learned the technical and general

information about Atlas CPP, the system has been described. Gas Insulated

Substations were seen.We visited to Güriş Wind power plant in Belen,Hatay. I

have learned the technical and general information about Güriş WPP.

08/07/2014 Thermal and tank protection methods learned.

09/07/2014 Disconnectors, relays and insulators theoretically their working principles were

learned.

10/07/2014

We visited the Egemer natural gas combined cycle power plant in Erzin,Hatay. I

have learned the technical and general information about Egemer NGCCPP.

11/07/2014 Grounding and busbar theoretically their working principles were learned.

Executive Officer

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Weekly Schedules: 5th Week

Date Tasks Accomplished

14/07/2014

Overvoltage protection methods were learned, fault occurrence, effects and

properties were also found.

15/07/2014

I visited the Sanko Sanibey Hydroelectric Power Plant. I have learned the

technical and general information about Sanibey Hydroelectric Power Plant, the

system has been described.

16/07/2014 Cables and fuses theoretically their working principles were learned.

17/07/2014 Communications and how to maneuver has learned. Insulators were learned.

18/07/2014 Reactive Power and Power Calculations were learned.

Executive Officer

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Weekly Schedules: 6th Week

Date Tasks Accomplished

21/07/2014

I visited the Alarko Karakuz Hydroelectric Power Plant. I have learned the

technical and general information about Karakuz Hydroelectric Power Plant, the

system has been described.

22/07/2014

I visited the Ceyhan-2 Subsitation. I have tested automatic meter reader in

Ceyhan-2 Subsitation.

23/07/2014 Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) was learned, theoretically. (types, properties,

using area, methods,tests)

24/07/2014

I visited the Osmaniye Subsitation. I have tested automatic meter reader and

periodic maintenance was performed in Osmaniye Subsitation.

25/07/2014 General information about sector was given.

Executive Officer

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Atılım University/Faculty of Engineering/Department of Energy Systems Engineering

Summer Training Report

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ABSTRACT

This is my second summer internship.In my summer internship, I chose TEİAŞ because this

company one of biggest electricity company in Turkey. During 30 working days, I saw Kadirli

TM, Kozan TM, Osmaniye OSB TM,Seyhan-1 HES,Alarko Karakuz HPP,Sanko Sanibey

HPP,Berke HPP,Güriş Belen WPP,Atlas and Egemer CPP. I saw that generation,transmission

and distribution of electricity especially about transmission. I had a idea about some electric

machines such as transformers, relay, busbar, circuit breaker and disconnector etc.

During my summer internsip, I learned a lot of thing.I had the opportunity to use theoretical

information.I learned the duties and responsibilities of engineers in the working life.I had the

opportunity to observe the business management.I learned to find solutions to the problems.I

learned work safety,team work and code of ethics.

To sum up, This work I performed helped me in gaining practical experience that served as

complementary knowledge to my theoretical backround. It was challenging and fun. Finally, I

completed my summer practice with good impressions and experiences.

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Atılım University/Faculty of Engineering/Department of Energy Systems Engineering

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1. INTRODUCTION

I have performed my first summer practise at TEİAŞ (Türkiye Elektrik İletim A.Ş) in

Adana. My summer practise took thirty work days which started on 16 June 2014 and

ended on 25 July 2014.

First day, I went education department in TEİAŞ and I met chief of education department

Ahmet Beşkazak.He sent me Measurement System Management and I met with technicians and

electrical-communication engineers in this department.My departmant have three engineers and

four technicians. I have completed my work under the group chief engineer Fuat YILDIZ.He

gave me general informations about history of TEİAŞ and how to generation and transmission of

electricity.

During my internship, I learned about electricity production, transmission and measurement .

When I compare my point of view before the internship and after the internship, it has

significantly improved.

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2. ABOUT THE COMPANY

Name of the Organization : T.E.İ.A.Ş. (Türkiye Elektrik İletim A.Ş. )

Location of the Organization : 18th Group Management ( Beyazevler Mah. Seyhan Barajı

İçi TEİAŞ 18. İletim Tesis İşletme Grup Müdürlüğü PK: 01170) Seyhan / ADANA

Brief History :

T.E.İ.A.Ş. carries out its activities in accordance with the new market structure.

T.E.İ.A.Ş. has taken training license from the Energy Marketing Regulatory Authority (EPDK)

as a state-owned enterprise, under the provisions of the main status and the existing legislation,

on 13.03.2003.

T.E.İ.A.Ş. has some responsibilities like expandig the transmission infrastructure, making

new transmission facilities, expanding their own communications infrastructure, operating

Turkey’s Electiricity System in an International standarts, high quality, economical and reliable

way in line with technology, population, and infrastructure development.With this purpose;

T.E.İ.A.Ş. is also in charge of creating new projects, to achieve these projects, and carrying out

the electricity market services.T.E.İ.A.Ş operates these duties through with the Head Office in

Ankara and 22 Transmission Installation and Operation Group Offices and 10 Load Dispatch,

Business Offices in different parts of Turkey.

T.E.İ.A.Ş transmission network consists of 50,485.6 km long power transmission line,

632 transmission centers, 109,862 MVA transformer capacity and a total of 11 interconnection

lines with neighboring countries. T.E.İ.A.Ş. operates its Interconnected Electric System which

has 57,059.4 MW installed capacity, 39,044.9 MW sudden peak, 799.4 million kWh maximum

daily consumption, 239.49 billion kWh, the annual production of electrical energy, 242.36

billion kWh, the annual electrical energy consumption in a seamless, high-quality and reliable

way, by the end of the 2012.

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With International interconnection projects ; T.E.İ.A.Ş carried out its electricity transmission

connection with all neighboring countries in order to ensure the exchange of electricity.It’s

intended that mutual aid when important fault happens, providing operational savings, a result of

the common use of spare capacity, sharing of natural resources between the countries in a rational

way and increasing the trade of electricity, the development of relations with other countries and

protecting the environment. To achieve maximum benefit from international Interconnection

system, the intended method of systems should work in synchronous parallel. As a result of many

years of ongoing work and preparation, our National Electricity System trial conducted with

ENTSO-E European Continental Europe Synchronous Area System in parallel connection on 18th

September 2010. After successful completion of the test the connection, it’s aimed that the

connection becomes permanent and it’s also aimed that the membership of ENTSO-E. It’s

ongoing the studies within the scope of the creation of the electricity market that competitive,

stable and transparent, and it’s carried out new projects.

Missions and Visions:

To operate the electricity system and electricity market to ensure that the transmision of

electricity in a consistent, reliable and affordable way, while creating a powerful transmission

system, is the mission of the organization.

Being a reliable and router enterprise while contributing to the formation of competitive and

transparent energy market, to strengthen Turkey's Electricity Transmission System, to transmit

the electricity in high quality, continuous and economically, developing links with neighboring

power systems is the vision of the organization.

Values:

Non-discrimination in access to the transmission network,

Effectiveness and efficiency,

Openness to change and development,

Environmental sensitivity,

The belief in team work,

Responsibility, knowledge, experience, and power-sharing,

Reliability and integrity,

Transparency,

Employee satisfaction,

Dynamism.

Developing interconnection with neighboring countries

Contributing to the development of the electricity market

Increasing the customer satisfaction,

Increasing job security, efficiency and satisfaction of the employees

Creating a dynamic and corporate organization which sharing a common culture, has a stable

structure, adopting the concept of total quality management.

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Creating a strong electricity transmission system infrastructure in world standarts.

Operating the electrical system so as to offer electricity reliable, continuous and high quality.

Keeping the Electricity Transmission System running in parallel with European Electricity

System (UCTE).

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3. PRACTICAL TRAINING

THE SWITCHYARD

The switchyard is a place which provide connection between electricity generation station and

interconnected grids and where located high units.

In a switchyard following components are available ; transformers, circuit breakers,

disconnectors, busbars, current and voltage transf ormers, sur ge arresters, coupling capacitor

and similar electric devices.

As you see from photo Osmaniye Substation switchyard is outside in such a swithyard the

construction costs are always lower than inside but for construction large area is needed. In such

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switchyards the units are located on concrete columns, and busbars are located between tightly

located chain-isolators which are assembled to concr ete columns. The current and voltage

transformers on switchyard are controlled from control room.

CIRCUIT BREAKERS

A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical

circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect

a fault condition and by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow.

Types of breakers;

i. Oiled Type Breakers

ii. Magnetic Circuit Breaker

iii. Air Circuit Breakers

iv. SF6 Gas Breakers

v. Vacuum Breakers

TYPES OF BREAKERS

i) Oiled Type Circuit Breakers:

In above figure you see a oiled type circuir breaker in HES 1 SEYHAN , for each

phase there is another oil container these oil is serving as isolator material, and used

in order to avoid from arcing, but because of oil leakage it is not a most used method.

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ii) Magnetic Circuit Breakers:

Magnetic circuit breakers use a solenoid (electromagnet) whose pulling force increases with

the current. Certain designs utilize electromagnetic forces in addition to those of the solenoid.

The circuit breaker contacts are held closed by a latch. As the current in the solenoid increases

beyond the rating of the circuit breaker, the solenoid's pull releases the latch, which lets the

contacts open by spring action. Some magnetic breakers incorporate a hydraulic time delay

feature using a viscous fluid. A spring restrains the core until the current exceeds the breaker

rating. During an overload, the speed of the solenoid motion is restricted by the fluid. The delay

permits brief current surges beyond normal running current for motor starting, energizing

equipment, etc. Short circuit currents provide sufficient solenoid force to release the latch

regardless of core position thus bypassing the delay feature. Ambient temperature affects the time

delay but does not affect the current rating of a magnetic breaker.

iii) Air Circuit Breakers:

Rated current up to 6,300 A and higher for generator circuit breakers. Trip characteristics are

often fully adjustable including configurable trip thresholds and delays. Usually electronically

controlled, though some models are microprocessor controlled via an integral electronic trip unit.

Often used for main power distribution in large industrial plant, where the breakers are arranged

in draw-out enclosures for ease of maintenance.

iv) SF6 Gas Breakers:

A sulfur hexafluoride circuit breaker uses contacts surrounded by sulfur hexafluoride gas to

quench the arc. They are most often used for transmission-level voltages and may be incorporated

into compact gas-insulated switchgear. In cold climates, supplemental heating or de-rating of the

circuit breakers may be required due to liquefaction of the SF6 gas.

v) Vacuum Breakers:

With rated current up to 6,300 A, and higher for generator circuit breakers. These breakers

interrupt the current by creating and extinguishing the arc in a vacuum container - aka "bottle".

Long life bellows are designed to travel the 6 to 10 mm the contacts must part. These are

generally applied for voltages up to about 40,500 V,[7] which corresponds roughly to the medium-

voltage range of power systems. Vacuum circuit breakers tend to have longer life expectancies

between overhaul than do air circuit breakers.

DISCONNECTOR

Disconnector or isolator switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely

de-energized for service or maintenance. Such switches are often found in electrical distribution

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and industrial applications where machinery must have its source of driving power removed for

adjustment or repair. High-voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to allow

isolation of apparatus such as circuit breakers and transformers, and transmission lines, for

maintenance. Firstly always circuit breakers breaks the current, than disconnectors seperate the

connection physicaly.

Types of disconnectors:

i. knife-contact disconnectors

ii. rotary disconnectors

iii. two column vertical break disconnectors

iv. single-column disconnectors

i. Knife-contact disconnectors:

The classic design of the disconnecto ris the knife-contact disconnector.Their moving contacts

have the knife shape.There are indoor and outdoor types.They can be actuated manually and in

remotely operated installations by motor or compressed air drives.

ii. Rotary disconnectors:

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This disconnector type is used for rated voltages of 72.5 to 420kV preferably in smaller

installations and also in larger switch gear installtions as incoming feeder or sectionalizing

disconnector.An earthing switch can be installed on both sides.

iii. Two column vertical break disconnectors:

This type of disconnector is preferred for higher voltages (>170KV) as a feeder or branch

disconnector. It differs from two-column rotary disconnectors by smaller space savings

(withside-by-sideconfiguration)and higher mechanical terminal loads.In it's open state there is a

horizontal isolating distance with the contact arm open upwards.

iv. Single column (pantograph) disconnectors:

In installations for higher voltages (>170kV) and multiple busbars the single column

disconnector (also referred to as pantographor vertical-reach disconnector) requires less space

than other disconnector designs.For this reason and because of the clear station layout ,it isused in

many switch gear installations.The switch status is clearly visible with the vertical

isolatingdistance.

TRANSFORMERS

A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through

inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary

winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varyingmagnetic

field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive

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force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction. If a

load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and

electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load.

In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the

primary voltage (Vp), and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the

number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows:

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating current

(AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making Nsgreater than Np, or "stepped down" by making Ns

less than Np.

In SEYHAN 1 HES there are three transformers which is in above picture, their rate is

13,2kV/69kV. 2 transformer with rate 31,5k/154kV and one transformer with rate 66kV/154kV.

In Osmaniye Substation, there is a transformer which is in below picture, its rate is

31.5kV/154kV. In Kozan Substation, there is a transformer which rate is 31.5kV/154kV.

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In transformers there is no movement so there is no friction and heat consequently the efficiency

of transformers are high. In a generation station mostly used step up transformators, than that

high voltage transmitted to consumer and according to consumer' s demand by means of step

down transformators the voltage is decreased.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER

Current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents. Current transformers,

together with voltage transformers (VT) (potential transformers (PT)), are known as instrument

transformers. When current in a circuitis too high to directly apply to measuring instruments, a

current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the

circuit, which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. A current

transformer also isolates the measuring instruments from what may be very high voltage in the

monitored circuit. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in

the electrical power industry. Current transformers used in metering equipment for three-phase

400 amper electricity supply.

Like any other transformer, a current transformer has a primary winding, a magnetic core, and a

secondary winding. The alternating current flowing in the primary produces a magnetic field in

the core, which then induces a current in the secondary winding circuit. A primary objective of

curren transformer design is to ensure that the primary and secondary circuits are efficiently

coupled, so that the secondary current bears an accurate relationship to the primary current.

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The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times around a

silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. The CT's primary circuit therefore

consists of a single 'turn' of conductor, with a secondary of many hundreds of turns. The primary

winding may be a permanent part of the current transformer, with a heavy copper bar to carry

current through the magnetic core. Window-type current transformers are also common, which

can have circuit cables run through the middle of an opening in the core to provide a single-turn

primary winding. When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or

oval) opening, slight inaccuracies may occur.

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER

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Voltage transformers are used, in order to measure high voltage or activate the protecting relays.

The secondary voltages of voltage transformers are 100 or 110 V. Because of tanger of high

voltade this transformers must be perfectly isolated. These are step down transformers. Three

phase voltage transformers have wye connection. The measuring range of these transformers are

over 600 V. To a voltage transformer can be connected more than one measuring devices but

power of these devices should be lower than power of the transformer.Each phase of voltage

transformer are protected by a fuse. The fuses in primary side protect the system from short

circuit, fuses in secondary side protect from overloading.

Transformers are used to increase voltage before transmitting electrical energy over long

distances through wires. Wires haveresistance which loses energy through joule heating at a rate

corresponding to square of the current. By transforming power to a higher voltage transformers

enable economical transmission of power and distribution. Consequently, transformers have

shaped the electricity supply industry, permitting generation to be located remotely from points

of demand. All but a tiny fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of

transformers by the time it reaches the consumer.

REACTIVE POWER AND POWER CALCULATIONS

Reactive Power : The portion of electricity that establishes and sustains the electric and

magnetic fields of alternating-current equipment. Reactive power must be supplied to most types

of magnetic equipment, such as motors and transformers. It also must supply the reactive losses

on transmission facilities. Reactive power is provided by generators, synchronous condensers, or

electrostatic equipment such as capacitors and directly influences electric system voltage. It is

usually expressed in kilovars (kvar) or megavars (Mvar).

AC power flow has the three components: real power (also known as active power) (P), measured

in watts (W); complex power (S), measured in volt-amperes (VA); and reactive power (Q),

measured in reactive volt-amperes (var).

Active Power → P=V*I*CosQ (WATT)

Reactive Power → Q=V*I*SinQ (VAR)

Complex Power → S=V*I (VA)

Apparent power →|S| (the magnitude of complex power S)

Phase of voltage relative to current →φ (the angle of difference between voltage and current)

In the diagram, P is the real power, Q is the reactive power, S is the complex power and the

length of S is the apparent power.

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RELAYS

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a

switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used

where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation

between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one

signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming

in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone

exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

In any trouble, the rate of short circuit which occures transmission lines is too high because in

interconnected system one grid is supplied from more than one source. Thus it is important that if

there is a fail in somewhere in system, this should be immediately determined and disconnect

from the system, this is very important to save the other components in system. Otherwise the

transformers and generators are damaged so they can cause the electricity drop for everywhere in

system for long time. To avoid from these problems, the distance relays are used mostly.

A distance relay that it is called as resistance relay because they adjust their resistance according

to length of the transmission line. As measurement of line distance , which have to protect , the

relay benefits from empedance of line.

INSULATOR

The network materials which provide that used in the transport air lines the determination of

conductors to poles, carry conductors and isolate them against other conductors network is called

insulator. The resistance of insulators against electric current is very large.Insulators are made of

high degree temperature-resistant porcelain, glass, epoxy resin and silicone. High-voltage

overhead line insulators provide that high voltage conductor been at a specific safety distance

from iron parts (or concrete).These insulators are made of porcelain or glass.

Types of Insulator:

Dead End Suspension Insulators

Pin Type Insulators

Line Post Insulators

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Station Post Insulators

Cut Outs

GROUNDING

The earth is a conductor mass and transports the building has electric plants or open air plants

within it. Very small currents pass from earth in no fault network operation. In network error

state, big currents can pass. In this state, if the current on earth pass over someone has been in

fault location, it can die that someone. Fault currents passing from earth can cause to fire. The

resistance of the earth is 0,05 ohm\km. It is a little value. This resistance determines the value of

current passing f rom earth. In some state, the contact of the resistance with the earth occurs

coincidental in the result of an isolation error. In some states, the contact is supplied with earth

over a grounded electrode which fixed to earth. This event is called the grounding. Here the

important part, the resistance must be very small. In the electric plants, the grounding

establishments provide that the short circuit current pass without endanger human’s life.

Therefore the calculation of the grounding establishment must be correct. In the calculation of the

grounding establishment, we must apply these steps, respectively:

The calculation of the probable biggest error current

The determination of the biggest earth current

The calculation of diffusion resistance

The determination of earthing voltage

Find the step and contact potential

BUSBAR

In electrical power distribution, a busbar is a strip or bar of copper, brass or aluminium that

conducts electricity within a switchboard, distribution board, substation, battery bank or other

electrical apparatus. Its main purpose is to conduct electricity, not to function as a structural

member. The cross-sectional size of the busbar determines the maximum amount of current that

can be safely carried. Busbars can have a cross-sectional area of as little as 10 mm2 but electrical

substations may use metal tubes of 50 mm in diameter (20 cm2) or more as busbars. An

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aluminium smelter will have very large busbars used to carry tens of thousands of amperes to the

electrochemical cells that produce aluminium from molten salts.

Advantages of Busbar:

Reduce System Costs

Improve Reliability

Increase Capacitance

Eliminate Wiring Errors

Lower Inductance

Lower Impedance

Provide Wider Variety of Interconnection Methods

Improve Thermal Characteristics

Provide Denser Packaging

ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION

Electric-Power transmission is the bulk transfer of electrical energy, from generating power

plants to electrical substations located near demand centers. This is distinct from the local wiring

between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power

distribution.

Transmission lines, when interconnected with each other, become transmission networks. The

combined transmission and distribution network is known as the "power grid" in the United

States, or just "the grid". In the United Kingdom, the network is known as the "National Grid".

A wide area synchronous grid, also known as an "interconnection" directly connects a large

number of generators outputting AC power with the same phase, to a large number of consumers.

For example, there are three major interconnections in North America (the Western

Interconnection,

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the Eastern Interconnection and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) grid), and

(one large grid for most of continental Europe.

Historically, transmission and distribution lines were owned by the same company,

but starting in the 1990s, many countries have liberalized the regulation of the electricity

market in ways that have led to the separation of the electricity transmission business from

the distribution business.

AUTOMATIC METER READING(AMR)

Automatic meter reading, or AMR, is the technology of automatically collecting consumption,

diagnostic, and status data from water meter or energy metering devices (gas, electric) and

transferring that data to a central database for billing, troubleshooting, and analyzing. This

technology mainly saves utility providers the expense of periodic trips to each physical location

to read a meter. Another advantage is that billing can be based on near real-time consumption

rather than on estimates based on past or predicted consumption. This timely information coupled

with analysis can help both utility providers and customers better control the use and production

of electric energy, gas usage, or water consumption.

AMR technologies include handheld, mobile and network technologies based on telephony

platforms (wired and wireless), radio frequency (RF), or powerline transmission.

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Advantages:

Increased Data Security

Reduced operation costs

Reduced cost over the life time of the AMR system

Improved cash flow budgeting and management

Improved customer service

SURGE TANKS

In Hydro electrical stations the Surge Tanks serve in order to protect the water transmissin

tunnels an forced pipes from instantaneous pressure increasing or decreasing they protect these

components by damping of temporary and instantaneous pulses . If turbine adjustment vanes are

closed suddenly , the velocity of water in forced pipes and water transmission tunnel , would be 0

in small time arrival and consequently in forced pipes mostly under side occures suddenly a huge

pressure increasing . The Surge Tanks absorbe the very big amount of these pressure pulse inside

of tank so the water transmission system would be prevented to any damage of pressure.

The other important duty of Surge Tanks is prevending the irregular water flow to generator

turbines, if water flows spontaneously the the regulation of electric generation would not be clear

but by means of Surge Tanks the regulation of generation is provided. In that picture you can see

the Surge Tanks in SEYHAN HES-1 , there are three Surge Tanks which are established by

VÖSY company. for each turibune there is one Surge Tanks.

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GENERATORS

Usually a hydroelectric generator is a salient-pole synchronous generator whose rotor is

connected to the rotor of a hydraulic turbine. The design of a hydroelectric generator is basically

determined by the position of its rotor’s axis, as well as by the frequency of rotation and power of

the turbine.

High-capacity, low-speed generators are usually manufactured with a vertical axis of rotation

(with the exception of capsule-type hydroelectric units), whereas high-speed units with a bucket-

type hydraulic turbine are made with a horizontal axis of rotation. There are also experimental

industrial generators of original design (with phase rotors; counterrotating or flow-through types).

In below photo you see the generator used in HES 1 SEYHAN, there are three generator, and

each has output voltage 13kV. That voltage increased to 66kv by passing through a power

transformer than transfered to switchyard. 66 kV in switchyard firstly increased to 154 kV than to

380 kV after all the elecrticity is transfered to city by means of high voltage transmission lines.

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VOLTAGE REGULATOR

A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant

voltage level.It may use an electromechanical mechanism or passive or active electronic

components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltage.

In HES 1 the load of generetors which supplies the grid is change hour by hour. These loads are

mostly inductive loads, and inductive loads are let the generator output voltage decreases so thats

why we need adjust out put voltage of generator under load situations. If we change the rev/min

number of generator than frequncy will automaticlly changes thus it is a useless application

instead of that we change voltage by adjusting excitation current. So under changing load

conditions we use voltage regulators in order to keep output voltage stabil we use automatic

voltage regulators.

Automatic voltage regulator works briefly in such a principle; If the output voltage decrease,

related relay make close the conductor so the resistance would be short circuit as a result of this

excition current value and magnetic flux value will increase, than induced voltage would

increase, likewise , if there is a increasment on output voltage , the condactor will opened and

because of resistance current decrases so induced voltage also decreased.

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SPEED REGULATOR

Speed regulator keep the turning speed of adjustment wings constant under changing load

condition on generator. Stabil magnet generator flyer engine, pilot valve, distributor valve restore

mechanism, servo motors, pressed oil tank pressed air tank copressor oil pomping regulator are

the main parts of speed regulator.

Working principle of speed regulator:

The flyer motor make activate the pilot valve according to impulse which coming from stabil

magnet generator, pilot valve by controlling the distributor valve, make open or close the valves

on pressed piped which carry oil to servo motors. While this operation occures, the pressed oil

which flows to servo engine, by means of servo motor arms order to adjustment wings either, to

open or to close. The rev/min value of tribune is tent to slow down when the load is much, and

tend to speed up when the load is less. from this tendency of turbine can be avoided in case slow

down by opening the adjustment wings a bit to allow more water flow and in case speed up a bit

closing of adjustment wings to make flow of water less.

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BATTERY ROOM

In case of electric shut down or any problems which make necessary to shut down of electricity

the batteries starts to operate , firstly supplied DC voltage invert to AC and by means of invertors

than used to supply controll room and emergancy lighting systems.

These batteries play very important rolle in case of emergancy conditions, for example while

making emergancy drainage ac power is needed to activate the pomp motors the energy

requirament of motors are supplied from batteries otherwise flood can be occured in generation

station.

In SEYHAN 1 HES the battaries in emergency cases can work with 310 Amper/hour capasity.If

we consider in emergancy cases only the most important units are supplied that need 30-31 amper

per hour that means we can supply energy to these units for 9-10 hours non-stop.

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4. CONCLUSIONS

I have performed my first summer practise at TEİAŞ (Türkiye Elektrik İletim A.Ş) in Adana.

My summer practise took thirty work days which started on 16 June 2014 and ended on 25 July

2014.

This is my second summer internship.In my summer internship, I chose TEİAŞ because this

company one of biggest electricity company in Turkey. During 30 working days, I saw Kadirli

TM, Kozan TM, Osmaniye OSB TM,Seyhan-1 HES,Alarko Karakuz HPP,Sanko Sanibey

HPP,Berke HPP,Güriş Belen WPP,Atlas and Egemer CPP. I saw that generation,transmission

and distribution of electricity especially about transmission. I had a idea about some electric

machines such as transformers, relay, busbar, circuit breaker and disconnector etc.

During my summer internsip, I learned a lot of thing.I had the opportunity to use theoretical

information.I learned the duties and responsibilities of engineers in the working life.I had the

opportunity to observe the business management.I learned to find solutions to the problems.I

learned work safety,team work and code of ethics.

To sum up, This work I performed helped me in gaining practical experience that served as

complementary knowledge to my theoretical backround. It was challenging and fun. Finally, I

completed my summer practice with good impressions and experiences.

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REFERENCES

http://www.teias.gov.tr/

http://www.megep.meb.gov.tr/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_meter_reading

http://en.openei.org/wiki/Definition:Reactive_Power

http://www.busbar.com/bus-bar-advantages/general-advantages/

Seyhan-1 Specifications For Generator Book

Seyhan-1 Transformer Book

High Voltage Engineering Fundamentals by John Kuffel, E. Kuffel, W.S. Zaengl, 2000

The Electric Motor and the Transmission Power by Edwin J. Houston, Arthur E. Kennelly

1896