unit 10 personality. personality personality – an individual’s characteristic pattern of...
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Unit 10 Personality Slide 2 Personality Personality an individuals characteristic pattern of thinking feeling and acting Example Slide 3 Slide 4 Personality Theories Historical Psychoanalytic Theory Humanistic Theory Modern based on scientific Method Trait Theories Social Cognitive Theories Slide 5 HistoricalTheories 1.Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud) Included stage theory of psychosexual development 2.Humanistic Theory (Maslow, Rogers) Maslows Hierarchy Man is Good philosophy Slide 6 Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalysis Techniques used to expose the unconscious included: 1. 2. 3. Free association Example: Slide 7 Our Personality Conscious- Preconscious- Unconscious- Repression Expressed in disguised forms Freudian slips Dreams Forgetting Slide 8 Freuds Idea of the Minds Structure Slide 9 Parts of Personality Id - unconscious impulses that want to be gratified, without regard to potential punishment. pleasure principle Ex. Ego moderates the impulsive demands of id and restraining demands of superego. Reality principle - Ex. Superego - tells us right from wrong and our ideal standards Moral principle - Ex. Slide 10 Slide 11 ID Slide 12 Slide 13 Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Freuds Psychosexual stages Psychosexual development a series of developmental stages that forms their personality erogenous zones - fixation - Slide 17 Freuds Psychosexual Stages Oral (0-18 months) Anal (18-36 months) Phallic (3-6 years) Latency (6-Puberty) Genital (Puberty on) Owen And Phillip Like Girls Slide 18 Oral Stage Important erogenous zone = Fixation Weaned too early = Example: Slide 19 Anal Stage Develops during toilet training (2-4). Important erogenous zone = Focused on Fixation potty training too early = Examples: Slide 20 Phallic Stage Period of time when children first recognize their gender (4-7). Important erogenous zone = Unconscious sexual desires for parent of the opposite sex Oedipus Complex Electra Complex Penis Envy - Castration Anxiety - Identification children incorporate same sex parents values into superego = Fixation Slide 21 Latency Stage Libido is hidden (7-11). Cooties stage Boys hang with Dad, Girls hang with mom Fixation - Slide 22 Genital Stage Libido - Maturation of sexual interests All stages resolved = Slide 23 Psychosexual Stages Slide 24 Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms tactics of the ego to reduce anxiety by distorting reality Ex: 1.Repression 2.Rationalization 3.Reaction formation 4.Projection 5.Regression 6.Displacement 7.Sublimation 8.Denial Slide 25 Scenario Quarterback of the high school football team, Brandon, is dating Jasmine. Jasmine dumps Brandon and starts dating Drew, president of the chess club. Drew Brandon Jasmine Slide 26 Repression Pushing anxiety arousing thoughts into our unconscious. Slips of the tongue = Why dont we remember our Oedipus and Electra complexes? Ex. Slide 27 Denial Denial - Slide 28 Displacement Displacement Often displaced on less threatening things. Slide 29 Projection Projection Believe that the feelings one has toward someone else are actually held by the other person and directed at oneself. Slide 30 Reaction Formation Reaction Formation Cootie stage in Freuds Latent Development. Slide 31 Regression Regression Excessive Fixation Slide 32 Rationalization Rationalization Brandon thinks he will find a better girlfriend. Jasmine was not all that anyway! Slide 33 Sublimation Sublimation Sometimes a healthy defense mechanism. Slide 34 Neo-Freudian Theorists Psychodynamic Theory Accept Freuds basic ideas Struggle with Importance of Personality develops in Different More emphasis on Disagreed with the importance of Adler and Horney tensions are important to personality development Slide 35 The Neo-Freudian Theorists Adler inferiority complex Horney sense of helplessness Womens superego is not weaker as Freud claimed Jungs collective unconscious - EX. Slide 36 Getting into the Unconscious Psychodynamic Psychologist contemporary Freudian Psychologist Projective Tests - Examples Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Rorschach Inkblot Tests - Criticized for lacking Slide 37 Criticisms of Freuds theory: 1. Freud had no 2. Freuds theories (unconscious, libido, etc.) cannot be 3. Theory explains behavior 4. Doubt that conscience and gender identity form as child resolves Oedipus complex at age 5-6 5. Research contradicts that painful memories are Slide 38 Criticisms of Freud 6.Neural networks not 7. Freud overestimated and underestimated 8. New ideas of why we dream dispute Freuds belief that dreams 9. Slips of tongue can be explained through Slide 39 Pros of Freuds theory 1. Argued that are important in personality development. 2. Information outside of awareness influence us, but much different than Freuds concept of unconsciousness Examples: 3. Defense mechanismsgood descriptions of some of our behaviors. Examples: 4. Defense Against Anxiety Terror management theory Slide 40 Humanistic Theory of Personality Do not believe in Determinism free will -. Humans are innately good and as long as our Studied healthy ways people strive for Slide 41 Abraham Maslows Self Actualizing Person Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization Self-transcendence Studied healthy people Slide 42 Who did Maslow study? Slide 43 Self-Actualized People Problem centered rather than Focused their energies on Few, rather than many superficial ones. Slide 44 Slide 45 Self-Actualized People Share certain characteristics: Slide 46 Carl Rogers Objective of humans - become self-actualized. We are like Acorns What do Acorns need to grow? Water sun and soil. To grow into healthy humans we need interactions with others who are : Slide 47 Rogers Person-Centered Perspective Carl Rogers Unconditional positive regard total acceptance of another person Ex. Self-concept all of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves Central feature of personality Promoted by unconditional positive regard Assessing Personal Growth Ideal self vs. Actual self Slide 48 Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective Renewed interest in Criticisms Slide 49 The Trait Perspective Slide 50 Trait Theory Trait Theory (Gordon Allport) describe personality in terms of _____________ Trait Describe rather than explain Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classifies people according to personality types identified by Carl Jung (flattering terms) Used in Not valid predictor EX. Slide 51 Factor Analysis Factor analysis statistical analysis used to identify the most basic personality traits Factor - Ex. Eysenck and Eysenck 2 Dimensions Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Slide 52 Factor Analysis Slide 53 Biology and Personality Brain scans Brain arousal - Frontal lobe - Genetics Temperament Autonomic nervous system reactivity is Greater anxiety, less inhibition Slide 54 Assessing Traits Personality inventory Example: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Empirically derived test - Objective test Lie scale assesses faking Slide 55 The Big Five Factors The Big Five evaluates personality on 5 dimensions (more comprehensive) Emotional stability vs instability Slide 56 The Big Five Factors Slide 57 Stability Big 5 stable over time Heritablity Predictability Conscientious people earn better grades and are more likely morning types Extroverts evening types Slide 58 Somatotype Theory A biological Theory by William Sheldon. Endomorphs - Mesomorphs Ectomorphs - Study has not been replicated. Slide 59 Traits and the Stars Stock spiel builds on the observation that each of us is in some ways Barnum effect Peoples tendency to accept Theres a sucker born every minute Aries (March 21-April 19): Do some detective work so that you can better understand those you love. Figure out what the other person is going through. Only then will you find out how you can help. Taurus (April 20-May 20): In your midst, there's a person intent on the worst-case scenario. He or she is a valuable ally today. You'll find humor in the exaggeration, and your laughter is healing. Gemini (May 21-June 21): Go out of your way to add elements of absurdity to your day. Your quality of life will be increased immeasurably. Cancer (June 22-July 22): A strength exaggerated becomes a weakness. But does a weakness exaggerated become a strength? Highlight a limitation and you'll find you're better off for having this flaw. Leo (July 23-Aug. 22): People pay attention when you walk into the room today. Make your exit with equal grace. Leave before they want you to and they'll want more. Virgo (Aug. 23-Sept. 22): Show up in person. You have more than your fair share of charisma today. Noting your winning presence, others will want to help you succeed. Libra (Sept. 23-Oct. 23): You have a talent for making relationships work. You're full of solutions, but it's important to know which problem is the most pressing. Pump the other person for information. Scorpio (Oct. 24-Nov. 21): There is a fine line between sharing and over-sharing. Give others the sense of who you are. But do it briefly. Sagittarius (Nov. 22-Dec. 21): Relating to others has very little to do with what or who you know. Most people are thinking about themselves and what you can do for them. If you make them feel good about themselves, they'll like you. Capricorn (Dec. 22-Jan. 19): You're in danger of being too thrifty. Show some disregard for the rules of frugal finance. As you spend, you'll widen the channel for greater earning. Aquarius (Jan. 20-Feb. 18): It would benefit you to get involved in a group effort. There is much you could contribute, and you have much to gain. You'll ask excellent questions and learn all you need to know to fit in nicely. Pisces (Feb. 19-March 20): You will be certain of your course. But that alone will not be enough to make it go the way you want. Whatever happens, don't complain or explain. Slide 60 The Person-Situation Controversy Person-situation controversy Traits are stable over time People dont act consistently in all situations (Walter Mischel studies) Scores on Personality Tests fail to predict behavior in real-life situations Ave. outgoingness (expressive style), happiness or carelessness over many situations is predictable Slide 61 The Social-Cognitive Perspective Slide 62 The Social-C Cognitive Perspective Social-cognitive perspective (Bandura) interactive influences on learn many of our behaviors either through Emphasize the importance of Focus on our interaction with the environment (interpretation and response to external events) Slide 63 Social-Cognitive Theories on Personality Focus on how we interact with our culture and environment Reciprocal Determinism - traits, environment and behavior all interact and influence each other. Example *: Slide 64 Reciprocal Influences Ways individuals and the environment interact Different people choose different environments Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events Our personalities help create situations to which we react Slide 65 The Biopsychosocial Approach to the Study of Personality Slide 66 Personal Control Personal control extent to which people perceive Two ways to study personal control Correlate peoples feelings of control with their behaviors and achievements Experiment by raising and lowering peoples sense of control and noting the effects Slide 67 Internal and External Locus of Control External locus of control Can lead to a state of learned helplessness. Ex. Internal locus of control Ex. Slide 68 Self-Control Self-control ability to control impulses and delay gratification Predicts Requires attention and energy Slide 69 Benefits of Personal Control Learned helplessness Tyranny of choice Slide 70 Optimism Versus Pessimism Optimism and Health Excessive Optimism Blindness to ones own incompetence Positive psychology (Seligman) Different from Humanistic Similar to Humanistic - Self Serving Bias Slide 71 Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective Based on Focuses too much on the Slide 72 Comparing Research Methods Slide 73 Exploring the Self Slide 74 Self Self Possible selves Motivates us to achieve success and avoid failure Ex. Spotlight effect Adolescents Ex. Slide 75 The Benefits of Self-Esteem Self-esteem Slide 76 Self-Serving Bias Self-serving bias readiness to perceive yourself favorably People accept more responsibility for Most people see themselves Defensive self-esteem - Slide 77 Culture and the Self Individualism Collectivism - Slide 78 Individualism versus Collectivism