the present perfect tense

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the Present Perfect Tense 现现现现现 现现现 have (has)+ 现现现现 done

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the Present Perfect Tense. 现在完成时. 助动词 have (has)+ 过去分词 done. now. past. Now , the classroom is clean because we have cleaned it. Yesterday , we cleaned the classroom. 用法 1. 强调 过去发生的动作 对 现在产生的 结果或影响. 1. My father bought many books for me yesterday . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: the Present Perfect Tense

the Present Perfect Tense

现在完成时

助动词 have (has)+ 过去分词 done

Page 2: the Present Perfect Tense

past now Yesterday , we cleaned the classroom.

Now , the classroom is clean because we have cleaned it.

用法 1强调过去发生的动作对现在产生的结果或影响

Page 3: the Present Perfect Tense

1. My father bought many books for me yesterday . Now , I have a lot to read because ________________________________2. I saw this film last week.Now, I know this film because I_____________________.3. I did my homework yesterday. Now, I can give it to the teacher because I______________

my father has bought many books for me.

have seen it before

have done it.

Page 4: the Present Perfect Tense

“ 仍然,还 ” 用在疑问句和否定句中,放在句末。

I haven’t read this book yet .Have you had breakfast yet ?

already:

Yet:

“ 已经”通常用于肯定句中 , 放在句中。

I have already read this book.有时,也用在疑问句中表示惊讶。 Have you eaten up all the food al

ready ?

Page 5: the Present Perfect Tense

“ 从来不” 用在否定句中 , 放在句中。Is he famous ?I have never heard of him .

ever

never

“ 曾经”通常用于疑问句和肯定句中 , 放在句中。 I have ever seen this film.Have you ever been to the USA ?

Page 6: the Present Perfect Tense

“ 以前”用在完成时中,放在句末。I have never read this kind of books before.

just

before

“ 刚刚 ”用在陈述句中 ,放在句中。 I have just bought a novel 。

Page 7: the Present Perfect Tense

She began to work in 2005.She still works here now. She has worked at this school for 3 years.

Page 8: the Present Perfect Tense

now past

I began to teach English at this school fiveyears ago.

I have taught English at this school for five years.

用法 2 :过去发生的动作一直延续到现在。

Page 9: the Present Perfect Tense

1. I am a doctor. I began to work when I was 22.Now , I am 26. I ________ for four years.2. We went to the USA last Monday. Today is Monday . We _________ (stay) in the USA since last Monday.

have worked

have stayed

Page 10: the Present Perfect Tense

since and forThe woman has worked at this school for 2 years.( since two years ago)

since 2 years agosince 1998

since she came to the school)

for + 时间段since+ 时间点

for 2 years/a long time

Page 11: the Present Perfect Tense

一、用 for 和 since 填空。______three hours

______three o’clock

______two days

______yesterday afternoon

______I came here

______last Sunday

_______a week

_______a long time

_______1997

______two weeks

_______three years ago

_______ last month

for

since

for

since

since

since

for

for

since

for

since

since

Page 12: the Present Perfect Tense

1.They’ve known each other since_______.

A.1995 B. three years

2.I’ve been interested in Chinese for______.

A. last year B. one year

3. She has been a doctor for______.

A. two years B.two years ago

4. I’ve had a headache since_______.

A. I got up this morning B. five hours

5. We’ve been here for______.

A. one hour B. one o’clock

A

A

B

A

B

Page 13: the Present Perfect Tense

6. My parents have owned this house for______.

A. a long time B. many years ago

7. They’ve been in love since______.

A. last spring B. three months

8. We have known each other since_____.

A. one year B. last year

9. --How long have you been like this?

--Since______. A.last night B. two days

10.--How long has she worked here?

--She has worked here for_____.

A. 1993 B. six years

A

A

B

A

B

Page 14: the Present Perfect Tense

Exercise根据所给情况,用 just,already 或 yet 造句。1.After lunch you go to see a friend at he

r house.She says‘Would you like something to eat?’ You say: No, thank you. _______________( have lunch )

2.Joe goes out. Five minutes later,the phone rings and the caller says ‘Can I speak to Joe?’ You say: I’m afraid _________________.( go out )he has just gone out

I’ve just had lunch.

Page 15: the Present Perfect Tense

3.You are eating in a restaurant this evening. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away.You say: Wait a moment !_______________________

( not / finish )4.You are going to a restaurant this eveni

ng.You phone to reserve( 预定) a table. Lat

er your friend says ‘Shall I phone to reserve a table? ’You say: No,__________________ it (do)

I haven’t finished it yet.

I have already done

Page 16: the Present Perfect Tense

1. 现在完成时用来表示过去发生或已完成的动作或状态对现在造成的影响或结果 ,也就是说 , 动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在 . I have lost my wallet.( 含义是 : 现在我没有钱花了 .) Jane has just had it.( 含义是 : 简现在不饿了 .) Michael has been ill.( 含义是 : 现在仍然很虚弱 ) He has returned from abroad. ( 含义是 : 现在已在此地 )

Page 17: the Present Perfect Tense

2. 现在完成时可以用来表示发生在过去某一时刻一直持续到现在的动作和状态 , 常与表示持续的时间状语连用 . 表示持续动作或状态的动词多是延续性动词。

I haven’t seen her these days.Mary has been ill for three days. I have lived here since 1998.

Page 18: the Present Perfect Tense

3. 现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去时间状语连用 , 如 already, yet, just, before, recently, still, lately 等 :

He has already obtained a scholarship. I haven't seen much of him recently (lately). We have seen that film before. Have they found the missing child yet ?

Page 19: the Present Perfect Tense

4. 现在完成时常常与表示频度的时间状语连用 , 如 often, sometimes, ever, never, twice, on several occasion 等 :   Have you ever been to Beijing ? I have never heard of Bunny.I have used this pen only three times. George has met that gentleman on several occasions.

Page 20: the Present Perfect Tense

5. 现在完成时还往往可以同包括现在时间在内的时间状语连用 , 如 now, now, just, today, this morning/week/month/year, up to these few days/weeks/months/years,, up to present, so far 等 :

Peter has written six papers so far. Man has now learned to release energy from the nucleus of the atom. There has been too much rain in San Francisco this year. Up to the present everything has been successful.

Page 21: the Present Perfect Tense

6. 现在完成时表示现在之前已完成的动作 ,虽然其效果或影响仍然存在但已不再继续 ,但是有一些现在完成时的句子 , 在后面加上 for+ 一段时间 , 则现在完成时的动作就表示延续性 .

Thomas has studied Russian. ( 现在不再学俄语 ) Thomas has studied Russian for three years. (=Thomas began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now.( 同第 2 点用法第一个例句 )

现在完成时的“完成”和“未完成”用法

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7. 现在完成时还可以用来表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作 .

We have had four texts this semester.

Page 23: the Present Perfect Tense

have (has) gone 和 have (has) been 的区别

1.have (has) gone 表示“已经去某地了”She has gone to Shanghai .( 她可能已在去上海的路上,或已到上海,总之现在不在这里。 )

2.have (has) been 表示“曾经去过某地”She has been to Shanghai three times.( 她已经不在上海,只说明她曾经去过。 )

Page 24: the Present Perfect Tense

非延续性动词不能与时间段连用:go/come/begin/start/die/buy/borrow/sell/leave/arrive/receive/become 等词语是瞬间动词表示的动作是一时的,不能延续,不能与 for 、 since 等表示一段时间的词连用,也不能用于 how long 引导的疑问句中。如不能说: He has borrowed the book for two months.( )ⅹ但可以说: He has kept the book for 2 months.或: It has been 2 months since he borrowed the book. 或: Two months has passed since he borrowed the book. 这些瞬间动词常与它对应的可以表示时间段的词语进行互换。become—be borrow—keep buy—have begin (start)—be on open—be open die—be dead leave--be away come--be here/in go out—be outjoin--be a member/be in begin to study--study注明:非延续性动词在否定结构中可用于现在完成时态:I haven’t bought anything for two days.

Page 25: the Present Perfect Tense

动词的过去分词的规则变化,在动词后加 ed ,规则变化有以下四种:

① 原形 +ed  如: worked, passed ② 词尾是 e 时,直接加 d  如: liked  lived③若词尾为“辅音字母加 y” ,则改 y 为 i 加 ed 。词尾 为“元音字母 +y” 时,直接加 d ;如 : played  stayed  studied  cried ④ 末尾只有一个辅音字母的重读闭音节是,双写最后一个辅音字母加 ed. 如: stopped dropped

动词的过去分词的规则变化

Page 26: the Present Perfect Tense

不规则动词的过去式以及过去分词巧记规律

AAA: put– put –put let—let –letABA: become—became—becomeABB: stand—stood—stoodABC: eat— ate—eaten

Page 27: the Present Perfect Tense

AAAcost-cost-cost read-read-readput-put-put cut-cut-cutlet-let-let set-set-setbeat-beat-beat hit-hit-hit hurt-hurt-hurt spit-spit-spit rid-rid-rid一、原形、过去式和过去分词的词形和读音都相同的单词,结尾字母一般是 t 或 d 。特殊:动词 read 的过去式和过去分词虽然词形与原形一致, read-read-read ,但发音分别是 [ri:d]-[red]-[red] 。

Page 28: the Present Perfect Tense

有些动词的过去分词与原形是一样的 :

run-ran-runcome-came-come

become-became-becomeovercome-overcame-overcome

ABA

Page 29: the Present Perfect Tense

原型 过去式 过去分词 例词-eep -ept -ept keep,sweep,sleep-ell -old -old sell,tell-d -t -t lend,spend,send,build-ay -aid -aid say,pay,lay-n -nt -nt burn,learn,mean

-ee- -e- -e- meet,feed-

ought-ought bring,buy,fight,think

-aught

-aught catch,teach

ABB( 含规则动词 )

Page 30: the Present Perfect Tense

1. 另有一些其它形式的变化。have (has)-had-had leave-left-leftlose-lost-lost make-made-madefeel-felt-felt spell-spelt-spelt stand-stood-stood

2. 改变单词中间元音字母。sit-sat-sat (babysit) win-won-wonshine-shone-shone hold-held-heldfind-found-found hear-heard-heardhang-hung (hanged)-hung (hanged)

ABB( 含规则动词 )

Page 31: the Present Perfect Tense

ABC原型 过去式 过去分

词例词

-eak -oke -oken break,speak-eal -ole -olen steal-ear -ore -orn wear,bear,tear-ow( aw )

-ew -own grow,blow,know,throw,draw

-i- -a- -u- sink,swim,drink,ring,sing,begin

-i- -o- -n drive,rise,ride,write

Page 32: the Present Perfect Tense

ABC有些动词的过去分词是在原形词尾加 n 或 en ,变成以 en 结尾的单词。 take-took-taken give-gave-givenfall-fell-fallen eat-ate-eatenwrite-wrote-written speak-spoke-spokenfreeze-froze-frozen ride-rode-ridden get-got-gotten (got) forget-forgot-forgotten (forgot)特殊: am/is-was-been are-were-been,do (does)-did-done go-went-gonesee-saw-seen show-showed-shown (showed) lie-lay (lied)-lain (lied)

Page 33: the Present Perfect Tense

比较现在完成时和过去时的区别:

* 现在完成时所表示的是过去的发生的动作对现在造成的影响和结果,强调的是现在的情况,所以不能和表示过去的时间状语连用,如: yesterday ,last night, three weeks ago, in 1990 。

* 一般过去时表示的是过去发生的动作或状态,和现在不发生联系,它可以和表示过去的时间状语连用。I have seen the film.( 我了解这部电影的内容。 )I saw the film last week. (只说明上星期看了这部电影,不涉及现在的情况。)

Page 34: the Present Perfect Tense

总结现在完成时:1 、构成: have / has + 过去分词。2 、概念:(1) 表示过去或已经完成的某一动作对现在 成的影响

或结果。常与下列状语连用 :already, just, yet, ever, never, before

(2) 表示过去已经发生,持续到现在的动作或状态,可以和表示从过去某一时刻延续到现在(包括“现在”在内)的一段时间的状语连用。

a.for 和表示一段时间的词组连用。如: for 3 years b.since 和表示过去某一时刻的词或词组连用。如: since 1997, since two years ago,sinc

e last week