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Hippodamus of Miletus (or Hippodamos, Greek:
Ἱππόδαμος ὁ Μιλήσιος) (498 BC — 408 BC) was
an ancient Greek architect, urban planner, physician,
mathematician, meteorologist and philosopher and is
considered to be the “father” of urban planning, the
namesake of Hippodamian plan of city layouts (grid plan).
He was born in Miletus and lived during the 5th century
BC, on the spring of the Ancient Greece classical epoch.
His father was Euryphon.
His plans of Greek cities were characterised by order and
regularity in contrast to the more intricacy and confusion common to cities of that period,
even Athens. He is seen as the originator of the idea that a town plan might formally embody
and clarify a rational social order.
The grid plans attributed to him consisted of series of broad, straight streets, cutting one another
at right angles. In Miletus we can find the prototype plan of Hippodamos. What is most
impressive in his plan is wide central area, which was kept unsettled according to his macro-
scale urban prediction/estimation and in time evolved to the “agora”, the center of both the city
and the society.
The "Urban Planning Study for Piraeus" (451 BC), which is considered to be a work of
Hippodamus, formed the planning standards of that era and was used in many cities of the
Daniel Hudson Burnham, FAIA (September 4, 1846 – June 1, 1912) was an American architect and urban designer. He was the Director of Works for the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. He took a leading role in the creation of master plans for the development of a number of cities, including Chicago and downtown Washington, D.C. He also designed several famous buildings, including the Flatiron Building in New York City andUnion Station in Washington D.C.
burnham’s plan for manila
Pierre "Peter" Charles L'Enfant (French: [pjɛʁ ʃɑʁl lɑV fɑV ]; August 9, 1754 – June 14, 1825) was a French-born American architect and civil engineer best known for designing the layout of the streets of Washington, D.C., the L'Enfant Plan.
After leaving the national capital area, L'Enfant prepared the initial plans for the city of Paterson, New Jersey, but was discharged from this project after a year had passed. During the same period (1792–1793) he designed Robert Morris' mansion in Philadelphia, which was never finished because of his delays and Morris' bankruptcy. In 1812, he was offered a position as a Professor of Engineering at United States Military Academy, but he declined that post. He did serve as a
Professor of Engineering at West Point from 1813 to 1817. In 1814, L'Enfant worked briefly on the construction of Fort Washington on the Potomac River southeast of Washington, D.C., but others soon replaced him.L'Enfant surveyed and platted Perrysburg, Ohio on April 26, 1816. Washington, D.C., Indianapolis, Indiana, and Perrysburg, Ohio are the cities that he designed
Plan of the City of Washington, March 1792, Engraving on paper
Augustus Brevoort Woodward (born Elias Brevoort Woodward in November 1774, died July 12, 1827) was the first Chief Justice of the Michigan Territory. In that position, he played a prominent role in the planning and reconstruction of Detroit following a devastating fire.
Considered a hero upon his return to Washington, DC, Woodward soon focused himself on science (a lifelong interest) and the establishment of the University of Michigan along similar themes to the University of Virginia which was founded by Woodward's friend, Thomas Jefferson.
Detroit city layout plan circa 1807—following the 1805 fire that destroyed most of the city. The map showes Grand Circus Park (top), and some of the present-dayGrand Circus Park Historic District.
Georges-Eugène Haussmann, commonly known as Baron Haussmann (French pronunciation: [ʒɔʁʒ øʒɛn (ba.ʁɔV ) os.man], 27 March 1809 – 11 January 1891), was the Prefect of the Seine Department in France, who was chosen by the Emperor Napoleon III to carry out a massive program of new boulevards, parks and public works in Paris, commonly called Haussmann's renovation of Paris. Critics forced his resignation for extravagance, but his vision of the city still dominates Central Paris.
Avenue de la Grande Armée, seen from the Arc de Triomphe, with La Défense on the horizon.
Ildefons Cerdà i Sunyer (Catalan pronunciation: [iɫdəˈfons sərˈða]) (Centelles, December 23, 1815 - Caldas
de Besaya, August 21, 1876) was the progressiveCatalan Spanish urban planner who designed the 19th-century "extension" of Barcelona called the Eixample.
He was a multi-faceted man who, in pursuit of his vision, gave up a steady job in the civil engineering service; stood for election and became a member of the Cortes (parliament); drafted useful ground-breaking legislation; drew up an incredibly detailed topographical survey map of Barcelona's surrounding area; and wrote a theoretical treatise to support each of his major planning projects. He actually coined a number of important words in Spanish, including 'urbanización'.
Original plan of the extension of Barcelona (1859)
Walter Burley Griffin (November 24, 1876 – February 11, 1937) was an American architect and landscape architect, who is best known for his role in designing Canberra, Australia's capital city. He has also been credited with the development of the L-shaped floor plan, the carport and an innovative use ofreinforced concrete.Influenced by the Chicago-based Prairie School, Griffin went on to develop a unique modern style. For much of his career Griffin worked in partnership with his wife Marion Mahony Griffin. In the 28
years of their architectural partnership, the Griffins designed over 350 buildings, landscape and urban-design projects as well as designing construction materials, interiors, furniture and other household items.
"Canberra, Federal Capital of Australia, Preliminary Plan" - "Walter Burley Griffin's
Plan of Canberra as Finally Revised and Accepted"
Clarence Samuel Stein (June 19, 1882 – February 7, 1975) was an American urban planner, architect, and writer, a major proponent of the Garden City movement in the United States.
Beginning in 1923 Stein and Henry Wright collaborated on the plan for Sunnyside Gardens, a neighborhood of the New York City borough of Queens. The 77-acre (310,000 m2) low-rise pedestrian-oriented development was constructed between 1924 to 1929. It was funded by fellow RPAA officer Alexander Bing and took the garden city ideas of Sir Ebenezer Howard as a model. This neighborhood has retained its special
character and has been listed on the National Register of Historical Places.
Diagram of the Radburn street pattern showing the cellular structure of the network and the nested road hierarch
Bruno Julius Florian Taut (4 May 1880 – 24
December 1938) was a prolific German
architect, urban planner and author active during
Taut is known for his theoretical work, speculative
writings and the buildings he designed. Taut's best-
known single building is probably the prismatic dome
of the Glass Pavilion for the Cologne Werkbund
Exhibition (1914). His sketches for the publication
"Alpine Architecture" (1917) are the work of an unabashed Utopian visionary, and he is
classified as a Modernist and in particular as an Expressionist. Much of Taut's literary
work in German remains untranslated into English.
Bruno Taut - Hufeisen-Siedlung Britz, Berlin (1925-1930). Neues Bauen
Robert Moses (December 18, 1888 – July 29, 1981) was the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, Rockland County, andWestchester County, New York. As the shaper of a modern city, he is sometimes compared to Baron Haussmann of Second Empire Paris, and was arguably one of the most polarizing figures in the history of urban planning in the United States. His decisions favoring highways over public transithelped create the modern suburbs of Long Island and influenced a generation of engineers, architects, and urban planners who
spread his philosophies across the nation. One of his major contributions to urban planning was New York's large parkway network.
Ludwig Karl Hilberseimer (1885–1967)
was a German architect and urban
planner best known for his ties to
the Bauhaus and to Mies van der Rohe, as
well as for his work in urban planning at
Armour Institute of Technology (now Illinois
Institute of Technology), in Chicago,
Street hierarchy was first elaborated by Ludwig Hilberseimer in his book City Plan,
1927. Hilberseimer emphasized safety for school-age children to walk to school while
increasing the speed of the vehicular circulation system.
Buisness city at the Gendarmenmarket 1928
Edmund Norwood Bacon (May 2, 1910 – October 14, 2005) was a noted American urban planner, architect, educator and author. During his tenure as the Executive Director of the Philadelphia City Planning Commission from 1949 to 1970, his visions shaped today's Philadelphia, the
city in which he was born, to the extent that he is sometimes described as "The Father of Modern Philadelphia." Bacon won numerous honors including the Frank P. Brown Medal in 1962, the American Institute of Planners Distinguished Service Award, thePhiladelphia Award, and an honorary doctorate from Penn. From 2004 until his death at the age of 95, Bacon helped found and served as an Honorary Director of the foundation that bears his name, The Ed Bacon Foundation.
Peter Calthorpe (born 1949) is a San Francisco-based architect, urban designer and urban planner. He is a founding member of the Congress for New Urbanism, a Chicago-based advocacy group formed in 1992 that promotes sustainable building practices. In 1989 he proposed the concept of "Pedestrian Pocket" an up to 110 acres (45 ha) pedestrian friendly, transit linked, mixed-use urban area with a park at its centre. The Pedestrian Pocket mixes low-rise high-density housing, commercial and retail uses. The concept had a number of similarities with Ebenezer Howard's Garden City, and aimed to be an alternative to the than usual low-
density residential suburban developments.
Edward J. "Ed" Logue (February 7, 1921 – January 27, 2000) was an urban planner, public administrator, lawyer, politician, and academic who worked in New Haven, Boston, and New York State. Commentators often compare Logue with Robert Moses - both were advocates of large-scale urban renewal in the United States from the 1950s through the 1970s. Logue is best known for overseeing major public works projects, such as Faneuil Hall-Quincy
Market and Government Center in Boston, and the re-development of Roosevelt Island in New York City.
Government Center, Boston, USA
Paolo Soleri (21 June 1919 – 9 April 2013) was an Italian-American architect. He established Arcosanti and the educational Cosanti Foundation. Soleri was a lecturer in the College of Architecture at Arizona State University and a National Design Award recipient in 2006. He died at home of natural causes on 9 April 2013 at the age of 93.
The Cosanti Foundation's major project is Arcosanti, a community planned for 5,000 people, designed by Soleri; Arcosanti has been in construction since 1970. Located near Cordes Junction, about 70 miles (110 km)
north of Phoenix and visible from Interstate I-17 in central Arizona, the project intends to provide a model demonstrating Soleri's concept of "Arcology", architecturecoherent with ecology
Sir Ebenezer Howard OBE (29 January 1850 – 1 May 1928) is known for his publication Garden Cities of To-morrow (1898), the description of a utopian city in which people live harmoniously together with nature. The publication resulted in the founding of the garden city movement, that realised several Garden Cities in Great Britain at the beginning of the 20th century. This movement influenced the development of several model
suburbs such as Forest Hills Gardens designed by F. L. Olmsted Jr. in 1909, Radburn NJ (1923) and the Suburban Resettlement Program towns of the 1930s (Greenbelt,
Maryland, Greenhills, Ohio, Greenbrooke, New Jersey and Greendale, Wisconsin). By 1876 he was back in England, where he found a job with Hansard company, which produces
the official verbatim record of Parliament, and he spent the rest of his life in this occupation.
The Garden City Concept by en:Ebenezer Howard
Kevin Andrew Lynch (1918 Chicago, Illinois -
1984 Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts) was an
American urban planner and author. His most influential
books include The Image of the City (1960) and What
Time is This Place? (1972). Lynch's most famous
work, The Image of the City published in 1960, is the
result of a five-year study on how observers take in information of the city. Using three disparate
cities as examples (Boston, Jersey City, and Los Angeles), Lynch reported that users
understood their surroundings in consistent and predictable ways, forming mental maps with
paths, the streets, sidewalks, trails, and other channels in which people travel;
edges, perceived boundaries such as walls, buildings, and shorelines;
districts, relatively large sections of the city distinguished by some identity or character;
nodes, focal points, intersections or loci;
landmarks, readily identifiable objects which serve as external reference points
Felinio A. Palafox, Jr. is a prominent Filipino
architect, urban planner and environmentalist.
He is the Principal Architect-Urban Planner,
Founder, and Managing Partner of Palafox
Associates, the only Filipino and the only
Southeast Asian architectural firm to first make it into the list of the world’s top 200
architectural firms compiled by the London-based World Architecture magazine. He
was instrumental in many real estate developments in the Philippines such as the
establishment of Rockwell Center, Robinsons Malls and SM Supermalls, Gateway
Mall in Araneta Center, Waltermart malls, Regency Boracay Hotel, La Mesa Watershed
and Ecological Center in Quezon City and Subic Special Economic Zone.
Mr. Palafox is in the field of planning and architecture for four decades serving both the
government and private sector. As Principal Architect-Urban Planner and Managing
Partner of Palafox Associates for 22 years, his major projects include architectural
design of more than eight million square meters in land area in 34 countries.
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, better known
as Le Corbusier (French: [lə kɔʁbyzje]; October 6,
1887 – August 27, 1965), was
an architect,designer, painter, urban
planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is
now called modern architecture. He was born
in Switzerland and became aFrench citizen in
1930. His career spanned five decades, with his
buildings constructed throughout Europe, India, and America.
Dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities, Le
Corbusier was influential in urban planning, and was a founding member of the Congrès
International d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM).
Rhodes (also Deinocrates, Dimocrates, Cheirocrates and Stasicrates; Greek: Δεινοκράτης ο Ρόδιος, fl. last quarter of the 4th century BC) was a Greek architect and technical adviser for Alexander the Great. He is known for his plan for the city of Alexandria, the monumental funeral pyre for Hephaestion and the reconstruction of the Temple of Artemis atEphesus, as well as other works.
In 332 BC, Alexander appointed him director of the surveying and urban planning work for the city of Alexandria, which was laid out on a grid plan that was influential in Hellenistic city planning. He was aided by Cleomenes of Naucratis and by Crates of Olynthus, an esteemed hydraulic engineer who built the waterworks for the city and the sewer system demanded by the low-lying site.
Christopher Charles Benninger is an American-
Indian architect and planner born in the United
States in 1942. He studied urban planning at
theMassachusetts Institute of Technology and
architecture at Harvard's Graduate School of
Design, where he later taught (1969–72).
Benninger studied under Josep Lluis Sert and
worked in his studio. He was a protégé of the noted
economist Barbara Ward and a member of theDelos
Symposium group, contributing articles to the journal Ekistics. He was influenced by the
group's founder, Constantinos Doxiadis who led the Ekistics movement. This brought
him into association with Buckminister Fuller, Arnold Toynbee, Margaret Mead and
Samundra Institute of Maritime Studies
Agustín Landa Verdugo (1923 – 3 October 2009)
was a Mexican architect and urban planner, born
in Mexico City. He studied architecture in the National
University of Mexico (now UNAM). In 1945 he
established a firm with his brother Enrique, with whom
he designed hundreds of public and private buildings
during four decades of partnership. The firm's work
distinguished itself by its modern language and the
efficiency and economy of the solutions it proposed.
The work of Landa Verdugo's firm was influential in many areas of architecture in
Mexico, including the design of hospitals and social housing, where its pioneering
designs became standards for younger architects.
As an urban planner, Agustin Landa Verdugo was the author of the master plan of a
number of new cities and neighborhoods in Mexico, most notably the city of Cancún,
which was built in the early 1970s in an uninhabited island in the state of Quintana Roo.
Master Plan of the city
Moshe Safdie, CC, FAIA (born July 14, 1938) is
an Israeli/Canadian architect, urban designer,
educator, theorist, and author. He is most
identified with Habitat 67, which paved the way for
his international career. Moshe Safdie's works
are known for their dramatic curves, arrays of
geometric patterns, use of windows, and key
placement of open and green spaces. His writings
and designs stress the need to create meaningful,
vital, and inclusive spaces that enhance
community, with special attention to the essence of a particular locale, geography, and
He is a self-described modernist.
Khalsa Heritage Memorial Complex, Anandpur Sahib, India, 2011
Alfred Bettman (1873 – 1945) was one of the
key founders of modern urban planning. Zoning,
as it is known today, can be attributed to his
successful arguments before the U.S. Supreme
Court, which resulted in the 1926 decision in favor
of the Village of Euclid, Ohio versus Ambler Realty
The concept of the "Comprehensive Plan," as
used in most cities across the U.S., was in no
small part due to the work of Bettman and Ladislas Segoe on the "Cincinnati Plan."
(See City Plan for Cincinnati) Bettman also created the "Capital Improvements Budget."
Bettman's planning work was interrupted in 1917 when President Wilson appointed him
as a special assistant to Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer. Assigned to the
War Emergency Division, he was in charge of Espionage Act cases with John Lord
O'Brian. At the end of the war, President Wilson granted clemency to over 100 prisoners
on Bettman's recommendation.
City Plan for Cincinnati
Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (born December 20, 1950 in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania) is an American architect and urban planner of Polish-Livonian aristocratic roots based in Miami, Florida. She received her undergraduate degree in architecture and urban planning from Princeton and her master's degree in architecture from the Yale School of Architecture. Plater-Zyberk is a founder and emeritus board member of the Congress for
the New Urbanism, which was established in 1993. She has been a visiting professor at many major North American schools of architecture, has been awarded several honorary doctorates and awards, and lectures frequently. In 2001, she and Duany were awarded the Vincent Scully Prize by the National Building Museum in recognition of their contributions to the American built environment.
Arturo Soria y Mata (1844-1920) was an
internationally important Spanish urban planner whose
work remains highly inspirational today. He is most well
known for his concept of the Linear City (Ciudad Lineal)
for application to Madrid and elsewhere. He studied
the civil engineer career (Ingeniero de Caminos), but he
didn't finish it.
Arturo Soria y Mata's idea of the Linear City (1882)
replaced the traditional idea of the city as a centre and a periphery with the idea of
constructing linear sections of infrastructure - roads, railways, gas, water, etc.- along an
optimal line and then attaching the other components of the city along the length of this
line. As compared to the concentric diagrams of Ebenezer Howard and other in the
same period, Soria's linear city creates the infrastructure for a controlled process of
expansion that joins one growing city to the next in a rational way, instead of letting
them both sprawl.
Ciudad lineal de Arturo Soria