esd toolkit v2

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oy _kzhcyl DjMgkql# Rf,N, Qi~f hzziz~hljg ekd Jfhcgz H, Fkrmilz _gailh _ippi Dhihllg Jfyz~hcoinag  Rk~chln Z~h~g Wliugzi~y Ahnwh~g Zjfkkc ke Gnwjh~ikl R,K,Okv 178 587 ZG Fhizkl Rk~chln# K_ 91?21$2178 W,Z,H &72:) 1?7$69:> Ehv0 &72:) 1?7$:?22 Gdhic0 wlgzjkBrnv,gnw Ewlngn oy Qhz~g Dhlhagdgl~ _gzghjf hln Gnwjh~ikl Ilz~i~w~ikl  Zkjig~y Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ ^kkcmi~ Gjklkdy Gluikldgl~ Ugzikl ? @wcy ?22?

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Page 1: Esd Toolkit v2

8/14/2019 Esd Toolkit v2

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/esd-toolkit-v2 1/142

oy

_kzhcyl DjMgkql# Rf,N,

Qi~f hzziz~hljg ekd

Jfhcgz H, Fkrmilz_gailh _ippi

Dhihllg Jfyz~hcoinag

 

Rk~chln Z~h~g Wliugzi~y

Ahnwh~g Zjfkkc ke Gnwjh~ikl

R,K,Okv 178

587 ZG FhizklRk~chln# K_ 91?21$2178 W,Z,H

&72:) 1?7$69:>

Ehv0 &72:) 1?7$:?22

Gdhic0 wlgzjkBrnv,gnw

Ewlngn oy

Qhz~g Dhlhagdgl~ _gzghjf

hln Gnwjh~ikl Ilz~i~w~ikl

 

Zkjig~y

Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~

^kkcmi~

Gjklkdy

Gluikldgl~

Ugzikl ?@wcy ?22?

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Hw~fk’z Lk~g

^fg Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~  ^kkcmi~ iz ohzgn kl ~fg ingh ~fh~

jkddwli~igz hln gnwjh~iklhc zyz~gdz qi~fil jkddwli~igz lggn ~k nkug~hic ~fgi 

zwz~hilhoici~y geek~z, Hz jkddwli~igz ngugckr zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz# ckjhc gnwjh~iklhczyz~gdz jhl dkniey gviz~ila jwijwcwdz ~k gilekjg ~fkzg akhcz, Hz qg ngugckrgn ~fg

^kkcmi~ # i~ ogjhdg hrrhgl~ ~fh~ dhly jkddwli~igz fhug lk~ ngugckrgn zwz~hilhoici~y

akhcz k hj~ikl rchlz kl qfijf ~k ohzg gnwjh~iklhc jfhlag, Hz h gzwc~# qg iljcwng

zkdg gvgjizgz ~k fgcr jkddwli~igz ngugckr zwjf akhcz, Qg hczk iljcwng h egq

gvgjizgz ~k gvrchil ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~,

I qhz ilzrign ~k ngugckr ~fg GZN ^kkcmi~ he~g h~~glnila ~fg Wli~gn Lh~iklz &WL)

Jkddizzikl kl Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ &JZN) il 8996, Ghjf ygh# ~fg JZN guigqz

zgughc jfhr~gz ke Haglnh ?8 ekd ~fg Gh~f Zwddi~ &_ik ng @hlgik# 899?), Qfgl I

h~~glngn ~fiz dgg~ila# ~fg JZN guigqgn Jfhr~g :5# –Rkdk~ila Gnwjh~ikl# Rwocij

Hqhglgzz# hln hilila,— ^fkwaf ~fg dgg~ila# ngcgah~ikl he~g ngcgah~ikl heeidgn

~fg idrk~hljg ke gnwjh~ikl il hjfiguila zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, Lgug~fgcgzz# I

lk~gn akqila ewz~h~ikl ~fh~ gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ &GZN) qhz lk~

hnuhljila dkg hrincy= ~fh~ lk klg fhn ~hmgl gzrklzioici~y ek GZN lk hizgn dklgy

~k rkdk~g i~= ~fh~ lk klg mlgq qfgg k fkq ~k z~h~= hln ~fh~ rgkrcg qgg rkil~ila

eilagz h~ k~fgz# hjjwzila ~fgd ke lk~ nkila glkwaf,

I g~wlgn ekd ~fg JZN dgg~ila qi~f ~fg zglzg ~fh~ jkddwli~y cghngz hln

gnwjh~kz lggngn hl ghzy$~k$wzg dhlwhc ~fh~ qkwcn fgcr ~fgd ag~ z~h~gn il ~fg

owzilgzz ke gnwjh~ila ek zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, k ~fh~ gln# I zkwaf~ ewlnila ekd

~fg Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg’z Qhz~g Dhlhagdgl~ _gzghjf hln Gnwjh~ikl Ilz~i~w~g

&QD_GI)# h z~h~g zrklzkgn jgl~g ke gvjgccgljg, Qfgl QD_GI aglgkwzcy ahl~gn

~fg gxwgz~# I ogahl ngugckrila ~fg Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ ^kkcmi~ , I

glciz~gn ~fg fgcr ke Jfhcgz H, Fkrmilz ke Ykm Wliugzi~y hln _gailh _ippi ke ~fg

Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg, ^fg eiz~ gni~ikl ke ~fg GZN ^kkcmi~ qhz rwocizfgn il ?222 il

ok~f fhn jkry hln kl ~fg Qkcn Qing Qgo 3f~~r0++qqq,gzn~kkcmi~,ka<, ^fg Qgo zi~g

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ugzikl ke ~fg GZN ^kkcmi~ qhz iddgnih~gcy rkrwch# uizi~gn oy ~fkwzhlnz ekd hkwln

~fg qkcn, I fhug gjgiugn gxwgz~z ek rgdizzikl ~k ~hlzch~g hcc k rh~z ke ~fg GZN 

^kkcmi~ il~k 82 chlawhagz, ^fg gxwgz~z ek rgdizzikl qgg ahl~gn qi~f ~fg z~irwch~ikl

~fh~ ~fg kiailhc qkm hln hw~fkz og ji~gn, Qi~f ~fg jkl~ilwila aglgkwz zwrrk~ ke 

QD_GI# I guizgn ~fg GZN ^kkcmi~ il ?22?, Jfhcgz hln _gailh fgcrgn qi~f ~fg

guiziklz# hz nin Dhihllg Jfyz~hcoinag qfk kilgn ~fg geek~ ch~g, I agh~cy

hrrgjih~g ~fgi fkwz ke qkm# gv~hknilhy geek~# hln ngnijh~ikl ~k ~fg inghcz ke 

zwz~hilhoici~y hln ~fg idrk~hljg ke gnwjh~ikl, I qkwcn hczk cimg ~k ~fhlm Jklz~hljg

Aieei~f hln Nhuin Oicc ek ~fgi zwrgo gni~ila,

I ziljggcy fkrg ~fg GZN ^kkcmi~ fgcrz ykw hln ykw jkddwli~y# ykw zjfkkc# k 

ykw ilz~i~w~ikl ~hmg ~fg eiz~ z~grz ~kqhn jgh~ila hl gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhocg

ngugckrdgl~ rkahd,

_kzhcyl DjMgkql 

Dhy ?22?

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^hocg ke Jkl~gl~z

Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ ^kkcmi~

Hw~fk’z Lk~g

I, Il~knwj~ikl ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 1

Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 6

Riljircgz ke Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 6

Fiz~ky ke Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 82

Gnwjh~ikl0 Rkdizg hln Rhhnkv ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 82

^fgzfkcnz ke Gnwjh~ikl hln Zwz~hilhoici~y ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 88

Idrcgdgl~h~ikl ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8?

Ngjizikl dhmila ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8?

Xwhci~y ke Cieg ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8:

II, Qfh~ iz GZN; ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8:

Idrkuila Ohzij Gnwjh~ikl $ ^fg Eiz~ Riki~y,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8:

_gkigl~ila Gviz~ila Gnwjh~ikl $ ^fg Zgjkln Riki~y ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8>

Rwocij Wlngz~hlnila hln Hqhglgzz $ ^fg ^fin Riki~y ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 87

^hilila $ ^fg Ekw~f Riki~y ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 87

Ekdhc# Lklekdhc# hln Ilekdhc Gnwjh~ikl ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 85

III, _gkigl~ila Gnwjh~ikl ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 85

Mlkqcgnag ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 81

Izzwgz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 86

Zmiccz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ?2

Rgzrgj~iugz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ?2

Uhcwgz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ?8

IU, Rkjgzz ek Ckjhcipila ~fg Ackohc Ili~ih~iug ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ?>

Z~gla~fz Dkngc ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ?>

GZN# hl Gukcuila Jkljgr~ ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ?5

U, Jfhccglagz hln Ohigz ~k GZN ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ?1

Izzwg 8 $ Iljghzila Hqhglgzz0 GZN iz Gzzgl~ihc ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ?1

Izzwg ? $ Z~wj~wila hln Rchjila GZN il ~fg Jwijwcwd ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ?6

Izzwg : $ Cilmila ~k Gviz~ila Izzwgz0 Gnwjh~iklhc _gekd hln

Gjklkdij Uihoici~y ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ?9

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Izzwg > $ Ehjila ~fg Jkdrcgvi~y ke Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ Jkljgr~ ,,,,,,,,,,,,,, :2

Izzwg 7 $ Ngugckrila hl GZN Rkahd qi~f Jkddwli~y Rh~ijirh~ikl,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, :2

Izzwg 5 $ Glahaila ^hni~iklhc Nizjircilgz il h

^hlznizjircilhy Ehdgqkm ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, :?

Izzwg 1 $ Zfhila ~fg _gzrklzioici~y ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, :?

Izzwg 6 $ Owicnila Fwdhl Jhrhji~y ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, :?Izzwg 9 $ Ngugckrila Eilhljihc hln Dh~gihc _gzkwjgz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, :>

Izzwg 82 $ Ngugckrila Rkcijy,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, :5

Izzwg 88 $ Ngugckrila h Jgh~iug# Illkuh~iug# hln _izm$^hmila Jcidh~g ,,,,,,,,,,,,, :5

Izzwg 8? $ Rkdk~ila Zwz~hilhoici~y il Rkrwch Jwc~wg ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, :5

Zwddhy _gdhm hokw~ ~fg 8? Izzwgz,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, :1

UI, Nkug~hicila GZN qi~f Jkddwli~y Zwz~hilhoici~y Akhcz,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, :1

UII, Jhzg Z~wny0 kkl~k Okhn ke Gnwjh~ikl Jwijwcwd

_guizikl hln _gkigl~h~ikl ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, :6

UIII, _gkigl~ila Gnwjh~ikl Ilukcugz Dhlhaila Jfhlag ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, >?

Rkahdz# Rkcijigz# hln Rhj~ijgz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, >:

Rkahd ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, >>

Rkcijy ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, >>

Rhj~ijg,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, >7

Dhlhagdgl~ nwila Jfhlag ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, >6K~fg Jklzingh~iklz il Dhlhaila Jfhlag ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 78

Dizzikl hln Uizikl,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 7?

_ghnilgzz hln Jhrhoici~y ke Jfhlag ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 7?

Hlhcypila ~fg Lh~wg ke Jfhlag _gxwign

ek _gkigl~ila Gnwjh~ikl ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 7?

Hlhcypila hln Rchllila Jkddi~dgl~,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 7:

Jgh~ila# Idrcgdgl~ila# hln Dkli~kila Rchlz,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 7>

Zwddhy _gdhmz kl Dhlhaila Jfhlag ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 7>

IV, Rwocij Rh~ijirh~ikl ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 77

V, Jkljcwnila _gdhmz,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 76

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VI, Gvgjizgz ~k Il~knwjg ~fg Jkljgr~ ke Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 79

8, Nhil k Zwz~hil; ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 52

?, Nhil k Zwz~hil II ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 5?

:, Z,G,G, ~fg Cilmz( ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 5>

VII, Gvgjizgz ~k Jgh~g Jkddwli~y Zwz~hilhoici~y Akhcz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 518, Dgg~ila ykw Lgiafokz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 56

?, Owicnila Jklzglzwz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 59

:, Zggila ykw Jkddwli~y ~fkwaf h Zwz~hilhoici~y Cglz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 12

>, Gluiziklila h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 1:

7, Jgh~ila Jkddwli~y Zwz~hilhoici~y Akhcz0 Ngjinila Qfh~ iz Idrk~hl~ ,,,,,,,,,, 16

VIII, Gvgjizgz ~k _gkigl~ Gnwjh~ikl ~k Hnngzz Zwz~hilhoici~y ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 6?

8, Ohzij Jkdrklgl~z ke GZN ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 6:

?, Rk`gj~ Y ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 67

:, Wli~y iz Z~gla~f ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 61

>, Qggnila ~fg Jwijwcwd ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 92

7, Dhmila ykw Inghz Ecy( ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 9:

5, Z~krciaf~ ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 97

1, Izzwgz$Ohzgn Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhoici~y ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 96

6, Jkddwli~y Ekwd ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 822

VIU, Gvgjizgz kl Dhlhaila Jfhlag ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8288, Gvhdilila Hzzwdr~iklz,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 82:

?, Z~ggila hkwln ~fg Ohigz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 827

:, Ilugl~ky ke Zwrrk~ hln _gziz~hljg ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 826

>, Jkddi~dgl~ Jfh~ila ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 882

7, Jgh~ila hl Hj~ikl Rchl ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 88:

5, Ingl~ieyila Jkddwlijh~ikl Z~h~gaigz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 886

1, _gjkalipila Uhcwgz il Hj~ikl ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8??

VU, _geggljgz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8?>

VUI, Qkcn Qing Qgo _gzkwjgz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8?6

I, Ilekdh~ikl kl Zwz~hilhoici~y ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8:2

II, Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8:?

III, Fiz~kijhc Wli~gn Lh~iklz Nkjwdgl~z ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8:9

IU, Jkddwli~y Hj~ikl0 Zi~gz ek Jgh~ila Ckjhc Zwz~hilhoici~y Rchlz ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 8>2

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I, IL^_KNWJ^IKL

Gnwjh~ikl iz hl gzzgl~ihc ~kkc ek hjfiguila zwz~hilhoici~y, Rgkrcg hkwln ~fg qkcn

gjkalipg ~fh~ jwgl~ gjklkdij ngugckrdgl~ ~glnz hg lk~ zwz~hilhocg hln ~fh~ rwocij

hqhglgzz# gnwjh~ikl# hln ~hilila hg mgy ~k dkuila zkjig~y ~kqhn zwz~hilhoici~y, Ogykln

~fh~# ~fgg iz ci~~cg haggdgl~, Rgkrcg hawg hokw~ ~fg dghlila ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~

hln qfg~fg k lk~ i~ iz h~~hilhocg, ^fgy fhug nieeggl~ uiziklz ke qfh~ zwz~hilhocg zkjig~igz

qicc ckkm cimg hln fkq ~fgy qicc ewlj~ikl, ^fgzg zhdg rgkrcg qklng qfy gnwjh~kz fhug

lk~ dkugn dkg xwijmcy ~k ngugckr gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhoici~y &GeZ) rkahdz, ^fg chjm ke 

haggdgl~ hln ngeili~ikl fhug z~ydign geek~z ~k dkug gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhocg

ngugckrdgl~ &GZN) ekqhn,

I~ iz jwikwz ~k lk~g ~fh~ qficg qg fhug nieeijwc~y gluiziklila h zwz~hilhocg qkcn# qg

fhug lk nieeijwc~y ingl~ieyila qfh~ iz wlzwz~hilhocg il kw zkjig~igz, Qg jhl hrincy jgh~g h

chwlny ciz~ ke rkocgdz $ ilgeeijigl~ wzg ke glgay# chjm ke qh~g jklzguh~ikl# iljghzgn

rkccw~ikl# howzgz ke fwdhl iaf~z# kugwzg ke rgzklhc ~hlzrk~h~ikl# jklzwdgizd# g~j,Ow~ qg zfkwcn lk~ jfing kwzgcugz ogjhwzg qg chjm h jcgh ngeili~ikl ke zwz~hilhoici~y,

Ilnggn# dhly ~wcy agh~ jkljgr~z ke ~fg fwdhl qkcn $ hdkla ~fgd ngdkjhjy hln

 `wz~ijg $ hg fhn ~k ngeilg hln fhug dwc~ircg gvrgzziklz il jwc~wgz hkwln ~fg qkcn,

Il ~fg ^kkcmi~ # qg wzg ~fgg ~gdz zylklydkwzcy hln il~gjfhlaghocy0 gnwjh~ikl ek 

zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ &GZN)# gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhoici~y &GeZ)# hln zwz~hilhoici~y

gnwjh~ikl &ZG), Qg wzg GZN dkz~ ke~gl# ogjhwzg i~ iz ~fg ~gdilkckay wzgn egxwgl~cy h~

~fg il~glh~iklhc cgugc hln qi~fil WL nkjwdgl~z, Ckjhccy k lh~iklhccy# ~fg GZN geek~ dhy

og lhdgn k ngzjiogn il dhly qhyz ogjhwzg ke chlawhag hln jwc~whc nieeggljgz, Hzqi~f hcc qkm gch~gn ~k zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~# ~fg lhdg hln ~fg jkl~gl~ dwz~ og ckjhccy

gcguhl~ hln jwc~whccy hrrkrih~g,

Hl idrk~hl~ niz~ilj~ikl iz ~fg nieeggljg og~qggl gnwjh~ikl hokw~ zwz~hilhocg

ngugckrdgl~ hln gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, ^fg eiz~ iz hl hqhglgzz cgzzkl

k ~fgkg~ijhc nizjwzzikl, ^fg zgjkln iz ~fg wzg ke gnwjh~ikl hz h ~kkc ~k hjfigug

zwz~hilhoici~y, Il kw krilikl# dkg ~fhl h ~fgkg~ijhc nizjwzzikl iz lggngn h~ ~fiz ji~ijhc

 `wlj~wg il ~idg, Qficg zkdg rgkrcg hawg ~fh~ –ek— ilnijh~gz ilnkj~ilh~ikl# qg ~film –ek—

ilnijh~gz h rwrkzg, Hcc gnwjh~ikl zgugz h rwrkzg k zkjig~y qkwcn lk~ ilugz~ il i~, Niug 

gnwjh~ikl# ek gvhdrcg# zggmz ~k dhmg kw khnz zheg ek ~hugcgz, Eig$zheg~y gnwjh~ikl

zggmz ~k rgugl~ eigz hln ~haij ckzz ke ciugz hln rkrg~y, GZN rkdizgz ~k dhmg ~fg

qkcn dkg ciuhocg ek ~fiz hln ew~wg aglgh~iklz, Ke jkwzg# h egq qicc howzg k niz~k~

GZN hln ~wl i~ il~k ilnkj~ilh~ikl, ^fiz qkwcn og hl~i~fg~ijhc ~k ~fg lh~wg ke GZN# qfijf# il

ehj~# jhccz ek aiuila rgkrcg mlkqcgnag hln zmiccz ek ciegckla cghlila ~k fgcr ~fgd eiln lgq

zkcw~iklz ~k ~fgi gluikldgl~hc# gjklkdij# hln zkjihc izzwgz,

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Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~

Zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ iz h nieeijwc~ jkljgr~ ~k ngeilg= i~ iz hczk jkl~ilwhccy

gukcuila# qfijf dhmgz i~ nkwocy nieeijwc~ ~k ngeilg, Klg ke ~fg kiailhc ngzjir~iklz ke 

zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ iz jgni~gn ~k ~fg Owln~chln Jkddizzikl0 –Zwz~hilhocg

ngugckrdgl~ iz ngugckrdgl~ ~fh~ dgg~z ~fg lggnz ke ~fg rgzgl~ qi~fkw~ jkdrkdizila

~fg hoici~y ke ew~wg aglgh~iklz ~k dgg~ ~fgi kql lggnz— &Qkcn Jkddizzikl kl

Gluikldgl~ hln Ngugckrdgl~# 8961# r >:), Zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ iz aglghccy

~fkwaf~ ~k fhug ~fgg jkdrklgl~z0 gluikldgl~# zkjig~y# hln gjklkdy, ^fg qgcc$ogila ke 

~fgzg ~fgg hghz iz il~g~qilgn# lk~ zgrhh~g, Ek gvhdrcg# h fghc~fy# rkzrgkwz zkjig~y

gcigz kl h fghc~fy gluikldgl~ ~k rkuing ekkn hln gzkwjgz# zheg nilmila qh~g# hln

jcghl hi ek i~z ji~ipglz, ^fg zwz~hilhoici~y rhhniad g`gj~z ~fg jkl~gl~ikl ~fh~ jhzwhc~igz

il ~fg gluikldgl~hc hln zkjihc ghcdz hg ilgui~hocg hln hjjgr~hocg jklzgxwgljgz ke 

gjklkdij ngugckrdgl~, ^fwz# ~fg hw~fkz jklzing zwz~hilhoici~y ~k og h rhhniad ek 

~filmila hokw~ h ew~wg il qfijf gluikldgl~hc# zkjig~hc# hln gjklkdij jklzingh~iklz hg

ohchljgn il ~fg rwzwi~ ke ngugckrdgl~ hln idrkugn xwhci~y ke cieg,

Riljircgz ke Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~

Dhly akugldgl~z hln ilniuinwhcz fhug rklnggn qfh~ zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~

dghlz ogykln h zidrcg klg$zgl~gljg ngeili~ikl, ^fg _ik Ngjchh~ikl kl Gluikldgl~ hln 

Ngugckrdgl~ ecgzfgz kw~ ~fg ngeili~ikl oy ciz~ila 86 riljircgz ke zwz~hilhoici~y,

  Rgkrcg hg gl~i~cgn ~k h fghc~fy hln rknwj~iug cieg il fhdkly qi~f lh~wg,

  Ngugckrdgl~ ~knhy dwz~ lk~ wlngdilg ~fg ngugckrdgl~ hln gluikldgl~ lggnz ke 

rgzgl~ hln ew~wg aglgh~iklz,

  Lh~iklz fhug ~fg zkuggial iaf~ ~k gvrcki~ ~fgi kql gzkwjgz# ow~ qi~fkw~ jhwzilagluikldgl~hc nhdhag ogykln ~fgi okngz,

  Lh~iklz zfhcc ngugckr il~glh~iklhc chqz ~k rkuing jkdrglzh~ikl ek nhdhag ~fh~

hj~iui~igz wlng ~fgi jkl~kc jhwzg ~k hghz ogykln ~fgi okngz,

  Lh~iklz zfhcc wzg ~fg rgjhw~iklhy hrrkhjf ~k rk~gj~ ~fg gluikldgl~, Qfgg

~fgg hg ~fgh~z ke zgikwz k igugziocg nhdhag# zjigl~ieij wljg~hil~y zfhcc lk~ og

wzgn ~k rkz~rklg jkz~$geegj~iug dghzwgz ~k rgugl~ gluikldgl~hc ngahnh~ikl,

  Il kng ~k hjfigug zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~# gluikldgl~hc rk~gj~ikl zfhcc

jklz~i~w~g hl il~gahc rh~ ke ~fg ngugckrdgl~ rkjgzz# hln jhllk~ og jklzinggn il

izkch~ikl ekd i~, Ghnijh~ila rkug~y hln gnwjila nizrhi~igz il ciuila z~hlnhnz il

nieeggl~ rh~z ke ~fg qkcn hg gzzgl~ihc ~k hjfigug zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ hln

dgg~ ~fg lggnz ke ~fg dh`ki~y ke rgkrcg,

  Lh~iklz zfhcc jkkrgh~g ~k jklzgug# rk~gj~ hln gz~kg ~fg fghc~f hln il~gai~y ke 

~fg Gh~f’z gjkzyz~gd, ^fg ngugckrgn jkwl~igz hjmlkqcgnag ~fg gzrklzioici~y ~fh~

~fgy ogh il ~fg il~glh~iklhc rwzwi~ ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ il uigq ke ~fg

rgzzwgz ~fgi zkjig~igz rchjg kl ~fg ackohc gluikldgl~ hln ke ~fg ~gjflkckaigz

hln eilhljihc gzkwjgz ~fgy jkddhln,

  Lh~iklz zfkwcn gnwjg hln gcidilh~g wlzwz~hilhocg rh~~glz ke rknwj~ikl hln

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jklzwdr~ikl# hln rkdk~g hrrkrih~g ngdkahrfij rkcijigz,

  Gluikldgl~hc izzwgz hg ogz~ fhlncgn qi~f ~fg rh~ijirh~ikl ke hcc jkljglgn ji~ipglz,

Lh~iklz zfhcc ehjici~h~g hln gljkwhag rwocij hqhglgzz hln rh~ijirh~ikl oy dhmila

gluikldgl~hc ilekdh~ikl qingcy huhichocg,

  Lh~iklz zfhcc glhj~ geegj~iug gluikldgl~hc chqz# hln ngugckr lh~iklhc chq gahnila

cihoici~y ek ~fg uij~idz ke rkccw~ikl hln k~fg gluikldgl~hc nhdhag, Qfgg ~fgy fhug

hw~fki~y# lh~iklz zfhcc hzzgzz ~fg gluikldgl~hc idrhj~ ke rkrkzgn hj~iui~igz ~fh~

hg cimgcy ~k fhug h zialieijhl~ hnugzg idrhj~,

  Lh~iklz zfkwcn jkkrgh~g ~k rkdk~g hl krgl il~glh~iklhc gjklkdij zyz~gd ~fh~ qicc

cghn ~k gjklkdij akq~f hln zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ il hcc jkwl~igz,

Gluikldgl~hc rkcijigz zfkwcn lk~ og wzgn hz hl wl`wz~ieihocg dghlz ke gz~ij~ila

il~glh~iklhc ~hng,

  ^fg rkccw~g zfkwcn# il riljircg# ogh ~fg jkz~ ke rkccw~ikl,

  Lh~iklz zfhcc qhl klg hlk~fg ke lh~whc nizhz~gz k hj~iui~igz ~fh~ dhy fhug fhdewc

~hlzokwlnhy idrhj~z,

  Zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ gxwigz og~~g zjigl~ieij wlngz~hlnila ke ~fg rkocgdz,Lh~iklz zfkwcn zfhg mlkqcgnag hln illkuh~iug ~gjflkckaigz ~k hjfigug ~fg akhc ke 

zwz~hilhoici~y,

  ^fg ewcc rh~ijirh~ikl ke qkdgl iz gzzgl~ihc ~k hjfigug zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, ^fg

jgh~iui~y# inghcz hln jkwhag ke ykw~f hln ~fg mlkqcgnag ke ilniaglkwz rgkrcg hg

lggngn ~kk, Lh~iklz zfkwcn gjkalipg hln zwrrk~ ~fg ingl~i~y# jwc~wg hln il~ggz~z

ke ilniaglkwz rgkrcg,

  Qhehg iz ilfggl~cy ngz~wj~iug ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~# hln Lh~iklz zfhcc

gzrgj~ il~glh~iklhc chqz rk~gj~ila ~fg gluikldgl~ il ~idgz ke hdgn jklecij~# hln

zfhcc jkkrgh~g il ~fgi ew~fg gz~hocizfdgl~,  Rghjg# ngugckrdgl~ hln gluikldgl~hc rk~gj~ikl hg il~gngrglngl~ hln ilniuiziocg,

^fg –_ik riljircgz— aiug wz rhhdg~gz ek gluiziklila ckjhccy gcguhl~ hln jwc~whccy

hrrkrih~g zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ ek kw kql lh~iklz# gaiklz# hln jkddwli~igz, ^fgzg

riljircgz fgcr wz ~k ahzr ~fg hoz~hj~ jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ hln ogail ~k

idrcgdgl~ i~,

Zwz~hilhoici~y

Fgg hg zkdg geegj~iug gvrchlh~iklz ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ jgh~gn ek nieeggl~ hwnigljgz,

Zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ fhz ~fgg jkdrklgl~z0 gluikldgl~# zkjig~y# hln gjklkdy, Ie ykw jklzing ~fg ~fgg ~k og kugchrrila jijcgz ke ~fg zhdg zipg# ~fg hgh ke kugchr il ~fg jgl~g iz fwdhl qgcc$ogila, Hz~fg gluikldgl~# zkjig~y# hln gjklkdy ogjkdg dkg hcialgn# ~fg hgh ke kugchr iljghzgz# hln zk nkgzfwdhl qgcc$ogila,

^fg Lh~iklhc kql Dgg~ila kl Zwz~hilhoici~y &Dhy 8999) il Ng~ki~# Dijfiahl# gz~hocizfgn ~fh~ ~fg ~gd–zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~#— hc~fkwaf egxwgl~cy wzgn# iz lk~ qgcc wlngz~kkn, Qg ogcigug ~fh~ i~ dghlz lgq~gjflkckaigz hln lgq qhyz ke nkila owzilgzz# qfijf hcckq wz ~k idrkug xwhci~y ke cieg ~knhy il hcc gjklkdij#gluikldgl~hc# hln zkjihc nidglziklz# qi~fkw~ idrhiila ~fg hoici~y ke ew~wg aglgh~iklz ~k gl`ky xwhci~y ke cieghln krrk~wli~y h~ cghz~ hz akkn hz kwz,

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^fg fwdhl iaf~z jkddwli~y zhyz ~fh~ zwz~hilhoici~y iz h~~hilhocg ~fkwaf hln zwrrk~gn oy rghjg#  wz~ijg# hln ngdkjhjy,

^fg Agh~ Chq ke ~fg Fhw ng lk zhw lgg &Ziv Lh~iklz Ikxwkiz Jklegngh~ikl) zhyz ~fh~ il gugyngciogh~ikl qg dwz~ jklzing ~fg idrhj~ kl ~fg zgugl~f aglgh~ikl,

Gjklkdijz gnwjh~kz zhy zwz~hilhoici~y iz ciuila kl ~fg il~ggz~ h~fg ~fhl ~fg riljircg,

Fiz~ky ke Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~

Ekd ~fg ~idg zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ qhz eiz~ glnkzgn h~ ~fg WL Aglghc

Hzzgdocy il 8961# ~fg rhhccgc jkljgr~ ke gnwjh~ikl ~k zwrrk~ zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~

fhz hczk oggl gvrckgn, Ekd 8961 ~k 899?# ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~

dh~wgn hz jkddi~~ggz nizjwzzgn# lgak~ih~gn# hln qk~g ~fg >2 jfhr~gz ke Haglnh ?8,

Ili~ihc ~fkwaf~z jkljglila GZN qgg jhr~wgn il Jfhr~g :5 ke Haglnh ?8# –Rkdk~ila

Gnwjh~ikl# Rwocij Hqhglgzz# hln ^hilila,—

Wlcimg dkz~ gnwjh~ikl dkugdgl~z# GZN qhz ili~ih~gn oy rgkrcg kw~zing ke ~fggnwjh~ikl jkddwli~y, Il ehj~# klg dh`k rwzf ek GZN jhdg ekd il~glh~iklhc rkci~ijhc hln

gjklkdij ekwdz &g,a,# Wli~gn Lh~iklz# Kahliph~ikl ek Gjklkdij Jk$krgh~ikl hln

Ngugckrdgl~# Kahliph~ikl ke Hdgijhl Z~h~gz), Hz ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhocg

ngugckrdgl~ qhz nizjwzzgn hln ekdwch~gn# i~ ogjhdg hrrhgl~ ~fh~ gnwjh~ikl iz mgy ~k

zwz~hilhoici~y, Il dhly jkwl~igz# GZN iz z~icc ogila zfhrgn oy ~fkzg kw~zing ~fg gnwjh~ikl

jkddwli~y, ^fg jkljgr~z hln jkl~gl~ ke GZN il ~fgzg jhzgz hg ngugckrgn oy diliz~igz#

zwjf hz ~fkzg ke gluikldgl~ hln fghc~f# hln ~fgl aiugl ~k gnwjh~kz ~k ngciug,

Jkljgr~whc ngugckrdgl~ ilngrglngl~ ke gnwjh~k ilrw~ iz h rkocgd gjkalipgn oy

il~glh~iklhc oknigz hz qgcc hz gnwjh~kz,

Gnwjh~ikl0 Rkdizg hln Rhhnkv

^qk ke ~fg dh`k izzwgz il ~fg il~glh~iklhc nihcka kl zwz~hilhoici~y hg rkrwch~ikl

hln gzkwjg jklzwdr~ikl, Iljghzgz il rkrwch~ikl hln gzkwjg wzg hg ~fkwaf~ ~k

 `gkrhnipg h zwz~hilhocg ew~wg# hln gnwjh~ikl iz cilmgn ok~f ~k eg~ici~y h~g hln gzkwjg

jklzwdr~ikl, Gnwjh~ila egdhcgz gnwjgz eg~ici~y h~gz hln ~fggekg rkrwch~ikl akq~f, Oy

gnwjila eg~ici~y h~gz hln ~fg ~fgh~ ke kugrkrwch~ikl h jkwl~y hczk ehjici~h~gz rkagzz

~kqhn zwz~hilhoici~y, ^fg krrkzi~g iz ~wg ek ~fg gch~iklzfir og~qggl gnwjh~ikl hln

gzkwjg wzg, Aglghccy# dkg fiafcy gnwjh~gn rgkrcg# qfk fhug fiafg iljkdgz#

jklzwdg dkg gzkwjgz ~fhl rkkcy gnwjh~gn rgkrcg# qfk ~gln ~k fhug ckqg iljkdgz, Il

~fiz jhzg# dkg gnwjh~ikl iljghzgz ~fg ~fgh~ ~k zwz~hilhoici~y,

Wlek~wlh~gcy# ~fg dkz~ gnwjh~gn lh~iklz cghug ~fg nggrgz~ gjkckaijhc ekk~ril~z#

dghlila ~fgy fhug ~fg fiafgz~ rg$jhri~h h~gz ke jklzwdr~ikl, ^fiz jklzwdr~ikl niugz

gzkwjg gv~hj~ikl hln dhlwehj~wila hkwln ~fg qkcn, ^fg eiawgz ekd ~fg Wli~gn

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Lh~iklz Gnwjh~iklhc# Zjigl~ieij hln Jwc~whc Kahliph~ikl &WLGZJK) Z~h~iz~ijhc Yghokkm 

hln Qkcn Gnwjh~ikl _grk~ # ek gvhdrcg# zfkq ~fh~ il ~fg Wli~gn Z~h~gz dkg ~fhl 62

rgjgl~ ke ~fg rkrwch~ikl fhz zkdg rkz~$zgjklnhy gnwjh~ikl# hln hokw~ ?7 rgjgl~ ke ~fg

rkrwch~ikl fhz h ekw$ygh ngagg ekd h wliugzi~y, Z~h~iz~ijz hczk zfkq ~fh~ rg$jhri~h

glgay wzg hln qhz~g aglgh~ikl il ~fg Wli~gn Z~h~gz hg lghcy ~fg fiafgz~ il ~fg qkcn,

Il ~fg jhzg ke ~fg Wli~gn Z~h~gz# dkg gnwjh~ikl fhz lk~ cgn ~k zwz~hilhoici~y, Jcghcy#

zidrcy gnwjh~ila ji~ipgly ~k fiafg cgugcz iz lk~ zweeijigl~ ek jgh~ila zwz~hilhocg zkjig~igz,

^fg jfhccglag iz ~k hizg ~fg gnwjh~ikl cgugcz qi~fkw~ jgh~ila hl gug$akqila ngdhln ek 

gzkwjgz hln jklzwdg akknz hln ~fg hjjkdrhlyila rknwj~ikl ke rkccw~hl~z, Dgg~ila

~fiz jfhccglag ngrglnz kl gkigl~ila jwijwcwdz ~k hnngzz ~fg lggn ek dkg$zwz~hilhocg

rknwj~ikl hln jklzwdr~ikl rh~~glz,

Gugy lh~ikl qicc lggn ~k ggvhdilg jwijwcwd h~ hcc cgugcz &i,g,# rg$zjfkkc ~k

rkegzziklhc gnwjh~ikl), Qficg i~ iz guingl~ ~fh~ i~ iz nieeijwc~ ~k ~ghjf gluikldgl~hc ci~ghjy#

gjklkdijz ci~ghjy# k jiuijz qi~fkw~ ohzij ci~ghjy# i~ iz hczk guingl~ ~fh~ zidrcy iljghzila

ohzij ci~ghjy# hz i~ iz jwgl~cy ~hwaf~ il dkz~ jkwl~igz# qicc lk~ zwrrk~ h zwz~hilhocgzkjig~y,

^fgzfkcnz ke Gnwjh~ikl hln Zwz~hilhoici~y

Jklzing ek ilz~hljg# ~fh~ qfgl gnwjh~ikl cgugcz hg ckq# gjklkdigz hg ke~gl

cidi~gn ~k gzkwjg gv~hj~ikl hln haijwc~wg, Il dhly jkwl~igz# ~fg jwgl~ cgugc ke ohzij

gnwjh~ikl iz zk ckq ~fh~ i~ zguggcy filngz ngugckrdgl~ kr~iklz hln rchlz ek h zwz~hilhocg

ew~wg, H fiafg gnwjh~ikl cgugc iz lgjgzzhy ~k jgh~g `koz hln ilnwz~igz ~fh~ hg

–agglg— &i,g,# ~fkzg fhuila ckqg gluikldgl~hc idrhj~z) hln dkg zwz~hilhocg,

^fg gch~iklzfir og~qggl gnwjh~ikl hln zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ iz jkdrcgv,

Aglghccy# gzghjf zfkqz ~fh~ ohzij gnwjh~ikl iz mgy ~k h lh~ikl!z hoici~y ~k ngugckr hln

hjfigug zwz~hilhoici~y ~hag~z, _gzghjf fhz zfkql ~fh~ gnwjh~ikl jhl idrkug haijwc~whc

rknwj~iui~y# glfhljg ~fg z~h~wz ke qkdgl# gnwjg rkrwch~ikl akq~f h~gz# glfhljg

gluikldgl~hc rk~gj~ikl# hln aglghccy hizg ~fg z~hlnhn ke ciuila, Ow~ ~fg gch~iklzfir iz

lk~ cilgh, Ek gvhdrcg# ekw ~k ziv yghz ke gnwjh~ikl iz ~fg dilidwd ~fgzfkcn ek 

iljghzila haijwc~whc rknwj~iui~y, Ci~ghjy hln lwdghjy hcckq ehdgz ~k hnhr~ ~k lgq

haijwc~whc dg~fknz# jkrg qi~f izm# hln gzrkln ~k dhmg~ zialhcz, Ci~ghjy hczk fgcrz

ehdgz div hln hrrcy jfgdijhcz &g,a,# eg~icipgz hln rgz~ijingz) hjjknila ~k

dhlwehj~wgz’ nigj~iklz# ~fggoy gnwjila ~fg izmz ~k ~fg gluikldgl~ hln fwdhl fghc~f,

H ohzij gnwjh~ikl hczk fgcrz ehdgz ahil ~i~cg ~k ~fgi chln hln hrrcy ek jgni~ h~ ohlmz hln

k~fg cglnila ilz~i~w~iklz, Geegj~z ke gnwjh~ikl kl haijwc~wg hg agh~gz~ qfgl ~fg

rkrk~ikl ke egdhcgz gnwjh~gn ~k ~fgzfkcn cgugc gxwhcz ~fh~ ke dhcgz,

Gnwjh~ikl oglgei~z h qkdhl il cieg$hc~gila qhyz, Hl gnwjh~gn qkdhl ahilz fiafg 

z~h~wz hln hl glfhljgn zglzg ke geeijhjy, Zfg ~glnz ~k dhy ch~g hln fhug agh~g 

ohahilila rkqg hln zwjjgzz il ~fg /dhihag dhmg~,/ Zfg hczk fhz agh~g ohahilila

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rkqg il ~fg fkwzgfkcn he~g dhihag, Hl gnwjh~gn qkdhl ~glnz ~k ngzig h zdhccg 

ehdicy zipg hln zggm ~fg fghc~f jhg lgjgzzhy ~k nk zk, Zfg fhz egqg hln fghc~fig 

jficngl, Hl gnwjh~gn qkdhl fhz fiaf gnwjh~iklhc hln jhgg gvrgj~h~iklz ke fg 

jficngl# ok~f okyz hln aicz, Ek egdhcgz# gnwjh~ikl rkekwlncy jfhlagz ~fgi ciugz# fkq

~fgy il~ghj~ qi~f zkjig~y# hln ~fgi gjklkdij z~h~wz, Gnwjh~ila qkdgl jgh~gz dkg

gxwi~hocg ciugz ek qkdgl hln ~fgi ehdicigz hln iljghzgz ~fgi hoici~y ~k rh~ijirh~g il

jkddwli~y ngjizikl dhmila hln qkm ~kqhn hjfiguila ckjhc zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz,

Hlk~fg gnwjh~iklhc ~fgzfkcn iz ridhy gnwjh~ikl ek qkdgl, H~ cghz~ h ridhy

gnwjh~ikl iz gxwign ogekg oi~fh~g nkrz hln ilehl~ fghc~f hln jficngl!z gnwjh~ikl

idrkug, Lilg ~k 8? yghz ke gnwjh~ikl hg gxwign ek iljghzgn ilnwz~ihc rknwj~iui~y,

^fiz cgugc ke gnwjh~ikl hczk iljghzgz ~fg rkohoici~y ke gdrckydgl~ il h jfhlaila

gjklkdy, Egq z~wnigz fhug oggl jhign kw~ kl fkq gnwjh~ikl heegj~z gluikldgl~hc

z~gqhnzfir# ow~ klg z~wny zwaagz~z ~fh~ h ckqg$zgjklnhy gnwjh~ikl &k hrrkvidh~gcy

lilg yghz) iz lgjgzzhy ~k il~glziey wzg ke gviz~ila chln hln ~k rkuing hc~glh~iug kee$ehd

gdrckydgl~ hln diah~ikl ekd whc hghz, Eilhccy# h zwo~cg jkdoilh~ikl ke fiafg 

gnwjh~ikl# gzghjf# hln cieg$ckla cghlila iz lgjgzzhy ek h lh~ikl ~k zfie~ ~k hl ilekdh~ikl

k mlkqcgnag$ohzgn gjklkdy# qfijf iz ewgcgn cgzz oy idrk~gn ~gjflkckay hln dkg oy

ckjhc illkuh~ikl hln jgh~iui~y &WLGZJK$HJGIN# 8991),

Gnwjh~ikl nigj~cy heegj~z zwz~hilhoici~y rchlz il ~fg ekcckqila ~fgg hghz0

Idrcgdgl~h~ikl, Hl gnwjh~gn ji~ipgly iz ui~hc ~k idrcgdgl~ila ilekdgn hln zwz~hilhocg

ngugckrdgl~, Il ehj~# h lh~iklhc zwz~hilhoici~y rchl jhl og glfhljgn k cidi~gn oy ~fg cgugc

ke gnwjh~ikl h~~hilgn oy ~fg lh~ikl!z ji~ipglz, Lh~iklz qi~f fiaf icci~ghjy h~gz hln wlzmiccgnqkmekjgz fhug egqg ngugckrdgl~ kr~iklz, Ek ~fg dkz~ rh~# ~fgzg lh~iklz hg ekjgn ~k

owy glgay hln dhlwehj~wgn akknz kl ~fg il~glh~iklhc dhmg~ qi~f fhn jwgljy, ^k

hjxwig fhn jwgljy# ~fgzg jkwl~igz lggn il~glh~iklhc ~hng= wzwhccy ~fiz cghnz ~k

gvrcki~h~ikl ke lh~whc gzkwjgz k jklugzikl ke chlnz ekd zgce$zweeijigl~ ehdicy$ohzgn

ehdila ~k jhzf$jkr haijwc~wg, Hl gnwjh~gn qkmekjg iz mgy ~k dkuila ogykln hl

gv~hj~iug hln haijwc~whc gjklkdy,

Ngjizikl dhmila, Akkn jkddwli~y$ohzgn ngjiziklz $ qfijf qicc heegj~ zkjihc# gjklkdij#

hln gluikldgl~hc qgcc$ogila $ hczk ngrgln kl gnwjh~gn ji~ipglz, Ngugckrdgl~ kr~iklz#gzrgjihccy –agglg— ngugckrdgl~ kr~iklz# gvrhln hz gnwjh~ikl iljghzgz, Ek gvhdrcg# h

jkddwli~y qi~f hl howlnhljg ke zmiccgn chok hln ~gjflijhccy ~hilgn rgkrcg jhl rgzwhng

h jkrkh~ikl ~k ckjh~g h lgq ilekdh~ikl$~gjflkckay hln zke~qhg$ngugckrdgl~ ehjici~y

lghoy, Ji~ipglz jhl hczk hj~ ~k rk~gj~ ~fgi jkddwli~igz oy hlhcypila grk~z hln nh~h

~fh~ hnngzz jkddwli~y izzwgz hln fgcrila zfhrg h jkddwli~y gzrklzg, Ek gvhdrcg#

ji~ipglz qfk qgg jkljglgn hokw~ qh~g rkccw~ikl grk~gn il h lghoy qh~gzfgn z~h~gn

dkli~kila ~fg qh~g xwhci~y ke ckjhc z~ghdz, Ohzgn kl ~fgi nh~h hln ilekdh~ikl ekwln kl

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gvrhlngn ~k iljcwng ji~ijhc$~filmila zmiccz# zmiccz ~k kahlipg hln il~grg~ nh~h hln

ilekdh~ikl# zmiccz ~k ekdwch~g xwgz~iklz# hln ~fg hoici~y ~k hlhcypg izzwgz ~fh~ jklekl~

jkddwli~igz,

Il dhly jkwl~igz# ~fg jwgl~ cgugc ke ohzij gnwjh~ikl iz ~kk ckq# zguggcy filngila

lh~iklhc rchlz ek h zwz~hilhocg ew~wg, Il Ch~il Hdgijh hln ~fg Jhiooghl# dhly jkwl~igz

fhug ziv ~k giaf~ yghz ke jkdrwczky gnwjh~ikl qi~f hrrkvidh~gcy eiug ~k 87 rgjgl~ ke ~fgz~wngl~z grgh~ila klg k dkg yghz, Il rh~z ke Hzih# gzrgjihccy Ohlachngzf# Rhmiz~hl#

hln Ilnih# dhly jficngl klcy h~~gln zjfkkc ek hl hughag ke eiug yghz, H jkdrcijh~ila

ehj~k il ~fiz gaikl iz ~fh~ dhly aicz gjgiug egqg yghz ke zjfkkcila ~k jgh~g ~fh~

hughag, Il rh~z ke Heijh# qfgg cieg iz niz~wogn oy nkwaf~ k qh# ~fg hughag

h~~glnhljg il rwocij gnwjh~ikl iz dghzwgn il dkl~fz# lk~ yghz, Wlek~wlh~gcy# ~fg ckqgz~

xwhci~y ke gnwjh~ikl iz ke~gl ekwln il ~fg rkkgz~ gaiklz k jkddwli~igz, ^fg idrhj~ ke 

ci~~cg hln+k rkk$xwhci~y gnwjh~ikl zguggcy cidi~z ~fg kr~iklz huhichocg ~k h lh~ikl ek 

ngugckrila i~z zfk~$ hln ckla$~gd zwz~hilhoici~y rchlz,

Hz lh~iklz ~wlgn ~fgi h~~gl~ikl ~k gnwjh~ikl il ~fg 8992z hln ~fg lgq diccglliwd#

~fgy fhug dhng dwjf rkagzz il ohzij gnwjh~ikl, Il ehj~# glkccdgl~ h~gz il ridhy

gnwjh~ikl hg izila il dkz~ gaiklz ke ~fg qkcn, Hczk# glkccdgl~ ke aicz fhz iljghzgn

ehz~g ~fhl ~fh~ ke okyz# qfijf iz fgcrila ~k jckzg ~fg aglng ahr guingl~ il zk dhly

jkwl~igz, H~ ~fg ackohc cgugc# ~fg aglng ahr il ok~f ridhy hln zgjklnhy zjfkkc iz

lhkqila, Ngzri~g hcc ke ~fiz rkagzz# ~kk dhly egdhcg jficngl gdhil kw~ ke zjfkkc# hln

~fg aglng ahr qicc lk~ jckzg rik ~k ~fg /Gnwjh~ikl Ek Hcc/ ~hag~ nh~g ke ?227,

^fg gjkali~ikl ke ~fg lggn ek xwhci~y ohzij gnwjh~ikl zg~z GZN hrh~ ekd k~fg 

gnwjh~iklhc geek~z# zwjf hz gluikldgl~hc gnwjh~ikl k rkrwch~ikl gnwjh~ikl,

_gkigl~ila Gviz~ila Gnwjh~ikl $ ^fg Zgjkln Riki~y

^fg ~gd /gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl/ fhz ogjkdg h rkqgewc ngzjir~k ~fh~ fgcrz

hndiliz~h~kz hln gnwjh~kz h~ gugy cgugc &i,g,# lwzgy zjfkkc ~fkwaf wliugzi~y) ~k

wlngz~hln ~fg jfhlagz gxwign ek GZN, Hl hrrkrih~gcy gkigl~gn ohzij gnwjh~ikl

iljcwngz dkg riljircgz# zmiccz# rgzrgj~iugz# hln uhcwgz gch~gn ~k zwz~hilhoici~y ~fhl hg

jwgl~cy iljcwngn il dkz~ gnwjh~ikl zyz~gdz, Fgljg# i~ iz lk~ klcy h xwgz~ikl ke xwhl~i~y ke 

gnwjh~ikl# ow~ hczk klg ke hrrkrih~glgzz hln gcguhljg, GZN gljkdrhzzgz h uizikl ~fh~

il~gah~gz gluikldgl~# gjklkdy# hln zkjig~y, _gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl hczk gxwigz~ghjfila hln cghlila mlkqcgnag# zmiccz# rgzrgj~iugz# hln uhcwgz ~fh~ qicc awing hln

dk~iuh~g rgkrcg ~k rwzwg zwz~hilhocg ciugcifkknz# ~k rh~ijirh~g il h ngdkjh~ij zkjig~y#

hln ~k ciug il h zwz~hilhocg dhllg,

^fg lggn ~k gkigl~ ohzij hln zgjklnhy gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y fhz

ahoogn il~glh~iklhc h~~gl~ikl# ow~ ~fg lggn h~ ~fg wliugzi~y cgugc iz `wz~ hz agh~,

Zkjig~y’z ew~wg cghngz hln ngjizikl dhmgz hg gnwjh~gn ~fgg, Ie ~fgzg ykwla rgkrcg hg

gvrgj~gn ~k cghn hcc zgj~kz ke zkjig~y &g,a,# akugldgl~# dgnijilg# haijwc~wg# ekgz~y#

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chq# owzilgzz# ilnwz~y# glailggila# gnwjh~ikl# jkddwlijh~iklz# hjfi~gj~wg# hln h~z) il h

qkcn z~iuila ~kqhn zwz~hilhoici~y# ~fgl ~fg jwgl~ hndiliz~h~ikl hln ehjwc~y dgdogz

dwz~ gkigl~ wliugzi~y jwijwcwdz ~k iljcwng ~fg dhly hln jkdrcgv ehjg~z ke 

zwz~hilhoici~y,

Il gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y# rkahd ngugckrgz lggn ~k

ohchljg ckkmila ekqhn ~k h dkg zwz~hilhocg zkjig~y qi~f ckkmila ohjm ~k ~hni~iklhc

gjkckaijhc mlkqcgnag, Ilniaglkwz ~hni~iklz ke~gl jhy qi~f ~fgd ~fg uhcwgz hln rhj~ijgz

~fh~ gdokny zwz~hilhocg gzkwjg wzg, Qficg g~wlila ~k ilniaglkwz ciegz~ycgz iz lk~ hl

kr~ikl ek ~fg dicciklz ke wohl nqgccgz# ~fg uhcwgz hln dh`k ~glg~z ke ilniaglkwz

~hni~iklz jhl og hnhr~gn ~k cieg il ~fg ?8z~ jgl~wy,

_gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y iz zkdg~fila ~fh~ zfkwcn kjjw 

~fkwafkw~ ~fg ekdhc gnwjh~ikl zyz~gd $ ~fh~ iljcwngz wliugzi~igz# rkegzziklhc zjfkkcz

&g,a,# chq hln dgnijilg)# hln ~gjflijhc zjfkkcz il hnni~ikl ~k ridhy hln zgjklnhy

gnwjh~ikl,

Rwocij Wlngz~hlnila hln Hqhglgzz $ ^fg ^fin Riki~y

Zwz~hilhoici~y gxwigz h rkrwch~ikl ~fh~ iz hqhg ke ~fg akhcz ke h zwz~hilhocg

zkjig~y hln fhz ~fg mlkqcgnag hln zmiccz ~k jkl~iow~g ~k ~fkzg akhcz, ^fg lggn ek hl

ilekdgn uk~ila ji~ipgly ogjkdgz gug dkg idrk~hl~ qi~f ~fg iljghzg il ~fg lwdog ke 

ngdkjh~ij akugldgl~z, Hl ilekdgn uk~ila ji~ipgly# qfijf cglnz zwrrk~ ~k glciaf~glgn

rkcijigz hln akugldgl~ ili~ih~iugz# jhl fgcr akugldgl~z glhj~ zwz~hilhocg dghzwgz,

Ji~ipglz hczk lggn ~k og mlkqcgnaghocg jklzwdgz qfk jhl zgg ogykln ~fg –aggl qhzf—

&i,g,# rwocij$gch~iklz geek~z ~fh~ fiafciaf~ ~fg hj~iui~igz ke jkrkh~iklz ~fh~ hg dkggluikldgl~hccy gzrklziocg qficg ialkila k finila ~fg dh`k hj~iui~igz ~fh~ hg lk~), Il

~knhy!z qkcn# rgkrcg hg zwkwlngn oy dgnih &g,a,# ~gcguizikl# hnik# lgqzrhrgz#

dhahpilgz) hln hnug~izgdgl~z &g,a,# oicc okhnz# ohllgz kl Qkcn Qing Qgo zi~gz# hln

ckakz kl jck~fila), Hz h gzwc~# rgkrcg dwz~ ogjkdg dgnih ci~gh~g hln hocg ~k hlhcypg ~fg

dgzzhagz ke jkrkh~g hnug~izgz,

Yghz ke gzkwjg dhlhagdgl~ fhz zfkql ~fh~ h rwocij ~fh~ iz hqhg ke hln

ilekdgn hokw~ gzkwjg$dhlhagdgl~ ngjiziklz hln rkahdz jhl fgcr hjfigug rkahd

akhcz, Il jkl~hz~# hl wlilekdgn rwocij jhl wlngdilg gzkwjg$dhlhagdgl~ rkahdz,

Gnwjh~ikl fhz hczk oggl gzzgl~ihc il dhly k~fg ~yrgz ke rkahdz# zwjf hz rwocij$fghc~f

geek~z ~k z~kr ~fg zrghn ke zrgjieij nizghzgz,

^hilila $ ^fg Ekw~f Riki~y

^hilila qhz hczk z~gzzgn il Jfhr~g :5, ^fg qkcn lggnz h ci~gh~g hln

gluikldgl~hccy hqhg ji~ipgly hln qkm ekjg ~k fgcr awing lh~iklz il idrcgdgl~ila ~fgi 

zwz~hilhoici~y rchlz, Hcc zgj~kz $ iljcwnila owzilgzz# ilnwz~y# fiafg gnwjh~ikl#

akugldgl~z# lklakugldgl~hc kahliph~iklz &LAKz)# hln jkddwli~y kahliph~ikl $ hg

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gljkwhagn ~k ~hil ~fgi cghngz il gluikldgl~hc dhlhagdgl~ hln ~k rkuing ~hilila ~k

~fgi qkmgz,

^hilila iz niz~ilj~ ekd gnwjh~ikl il ~fh~ ~hilila iz ke~gl zrgjieij ~k h rh~ijwch `ko

k jchzz ke `koz, ^hilila ~ghjfgz qkmgz fkq ~k wzg gxwirdgl~ zhegcy# og dkg geeijigl~#

hln jkdrcy qi~f gawch~iklz &g,a,# gluikldgl~hc# fghc~f# k zheg~y), Ek ilz~hljg# h

~hilila rkahd diaf~ ~ghjf qkmgz ~k hukin jfhlaila ~fg qhz~g z~ghd qi~fkw~ lk~ieyila

~fgi zwrguizk, Ew~fg# ie hl gdrckygg iz ilukcugn il h lklkw~ilg hj~iui~y# zwjf hz

jcghlila h lgq rigjg ke gxwirdgl~# zfg k fg iz ilz~wj~gn lk~ ~k nizrkzg ke ~fg jcghlila

zkcugl~ oy rkwila i~ nkql h z~kd zgqg nhil ~fh~ cghnz ~k ~fg iug, Zkdg ~hilila# zwjf

hz ~hilila qkdgl ~k wzg zkch jkkmgz h~fg ~fhl jkkmila kl krgl# qkkn$ewgcgn eigz#

ilukcugz ~gdglnkwz jfhlag il zkjihc nylhdijz hln rhj~ijgz, Il ~fiz jhzg# qkdgl dwz~

lk~ klcy cghl ~fg dgjfhlijz ke zkch jkkmgz# ow~ ~fgy dwz~ hczk jfhlag nhicy kw~ilgz ke 

dghc rgrhh~ikl ~k jkkm qficg ~fg zwl iz fiaf il ~fg zmy# h~fg ~fhl il ~fg guglila,

^hilila ilekdz rgkrcg ke hjjgr~gn rhj~ijgz hln rkjgnwgz hln aiugz ~fgd zmiccz~k rgekd zrgjieij ~hzmz, Il jkl~hz~# gnwjh~ikl iz h zkjihccy ~hlzekdila rkjgzz ~fh~

aiugz rgkrcg mlkqcgnag# zmiccz# rgzrgj~iugz# hln uhcwgz ~fkwaf qfijf ~fgy jhl

rh~ijirh~g il hln jkl~iow~g ~k ~fgi kql qgcc$ogila hln ~fh~ ke ~fgi jkddwli~y hln lh~ikl,

Ekdhc# Lklekdhc# hln Ilekdhc Gnwjh~ikl

Ek h jkddwli~y k h lh~ikl# idrcgdgl~ila GZN iz h fwag ~hzm, Ek~wlh~gcy# ekdhc

gnwjh~ikl nkgz lk~ jhy ~fiz gnwjh~iklhc gzrklzioici~y hcklg, ^fg lklekdhc gnwjh~iklhc

zgj~k &g,a,# lh~wg jgl~gz# lklakugldgl~hc kahliph~iklz# rwocij fghc~f gnwjh~kz# hln

haijwc~whc gv~glzikl hagl~z) hln ~fg ilekdhc gnwjh~iklhc zgj~k &g,a,# ckjhc ~gcguizikl#lgqzrhrg# hln hnik) ke ~fg gnwjh~iklhc jkddwli~y dwz~ qkm jkkrgh~iugcy qi~f ~fg

ekdhc gnwjh~iklhc zgj~k ek ~fg gnwjh~ikl ke rgkrcg il hcc aglgh~iklz hln qhcmz ke cieg,

Ogjhwzg GZN iz h ciegckla rkjgzz# ~fg ekdhc# lklekdhc# hln ilekdhc gnwjh~iklhc

zgj~kz zfkwcn qkm ~kag~fg ~k hjjkdrcizf ckjhc zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz, Il hl inghc qkcn# ~fg

~fgg zgj~kz qkwcn niuing ~fg glkdkwz ~hzm ke GZN ek ~fg gl~ig rkrwch~ikl oy

ingl~ieyila ~hag~ hwnigljgz ekd ~fg aglghc rwocij hz qgcc hz ~fgdgz ke zwz~hilhoici~y,

^fgy qkwcn ~fgl qkm qi~fil ~fgi dw~whccy haggn wrkl ghcdz, ^fiz niuizikl ke geek~

qkwcn ghjf h okhng zrgj~wd ke rgkrcg hln rgugl~ gnwlnhl~ geek~z,

III, _GK_IGL^ILA GNWJH^IKL

GZN iz dkg ~fhl h mlkqcgnag ohzg gch~gn ~k gluikldgl~# gjklkdy# hln zkjig~y,

I~ hczk hnngzzgz cghlila zmiccz# rgzrgj~iugz# hln uhcwgz ~fh~ awing hln dk~iuh~g rgkrcg

~k zggm zwz~hilhocg ciugcifkknz# rh~ijirh~g il h ngdkjh~ij zkjig~y# hln ciug il h

zwz~hilhocg dhllg, GZN hczk ilukcugz z~wnyila ckjhc hln# qfgl hrrkrih~g# ackohc

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izzwgz, ^fggekg# ~fgzg eiug &i,g,# mlkqcgnag# zmiccz# rgzrgj~iugz# uhcwgz# hln izzwgz) dwz~

hcc og hnngzzgn il h ekdhc jwijwcwd ~fh~ fhz oggl gkigl~gn ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y,

Zidrcy hnnila dkg ~k ~fg jwijwcwd qicc lk~ og eghziocg il dkz~ zjfkkcz= ~fgy hcghny fhug

h ewcc jwijwcwd, Ngjinila qfh~ ~k cghug kw~ $ qfh~ nkgz lk~ jkl~iow~g ~k zwz~hilhoici~y k iz

kozkcg~g $ iz hl il~gahc rh~ ke ~fg gkigl~ila rkjgzz, Cg~’z ckkm dkg jckzgcy h~ ~fgzg eiug

jkdrklgl~z ke hl gnwjh~ikl gkigl~gn ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y,

Mlkqcgnag

Zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ gljkdrhzzgz gluikldgl~# gjklkdijz# hln zkjig~y,

^fggekg# rgkrcg lggn ohzij mlkqcgnag ekd ~fg lh~whc zjigljgz# zkjihc zjigljgz# hln

fwdhli~igz ~k wlngz~hln ~fg riljircgz ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~# fkq ~fgy jhl og

idrcgdgl~gn# ~fg uhcwgz ilukcugn# hln hdieijh~iklz ke ~fgi idrcgdgl~h~ikl, Mlkqcgnag

ohzgn kl ~hni~iklhc nizjircilgz zwrrk~z GZN,

^fg jfhccglag ek jkddwli~igz il ~fg rkjgzz ke jgh~ila GZN jwijwcwdz qicc og ~k

zgcgj~ mlkqcgnag ~fh~ qicc zwrrk~ ~fgi zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz, Hl hjjkdrhlyila jfhccglagqicc og ~k cg~ ak ke ~fkzg ~krijz ~fh~ fhug oggl zwjjgzzewccy ~hwaf~ ek yghz ow~ hg lk

cklag gcguhl~, Il ~fg gugl~ ~fh~ ykw jkddwli~y fhz lk~ ngeilgn zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz# ykw

jhl zwoz~i~w~g riljircgz hln awingcilgz ek zwz~hilhoici~y, &Zgg ekcckqila okv,) Zgj~ikl VII0

Gvgjizgz ~k Jgh~g Zwz~hilhoici~y Akhcz ~fkwaf Rwocij Rh~ijirh~ikl ke ~fiz ^kkcmi~ iljcwngz

gvgjizgz ~fh~ qicc hzziz~ jkddwli~igz il ingl~ieyila jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz,

Awingcilgz ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~

^k ingl~iey h mlkqcgnag ohzg ~fh~ qicc zwrrk~ zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz# ji~ipglz dwz~ eiz~ zgcgj~ akhcz, ^k

fgcr il ~fiz rkjgzz# fgg iz h ciz~ ke z~h~gdgl~z# jklni~iklz# hln awingcilgz ek zwz~hilhoici~y# qfijf fhugoggl ingl~ieign oy rkdilgl~ hw~fkz,

Fgdhl Nhcy# hw~fk ke Ek ~fg Jkddkl Akkn0 _gnigj~ila ~fg Gjklkdy ~kqhn Jkddwli~y# ~fg 

Gluikldgl~# hln h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg # aiugz ~fgg jklni~iklz ke h zwz~hilhocg zkjig~y0

&8) _h~gz ke wzg ke glgqhocg gzkwjgz nk lk~ gvjggn ~fgi h~gz ke gaglgh~ikl,&?) _h~gz ke wzg ke lklglgqhocg gzkwjgz nk lk~ gvjggn ~fg h~g h~ qfijf zwz~hilhocg glgqhocg

zwoz~i~w~gz hg ngugckrgn,&:) _h~gz ke rkccw~ikl gdizzikl nk lk~ gvjggn ~fg hzzidich~iug jhrhji~y ke ~fg gluikldgl~,

K~fg hw~fkz jklzing rghjg# gxwi~y# hln `wz~ijg lgjgzzhy ek h zwz~hilhocg zkjig~y,

Nkllgcch Dghnkqz# hw~fk ke Cidi~z ~k Akq~f # kw~cilgn ~fgzg aglghc awingcilgz ek gz~wj~wila qkcnzyz~gdz ~kqhn zwz~hilhoici~y0

&8) Dilidipg ~fg wzg ke lklglgqhocg gzkwjgz,&?) Rgugl~ gkzikl ke glgqhocg gzkwjgz,&:) Wzg hcc gzkwjgz qi~f dhvidwd geeijigljy,&>) Zckq hln gugl~whccy z~kr gvrklgl~ihc akq~f ke rkrwch~ikl hln rfyzijhc jhri~hc,&7) Dkli~k ~fg jklni~ikl ke gzkwjgz# ~fg lh~whc gluikldgl~# hln ~fg qgcehg ke fwdhlz,&5) Idrkug gzrklzg ~idg ek gluikldgl~hc z~gzz,

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@wcihl Haygdhl# Hzziz~hl~ Rkegzzk h~ ^we~z Wliugzi~y# il~grg~z ~fh~ –]zwz~hilhoici~yT rchjgz agh~gdrfhziz wrkl ~fg lggn ~k0 glzwg h og~~g xwhci~y ke cieg ek hcc# il h `wz~ hln gxwi~hocg dhllg# qficz~ciuila qi~fil ~fg cidi~z ke zwrrk~ila gjkzyz~gdz,—

Ke jkwzg# jkddwli~igz dwz~ jfkkzg jwc~whccy hrrkrih~g hln ckjhccy gcguhl~ zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz~fh~ gecgj~ ~fgi jwgl~ hln ew~wg cieg jklni~iklz hln lggnz, Qi~f ~idg# dh`k awinila riljircgz zgcgj~gnek ~fg jwijwcwd qicc ogjkdg ilewzgn il~k ckjhc qkcnuigqz,

Izzwgz

GZN ekjwzgz chagcy kl ~fg dh`k zkjihc# gjklkdij# hln gluikldgl~hc izzwgz ~fh~

~fgh~gl ~fg zwz~hilhoici~y ke ~fg rchlg~, Dhly ke ~fgzg mgy izzwgz qgg ingl~ieign h~ ~fg

Gh~f Zwddi~ il _ik ng @hlgik hln hg ekwln il Haglnh ?8, Wlngz~hlnila hln

hnngzzila ~fgzg izzwgz hg ~fg fgh~ ke GZN# hln ckjhccy gcguhl~ izzwgz zfkwcn og

iljcwngn il hly rkahd gch~gn ~k gnwjh~ila ek zwz~hilhoici~y,

Haglnh ?80 Jfhr~gz# Z~h~gdgl~# hln Jklugl~iklzZgj~ikl 8 $ Zkjihc hln Gjklkdij Nidglziklz

Il~glh~iklhc jkkrgh~ikl# Jkdoh~ila rkug~y# Jfhlaila jklzwdr~ikl rh~~glz# Rkrwch~ikl hlnzwz~hilhoici~y# Rk~gj~ila hln rkdk~ila fwdhl fghc~f# Zwz~hilhocg fwdhl zg~~cgdgl~z# Dhmilangjiziklz ek zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~,

Zgj~ikl ? $ Jklzguh~ikl % Dhlhagdgl~ ke _gzkwjgzRk~gj~ila ~fg h~dkzrfgg# Dhlhaila chln zwz~hilhocy# Jkdoh~ila ngekgz~h~ikl# Jkdoh~ilangzg~ieijh~ikl hln nkwaf~# Zwz~hilhocg dkwl~hil ngugckrdgl~# Zwz~hilhocg haijwc~wg hln whcngugckrdgl~# Jklzguh~ikl ke oikckaijhc niugzi~y# Dhlhagdgl~ ke oik~gjflkckay# Rk~gj~ila hlndhlhaila ~fg kjghlz# Rk~gj~ila hln dhlhaila egzf qh~g# Zheg wzg ke ~kvij jfgdijhcz#Dhlhaila fhphnkwz qhz~gz# Dhlhaila zkcin qhz~g hln zgqhag# Dhlhaila hnikhj~iug qhz~gz,

Zgj~ikl : $ Z~gla~fglila ~fg _kcg ke Dh`k AkwrzQkdgl il zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~# Jficngl hln ykw~f# Ilniaglkwz rgkrcg# Rh~lgzfirz qi~f

LAKz# Ckjhc hw~fki~igz# Qkmgz hln ~hng wliklz# Owzilgzz hln ilnwz~y# Zjigl~iz~z hln~gjflkckaiz~z# Z~gla~fglila ~fg kcg ke ehdgz,

Zgj~ikl > $ Dghlz ke Idrcgdgl~h~iklEilhljila zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~= ^gjflkckay ~hlzeg= Zjigljg ek zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~=Gnwjh~ikl# hqhglgzz hln ~hilila= Jgh~ila jhrhji~y ek zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~= Kahlipila ek zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~# Il~glh~iklhc chq= hln Ilekdh~ikl ek ngjizikl dhmila,

Hjjkdrhlyila ~fg >2 jfhr~gz ke Haglnh ?8 qgg ~fg _ik Ngjchh~ikl hln ~fg ekcckqilajklugl~iklz hln z~h~gdgl~ ke riljircgz0 Z~h~gdgl~ ke Ekgz~z# Jklugl~ikl kl Jcidh~g Jfhlag#Jklugl~ikl kl Oikckaijhc Niugzi~y# Jklugl~ikl kl Ngzg~ieijh~ikl,

Qficg Haglnh ?8 jcghcy ingl~ieigz dhly ke ~fg ji~ijhc izzwgz ~fh~ akugldgl~zhkwln ~fg qkcn haggn ~k hnngzz# hnni~iklhc izzwgz qgg nizjwzzgn ek qfijf lk ekdhc

il~glh~iklhc haggdgl~ k rchl ke hj~ikl jkwcn og ghjfgn, Il hnni~ikl# izzwgz ~fh~ hg

idrk~hl~ ~k glfhljila ~fg wlngz~hlnila ke zwz~hilhoici~y &g,a,# ackohciph~ikl) fhug

jkl~ilwgn ~k gdgag ziljg ~fg _ik ng @hlgik jkleggljg, ^fgzg hnni~iklhc izzwgz# lk~

iljcwngn il Haglnh ?8# hg rh~ ke il~glh~iklhc nizjwzziklz ke zwz~hilhoici~y hln iljcwng# ow~

hg lk~ cidi~gn ~k# ~krij zwjf hz qh hln dici~hizd# akuglhljg# nizjidilh~ikl hln

lh~iklhcizd# glgqhocg glgay zkwjgz# dwc~ilh~iklhc jkrkh~iklz# gewaggz# lwjcgh 

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nizhdhdgl~# fwdhl iaf~z# hln dgnih ilecwgljila hrin jfhlag ke qkcnuigqz, ^fgzg

izzwgz hg rg~ilgl~ ~k gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y hln zfkwcn og

iljcwngn qfgl gcguhl~, Iljcwnila ckjhc izzwgz qicc ekz~g illkuh~iug zkcw~iklz hln ngugckr

~fg rkci~ijhc qicc ~k gzkcug ~fgd,

^fg chz~ dh`k jkl~gl~ hgh il gnwjh~ila ek zwz~hilhoici~y z~gdz ekd ~fg dh`k WL

jkleggljgz il ~fg 8992z hln lgq diccgliwd ~fh~ gvrhlngn kw wlngz~hlnila ke 

zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, Mgy gvhdrcgz ke ~fg izzwgz gvrckgn hg Gluikldgl~ hln

Ngugckrdgl~ &_ik ng @hlgik# 899?)# WL Ackohc Jkleggljg kl ~fg Zwz~hilhocg

Ngugckrdgl~ ke Zdhcc Izchln Ngugckrila Z~h~gz &Ohohnkz# 899:)# Il~glh~iklhc Jkleggljg

kl Rkrwch~ikl hln Ngugckrdgl~ &Jhik# 899>)# Qkcn Zwddi~ ek Zkjihc Ngugckrdgl~

&Jkrglfhagl# 8997)# Ekw~f Qkcn Jkleggljg kl Qkdgl &Ogi`ila# 8995)# Zgjkln WL

Jkleggljg kl Fwdhl Zg~~cgdgl~z &Iz~hlowc# 8995) hln Qkcn Ekkn Zwddi~ &_kdg# 8995),

Ghjf jkleggljg hnuhljgn wlngz~hlnila ke izzwgz ~fh~ jhwzg dwjf zweegila hln ~fgh~gl

ackohc zwz~hilhoici~y, Ghjf jkleggljg hczk ngugckrgn h zgigz ke gxwgz~z ek rwocij

hqhglgzz hln wlngz~hlnila hln ingl~ieign ~fg ilniuinwhc gzrklzioici~igz hln ogfhuik jfhlagz ~fh~ qkwcn hdgcikh~g ghjf izzwg,

Jkddwli~igz jgh~ila GZN jwijwcwdz jhllk~ ~ghjf hcc ke ~fg izzwgz hzzkjih~gn

qi~f Haglnh ?8# ~fg z~h~gdgl~z ke riljircgz hln jklugl~iklz# hln ~fgzg dh`k WL

jkleggljgz, ^fg xwhl~i~y ke z~wny qkwcn og kugqfgcdila, Jkddwli~igz zfkwcn#

fkqgug# zgcgj~ h egq izzwgz il ghjf ke ~fg ~fgg ghcdz $ gluikldgl~# gjklkdijz# hln

zkjig~y, ^fg izzwgz zgcgj~gn zfkwcn og ckjhccy gcguhl~, Ek gvhdrcg# h chln$ckjmgn

jkwl~y jkwcn z~wny zwz~hilhocg dkwl~hil ngugckrdgl~ hln gi~fg ialkg k ciaf~cy jkug 

rk~gj~ila hln dhlhaila ~fg kjghlz, Zkdg ~krijz# zwjf hz qkdgl il zwz~hilhocgngugckrdgl~ k jkdoh~ila rkug~y# fhug gcguhljg ~k gugy jkwl~y,

Ehdgqkm ek ^ghjfila k Hlhcypila Gluikldgl~hc Izzwgz*^ghjfgz zfkwcn og gxwirrgn ~k fgcr rwricz ingl~iey hln ~film hokw~ ~fg jkdrcgvi~igz ke izzwgz

ekd ~fg rgzrgj~iugz ke dhly z~hmgfkcngz, Kcng rwricz hln wliugzi~y z~wngl~z lggn ~k hjxwig zmiccz ~khlhcypg izzwgz# hlhcypg rkrkzgn zkcw~iklz ~k ~fkzg izzwgz# wlngz~hln ~fg uhcwgz wlngcyila krrkzilarkzi~iklz kl izzwgz# hln hlhcypg jklecij~z hizila ekd ~fkzg izzwgz hln rkrkzgn zkcw~iklz, ^fgekcckqila ehdgqkm ke 8: xwgz~iklz iz ek hlhcypila hl gluikldgl~hc izzwg qfg~fg ~fg izzwg jklekl~z hckjhc jkddwli~y k h jkwl~y kl ~fg k~fg zing ke ~fg qkcn,8, Qfh~ hg ~fg dhil fiz~kijhc hln jwgl~ jhwzgz &i,g,# rfyzijhc+oik~ij# zkjihc+jwc~whc# k gjklkdij) ke ~fg izzwg;?, Qfh~ iz ~fg agkahrfij zjhcg# ~fg zrh~ihc niz~iow~ikl# hln ~fg cklagui~y ke ~fg izzwg;:, Qfh~ hg ~fg dh`k izmz hln jklzgxwgljgz ~k ~fg lh~whc gluikldgl~;>, Qfh~ hg ~fg dh`k izmz hln jklzgxwgljgz ~k fwdhl zyz~gdz;7, Qfh~ hg ~fg gjklkdij idrcijh~iklz;5, Qfh~ hg ~fg dh`k jwgl~cy idrcgdgl~gn k rkrkzgn zkcw~iklz;1, Qfh~ hg ~fg koz~hjcgz ~k ~fgzg zkcw~iklz;6, Qfh~ dh`k zkjihc uhcwgz &g,a,# gjklkdij# gjkckaijhc# rkci~ijhc# hgz~fg~ij) hg ilukcugn il k ileilagnwrkl oy ~fgzg zkcw~iklz;9, Qfh~ akwr&z) ke rgkrcg qkwcn og hnugzgcy idrhj~gn oy k ogh ~fg jkz~z ke ~fgzg zkcw~iklz;

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82, Qfh~ iz ~fg rkci~ijhc z~h~wz ke ~fg rkocgd hln zkcw~iklz;88, Fkq nkgz ~fiz izzwg gch~g ~k k~fg gluikldgl~hc izzwgz;

^fg lgv~ ~qk xwgz~iklz fgcr rgkrcg il~gah~g mlkqcgnag il~k nhicy ciuila,8?, Qfh~ iz h jfhlag ykw jhl dhmg il ykw nhicy cieg ~k cgzzgl ~fg rkocgd k izzwg;8:, Ogykln jfhlagz il ykw nhicy cieg# qfh~ iz ~fg lgv~ z~gr ykw jkwcn ~hmg ~k hnngzz ~fg izzwg;

^fiz ehdgqkm ek ~ghjfila# z~wnyila# hln hlhcypila gluikldgl~hc izzwgz qhz ngugckrgn ek Lk~f

Hdgijhl wliugzi~y z~wngl~z ~fkwaf h gzghjf rkjgzz oy _kzhcyl DjMgkql hln _kag Nglnilag,

Zmiccz

^k og zwjjgzzewc# GZN dwz~ ak ogykln ~ghjfila hokw~ ~fgzg ackohc izzwgz, GZN

dwz~ aiug rgkrcg rhj~ijhc zmiccz ~fh~ qicc glhocg ~fgd ~k jkl~ilwg cghlila he~g ~fgy cghug

zjfkkc# ~k fhug h zwz~hilhocg ciugcifkkn# hln ~k ciug zwz~hilhocg ciugz, ^fgzg zmiccz qicc nieeg 

qi~f jkddwli~y jklni~iklz, ^fg ekcckqila ciz~ ngdklz~h~gz ~fg ~yrgz ke zmiccz rwricz qicc

lggn hz hnwc~z, Lk~g ~fh~ zmiccz ehcc il~k klg k dkg ke ~fg ~fgg ghcdz ke zwz~hilhocg

ngugckrdgl~ $ gluikldgl~hc# gjklkdij# hln zkjihc,

  ^fg hoici~y ~k jkddwlijh~g geegj~iugcy &ok~f khccy hln il qi~ila),

  ^fg hoici~y ~k ~film hokw~ zyz~gdz &ok~f lh~whc hln zkjihc zjigljgz),

  ^fg hoici~y ~k ~film il ~idg $ ~k ekgjhz~# ~k ~film hfghn# hln ~k rchl,

  ^fg hoici~y ~k ~film ji~ijhccy hokw~ uhcwg izzwgz,

  ^fg hoici~y ~k zgrhh~g lwdog# xwhl~i~y# xwhci~y# hln uhcwg,

  ^fg jhrhji~y ~k dkug ekd hqhglgzz ~k mlkqcgnag ~k hj~ikl,

  ^fg hoici~y ~k qkm jkkrgh~iugcy qi~f k~fg rgkrcg,

  ^fg jhrhji~y ~k wzg ~fgzg rkjgzzgz0 mlkqila# ilxwiila# hj~ila# `wnaila# idhailila#

jkllgj~ila# uhcwila# hln jfkkzila,

  ^fg jhrhji~y ~k ngugckr hl hgz~fg~ij gzrklzg ~k ~fg gluikldgl~ &DjJchgl#

8969),

Il hnni~ikl# rwricz qicc lggn ~k cghl zmiccz ~fh~ qicc fgcr ~fgd dhlhag hln il~ghj~

qi~f ~fg ckjhc gluikldgl~, Zwjf ckjhccy gcguhl~ zmiccz dhy iljcwng cghlila ~k0

  Rgrhg dh~gihcz ek gjyjcila,

  Fhugz~ qicn rchl~z qi~fkw~ `gkrhnipila ew~wg lh~whc gaglgh~ikl hln rknwj~ikl,

  Akq ckq$qh~g$lggn jk~~kl,  Nhq qh~g ekd wlrkccw~gn zkwjgz,

Rgzrgj~iugz

GZN jhigz qi~f i~ rgzrgj~iugz ~fh~ hg idrk~hl~ ek wlngz~hlnila ackohc izzwgz

hz qgcc hz ckjhc izzwgz il h ackohc jkl~gv~, Gugy izzwg fhz h fiz~ky hln h ew~wg, Ckkmila

h~ ~fg kk~z ke hl izzwg hln ekgjhz~ila rkzziocg ew~wgz ohzgn kl nieeggl~ zjglhikz hg

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rh~ ke GZN# hz iz wlngz~hlnila ~fh~ dhly ackohc izzwgz hg cilmgn, Ek gvhdrcg# kug$

jklzwdr~ikl ke zwjf jklzwdg akknz hz rhrg cghnz ~k ngekgz~h~ikl# qfijf iz ~fkwaf~ ~k

og gch~gn ~k ackohc jcidh~g jfhlag,

^fg hoici~y ~k jklzing hl izzwg ekd ~fg uigq ke nieeggl~ z~hmgfkcngz iz gzzgl~ihc ~k

GZN, Jklzingila hl izzwg ekd hlk~fg uigqrkil~ ogzingz ykw kql cghnz ~k il~h$lh~iklhc

hln il~glh~iklhc wlngz~hlnila, ^fiz wlngz~hlnila iz gzzgl~ihc ek jgh~ila ~fg dkkn ke 

jkkrgh~ikl ~fh~ qicc wlngril zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~,

^fg ekcckqila iz h rh~ihc ciz~ ke rgzrgj~iugz hzzkjih~gn qi~f GZN, Z~wngl~z wlngz~hln

~fh~0

  Zkjihc hln gluikldgl~hc rkocgdz jfhlag ~fkwaf ~idg hln fhug h fiz~ky hln h

ew~wg,

  Jkl~gdrkhy ackohc gluikldgl~hc izzwgz hg cilmgn hln il~ggch~gn og~qggl hln

hdkla ~fgdzgcugz,

  Fwdhlz fhug wliugzhc h~~iow~gz &g,a,# ~fgy ckug ~fgi jficngl),  Ckkmila h~ ~fgi jkddwli~y hz qgcc hz ckkmila ogykln ~fg jkleilgz ke ckjhc hln

lh~iklhc okwlnhigz iz lgjgzzhy ~k wlngz~hln ckjhc izzwgz il h ackohc jkl~gv~,

  Jklzingila nieegila uigqz ogekg ghjfila h ngjizikl k `wnadgl~ iz lgjgzzhy,

  Gjklkdij uhcwgz# gciaikwz uhcwgz# hln zkjig~hc uhcwgz jkdrg~g ek idrk~hljg hz

rgkrcg ke nieeggl~ il~ggz~z hln ohjmakwlnz il~ghj~,

  ^gjflkckay hln zjigljg hcklg jhllk~ zkcug hcc ke kw rkocgdz,

  Ilniuinwhcz hg ackohc ji~ipglz il hnni~ikl ~k ji~ipglz ke ~fg ckjhc jkddwli~y,

  Ilniuinwhc jklzwdg ngjiziklz hln k~fg hj~iklz geegj~ gzkwjg gv~hj~ikl hln

dhlwehj~wila il niz~hl~ rchjgz,  Gdrckyila ~fg rgjhw~iklhy riljircg oy ~hmila hj~ikl ~k hukin ~fg rkzzioici~y ke 

zgikwz k igugziocg gluikldgl~hc k zkjihc fhd gugl qfgl zjigl~ieij mlkqcgnag iz

iljkdrcg~g k iljkljcwziug iz lgjgzzhy ek ~fg ckla$~gd qgcc$ogila ke ~fgi jkddwli~y

hln rchlg~,

Qfgl ~hwaf~ ~k h aglgh~ikl ke rwricz# zwjf rgzrgj~iugz qicc ogjkdg ilewzgn il~k ckjhc

qkcnuigqz,

Uhcwgz

Uhcwgz hg hczk hl il~gahc rh~ ke GZN, Il zkdg jwc~wgz# uhcwgz hg ~hwaf~ kug~cy

il ~fg zjfkkcz, Il k~fg jwc~wgz# fkqgug# gugl ie uhcwgz hg lk~ ~hwaf~ kug~cy# ~fgy hg

dkngcgn# gvrchilgn# hlhcypgn# k nizjwzzgn, Il ok~f zi~wh~iklz# wlngz~hlnila uhcwgz iz hl

gzzgl~ihc rh~ ke wlngz~hlnila ykw kql qkcnuigq hln k~fg rgkrcg’z uigqrkil~z,

Wlngz~hlnila ykw kql uhcwgz# ~fg uhcwgz ke ~fg zkjig~y ykw ciug il# hln ~fg uhcwgz ke 

k~fgz hkwln ~fg qkcn iz h jgl~hc rh~ ke gnwjh~ila ek h zwz~hilhocg ew~wg, ^qk jkddkl

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~gjflixwgz $ uhcwgz jchieijh~ikl hln uhcwgz hlhcyziz $ hg wzgewc ~k ~fg uhcwgz jkdrklgl~

ke GZN,

Il GZN# uhcwgz fhug nieeggl~ kcgz il ~fg jwijwcwd, Il zkdg GZN geek~z# rwricz

hnkr~ jg~hil uhcwgz hz h nigj~ gzwc~ ke ilz~wj~ikl k dkngcila ke hjjgr~gn uhcwgz, Il

k~fg jwc~wgz# z~wnyila ~fg gch~iklzfir og~qggl zkjig~y hln ~fg gluikldgl~ cghnz rwricz

~k hnkr~ uhcwgz ngiugn ekd ~fgi z~wnigz, Il jwc~wgz qfgg ilxwizi~iuglgzz iz gljkwhagn#

rwricz jkdg ~k uhcwg jwikzi~y hln xwgz~iklila, Il ngdkjh~ij zkjig~igz# rwricz hczk

ngugckr zfhgn uhcwgz hkwln jkljgr~z ke ngdkjh~ij rkjgzz# jkddwli~y rh~ijirh~ikl il

ngjizikl dhmila# ukcwl~ggizd# hln zkjihc `wz~ijg, Ghjf ke ~fgzg hrrkhjfgz jkl~iow~gz ~k

~fg kughcc akhc ke zwz~hilhoici~y,

Qkcn Ji~ipglzfir0 H Ackohc G~fij ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~Il zkdg jkwl~igz# ~fg gciaikwz uhcwgz hln g~fijz ke ~fg nkdilhl~ gciaikl hg ~hwaf~ il zjfkkcz= il

k~fg jkwl~igz ~fgy hg lk~, ^fg Ohfè’ä Il~glh~iklhc Jkddwli~y fhz h~ijwch~gn h z~h~gdgl~ ke g~fijz#qfijf ekcckqz# ~fh~ zwrrk~z zwz~hilhoici~y,

/^fg agh~gz~ jfhccglag ehjila ~fg qkcn jkddwli~y hz i~ dkoicipgz ~k idrcgdgl~ Haglnh ?8 iz ~kgcghzg ~fg glkdkwz eilhljihc# ~gjflijhc# fwdhl hln dkhc gzkwjgz gxwign ek zwz~hilhocgngugckrdgl~, ^fgzg gzkwjgz qicc og eggn wr klcy hz ~fg rgkrcgz ke ~fg qkcn ngugckr h rkekwln zglzgke gzrklzioici~y ek ~fg eh~g ke ~fg rchlg~ hln ek ~fg qgcc$ogila ke ~fg gl~ig fwdhl ehdicy,

/^fiz zglzg ke gzrklzioici~y jhl klcy gdgag ekd ~fg hjjgr~hljg ke ~fg klglgzz ke fwdhli~y hlnqicc klcy og zwz~hilhocg oy h wlieyila uizikl ke h rghjgewc# rkzrgkwz qkcn zkjig~y, Qi~fkw~ zwjf h ackohcg~fij# rgkrcg qicc og wlhocg ~k ogjkdg hj~iug# jklz~wj~iug rh~ijirhl~z il ~fg qkcn$qing rkjgzz ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~,/

/]QTkcn Ji~ipglzfir,,, gljkdrhzzgz ~fg jklz~gcch~ikl ke riljircgz# uhcwgz# h~~i~wngz hln ogfhuik ~fh~ ~fg rgkrcg ke ~fg qkcn dwz~ gdohjg ie zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ iz ~k og ghcipgn,

/Qkcn Ji~ipglzfir,,, gljkwhagz h zhlg hln cgai~idh~g rh~ik~izd# i~ hczk ilziz~z wrkl h qing ckyhc~y# h ckug ke fwdhli~y hz h qfkcg, I~ nkgz lk~# fkqgug# idrcy hohlnkldgl~ ke cgai~idh~g ckyhc~igz# ~fg

zwrrgzzikl ke jwc~whc niugzi~y# ~fg hokci~ikl ke lh~iklhc hw~klkdy# lk ~fg idrkzi~ikl ke wliekdi~y, I~zfhccdhm iz !wli~y il niugzi~y,! Qkcn ji~ipglzfir gljkdrhzzgz ~fg riljircgz ke zkjihc hln gjklkdij `wz~ijgok~f qi~fil hln og~qggl lh~iklz= lkl$hnugzhihc ngjizikl dhmila h~ hcc cgugcz ke zkjig~y= gxwhci~y ke ~fgzgvgz= hjihc# g~flij# lh~iklhc hln gciaikwz fhdkly= hln ~fg qiccilalgzz ~k zhjieijg ek ~fg jkddkl akkn,K~fg ehjg~z ke qkcn ji~ipglzfir $ hcc ke qfijf rkdk~g fwdhl fklk hln niali~y# wlngz~hlnila# hdi~y#jkkrgh~ikl# ~wz~qk~filgzz# jkdrhzzikl hln h ngzig ~k zgug $ jhl og ngnwjgn ekd ~fkzg hcghnydgl~iklgn,/

/Zk ckla hz nizwli~y# hl~haklizd hln rkuiljihcizd jfhhj~gipg ~fg zkjihc rkci~ijhc hln gjklkdijgch~iklz qi~fil hln hdkla lh~iklz# h ackohc# zwz~hilhocg rh~~gl ke ngugckrdgl~ jhl lk~ og gz~hocizfgn,/

Zkjihc `wz~ijg iz hlk~fg ghcd ke z~wny ~fh~ ilukcugz uhcwgz, Zkjihc `wz~ijg# qfijf iz

jklzinggn h jgl~hc rh~ ke GZN il dkz~ jkwl~igz# iljcwngz dgg~ila ohzij fwdhl lggnzhln jkljgl ek ~fg iaf~z# niali~y# hln qgcehg ke hcc rgkrcg, I~ iljcwngz gzrgj~ ek ~fg

~hni~iklz hln gciaiklz ke k~fg zkjig~igz hln jwc~wgz# hln i~ ekz~gz gdrh~fy ek ~fg cieg

jklni~iklz ke k~fg rgkrcgz, Gjkckaijhc zwz~hilhoici~y hln gzkwjg jklzguh~ikl hg

jklzinggn rh~ ke zkjihc `wz~ijg, Rgzguila hln jklzguila ~fg gzkwjg ohzg ke k~fgz

rgugl~z rgkrcg ekd ciuila il nizhnuhl~hagn jijwdz~hljgz, Zkjihc `wz~ijg jkljglz

gch~gn ~k rgzguh~ikl ke gzkwjgz &g,a,# ekzzic ewgcz# kcn$akq~f ekgz~z# hln zrgjigz

niugzi~y) gv~glnz ~k ew~wg aglgh~iklz= ~fiz iz jhccgn il~gaglgh~iklhc gxwi~y,

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Uhcwgz ~hwaf~ il zjfkkc lggn ~k gecgj~ ~fg chag uhcwgz ke ~fg zkjig~y ~fh~ zwkwlnz

~fg zjfkkc, Qfgg hrrkrih~g# ~fg kriliklz ke jkddwli~y dgdogz jhl og zkciji~gn,

^fgl# h ewcc hlag ke uhcwgz ilecwgljgn oy ckjhc ~hni~iklz# hokiailhc akwrz# g~flij

rkrwch~iklz# iddiahl~z# gciaiklz# dgnih# hln rkr jwc~wg qicc og gughcgn# ilugl~kign# hln

jklzinggn ek gch~ikl ~k hln iljcwzikl il GZN, Il hnni~ikl# jwijwcwd ngjizikl$dhmgz qicc

ngjing ie lgq uhcwgz# qfijf qicc fgcr jkddwli~igz ghjf ~fgi akhcz ke zwz~hilhoici~y# lggn ~k

og iljcwngn il ~fg jwijwcwd,

^fg Gh~f Jfh~g^fg Gh~f Jfh~g iz h zyl~fgziz ke uhcwgz# riljircgz# hln hzrih~iklz ~fh~ hg zfhgn oy h akqila

lwdog ke qkdgl# dgl# hln kahliph~iklz hkwln ~fg qkcn, Nhe~ila ~fg Gh~f Jfh~g qhz rh~ ke ~fgwleilizfgn owzilgzz ke ~fg Gh~f Zwddi~, ^fg Gh~f Jfh~g qhz qi~~gl qi~f gv~glziug il~glh~iklhcjklzwc~h~iklz jklnwj~gn kug dhly yghz, Jwgl~cy# ~fg Gh~f Jfh~g iz ogila nizzgdilh~gn ~k ilniuinwhczhln kahliph~iklz il hcc zgj~kz ke zkjig~y ~fkwafkw~ ~fg qkcn hln i~ zhyz il rh~0

–Qg wagl~cy lggn h zfhgn uizikl ke ohzij uhcwgz ~k rkuing hl g~fijhc ekwlnh~ikl ek ~fg gdgaila qkcnjkddwli~y, ^fggekg# ~kag~fg il fkrg qg heeid ~fg ekcckqila il~gngrglngl~ riljircgz ek h zwz~hilhocg

qhy ke cieg hz h jkddkl z~hlnhn oy qfijf ~fg jklnwj~ ke hcc ilniuinwhcz# kahliph~iklz# owzilgzzgz#akugldgl~z# hln ~hlzlh~iklhc ilz~i~w~iklz iz ~k og awingn hln hzzgzzgn,—

I, _gzrgj~ hln jhg ek ~fg jkddwli~y ke cieg8, _gzrgj~ Gh~f hln cieg il hcc i~z niugzi~y,?, Jhg ek ~fg jkddwli~y ke cieg qi~f wlngz~hlnila# jkdrhzzikl# hln ckug,:, Owicn ngdkjh~ij zkjig~igz ~fh~ hg `wz~# rh~ijirh~ky# zwz~hilhocg# hln rghjghocg,>, Zgjwg Gh~f’z okwl~y hln oghw~y ek rgzgl~ hln ew~wg aglgh~iklz,

II, Gjkckaijhc Il~gai~y7, Rk~gj~ hln gz~kg ~fg il~gai~y ke Gh~f’z gjkckaijhc zyz~gdz# qi~f zrgjihc jkljgl ek oikckaijhc

niugzi~y hln ~fg lh~whc rkjgzzgz ~fh~ zwz~hil cieg,5, Rgugl~ fhd hz ~fg ogz~ dg~fkn ke gluikldgl~hc rk~gj~ikl hln# qfgl mlkqcgnag iz cidi~gn#

hrrcy h rgjhw~iklhy hrrkhjf,1, Hnkr~ rh~~glz ke rknwj~ikl# jklzwdr~ikl# hln grknwj~ikl ~fh~ zhegawhn Gh~f’z gaglgh~iug

jhrhji~igz# fwdhl iaf~z# hln jkddwli~y qgcc$ogila,6, Hnuhljg ~fg z~wny ke gjkckaijhc zwz~hilhoici~y hln rkdk~g ~fg krgl gvjfhlag hln qing

hrrcijh~ikl ke ~fg mlkqcgnag hjxwign,

III, Zkjihc hln Gjklkdij @wz~ijg9, Ghnijh~g rkug~y hz hl g~fijhc# zkjihc# hln gluikldgl~hc idrgh~iug,82, Glzwg ~fh~ gjklkdij hj~iui~igz hln ilz~i~w~iklz h~ hcc cgugcz rkdk~g fwdhl ngugckrdgl~ il hl

gxwi~hocg hln zwz~hilhocg dhllg,88, Heeid aglng gxwhci~y hln gxwi~y hz rggxwizi~gz ~k zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ hln glzwg

wliugzhc hjjgzz ~k gnwjh~ikl# fghc~f jhg# hln gjklkdij krrk~wli~y,8?, Wrfkcn ~fg iaf~ ke hcc# qi~fkw~ nizjidilh~ikl# ~k h lh~whc hln zkjihc gluikldgl~ zwrrk~iug ke 

fwdhl niali~y# oknicy fghc~f# hln zrii~whc qgcc$ogila# qi~f zrgjihc h~~gl~ikl ~k ~fg iaf~z ke ilniaglkwz rgkrcgz hln dilki~igz,

IU, Ngdkjhjy# Lkluikcgljg# hln Rghjg8:, Z~gla~fgl ngdkjh~ij ilz~i~w~iklz h~ hcc cgugcz# hln rkuing ~hlzrhgljy hln hjjkwl~hoici~y il

akuglhljg# iljcwziug rh~ijirh~ikl il ngjizikl dhmila# hln hjjgzz ~k `wz~ijg,8>, Il~gah~g il~k ekdhc gnwjh~ikl hln cieg$ckla cghlila ~fg mlkqcgnag# uhcwgz# hln zmiccz lggngn ek 

h zwz~hilhocg qhy ke cieg,87, ^gh~ hcc ciuila ogilaz qi~f gzrgj~ hln jklzingh~ikl,

85, Rkdk~g h jwc~wg ke ~kcghljg# lkluikcgljg# hln rghjg,

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IU, R_KJGZZ EK_ CKJHCIPILA ^FG ACKOHC ILI^IH^IUG

Qficg dhly ngcgah~gz h~ ~fg WL Jkddizzikl kl Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ &JZN)

dgg~ila il 8996 gl~fwzihz~ijhccy haggn ~fh~ GZN qhz gzzgl~ihc ek hjfiguila zwz~hilhocg

ngugckrdgl~# ~fgy qgg z~ydign hokw~ fkq ~k idrcgdgl~ i~, Rkagzzila ekd ~fg ackohc

jkljgr~z ke GZN ~k ckjhccy gcguhl~ jwijwcwd iz h nieeijwc~ rkjgzz, Dhly ngjiziklz#

hzzwdr~iklz hokw~ ~fg ew~wg# hln gvhdilh~iklz ke ckjhc jwc~wgz fhug ~k og dhng,

Jgh~ila GZN jwijwcwdz qicc gxwig mlkqcgnag ke ~fg rgzgl~ hln ekg~gccila ke ~fg ew~wg,

Hc~fkwaf ~fg gzwc~ila GZN rkahdz dhy og qgcc$ k rkkcy ~hag~gn# ~fg jklzgxwgljgz ke 

nkila lk~fila hg wlhjjgr~hocy fiaf, ^fggekg# gugl ie i~ iz lk~ rgjizgcy ~hag~gn# jgh~ila

hl GZN rkahd iz idrgh~iug,

^k jgh~g hl GZN jwijwcwd# gnwjh~iklhc jkddwli~igz qicc lggn ~k ingl~iey

mlkqcgnag# izzwgz# rgzrgj~iugz# zmiccz# hln uhcwgz jgl~hc ~k zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ il

ghjf ke ~fg ~fgg jkdrklgl~z $ gluikldgl~# gjklkdy# hln zkjig~y, Eiawg 8 iz hl

gvhdrcg ke qfh~ klg jkddwli~y dhy zgcgj~, Fkqgug# dhly rkzziocg jkdoilh~iklz ke mlkqcgnag# izzwgz# zmiccz# rgzrgj~iugz# hln uhcwgz ek GZN jwijwcwdz gviz~, ^fg

rkahd zfkwcn og ~hickgn ~k ei~ jkddwli~y zi~wh~iklz hln lggnz,

Eiawg 8,

^fg il~gah~ikl ke mlkqcgnag il ~fg ~fgg zgj~kz iz idrk~hl~ ~k zfkq fwdhl$

gluikldgl~hc il~ghj~iklz hln idrhj~z,

Z~gla~fz Dkngc

^fg jkz~ ke gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y iz zk agh~ ~fh~ lh~iklz

jhllk~ heekn ~k gcy kl h gdgnih~ikl dkngc ~k g~hil ~fg qkcn’z 79#222#222 ~ghjfgz,

_h~fg ~fhl ridhicy g~hilila ilzguijg ~ghjfgz ~k ~ghjf zwz~hilhoici~y# qg lggn ~k

ngzial lgq hrrkhjfgz ~k rg$zguijg hln ilzguijg ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz

GjklkdyGluikldgl~ Zkjig~y

Mlkqcgnag

Izzwgz

Zmiccz

Rgzrgj~iugz

Uhcwgz

~fg hoici~y ~k ~film ji~ijhccyhokw~ uhcwg izzwgz

zwrrcy hln ngdhln jklecij~

rk~gj~ila hln dhlhailaegzfqh~g= dhlhaila

fhphnkwz qhz~gz

jkdoh~ila rkug~y jfhlaila jklzwdr~iklrh~~glz

~fg hoici~y ~k hjxwig#dhlhag# hln hlhcypg nh~h

~fg hoici~y ~k ingl~ieyjkdrklgl~z ke ewcc$jkz~hjjkwl~ila

fynkckaij jyjcg

cilmhag+il~ggch~iklzfirog~qggl+hdklajkl~gdrkhy ackohcgluikldgl~hc izzwgz

gjkckaijhc uhcwg ke wlniz~wogn chln

uhcwg ke h zwz~hilhocgciugcifkkn

ckkm ogykln ckjhc hlnlh~iklhc okwlnhigz

gjklkdij uhcwg# gciaikwzuhcwg# hln zkjig~hc uhcwgjkdrg~g

wliugzhc h~~iow~gz ke ogila fwdhl

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zwz~hilhoici~y, Klg zwjf illkuh~iug hrrkhjf iz ~fg –z~gla~fz dkngc,— Il ~fiz hrrkhjf#

gugy nizjircilg hln gugy ~ghjfg jhl jkl~iow~g ~k zwz~hilhoici~y gnwjh~ikl,

Dhly ~krijz ilfggl~ il GZN hg hcghny rh~ ke ~fg ekdhc gnwjh~ikl jwijwcwd# ow~

~fgzg ~krijz hg lk~ ingl~ieign k zggl ~k jkl~iow~g ~k ~fg chag jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhoici~y,

Ingl~ieyila hln gjkalipila jkdrklgl~z ke GZN iz mgy ~k dkuila ekqhn, Ek~wlh~gcy ~fiz

z~gr iz ghzy hln heeknhocg,

^k idrcgdgl~ ~fg z~gla~fz dkngc# ogail oy glzwila ~fh~ gnwjh~kz hln

hndiliz~h~kz wlngz~hln ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhoici~y hln hg ehdicih qi~f i~z riljircgz,

Kljg ~fgy wlngz~hln ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhoici~y# gnwjh~kz ekd ghjf nizjircilg jhl

gvhdilg ~fg jwijwcwd hln zjfkkc hj~iui~igz ek gviz~ila jkl~iow~iklz ~k GZN, Lgv~#

gnwjh~kz jhl ingl~iey rk~gl~ihc hghz ke ~fg gviz~ila jwijwcwd il qfijf ~k ilzg~ gvhdrcgz

~fh~ iccwz~h~g zwz~hilhoici~y k hnni~iklhc mlkqcgnag# izzwgz# rgzrgj~iug# zmiccz k uhcwgz

gch~gn ~k zwz~hilhoici~y,

He~g ingl~ieyila gviz~ila hln rk~gl~ihc jkl~iow~iklz# cghngz jhl jgh~g hqhglgzz

hdkla ~fg gnwjh~iklhc jkddwli~y ke ~fgzg jkl~iow~iklz ~k ~fg chag GZN rij~wg, ^fgl#

~fgzg jkl~iow~iklz jhl og qkugl ~kag~fg ~k jgh~g GZN rkahdz ~fh~ hg ~hwaf~ kug~cy

~k rwricz hln z~wngl~z, Il ~fiz hrrkhjf# ~fg zylgaiz~ij z~gla~fz ke jkdoilgn gnwjh~iklhc

nizjircilgz jhl jklugy ~fg mlkqcgnag# izzwgz# zmiccz# rgjgr~iklz# hln uhcwgz hzzkjih~gn

qi~f GZN,

Lk klg nizjircilg jhl k zfkwcn jchid kqlgzfir ke GZN, Il ehj~# GZN rkzgz zwjf

okhn hln gljkdrhzzila jfhccglagz ~fh~ i~ gxwigz jkl~iow~iklz ekd dhly nizjircilgz,Ek gvhdrcg# jklzing ~fgzg nizjircilhy jkl~iow~iklz ~k GZN0

  Dh~fgdh~ijz fgcrz z~wngl~z wlngz~hln gv~gdgcy zdhcc lwdogz &g,a,# rh~z rg 

fwlngn# ~fkwzhln# k diccikl)# qfijf hcckqz ~fgd ~k il~grg~ rkccw~ikl nh~h,

  Chlawhag H~z# gzrgjihccy dgnih ci~ghjy# jgh~gz mlkqcgnaghocg jklzwdgz qfk jhl

hlhcypg ~fg dgzzhagz ke jkrkh~g hnug~izgz hln zgg ogykln /aggl qhzf,/

  Fiz~ky ~ghjfgz ~fg jkljgr~ ke ackohc jfhlag# qficg fgcrila z~wngl~z ~k gjkalipg ~fh~

jfhlag fhz kjjwgn ek jgl~wigz,

  _ghnila ngugckrz ~fg hoici~y ~k niz~ilawizf og~qggl ehj~ hln krilikl hln fgcrz z~wngl~zogjkdg ji~ijhc ghngz ke rkci~ijhc jhdrhial ci~gh~wg,

  Zkjihc Z~wnigz fgcrz z~wngl~z ~k wlngz~hln g~flkjgl~izd# hjizd# hln aglng ilgxwi~y

hz qgcc hz ~k gjkalipg fkq ~fgzg hg gvrgzzgn il ~fg zwkwlnila jkddwli~y hln

lh~iklz qkcnqing,

Ghjf nizjircilg hczk fhz hzzkjih~gn rgnhakaijhc ~gjflixwgz, ^fg jkdoilgn

rgnhakaijhc ~gjflixwgz hln z~h~gaigz ke ghjf nizjircilg jkl~iow~g ~k hl gvrhlngn uizikl

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ke fkq ~k ~ghjf ek jgh~iui~y# ji~ijhc ~filmila# hln h ngzig ek cieg$ckla cghlila $ hcc dgl~hc

fhoi~z ~fh~ zwrrk~ zwz~hilhocg zkjig~igz,

^fg jkl~iow~iklz ke ~fg gluikldgl~hc gnwjh~ikl hln zjigljg gnwjh~ikl

jkddwli~igz ~k ~fg gluikldgl~hc z~hln ke GZN fhug oggl qgcc$nkjwdgl~gn il ~fg

ci~gh~wg= fkqgug# gxwhc h~~gl~ikl fhz lk~ oggl ekjwzgn kl ~fg zkjihc hln gjklkdij

z~hlnz, Yg~# ~fg geek~z ke zjfkkcz ~k jgh~g dkg `wz~# rghjghocg# hln gxwi~hocg zkjig~igz

zwaagz~ ~fh~ ~fg zkjihc z~hln hrrghz ~k og qgcc$ngugckrgn il dhly jkwl~igz, Il ehj~#

zjfkkcz ~fh~ fhug rkahdz il dwc~ijwc~whc gnwjh~ikl# hl~i$hjiz~ gnwjh~ikl# aglng gxwi~y#

hl~i$owccyila# hln rghjg gnwjh~ikl jkl~iow~g zwoz~hl~ihccy ~k ~fg zkjihc z~hln ke GZN,

Wzg ke ~fiz z~gla~fz dkngc gxwigz ~fh~ h jhng ke gnwjh~kz hln hndiliz~h~kz#

qfk hg zweeijigl~cy qgcc$ugzgn il ~fg ~hlznizjircilhy jkljgr~z ilfggl~ il GZN# rwcc

~kag~fg ~fg nizjircilhy hln rgnhakaijhc rigjgz ~k ekd h jkdrgfglziug GZN rkahd,

^fg il~gah~ikl rkjgzz qicc rgugl~ kdizziklz hln nwrcijh~ikl, Il kng ~k jgh~g h

aglgh~ikl ke gnwjh~kz hln hndiliz~h~kz qfk wlngz~hln ~fg z~gla~fz dkngc# i~ dwz~

og gdrckygn oy ilz~i~w~iklz ke ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl hln kug~cy ~hwaf~ ~k rg$zguijg

rkegzziklhcz,

GZN# hl Gukcuila Jkljgr~

Il gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y# i~ iz idrk~hl~ ek gnwjh~kz lk~ ~k

ckjm ~fg ngeili~ikl# jkl~gl~# zjkrg# hln dg~fknkckay ke GZN il~k h z~h~ij ~idg ehdg, ^fg

~gdr~h~ikl gviz~z ~k wzg Haglnh ?8 ~k ngeilg GZN jwijwcwdz= fkqgug# ~fg ackohc

nizjwzzikl hln wlngz~hlnila ke zwz~hilhoici~y fhz akql agh~cy ziljg ~fg 899? Gh~f

Zwddi~, Gnwjh~iklhc geek~z dwz~ gecgj~ ~fiz okhng wlngz~hlnila hln i~z gukcuilalh~wg,

Qficg Haglnh ?8 jcghcy ingl~ieigz ji~ijhc izzwgz ~fh~ akugldgl~z hkwln ~fg qkcn

lggn ~k hnngzz# ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhoici~y jkl~ilwgz ~k gukcug hz zkjig~igz jfhlag hln

hz kw hqhglgzz hln rgjgr~iklz ke Gh~f# fwdhli~y# hln fwdhl$gluikldgl~hc

il~ghj~iklz jkgzrklnilacy jfhlag, Zwo~cg jfhlagz# zwjf hz h zfie~ il ekjwz k 

gdrfhziz# qicc ke jkwzg og gaiklhc il lh~wg hln gecgj~ ~fg jklni~iklz ke ckjhc

gjkzyz~gdz hln jwc~wgz, Hz h gzwc~ ke ~fg dh~wila lh~wg ke zwz~hilhoici~y izzwgz# ~fkzg

gnwjh~ila ek zwz~hilhoici~y zfkwcn jkl~ilwhccy hnhr~ ~fg jkl~gl~# zjkrg# hln dg~fknkckayqi~fil agkahrfij hln ~gdrkhc jkl~gv~z, ^fiz jklz~hl~ hnhr~h~ikl qicc gxwig ecgvioici~y kl

~fg rh~ ke gnwjh~kz hz ~fgy qkm ~kag~fg kl ckjhc hln il~glh~iklhc rk`gj~z, Ngeili~iklz

hln rhj~ijgz ~fh~ hg hndihocy geegj~iug il klg rh~ ke ~fg qkcn jhl og ilgeegj~iug k 

ilhrrkrih~g il hlk~fg,

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U, JFHCCGLAGZ HLN OH__IG_Z ^K GZN

Qficg dhly lh~iklz hkwln ~fg qkcn fhug gdohjgn ~fg lggn ek gnwjh~ikl ~k

hjfigug zwz~hilhoici~y# klcy cidi~gn rkagzz fhz oggl dhng kl hly cgugc, ^fiz chjm ke 

rkagzz z~gdz ekd dhly zkwjgz, Il zkdg jhzgz# h chjm ke uizikl k hqhglgzz fhz

idrgngn rkagzz, Il k~fgz# i~ iz h chjm ke rkcijy k ewlnila, Hjjknila ~k Jfhcgz Fkrmilz#

qfk fhz zrkmgl qi~f rgkrcg h~ dhly cgugcz ke ilukcugdgl~ il gnwjh~ikl &i,g,# diliz~gz ke 

gnwjh~ikl# wliugzi~y rkegzzkz# M $ 8? ~ghjfgz# hln z~wngl~z)# ~qgcug dh`k izzwgz

z~ydign ~fg hnuhljg ke GZN nwila ~fg 8992z hln lgq diccglliwd, Oy hnngzzila ~fgzg

ji~ijhc idrgnidgl~z il ~fg rchllila z~hag# akugldgl~z jhl rgugl~ k gnwjg ngchyz k 

nghicdgl~ ke GZN geek~z hln# wc~idh~gcy# ~fg h~~hildgl~ ke zwz~hilhoici~y, Il hnni~ikl ~k

~fgzg aglgij izzwgz# akugldgl~z h~ hcc cgugcz qicc lggn ~k hnngzz izzwgz ~fh~ hg zrgjieij

~k ckjhc jklni~iklz &g,a,# ~fg xwhci~y ke ~fg gch~iklzfir og~qggl ~fg zjfkkc akuglkz hln

~fg ~ghjfg wlikl),

Izzwg 8 $ Iljghzila Hqhglgzz0 GZN iz Gzzgl~ihc

^fg ili~ihc z~gr il chwljfila hl GZN rkahd iz ~k ngugckr hqhglgzz qi~fil ~fg

gnwjh~iklhc jkddwli~y hln ~fg rwocij ~fh~ gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hjfigug zwz~hilhoici~y iz

gzzgl~ihc, Ie akugldgl~ keeijihcz k zjfkkc niz~ij~ hndiliz~h~kz hg wlhqhg ke ~fg ji~ijhc

cilmhagz og~qggl gnwjh~ikl hln zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~# gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz

zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ qicc lk~ kjjw, Qfgl rgkrcg ghcipg ~fh~ gnwjh~ikl jhl idrkug

~fg cimgcifkkn ke idrcgdgl~ila lh~iklhc rkcijigz# gaiklhc chln hln gzkwjg dhlhagdgl~

rkahdz# hln ckjhc rkahdz# ~fgl gnwjh~ikl iz il h rkzi~ikl ~k og gkigl~gn ~k fgcr

hjfigug zwz~hilhoici~y, ^fiz hqhglgzz ekdz ~fg gzzgl~ihc eiz~ z~gr il ~fg gkigl~ila

rkjgzz,

Ek~wlh~gcy# h~ ~fg il~glh~iklhc cgugc# GZN iz gjkalipgn hz idrk~hl~ hln jgl~hc ~k

~fg zwjjgzz ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ hkwln ~fg qkcn, H~ ~fg ziv~f dgg~ila ke ~fg WL

Jkddizzikl kl Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~# ngcgah~iklz ekd jkwl~igz qkcnqing grgh~gncy

dgl~iklgn ~fg idrk~hljg ke GZN il hjfiguila akhcz ke zwz~hilhoici~y, I~ qhz hrrhgl~ ~fh~

~fgy qgg ghny ~k dkug ekqhn qi~f ~fg lgv~ z~grz= fkqgug# ~fg idrk~hljg ke GZN dwz~

ghjf ogykln ~fg ngcgah~iklz hln rgdgh~g ~fg gnwjh~iklhc jkddwli~y hln ~fg aglghc

rwocij,

Ilfggl~ il owicnila hqhglgzz hg geek~z ~k kw~cilg idrk~hl~ cilmhagz og~qggl

gnwjh~ikl hln dkg zwz~hilhocg zkjig~igz &g,a,# iljghzgz il egdhcg ci~ghjy gnwjgz

oi~fh~gz hln idrkugz ehdicy xwhci~y ke cieg),

Il chag rh~# rgjgiuila h lggn oilaz hokw~ h jkgzrklnila jfhlag il gnwjh~iklhc

zyz~gdz, Wlek~wlh~gcy# ~fg lggn ~k hjfigug zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ iz lk~ rgjgiugn

~knhy hz zweeijigl~cy idrk~hl~ ~k zrhm h chag gzrklzg il ~fg gnwjh~iklhc jkddwli~y, Ie 

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cghngz h~ hcc cgugcz ke akuglhljg hg ~k dhmg rkagzz# ~fg gjkali~ikl hln hj~iug

ilukcugdgl~ ke ~fg gnwjh~ikl zgj~k iz idrgh~iug,

_gzrklzg ~k hl Gnwjh~iklhc Jiziz^fg –zrhjg hjg— okwaf~ hokw~ dhzziug gekd il zjigljg hln dh~fgdh~ijz gnwjh~ikl il ~fg ch~g 8972z

hln 8952z il ~fg Wli~gn Z~h~gz, ^fg egnghc akugldgl~ qhz ng~gdilgn ~k jgh~g ~fg zjigl~ieij hln

glailggila qkm ekjg lgjgzzhy ~k jgh~g h zwjjgzzewc zrhjg gvrckh~ikl rkahd, ^fg Lh~iklhc ZjigljgEkwlnh~ikl# rkegzziklhc kahliph~iklz# hln ~gv~okkm rwocizfgz ilugz~gn dicciklz ke nkcchz il~k gqi~ilajwijwcwdz# ngugckrila hln rwocizfila lgq ~gv~okkmz# ~hilila ~ghjfgz# hln gxwirrila zjfkkc chokh~kigz,^fg gekd hjjkdrcizfgn i~z akhc il idrkuila zjigljg hln dh~fgdh~ijz ilz~wj~ikl hln rknwjila zjigl~iz~zhln glailggz ~k zwrrk~ ~fg zrhjg rkahd hln h ~gjflijhc zkjig~y,

Izzwg ? $ Z~wj~wila hln Rchjila GZN il ~fg Jwijwcwd

Ghjf jkwl~y ehjgz h ewlnhdgl~hc ngjizikl il hnngzzila hl GZN z~h~gay, Ghjf

jkwl~y dwz~ ngjing kl h dg~fkn ke idrcgdgl~h~ikl„qfg~fg ~k jgh~g hlk~fg –hnn kl—

zwo`gj~# &g,a,# Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~# Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# k Rkrwch~ikl

Gnwjh~ikl) k ~k gkigl~ gl~ig gnwjh~ikl rkahdz hln rhj~ijgz ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhocgngugckrdgl~, Lh~iklz hczk lggn ~k jchiey qfg~fg ~fgi gnwjh~kz hg ogila hzmgn ~k ~ghjf

hokw~ zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ k ~k jfhlag ~fg akhcz hln dg~fknz ke gnwjh~ikl ~k hjfigug 

zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, ^fg hlzqg ~k ~fiz xwgz~ikl qicc rkekwlncy heegj~ ghjf lh~ikl’z

jkwzg ke hj~ikl,

Il ghci~y# gnwjh~ikl gch~gn ~k zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ qicc og idrcgdgl~gn il h

qing hlag# il ok~f ngr~f hln oghn~f, Il zkdg jkddwli~igz# GZN qicc og ialkgn= il k~fgz

i~ qicc og ohgcy hnngzzgn, Il zkdg# h lgq jchzz ngnijh~gn ~k GZN qicc og jgh~gn# hln il

k~fgz ~fg gl~ig jwijwcwd qicc og gkigl~gn ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y, Jkddwli~igz dwz~

og hqhg ke ~fg cidi~h~iklz ke gnwjh~ila hokw~ zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, ^ghjfila hokw~ 

zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ iz cimg ~ghjfila ~fg ~fgky ogfiln hl hoz~hj~ jkljgr~ k ~ghjfila

~fg riljircgz ke zwz~hilhoici~y oy k~g dgdkiph~ikl, GZN il i~z ghc hln geegj~iug ekdz

aiugz z~wngl~z ~fg zmiccz# rgzrgj~iugz# uhcwgz# hln mlkqcgnag ~k ciug zwz~hilhocy il ~fgi 

jkddwli~igz, H~ ~fg zhdg ~idg# ~wg gnwjh~ikl iz lk~ ilnkj~ilh~ikl k iljwcjh~ikl,

Gvrgidgl~h~ikl qicc ng~gdilg qfh~ cgugc ke GZN qicc og hrrkrih~g hln zwjjgzzewc

ek jkddwli~igz ~k dgg~ ~fgi zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz, Ek gvhdrcg# h jkddwli~y dhy qghug h

egq ~fgdgz ke zwz~hilhoici~y il~k ~fg jwijwcwd# klcy ~k eiln ~fg hnni~iklz qicc lk~ hjfigug

zwz~hilhoici~y ek ~fgi jkddwli~y, Il jhzgz qfgg zjfkkcz jhy ~k~hc gzrklzioici~y ek GZN#jkdrcg~g jwijwch gkigl~h~ikl ke gnwjh~ikl h~ hcc cgugcz qicc rkohocy og lgjgzzhy, Il

jkddwli~igz qfgg ilekdhc# lklekdhc# hln ekdhc gnwjh~ikl wli~g ~k jgh~g hl il~gah~gn

GZN rkahd ek ji~ipglz ke hcc hagz# h cgzz il~glzg hrrkhjf il ~fg ekdhc gnwjh~ikl

zyz~gd diaf~ og geegj~iug, Hz rkahdz hg ngugckrgn hln idrcgdgl~gn# rkocgdz qicc

kjjw, Echqz hln xwgz~iklhocg rhj~ijgz qicc lggn ~k og hnngzzgn hz GZN jkl~ilwgz ~k

ngugckr hln dh~wg,

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Izzwg : $ Cilmila ~k Gviz~ila Izzwgz0 Gnwjh~iklhc _gekd hln Gjklkdij Uihoici~y

^fg geegj~iuglgzz ke ~fg qkcn’z gnwjh~iklhc zyz~gdz iz hcghny ji~ijhccy ngoh~gn il

ciaf~ ke ~fg jfhlaila lggnz ke zkjig~y, ^fg jwgl~ qingzrghn hjmlkqcgnadgl~ ke ~fg

lggn ek gnwjh~iklhc gekd dhy fgcr hnuhljg GZN, Ie i~ jhl og cilmgn ~k klg k dkg

riki~igz ke gnwjh~iklhc gekd# GZN jkwcn fhug h akkn jfhljg ek zwjjgzz, Fkqgug# ie 

rkdk~gz ~y ~k hnn hlk~fg izzwg ~k hl hcghny kug$ownglgn zyz~gd# ~fg jfhljgz ke 

zwjjgzz hg zcid,

Klg jwgl~ ackohc jkljgl ~fh~ fhz ~fg rk~gl~ihc ~k niug gnwjh~iklhc gekd il dhly

jkwl~igz iz gjklkdij zgjwi~y, Hkwln ~fg qkcn# diliz~igz ke gnwjh~ikl hln jkddgjg

hg hzmila0 Qfh~ jfhlagz qicc rgrhg h qkmekjg ~fh~ qicc dhmg dy jkwl~y gjklkdijhccy

uihocg il ~fg jfhlaila gjklkdy ke ~fg lgq diccglliwd;

Klg gnwjh~iklhc geek~ ~fh~ jhl okkz~ ~fg gjklkdij rk~gl~ihc ke gl~ig lh~iklz iz

gnwjh~ila egdhcgz, Nwila ~fg chz~ ngjhng# zkdg lh~iklhc cghngz fhug gjkalipgn ~fh~

gnwjh~ila ~fg gl~ig qkmekjg# ok~f dhcgz hln egdhcgz# iz idrk~hl~ ek gjklkdij uihoici~y,Il hnni~ikl# Chqgljg Zwddg ke ~fg Qkcn Ohlm zhyz#—Kljg hcc ~fg oglgei~z hg

gjkalipgn# ilugz~dgl~z il ~fg gnwjh~ikl ke aicz dhy qgcc og ~fg fiafgz~$g~wl ilugz~dgl~

huhichocg il ~fg ngugckrila qkcn— &Mila hln Ficc# 899:# r uii), Hjjknilacy# zkdg lh~iklz hg

gdkuila ohigz ~k aicz h~~glnila zjfkkc hln fhug jhdrhialz ~k hj~iugcy glkcc aicz il

zjfkkc,

Ew~fg# hcialila gnwjh~ikl qi~f ew~wg gjklkdij jklni~iklz iz nieeijwc~# ogjhwzg

gjklkdij hln ~gjflkckaijhc ekgjhz~ila iz hl h~ ohzgn kl idrgjizg zjigljg, Hlzqgz hg

gcwziug,

^k og zwjjgzzewc# GZN qicc lggn ~k jh~jf ~fg qhug ke gnwjh~iklhc gekd, GZN

rkrklgl~z lggn ~k ingl~iey hln iccwz~h~g ~fg cilmhagz og~qggl ~fg riljircgz ke 

zwz~hilhoici~y hln ~fg ckla$~gd gjklkdij qgcc$ogila ke ghjf lh~ikl, Ie GZN jhl og cilmgn

~k ~fg jwgl~ ackohc gnwjh~iklhc gekd dkugdgl~# gnwjh~ila ek zwz~hilhoici~y qicc og zqgr~

hckla qi~f ~fg glgay ke ~fg gekd geek~, Ie# fkqgug# ~fg qhug iz dizzgn# rkrklgl~z ke 

GZN qicc og ckkmila ek h ekk~fkcn il ~fg jwijwcwd hln ~yila ~k jkluiljg ~ghjfgz ~k

qgnag zwz~hilhoici~y riljircgz# mlkqcgnag# izzwgz# zmiccz# uhcwgz# hln rgzrgj~iugz

qfggug rkzziocg, Cilmila ~k ~fg gekd dkugdgl~ jhl awhhl~gg GZN ~k gugy jficn ilzjfkkc# qficg ilzg~ila GZN il~k ~fg jwijwcwd qicc og cge~ ~k ~fg qfid ke ilniuinwhc ~ghjfgz,

Il ~fg jhzg ke ~fg ch~~g# GZN qicc og jfhhj~gipgn oy fwag ahrz k rkzziocg gnwlnhljigz,

^fg Il~glh~iklhc Jkddizzikl kl Gnwjh~ikl ek ~fg ^qgl~y$Eiz~ Jgl~wy# qfijf qhz

jfhign oy @hjxwgz Ngckz# gcghzgn i~z grk~# CGH_LILA0 ^fg ^ghzwg Qi~fil # ~k

WLGZJK, ^fg grk~ z~klacy gjkddglnz ~fh~ hcc gekd og jklnwj~gn il ~fg zrii~ hln

gzzgljg ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ hln jhccz ek ~fg ewcc$ecgnagn rwzwi~ ke gkigl~ila

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gnwjh~ikl ~k h~~hil zwz~hilhoici~y, Hjjknilacy# GZN hln akhcz ek zwz~hilhoici~y fhug h

cgai~idh~g rchjg il qfh~gug jfhlagz gdgag ekd lh~iklhc k gaiklhc gnwjh~iklhc gekd

geek~z,

Izzwg > $ Ehjila ~fg Jkdrcgvi~y ke Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ Jkljgr~

Zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ iz h jkdrcgv hln gukcuila jkljgr~, Dhly zjfkchz hln

rhj~i~iklgz fhug ilugz~gn yghz il ~yila ~k ngeilg zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ hln

gluiziklila fkq ~k hjfigug i~ kl lh~iklhc hln ckjhc cgugcz, Ogjhwzg zwz~hilhocg

ngugckrdgl~ iz fhn ~k ngeilg hln idrcgdgl~# i~ iz hczk nieeijwc~ ~k ~ghjf, Gugl dkg

jfhccglaila iz ~fg ~hzm ke ~k~hccy gkigl~ila hl gl~ig gnwjh~ikl zyz~gd ~k hjfigug

zwz~hilhoici~y,

Qfgl qg gvhdilg zwjjgzzewc lh~iklhc gnwjh~ikl jhdrhialz# qg eiln ~fgy ke~gl fhug

zidrcg dgzzhagz, Ek gvhdrcg# dgzzhagz ~fh~ gljkwhag wz ~k uhjjilh~g kw jficngl hln

okic kw qh~g# k nizjkwhag wz ekd niuila nwlm hln ~hmila nwaz# hg zidrcg jkljgr~z

jkdrhgn ~k ~fg jkdrcgv hlag ke gluikldgl~hc# gjklkdij# hln zkjihc izzwgz ~fh~zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ gljkdrhzzgz, Zwjjgzz il GZN qicc ~hmg dwjf cklag hln og

dkg jkz~cy ~fhl zilacg$dgzzhag rwocij$gnwjh~ikl jhdrhialz,

Lh~iklhc Gnwjh~ikl JhdrhialzQfgl qg gvhdilg zwjjgzzewc lh~iklhc gnwjh~ikl jhdrhialz# qg eiln ~fgy ke~gl fhug zidrcg dgzzhagz,Ek gvhdrcg# HINZ gnwjh~ikl ekjwzgz kl rgugl~ikl, ^fg dgzzhag iz# –rgkrcg jhl rgugl~ ~fg zrghn ke ~fg FIU uiwz oy ~hmila jg~hil rgjhw~iklz,— ^k jklugy ~fiz dgzzhag# lh~iklhc akugldgl~z# lklrkei~kahliph~iklz# hln zjfkkcz zrgln dicciklz ke nkcchz, ^fg HINZ rgugl~ikl dgzzhag iz gv~gdgcy zidrcg,Lgug~fgcgzz# HINZ iz kl ~fg izg il dhly jkwl~igz# lk~ ogjhwzg ~fg gnwjh~ikl rkahdz hg ilgeegj~iug#ow~ ogjhwzg ~fg rkocgd iz jkdrcgv,

_h~fg ~fhl ogila jcgh# zidrcg# hln wlhdoiawkwz# ~fg jkljgr~z ilukcugn il GZN

hg jkdrcgv, ^fgi jkdrcgvi~y z~gdz ekd ~fg il~ijh~g hln jkdrcijh~gn il~ghj~iklz ke 

lh~whc hln fwdhl zyz~gdz, ^fg jfhccglag ~k gnwjh~kz iz ~k ngiug dgzzhagz ~fh~

iccwz~h~g zwjf jkdrcgvi~y# qi~fkw~ kugqfgcdila k jklewzila ~fg cghlg,

Izzwg 7 $ Ngugckrila hl GZN Rkahd qi~f Jkddwli~y Rh~ijirh~ikl

Rgfhrz ~fg agh~gz~ koz~hjcg ~k gkigl~ila ~fg qkcn!z gnwjh~iklhc zyz~gdz iz ~fg

chjm ke jchi~y gahnila akhcz, Il zidrcg ~gdz# ~fkzg qfk qicc og jhccgn wrkl ~k gnwjh~g

nieeggl~cy &g,a,# ~fg qkcn!z 79#222#222 ~ghjfgz k haijwc~whc ilz~wj~kz k qh~g$

~gh~dgl~ ~hilgz) gugl~whccy qicc hzm# –Qfh~ hd I ~k nk nieeggl~cy;— –Qfh~ zfkwcn I nk k 

zhy lkq ~fh~ I ninl!~ zhy ogekg;— ^fgzg zidrcg xwgz~iklz cghug dkz~ –gvrg~z— il h

xwhlnhy hln ~fg xwgz~iklg qi~fkw~ hl hngxwh~g gzrklzg,

Gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ gdhilz hl gliadh ~k dhly akugldgl~z

hln zjfkkcz, Akugldgl~z# diliz~igz ke gnwjh~ikl# zjfkkc niz~ij~z# hln gnwjh~kz fhug

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Izzwg 5 $ Glahaila ^hni~iklhc Nizjircilgz il h ^hlznizjircilhy Ehdgqkm

GZN oy lh~wg iz fkciz~ij hln il~gnizjircilhy hln ngrglnz kl jkljgr~z hln

hlhcy~ijhc ~kkcz ekd h uhig~y ke nizjircilgz, Hz h gzwc~# GZN iz nieeijwc~ ~k ~ghjf il

~hni~iklhc zjfkkc zg~~ilaz qfgg z~wnigz hg niuingn hln ~hwaf~ il h nizjircilhy ehdgqkm,

Il jkwl~igz qfgg lh~iklhc jwijwcwdz ngzjiog il ng~hic ~fg jkl~gl~ hln zgxwgljg ke z~wny

il ghjf nizjircilg# GZN qicc og jfhccglaila ~k idrcgdgl~, Il k~fg jkwl~igz qfgg jkl~gl~

iz ngzjiogn aglghccy# GZN qicc og dkg ghzicy idrcgdgl~gn# hc~fkwaf nkila zk qicc gxwig

jgh~iug ~ghjfgz qfk hg jkdek~hocg hln zmiccgn h~ ~ghjfila hjkzz nizjircilgz,

Izzwg 1 $ Zfhila ~fg _gzrklzioici~y

Rkrwch ~filmila rkdk~gz ~fg dy~f ~fh~ hl ilekdgn zkjig~y iz zkcgcy ~fg

gzrklzioici~y ke ~fg diliz~y ke gnwjh~ikl, Il ghci~y# fkqgug# ~fg diliz~igz ke gluikldgl~#

jkddgjg# z~h~g# hln fghc~f hczk fhug h z~hmg il GZN# `wz~ hz ~fgy fhug h z~hmg il

zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, Oy jkdoilila gvrg~izg# gzkwjgz# hln ewlnila ekd dhly

diliz~igz# ~fg rkzzioici~y ke owicnila h fiaf$xwhci~y# zwjjgzzewc gnwjh~ikl rkahd iljghzgz,

Gugy zgj~k ke ~fg akugldgl~ ~fh~ iz ~kwjfgn oy zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ &i,g,#

gugy diliz~y hln ngrh~dgl~) jhl rchy h kcg il GZN hln ~fg gkigl~ila rkjgzz, H~ ~fg

WL dgg~ila ke ~fg Jkddizzikl kl Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~# diliz~igz ke ~fg gluikldgl~

fhug ~hmgl ~fg cghn il z~h~ila ~fh~ gnwjh~ikl# hqhglgzz# hln ~hilila hg gzzgl~ihc ~kkcz il

oilaila hokw~ zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, Diliz~igz ke ~fg gluikldgl~ lggn ~k qkm qi~f

ok~f ekdhc hln lklekdhc zgj~kz ke ~fg gnwjh~ikl jkddwli~y ~k idrcgdgl~ GZN, Il

hnni~ikl# i~ iz hozkcw~gcy gzzgl~ihc ek ~ghjfgz ~k og ilukcugn il ~fg rkjgzz ke owicnila

jklzglzwz jkljglila GZN,

Izzwg 6 $ Owicnila Fwdhl Jhrhji~y

^fg zwjjgzzewc idrcgdgl~h~ikl ke h lgq gnwjh~iklhc ~gln qicc gxwig gzrklziocg#

hjjkwl~hocg cghngzfir hln gvrg~izg il ok~f zyz~gdij gnwjh~iklhc jfhlag hln zwz~hilhocg

ngugckrdgl~, Qg dwz~ ngugckr ghciz~ij z~h~gaigz ~k xwijmcy jgh~g mlkqcgnaghocg hln

jhrhocg cghngzfir, I~ iz wlghciz~ij ~k gvrgj~ lh~iklz ~k g~hil 79#222#222 ~ghjfgz hln

~fkwzhlnz ke hndiliz~h~kz il gi~fg $ k ok~f $ GZN hln gnwjh~iklhc jfhlag, Qg dwz~ eiln

qhyz# zwjf hz gdrckyila ~fg z~gla~fz dkngc# ~k wzg gviz~ila zmiccz,

^qk dkngcz ke fwdhl gzkwjg ngugckrdgl~ jwgl~cy gviz~ $ ilzguijg ~hilila hln

rg$zguijg ~hilila, Il ~fg eiz~# gvrgigljgn rkegzziklhcz hg rkuingn qi~f hnni~iklhc

~hilila, ^fgl# ~fgy gzfhrg gviz~ila rkahdz oy nhqila kl ~fgi lgq mlkqcgnag#

rguikwz gvrg~izg# wlngz~hlnila ke lh~iklhc hln ckjhc zyz~gdz# hln lg~qkm ke jkl~hj~z,

Il rg$zguijg ~hilila# jkljgr~z# riljircgz# hln dg~fknkckaigz hg rkuingn nwila ili~ihc

~hilila, ^fg lgq rkegzziklhcz ~fgl z~gr il~k ~fgi `koz qi~f GZN hz rh~ ke ~fgi gvrg~izg,

Rg$zguijg ~hilila iz dkg jkz~ geegj~iug ~fhl g~hilila gnwjh~kz hln hndiliz~h~kz ch~g 

il ~fgi jhggz, Ek ili~ihc zwjjgzz il GZN# ok~f ilzguijg hln rg$zguijg ~hilila hg

lgjgzzhy,

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Dhly gzkwjgz jwgl~cy gviz~ il ~fg gnwjh~iklhc hln hndiliz~h~iug chok rkkcz,

^hcgl~gn gnwjh~kz# gzrgjihccy il ~fg eigcnz ke gluikldgl~# rkrwch~ikl# hln ngugckrdgl~#

hcghny ~ghjf z~hlnz ke GZN hln jkwcn ghzicy gvrhln ~fgi ekjwz ~k iljcwng k~fg jkljgr~z

ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, Ek~wlh~gcy# gugy gnwjh~k il gugy nizjircilg fhz zkdg

gviz~ila z~gla~f ~k jkl~iow~g ~k GZN uih ~fg z~gla~fz dkngc, Il ~fiz hrrkhjf# ~fg

zylgaiz~ij z~gla~fz ke jkdoilgn gnwjh~iklhc nizjircilgz jhl jklugy ~fg mlkqcgnag#

izzwgz# zmiccz# rgjgr~iklz# hln uhcwgz hzzkjih~gn qi~f GZN, Fkqgug# wzg ke ~fiz z~gla~fz

dkngc gxwigz ~fh~ zkdgklg og zweeijigl~cy qgcc$ugzgn il GZN ~k rwcc ~kag~fg ~fg rigjgz

hln ~k ekd h jkdrcg~g rij~wg ke ~fg kcg ~fh~ ilniuinwhcz# jkddwli~igz# hln lh~iklz dwz~

rchy il h zwz~hilhocg qkcn,

^fg ekcckqila xwk~g ekd Ak Fhcgd Owln~chln gdrfhzipgz ~fg idrk~hljg ke 

~ghjfgz il ~fg GZN gkigl~h~ikl rkjgzz,

Ow~ eiz~ hln ekgdkz~ kw dgzzhag ]zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~T iz nigj~gn ~kqhnzrgkrcg# qfkzg qgcc$ogila iz ~fg wc~idh~g akhc ke hcc gluikldgl~ hln ngugckrdgl~

rkcijigz, Il rh~ijwch# ~fg Jkddizzikl iz hnngzzila ~fg ykwla, ^fg qkcn’z ~ghjfgz qiccfhug h jgl~hc kcg ~k rchy il oilaila ~fiz ~k ~fgd,

Ekgqkn# Kw Jkddkl Ew~wg # 8961,

Qficg ~fg geek~ jhl ogail qi~f ~fg jwgl~ ~ghjfila rkegzziklhcz hkwln ~fg ackog# i~

iz jcgh ~fh~ ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl ilz~i~w~iklz lggn ~k gkigl~ rg$zguijg ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl ~k

iljcwng GZN, ^ghjfg gnwjh~ikl rkahdz lggn ~k rknwjg rkegzziklhcz qfk lk~ klcy

~ghjf zwz~hilhoici~y ~fgdgz ow~ hczk jhl –rwcc ~kag~fg— ~fg uhikwz nizjircilhy z~hlnz ~fh~

qicc aiug ~fgi z~wngl~z h fkciz~ij wlngz~hlnila ke h zwz~hilhocg ew~wg hln ~fg kcg ke 

ilniuinwhcz# jkddwli~igz# hln lh~iklz il h zwz~hilhocg qkcn, ^fg ngugckrdgl~ ke ~fiz

jhng ke gvrg~izg qicc rkekwlncy heegj~ fkq hrincy lh~iklz qicc ogail ~fg dkug ~kqhn

zwz~hilhoici~y,

Ilz~i~w~iklz ke ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl hg inghccy zi~wh~gn ~k rchy jgl~hc kcgz il gnwjh~iklhc

gekd# hln ~ghjfg gnwjh~kz hg ~fg mgy jfhlag hagl~z, ^ghjfg gnwjh~kz ~hil lgq

~ghjfgz# rkuing rkegzziklhc ngugckrdgl~ ek rhj~ijila ~ghjfgz# jklzwc~ qi~f ckjhc

zjfkkcz# hln rkuing gvrg~ krilikl ~k gaiklhc hln lh~iklhc diliz~igz ke gnwjh~ikl,

^ghjfg gnwjh~kz qi~g lk~ klcy rg$zguijg ~ghjfg$gnwjh~ikl jwijwcwd# ow~ hczk

jkl~iow~g ~k jkddi~~ggz ~fh~ jgh~g ~ghjfg$gnwjh~ikl z~hlnhnz hln keeijihccy dhlnh~gnjwijwcwd ek ridhy hln zgjklnhy gnwjh~ikl, Ogjhwzg ke ~fiz okhn ilecwgljg il

jwijwcwd ngzial# idrcgdgl~h~ikl# hln rkcijy zg~~ila# ehjwc~y dgdogz ke ~ghjfg$

gnwjh~ikl ilz~i~w~iklz jhl oila hokw~ eh$ghjfila gnwjh~iklhc gekd $ gugl ogykln

~hilila ~fg ~ghjfgz il ~fg qkcn, ^fg xwgz~ikl iz# qfk qicc qkm qi~f ~fg ~ghjfg gnwjh~kz

~k ngugckr ~fgi gvrg~izg;

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^k zwrrk~ ackohc idrcgdgl~h~ikl ke GZN# qg lggn il~glh~iklhc jkkrgh~iug

rkahdz ek hndiliz~h~kz# jwijwcwd ngugckrgz# ~ghjfg gnwjh~kz# hln cghn ~ghjfgz,

^fgzg rkahdz zfkwcn dhvidipg hln cgughag ~fg mlkqcgnag ohzg hln z~gla~fz hcghny

gviz~ila il ~fg chok rkkc,

Dkngc Ilzguijg Rkahd

Ek~wlh~gcy# gvjgccgl~ dkngcz ke il~glh~iklhc jkkrgh~ikl gviz~ ek ~hilila rkegzziklhcz il lgq hghzke gvrg~izg, Klg gvjgccgl~ rkahd il Zkw~fghz~ Hzih ~hilz ~ghjfg gnwjh~kz ~k hnngzz GZN, I~ izjhccgn ~fg Cghlila ek h Zwz~hilhocg Gluikldgl~0 Illkuh~iklz il ^ghjfg Gnwjh~ikl &CZG0I^G) rk`gj~,^ghjfg gnwjh~kz ekd ?9 jkwl~igz hg qkmila qi~f ~fg WLGZJK Hzih$Rhjieij Jgl~g ke Gnwjh~iklhcIllkuh~ikl ek Ngugckrdgl~ il Ohlamkm# ^fhichln# hln Aieei~f Wliugzi~y ke Oizohlg# Hwz~hcih, ^fgCZG0I^G rk`gj~ fhz ~qk akhcz0 Eiz~# i~ zggmz ~k ngugckr h dkngc ek rkuinila geegj~iug rkegzziklhcngugckrdgl~ il ~fg mlkqcgnag# zmiccz# hln uhcwgz ke gluikldgl~hc+zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ gnwjh~ikl ek ~ghjfg gnwjh~kz ~fkwafkw~ ~fg Hzih$Rhjieij gaikl, Zgjkln# i~ zggmz ~k rkuing jhgewccy rick~$~gz~gnhln jwc~whccy zglzi~iug qkmzfkr dh~gihcz ~fh~ jkwcn og wzgn hz ~fg ohziz ek rkegzziklhc hlnjwijwcwd ngugckrdgl~ hj~iui~igz oy ~ghjfg gnwjh~kz il Zkw~fghz~ Hzih hln il k~fg rh~z ke ~fg qkcn,

^fg CZG0I^G rk`gj~ jgh~gn hln zwrrk~gn hl il~glh~iklhc lg~qkm ke ukcwl~gg ~ghjfg gnwjh~kzekd ~fkwafkw~ ~fg gaikl, ^fkwaf ~fg rk`gj~# rh~ijirhl~z ngugckrgn 82 qkmzfkr dknwcgz ek 

~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl, ^fg ukcwl~gg rh~ijirhl~z glahagn il hl il~glh~iklhc rkjgzz ke jgh~ila dh~gihcz#gvrgidgl~ila qi~f illkuh~iug dg~fknkckaigz# zfhila qi~f jkccghawgz# hnhr~ila dh~gihcz ek nieeggl~jwc~whc zg~~ilaz# guhcwh~ila# rick~ ~gz~ila# hln geilila ~fg dh~gihcz, Ek gvhdrcg# h ~ghjfg gnwjh~k qfk qk~g h dknwcg il fg hgh ke gvrg~izg qhz hocg ~k fhug i~ guigqgn oy dgdogz ke h lg~qkm ke 12jkccghawgz il ?2 jkwl~igz, ^fgzg jkccghawgz guigqgn ~fg dknwcg hln zwaagz~gn hnhr~h~iklz hlnjkddgl~z ekd ~fgi kql zkjig~hc rgzrgj~iugz, Lgv~# ~fg dknwcg qhz geilgn hln zgl~ ~k h chag lg~qkm hwnigljg il lilg hnni~iklhc jkwl~igz# qfgg i~ qhz guigqgn# hnhr~gn ek hnni~iklhc jwc~whczg~~ilaz# hln eigcn ~gz~gn il ~fiz qing il~glh~iklhc jkl~gv~, Jkddgl~z hln gzwc~z ekd ~fg eigcn ~gz~ilaqgg wzgn ~k ew~fg geilg ~fg dknwcg hln ~k hzzwg i~z w~ici~y il dhly jkwl~igz, ^fg dknwcgz hlnhjjkdrhlyila jhzg z~wnigz qgg rwocizfgn hln nizzgdilh~gn ~fkwaf h jgl~hc jcghila fkwzg hln qicczkkl hrrgh kl ~fg Il~glg~, ^fg dknwcgz hg jwgl~cy wzgn il ok~f rg$zguijg hln ilzguijg ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl rkahdz ~fkwafkw~ ~fg Hzih$Rhjieij gaikl hln fhug zgugn hz ~fg ehdgqkm ek lh~iklhc

~hilila qkmzfkrz ek ~ghjfg gnwjh~kz il zgughc jkwl~igz,

Izzwg 9 $ Ngugckrila Eilhljihc hln Dh~gihc _gzkwjgz

Rgfhrz klg ke ~fg agh~gz~ gvrglzgz ke idrcgdgl~ila GZN qicc jkdg qi~f rkuinila

hrrkrih~g ohzij gnwjh~ikl, Ohzij akhcz# qfijf qgg gz~hocizfgn h~ @kl~igd hln

gheeidgn h~ Nhmh# iljcwng gnwjh~ila dkg jficngl hln iljghzila ~fg wliugzhc hughag

dilidwd ke zjfkkcila ~k ziv yghz, Dgg~ila ~fgzg akhcz qicc gxwig fiila dhly dkg

~ghjfgz, ^fgzg lgq ~ghjfgz dwz~ og ~hilgn# hln jwgl~ ~ghjfgz dwz~ og g~hilgn# ~k

gkigl~ ~fgi jwijwcwdz ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y,

^fg akkn lgqz iz ~fh~ dhly jkwl~igz hg zrglnila h chag rgjgl~hag ke ~fgi 

akzz lh~iklhc rknwj~ &ALR) kl gnwjh~ikl, ^qk$~finz ke ~fg 8?: jkwl~igz ciz~gn il ~fg

WLGZJK Qkcn Gnwjh~ikl _grk~ ?222 ~fh~ grk~gn rwocij gvrglni~wgz kl gnwjh~ikl hz h

rgjgl~hag ke ALR il ok~f 8992 hln 8995# grk~gn zrglnila dkg il 8995 ~fhl il 8992,

Hc~fkwaf akugldgl~z hg riki~ipila gnwjh~ikl il ~gdz ke ewlnila# fkq dwjf ke ~fiz

ewlnila iz akila ~k gkigl~ gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y; Hz qg rkil~gn kw~ il ~fg

–Gnwjh~ikl0 Rkdizg hln Rhhnkv— zgj~ikl# zidrcy rkuinila dkg gnwjh~ikl nkgz lk~

gnwjg ~fg ~fgh~ fiaf gzkwjg jklzwdr~ikl rkzgz ~k zwz~hilhoici~y,

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Klg ke ~fg ghzklz qfy dhly gvrg~z rgjgiug ~fh~ ci~~cg rkagzz fhz oggl dhng

gahnila GZN ziljg ~fg Gh~f Zwddi~ il 899? iz ~fh~ egq eilhljihc gzkwjgz fhug oggl

ngnijh~gn ~k gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y, Il ehj~# lh~iklhc hln ckjhc

akugldgl~z fhug zrgl~ ci~~cg kl GZN ogykln idrkuila ohzij gnwjh~ikl, Yg~# geegj~iug

GZN qicc ngrgln kl ewlnila h~ ok~f lh~iklhc hln ckjhc cgugcz, H~ ~fg lh~iklhc cgugc# eilhljihc

gzkwjgz dwz~ ewln jwijwcwd# hndiliz~h~ikl# hln ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl, H~ ~fg ckjhc cgugc#

gzkwjgz dwz~ eilhljg jwijwcwd ngugckrdgl~ hln hjjkdrhlyila dh~gihcz# hz qgcc hz

~ghjfg ~hilila,

_gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y qicc gxwig lgq eilhljihc gzkwjgz,

Klg ke ~fg dh`k rkocgdz qi~f GZN iz ~fh~ jwgl~ gnwjh~ikl dwz~ jkl~ilwg qficg ~fg lgq

jwijwcwd iz ogila ngzialgn hln ngugckrgn, ^fg ghci~y iz ~fh~ gnwjh~kz hg zk owzy qi~f

~fg ~hzm h~ fhln $ rchllila# nhicy ~ghjfila# guhcwh~ila rkagzz# qi~ila grk~z $ ~fh~ ~fgy

fhug ci~~cg ~idg k glgay ~k gzghjf hln jgh~g lgq jwijwcwd, ^ghjfgz jhllk~ og

gvrgj~gn ~k nk ~qk koz $ ngzial jwijwcwd hln ~ghjf $ nwila ~fg ~hlzi~ikl rfhzg, Ke 

jkwzg# jwgl~ ~ghjfgz zfkwcn rchy hl hnuizky kcg# ow~ jkg ngzial ~hzmz zfkwcn lk~ ehcc

gvjcwziugcy kl ~fgi hcghny ownglgn zfkwcngz, Lgq ewlnila hln gzkwjgz lggn ~k og

rkuingn nwila ~fg z~h~$wr rfhzg= akugldgl~z jhllk~ gvrgj~ ckjhc hndiliz~h~iklz hln

gnwjh~kz ~k nklh~g il$miln zguijgz ~k hjjkdrcizf ~fiz idrk~hl~ ~hzm,

Ckjhccy gcguhl~ hln jwc~whccy hrrkrih~g jwijwcwdz hln k~fg gnwjh~iklhc

dh~gihcz ke~gl uhy il~h$lh~iklhccy, Ek gvhdrcg# Jficg gv~glnz zgughc ~fkwzhln

mickdg~gz ekd lk~f ~k zkw~f, Il ~fg H~hjhdh Ngzg~ ke ~fg lk~f# gluikldgl~hc jkljglz

ilukcug ~fg kjghl hln dhilg cieg= il ~fg fwdin$~gdrgh~g zkw~f# jkljglz ilukcug ~fgekgz~z, Hz h gzwc~ ke ~fgzg agh~ niz~hljgz hln agkahrfij niugzi~y# h zgigz ke gaiklhc

jwijwcwdz ohzgn hkwln h jkddkl dkngc qkwcn og dkg hrrkrih~g ~fhl klg lh~iklhc

jwijwcwd, ^fiz zhdg il~h$lh~iklhc niugzi~y &i,g,# gjkckaijhc# gjklkdij# hln zkjig~hc

niugzi~y) gviz~z il dhly lh~iklz, Hjjknilacy# gaiklhc hln ckjhc jwijwcwd jkwcn oglgei~

dhly lh~iklz qi~f il~glhc niugzi~y,

Il hnni~ikl# dhly jkwl~igz hg guhcwh~ila lgq gnwjh~iklhc ~gjflkckaigz &g,a,#

niz~hljg cghlila# jkdrw~gz# Il~glg~# ^U) hln z~h~gaigz ~k idrcgdgl~ ~fgd, GZN iz

hcghny qkugl il~k dhly ke ~fgzg ~gjflkckaigz, Ek gvhdrcg# dhly egg zkwjgz ke gluikldgl~hc nh~h hg huhichocg kl ~fg Qkcn Qing Qgo hz hg k~fg ~ghjfila gzkwjgz

zwjf hz cgzzkl rchlz, Akugldgl~z hln zjfkkc niz~ij~z ilugz~ila il ~fgzg ~gjflkckaigz qicc

keezg~ gvrglni~wgz qi~f hjjgzz ~k egg GZN ilekdh~ikl hln dh~gihcz,

Ewlnila ek lgq gnwjh~iklhc rkahdzGZN iz h jkzz$jwijwch geek~, Fiz~kijhccy# k~fg jkzz$jwijwch geek~z &g,a,# gnwjh~iklhc

~gjflkckay) fhug oggl gvrglziug, Oilaila jkdrw~gz hln ~fg Il~glg~ il~k jchzzkkdz fhz gxwignzwoz~hl~ihc ilugz~dgl~z oy lh~iklhc# z~h~g# hln ckjhc akugldgl~z, Ek gvhdrcg# il ~fg 8962z# ^gllgzzgg

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Akuglk Chdh Hcgvhlng ngjingn ~fh~ gugy jchzzkkd il ~fg z~h~g zfkwcn fhug h jkdrw~g, Fg mlgq~fh~ il dhly whc hghz jkddwli~igz qkwcn gziz~ zrglnila chag hdkwl~z ke dklgy kl gnwjh~iklhc~gjflkckay= il zkdg hghz ke rkug~y# ~fg zjfkkcz jkwcn heekn lgi~fg ~fg fhnqhg lk ~fg zke~qhg,_h~fg ~fhl qhi~ila ek ilniuinwhc niz~ij~z ~k riki~ipg hln ewln ~gjflkckay# ~fg z~h~g akugldgl~ rhin ek h jkdrw~g ek ghjf jchzzkkd, Il ~fg 8992z# ^gllgzzgg hczk rhin ek hl Il~glg~ jkllgj~ikl ek ghjfzjfkkc# ogjhwzg ~fg z~h~g ghcipgn ~fg idrk~hljg ke hcc z~wngl~z cghlila ~k hjjgzz# dhlhag# hln wzgilekdh~ikl ekd ~fg Qkcn Qing Qgo,

Izzwg 82 $ Ngugckrila Rkcijy

^k zwjjggn# GZN dwz~ fhug hl hw~fki~h~iug idrg~wz ekd lh~iklhc k gaiklhc

akugldgl~z ~fh~ qicc niug rkcijy ngugckrdgl~, ^fg kdizzikl ke zwjf hl idrg~wz rkugn ~k

og ~fg nkqlehcc ke ~fg 8912z ackohc geek~ ~k ilewzg gluikldgl~hc gnwjh~ikl il~k ~fg

gcgdgl~hy hln zgjklnhy jwijwcwdz, ^fiz zhdg eh~g jkwcn ogehcc ~fg GZN geek~, ^fg

ghci~y ke hly gnwjh~iklhc gekd iz ~fh~ zwjjgzz ngrglnz kl ok~f –~kr nkql— hln –ok~~kd

wr— geek~z, Hndiliz~h~kz h~ ~fg ~kr gjfgcklz ke diliz~igz hg il h rkzi~ikl ~k jgh~g ~fg

rkcijigz ~fh~ qicc dhmg gekd kjjw, ^kag~fg# hndiliz~h~kz# ~ghjfgz# hln jkddwli~y

cghngz h~ ~fg ckjhc cgugc dwz~ il~grg~ qfh~ ~fg rkcijy zfkwcn –ckkm cimg— ckjhccy,

Izzwg 88 $ Ngugckrila h Jgh~iug# Illkuh~iug# hln _izm$^hmila Jcidh~g

Il kng ~k oila hokw~ ~fg dh`k jfhlagz gxwign oy GZN# qg lggn ~k lw~wg h

jcidh~g ke zheg~y, Rkcijydhmgz# hndiliz~h~kz# hln ~ghjfgz qicc lggn ~k dhmg jfhlagz#

gvrgidgl~# hln ~hmg izmz ~k hjjkdrcizf lgq gnwjh~iklhc hln zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz, ^fgy

lggn ~k fhug ~fg hw~fki~y hln zwrrk~ ke ~fg gnwjh~iklhc jkddwli~y ~k jfhlag ~fg z~h~wz

xwk, ^ghjfgz dwz~ eggc ~fh~ ~fg hndiliz~h~ikl qicc zwrrk~ ~fgi geek~z ie rhgl~z k ugz~gn

il~ggz~ akwrz il ~fg jkddwli~y xwgz~ikl k ji~ijipg ~fgi ili~ih~iugz, Qg lggn ~k ngugckr

hln idrcgdgl~ rkcijy ~k glzwg hndiliz~h~kz hln gnwjh~kz h~ hcc cgugcz fhug ~fg iaf~ ~kil~knwjg lgq k jkl~kugzihc ~krijz hln rgnhakaijhc dg~fknz, Ke jkwzg# hl kug$

pghckwz egq jkwcn howzg ~fgzg iaf~z= ~fggekg# h zyz~gd ke jfgjmz hln ohchljgz qi~fil

rkegzziklhc awingcilgz hln jwc~whc jkl~gv~ zfkwcn hczk og il rchjg,

Izzwg 8? $ Rkdk~ila Zwz~hilhoici~y il Rkrwch Jwc~wg

Rgfhrz ~fg dkz~ nieeijwc~ koz~hjcg ~k hnngzz il idrcgdgl~ila GZN iz ~fh~ ke 

rkrwchi~y, Qficg dhly jkwl~igz haggn ~fh~ GZN iz idrk~hl~# ~fg ~fgdgz ke zwz~hilhoici~y

hg lk~ rguhcgl~ il rkrwch jwc~wgz k akugldgl~hc rkcijigz, Ek gvhdrcg# klg riljircg

ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ iz ~fh~ ~fg h~gz ke wzg ke glgqhocg gzkwjgz zfkwcn lk~gvjggn ~fgi h~gz ke gaglgh~ikl, Yg~# dhly zkjig~igz fhug ngugckrgn k hg ngugckrila h

–nizrkzhocg jwc~wg,— Nizrkzhocg ogughag jkl~hilgz# ekkn qhrrgz# rch~gz# hln gh~ila

w~glzicz rhzz ~fkwaf kw ciugz nhicy, Qg wzg ~fgd kljg hln ~fgl nizjhn ~fgd ~k og

owign# owlgn# k nwdrgn il ~fg qh~g, ^fiz nizrkzhocg jwc~wg iz wzila zwjf gzkwjgz hz

~ggz hln ekzzic ewgcz dkg hrincy ~fhl ~fgy jhl og grchjgn,

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Ogjhwzg riljircgz ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ hg lk~ jwgl~cy qkugl il~k nhicy cieg

hln akugldgl~hc rkcijy# ~fg gdgagljg ke GZN jkwcn ogjkdg hl idrk~hl~ –ok~~kd$wr—

niug ke jkddwli~y$ohzgn zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, GZN jkwcn zfhrg hln gljkwhag

ogfhuikz hln g~fijz ~fh~ zwrrk~ hl ilekdgn# mlkqcgnaghocg ji~ipgly ~fh~ fhz ~fg rkci~ijhc

qicc ~k hjfigug h zwz~hilhocg ew~wg,

Zwddhy _gdhm hokw~ ~fg 8? Izzwgz

Il zwddhy# ~k zwjjgzzewccy idrcgdgl~ GZN# akugldgl~z hln zjfkkc niz~ij~z dwz~

rchl hfghn hln ngugckr z~h~gaigz ~k hnngzz ~fg 8? izzwgz dgl~iklgn hokug, ^fgzg

izzwgz zfkwcn og hnngzzgn h~ gugy cgugc# gzrgjihccy ~fg lh~iklhc cgugc# ~k glzwg

jklziz~gl~ idrcgdgl~h~ikl ke GZN hjkzz ~fg jkwl~y, Rwrkzgewc ngciogh~ikl hln rchllila

hkwln ~fgzg izzwgz hz qgcc hz izzwgz rh~ijwch ~k ghjf gaikl qicc iljghzg ~fg cimgcifkkn ke 

zwjjgzzewccy idrcgdgl~ila GZN rkahdz hln gkigl~ila jwijwcwd ~k hjfigug

zwz~hilhoici~y,

UI, NKUG^HICILA GZN QI^F JKDDWLI^Y ZWZ^HILHOICI^Y AKHCZ

^fg ^kkcmi~ iz ohzgn kl ~fg ingh ~fh~ jkddwli~igz hln gnwjh~iklhc zyz~gdz qi~fil

jkddwli~igz lggn ~k nkug~hic ~fgi zwz~hilhoici~y geek~z, Hz qg jgh~gn ~fg GZN ^kkcmi~ # qg

mlgq ~fh~ ie zwz~hilhoici~y qgg ~k og zwjjgzzewc il h jkddwli~y# ~fg gnwjh~ikl jkddwli~y

qkwcn fhug ~k zwrrk~ ~fg geek~, Hz jkddwli~igz ngugckr zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz# ~fg ckjhc

gnwjh~iklhc zyz~gdz jhl jgh~g rkahdz k dkniey gviz~ila jwijwcwdz ~k gilekjg ~fkzg

akhcz,

Fiz~ky ke lh~whc gzkwjg jklzguh~ikl dhlhagdgl~ fhz zfkql wz ~fg geeijhjy ke 

gnwjh~ikl rkahdz, Ek gvhdrcg# qfgl nhdz qgg owic~ il ~fg gllgzzgg Uhccgy# ehdila

rhj~ijgz qgg zwjf ~fh~ gkzikl hln ~fg hjjkdrhlyila ngrkzi~ikl ke zgnidgl~ il

qh~gqhyz qkwcn gugl~whccy eicc ~fg gzgukiz ogfiln ~fg nhdz hln cidi~ ~fgi cieg~idg hln

wzgewclgzz, Gv~glziug haijwc~wg gnwjh~ikl ~fkwaf ~fg gv~glzikl zguijg hln gekgz~h~ikl

geek~z zialieijhl~cy gnwjgn gkzikl hln gv~glngn ~fg cieg ke ~fg nhdz, ^fg zhdg geeijhjy iz

rkil~gn kw~ il rwocij fghc~f zwjjgzz z~kigz il uhjjilh~ikl rkahdz hln ~fg rgugl~ikl ke 

~fg zrghn ke nizghzg, ^fgzg zwjjgzzgz rkug ~fg rkil~ ke wzila gnwjh~ikl ~k hjfigug

zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz,

Hz qg qk~g gvgjizgz ~k gkigl~ ~fg jwijwcwd ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y# qg ekwln

kwzgcugz grgh~gncy ~filmila ~fh~ qg lggngn ~k fhug h ciz~ ke ~fg jkddwli~y’z zwz~hilhoici~y

akhcz ~k wzg il ~fg hj~iui~igz, Qfgl qg zghjfgn ek jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz# i~

ogjhdg hrrhgl~ ~fh~ dhly jkddwli~igz nk lk~ fhug zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz k hj~ikl rchlz kl

qfijf ~k ohzg gnwjh~iklhc jfhlag, Qi~fkw~ zwjf h ciz~# ~fg lgqcy gkigl~gn jwijwcwd

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qkwcn zwrrk~ klcy aglghc riljircgz ke zwz~hilhoici~y= ~fggekg# ~fg gzwc~ila jwijwcwd

qkwcn lk~ og hz zh~izehj~ky hz h jwijwcwd ~fh~ zwrrk~z ckjhc jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y

geek~z, ^k zwjjgzzewccy ngzial# gkigl~# k idrcgdgl~ hl GZN rkahd# jkddwli~igz dwz~

jgh~g zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz,

UII, JHZG Z^WNY0 ^K_KL^K OKH_N KE GNWJH^IKL JW__IJWCWD _GUIZIKL HLN

_GK_IGL^H^IKL

oy Jfhcgz H, Fkrmilz 

Il 899:# ~fg Jhlhnihl Rkuiljg ke Kl~hik dhlnh~gn ~fh~ ckjhc zjfkkc okhnz jgh~g

kw~jkdgz$ohzgn jwijwcwd, ^fg eiz~ rfhzg qhz ~k jgh~g h lgq jwijwcwd ek z~wngl~z

ekd @wlik Milngah~gl &> ygh kcnz) ~k Ahng 9 &87 ygh kcnz), ^fg rkuiljihc

akugldgl~ ahug okhn awingcilgz= fkqgug# ghjf jkddwli~y qhz ~k ngugckr ckjhccy

gcguhl~ jwijwcwd ~k hjfigug rkuiljihc akhcz, ^fg dhlnh~g qhz ~k jklzwc~ qi~f ~fg

jkddwli~y# owicn h lgq uizikl ke hl hrrkrih~g gnwjh~ikl ek ~fg ~qgl~y$eiz~ jgl~wy#

guigq ~fg gviz~ila rkahd# hln ~fgl nizjhn# gkigl~# k owicn hlgq, Zqggrila jfhlagzqgg il kng,

Mlkqila ~fh~ h dhzziug gqi~ila ke ~fg jwijwcwd qhz lgjgzzhy# ~fg

hndiliz~h~ikl ke ~fg ^kkl~k Okhn ke Gnwjh~ikl wlng~kkm h chag$zjhcg jkddwli~y

jklzwc~h~ikl, Il rgrhh~ikl ek ~fg jkddwli~y jklzwc~h~ikl# ~fg jgl~hc keeijg ~hilgn ?22

rgkrcg ~k cghn ekjwz akwrz, Hly ~ghjfg jkwcn ukcwl~gg ~k ogjkdg h ekjwz akwr cghng,

^fg rkzrgj~iug cghngz qkmgn qi~f z~hee ngugckrila ~fg ehjici~h~ikl ~gjflixwgz hln

rkjgzzgz ek wzg il ~fg jklzwc~h~ikl, Lk~ijgz qgl~ kw~ ~k ~fg ~fgg dh`k lgqzrhrgz hln

~fg dkg ~fhl 12 g~flij lgqzrhrgz ke ^kkl~k, Geek~z qgg dhng ~k jkl~hj~ ~fgjkrkh~g zgj~k# hln zrghmgz ekd ~fg jkrkh~g qkcn qgg ilui~gn ~k zrgjieijhccy hnngzz

jkddwli~y akwrz nwila ~fg jklzwc~h~iklz, Hcc ~fg zjfkkcz hllkwljgn ~fg jklzwc~h~ikl

rkjgzz ~k ~fgi rhgl~z hln dkz~ zjfkkcz hl ~fgi kql jkddwli~y$ohzgn dgg~ilaz,

Il hnni~ikl# ~fgg jklzwc~h~ikl zgzziklz qgg fgcn hjkzz ~fg ji~y, Rh~ijirhl~z qgg

gxwgz~gn ~k z~hy ek ~fg gl~ig nhy# h~fg ~fhl dhmila h z~h~gdgl~ hln ~fgl cghuila, ^fg

ekjwz ke ~fg nhyckla ilxwiy qhz ~fg zidrcg xwgz~ikl0

–Qfh~ zfkwcn z~wngl~z mlkq# nk# hln uhcwg oy ~fg ~idg ~fgy ahnwh~g ekd zjfkkc;—

^fiz z~hiaf~ekqhn xwgz~ikl qhz rkzgn ~k hcc zgj~kz ke ^kkl~k zkjig~y ekd jkrkh~g

cghngz ~k ~fg z~wngl~z ~fgdzgcugz,

^k z~h~ ~fg ~fgg nhyckla zgzziklz# ekw mgylk~g zrghmgz grgzgl~ila ^kkl~k’z

chag owzilgzz# h~z# zdhcc hln zgce$gdrckygn owzilgzz# hln chok zgj~kz ahug ~fgi hlzqg 

~k ~fg xwgz~ikl hln ~fg h~iklhcg ek ~fgi rgzrgj~iug, ^fgzg ekw mgylk~g zrghmgz qgg

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nieeggl~ ek ghjf ke ~fg ~fgg ji~yqing zgzziklz# hln ~fg 8? rgzgl~h~iklz qgg uingk

gjkngn hln zgl~ ~k ghjf zjfkkc ek wzg il ~fg ckjhc jkddwli~y$ohzgn nizjwzziklz, ^fg

jkddgl~z qgg ilziaf~ewc ek rhgl~z ogjhwzg dhly z~ggk~yrgz ke ~fgzg zgj~kz’

gxwigdgl~z qgg ingl~ieign hz lk cklag gcguhl~, Ek gvhdrcg# ~fg grgzgl~h~iug ke 

chag owzilgzzgz jchidgn ~fh~ h ekjwz zkcgcy wrkl dh~f# zjigljg# hln ~gjflkckay qhz lk~

~fg hlzqg ek Jhlhnihl ilnwz~y, Fg rkil~gn kw~ ~fh~ nwg ~k ~fg chjm ke ilugz~dgl~ jhri~hc

il Jhlhnh# hly zwjjgzzewc owzilgzz qkwcn gugl~whccy og rwjfhzgn oy h ekgial eid hln

dkugn kw~ ke ~fg jkwl~y, Fg z~h~gn ~fh~ ek klakila Jhlhnihl zwjjgzz# dh~f# zjigljg#

hln ~gjflkckay zfkwcn og ~hwaf~ il jkl`wlj~ikl qi~f ~fg h~z ~k z~idwch~g ~fg jgh~iui~y ~fh~

qkwcn og lgjgzzhy ~k gjkug ekd ~fg ckzz ke ilnwz~y, ^fg grgzgl~h~iug ke chok 

zwdizgn ~fh~ ~fg qkcn ke qkm ek dhly rgkrcg il ~fg ~qgl~y$eiz~ jgl~wy qkwcn og klg ke 

rh~$~idg gdrckydgl~ il dwlnhlg zguijg$zgj~k kcgz, Fg zrkmg ke ~fg lggn ek okhn$

ohzgn cghlila ~fh~ ilukcugn ciegckla cghlila, Chok’z uizikl iljcwngn ~fg h~z# rhgl~ila#

hln zkjihc zmiccz ~fh~ gdohjgn h qkcn ogykln gdrckydgl~,

He~g lghcy ziv dkl~fz ke jklzwc~h~ikl# dkg ~fhl 1#222 rhgl~z# z~wngl~z# z~hee# hlndgdogz ke ~fg rwocij fhn jkl~iow~gn ~k ekjwz akwrz# zjfkkc dgg~ilaz# hln rwocij ekwdz

hidgn h~ gvrckila fkq gnwjh~ikl zfkwcn gzrkln ~k ~fg ngdhlnz ke h jfhlaila qkcn, Il

hnni~ikl# dhly k~fg ji~ipglz zwodi~~gn ~fgi ~fkwaf~z il qi~ila, ^fg glkdkwz lwdog ke 

jkddgl~z aglgh~gn oy ~fg jklzwc~h~ikl qgg gjkngn# gl~ggn il~k h jkdrw~g# hln

hlhcypgn oy ~fg gzghjf ngrh~dgl~ ke ~fg ^kkl~k Okhn ke Gnwjh~ikl,

^k hlzqg ~fg xwgz~ikl $ Qfh~ zfkwcn z~wngl~z mlkq# nk# hln uhcwg oy ~fg ~idg ~fgy

ahnwh~g ekd zjfkkc; $ ~fg Okhn fhn ckkmgn ~k ~fg rhz~ ~k guizi~ ~fg ewlnhdgl~hc hln

gjwgl~ xwgz~iklz rgkrcg fhug hcqhyz hzmgn hokw~ cieg hln gnwjh~ikl il aglghc# hlnilniuinwhc zwo`gj~z il rh~ijwch, ^fgy jklzinggn ~fg jfhccglagz hln krrk~wli~igz ke ~fg

qkcn il qfijf ~fgi jficngl qkwcn akq hln ciug0 h qkcn qi~f lk~ klcy agh~ rk~gl~ihc ek 

hnuhljgz il xwhci~y ke cieg# mlkqcgnag# dw~whc gzrgj~# hln rghjgewc jkkrgh~ikl# ow~ hczk h

qkcn kugqfgcdgn oy ~gjflkckaijhc hln zkjihc jfhlag= ogzg~ oy jklecij~z# il`wz~ijg# hln

ilgxwi~igz= hln ehjgn qi~f nqilncila hln ~fgh~glgn lh~whc gzkwjgz,

Hlhcyziz ke ~fg rh~ijirhl~z’ jkddgl~z gughcgn ziv kughjfila ahnwh~ikl

gxwigdgl~z, ^fgzg gxwigdgl~z qgg ~fgl ~hlzch~gn il~k jwijwcwd, Il zri~g ke ~fg

ahui~y ke ~fg izzwgz ehjila ~fgd# ~fg gnwjh~ikl ~fh~ rhgl~z hln ~fg jkddwli~y qhl~gn ek ~fgi jficngl qhz il dhly gzrgj~z fhncy gukcw~iklhy k gugl zwrizila, ^fg ziv

ahnwh~ikl kw~jkdgz zrgjieign qgg0 ci~ghjy= hgz~fg~ij hrrgjih~ikl hln jgh~iui~y=

jkddwlijh~ikl hln jkcchokh~ikl= ilekdh~ikl dhlhagdgl~= gzrklziocg ji~ipglzfir= hln

rgzklhc cieg zmiccz# uhcwgz hln hj~iklz, ^fgzg nieeg ekd dkz~ ~hni~iklhc jwijwch 

ko`gj~iugz jhe~gn zkcgcy oy rkegzziklhc hjhngdijz il ~fh~ ~fgy hg okhng hln dkg

jckzgcy gch~gn ~k ~fg lggnz hln kahliph~ikl ke cieg ~fhl ~k ~fg gxwigdgl~z hln z~wj~wgz

ke zjfkkcila, ^fgy qgg ~wcy ~fg uizikl ke ~fg jkddwli~y $ ^kkl~k iz gjkalipgn oy ~fg

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Wli~gn Lh~iklz hz ~fg dkz~ jwc~whccy niugzg jkddwli~y il ~fg qkcn,

Hc~fkwaf ~fg lk~ikl ke –zwz~hilhoici~y— qhz lk~ idrkzgn# i~ gdgagn hz hl gzzgl~ihc

uhcwg hln rgzrgj~iug nwila ~fg jkwzg ke ~fg jklzwc~h~ikl, Qfgl ykw ckkm h~ ~fg ekcckqila

klg$ k ~qk$zgl~gljg ngzjir~kz ke ~fg ziv ahnwh~ikl kw~jkdgz# ykw zgg ~fg gzzgljg ke 

zwz~hilhoici~y gecgj~gn il ~fg qizfgz ke ~fg jkddwli~y h~ chag hz qgcc hz ~fg rhgl~z#

z~wngl~z# hln gnwjh~kz,

Ci~ghjy

Kw z~wngl~z qicc hjxwig mlkqcgnag hln zmiccz il hcc hghz ke ~fg jwijwcwd iljcwnila 

zmiccz il xwgz~iklila# ilugz~iah~ila# ji~ijhc ~filmila# rkocgd$zkcuila# hln ngjizikl$ 

dhmila, ^fgy qicc og hocg ~k hrrcy qfh~ ~fgy fhug cghlgn ~k ew~fg z~wnigz# qkm#

cgizwg# nhicy ciuila hln h cieg~idg ke cghlila,

Hgz~fg~ij Hrrgjih~ikl hln Jgh~iui~y

Kw z~wngl~z qicc og zglzi~iug ~k ~fg hgz~fg~ij nidglzikl ke ~fg lh~whc hln fwdhl 

qkcn# ngugckr ecgviocg# idhailh~iug qhyz ke ~filmila# hln rh~ijirh~g il jgh~iug hj~iui~y 

hln gvrgzzikl,

Jkddwlijh~ikl hln Jkcchokh~ikl

Kw z~wngl~z qicc gvrgzz ~fgdzgcugz jcghcy# ciz~gl ~k k~fgz gzrklziugcy# hln 

jkddwlijh~g geegj~iugcy wzila h uhig~y ke ~gjflkckaigz, ^fgy qicc qkm jkkrgh~iugcy 

qi~f k~fgz ~k hjfigug dw~whc wlngz~hlnila ke jkddkl akhcz,

Ilekdh~ikl Dhlhagdgl~Kw z~wngl~z qicc og hocg ~k eiln dghlila il kw qkcn’z uhz~ ilekdh~ikl gzkwjgz,

^fgy qicc ingl~iey lggnz# jklnwj~ gzghjf hln zggm zkcw~iklz wzila h uhig~y ke 

zkwjgz# z~h~gaigz hln ~gjflkckaigz, ^fgy qicc guhcwh~g hln hrrcy ~fgi eilnilaz ~k 

dhmg zkwln ngjiziklz hln ~k ~hmg gzrklziocg hj~iklz,

_gzrklziocg Ji~ipglzfir

Kw z~wngl~z qicc uhcwg ~fg niugzi~y ke ~fg qkcn’z rgkrcg# jwc~wgz# hln gjkzyz~gdz,

^fgy qicc wlngz~hln hln hj~iugcy rkdk~g gxwi~y# `wz~ijg# rghjg# ~fg ngdkjh~ij 

rkjgzz# hln ~fg rk~gj~ikl ke ~fg gluikldgl~ il ~fgi kql jkddwli~y# Jhlhnh# hln ~fg qkcn,

Rgzklhc Cieg Zmiccz# Uhcwgz hln Hj~iklz

Kw z~wngl~z qicc jhg hokw~ ~fg rfyzijhc# gdk~iklhc hln zrii~whc fghc~f ke ~fgdzgcugz 

hln k~fgz, ^fgy qicc rwzwg fghc~fy# fkrgewc# rwrkzgewc ciugz hln dghlilaewc 

gch~iklzfirz, ^fgy qicc rkzzgzz ohzij zmiccz hln akkn qkm fhoi~z# nghc geegj~iugcy 

qi~f z~gzz hln jfhlag# hln dhmg qizg jfkijgz ek h zwz~hilhocg ew~wg &ok~f rgzklhc 

hln ackohc),

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^kag~fg# ~fg ziv ahnwh~ikl kw~jkdgz gljkdrhzz ~fg mlkqcgnag# zmiccz# uhcwgz#

hln rgzrgj~iugz ke ~fg gluikldgl~hc# zkjihc# hln gjklkdij hzrgj~z ~fh~ jkdrizg

zwz~hilhoici~y, ^fg ngzig ~k ilewzg ~fg gzzgljg ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ il~k ~fg

jwijwcwd jhdg ekd ~fg jkddwli~y,

^fg ngugckrdgl~ ke ~fg ahnwh~ikl kw~jkdgz ~kkm ekd Zgr~gdog ~k Dhjf, ^fg

lgv~ z~gr qhz ~k guigq ~fg gviz~ila jwijwcwd wzila ~fg cglz ke ~fg lgq ahnwh~ikl

kw~jkdgz, Ghjf zwo`gj~ jkknilh~k kahlipgn h gecgj~iug rkjgzz ~fh~ ilukcugn ~fgi 

jklzwc~hl~z# ngrh~dgl~ fghnz# hln hcc il~ggz~gn zwo`gj~ ~ghjfgz, ^fgy guigqgn qfh~

~fgi nizjircilg jkl~iow~gn hln qfh~ i~ jkwcn jkl~iow~g, ^fg rkjgzz ke guigq# guizikl#

hln gkigl~h~ikl ogahl iddgnih~gcy, Oy @wlg# ~fg guizikl qkm qhz qgcc il rchjg= nwila

~fg zwddg fkcinhyz ke @wcy hln Hwawz~# ~ghdz ke ^kkl~k’z eilgz~ ~ghjfgz qk~g ~fg eiz~

nhe~ jwijwcwd ~k og eigcn ~gz~gn il ~fg zjfkkcz il Zgr~gdog,

^fg gzzgljg ke ~fg ^kkl~k gekd iz ~fh~ ~fg jwijwcwd iz lk cklag 

ekjwzgn gvjcwziugcy kl ~fg ~hni~iklhc jkg zwo`gj~z ke chlawhag#dh~fgdh~ijz# fiz~ky# g~j, Ilekdgn oy ~fg lgq uizikl ke qfh~ ~fg

jkddwli~y egc~ ~kdkkq’z z~wngl~z qkwcn lggn ~k mlkq hln og hocg

~k nk# ~fgzg nizjircilgz wlngqgl~ dh`k guizikl, Dh~fgdh~ijz# ek 

gvhdrcg# lkq iljcwngz ~fg zmicc ke jkdrgfglnila gv~gdgcy chag hln

gv~gdgcy zdhcc lwdogz $g,a,# rrd hln rro $ qfijf hg gzzgl~ihc ~k

gluikldgl~hc ci~ghjy hln wlngz~hlnila gch~iug izm ehj~kz# ok~f il

rgzklhc cieg hln h~ qkm, Fghc~f lkq iljcwngz gluikldgl~hc izzwgz

zwjf hz jhljg# hccgaigz# hln ekkn hnni~iugz hz qgcc hz ‖jklzwdgizd,’

WLGZJK# 8991# r, ?7,

Gugy ehjg~ ke ~fg jwijwcwd ~fh~ qhz il rchjg h~ ~fg ogaillila ke ~fg jklzwc~h~ikl

rkjgzz qhz gheeidgn# gkigl~gn# k hc~ggn, ^fg gzzgljg ke zwz~hilhoici~y ogjhdg

ilewzgn hz ~fg ahnwh~ikl kw~jkdgz qgg hnngzzgn zwo`gj~ oy zwo`gj~ hln ahng oy ahng,

I~ hczk ogjhdg hrrhgl~ ~fh~ ~fg jwijwcwd iljcwngn lk~ klcy qfh~ qhz ~hwaf~ ow~

hczk fkq i~ qhz ~hwaf~, ^fg Okhn’z rhj~ijgz qgg g$gvhdilgn, Ek gvhdrcg# ^fg Okhn

gvhdilgn i~z kql rwjfhzila rkcijigz ~k glzwg ~fh~ awingcilgz hln rhj~ijgz qgg

jklziz~gl~ qi~f ~fkzg zhdg ahnwh~ikl kw~jkdgz, Glgay# qh~g# hln qhz~g dhlhagdgl~rhj~ijgz qgg hc~ggn# hln ~fg zkjihc jkljglz ke gxwi~y hln hjizd qgg hnngzzgn, Ek 

gvhdrcg# iddiahl~ rhgl~z’ qkcnuigqz qgg hjmlkqcgnagn hln gzrgj~gn,

Owicnila h lgq jwijwcwd nkgz lk~ glzwg i~z idrcgdgl~h~ikl, Zgughc geek~z qgg

jkknilh~gn, ^ghjfgz qfk fhn qi~~gl ~fg lgq jwijwch dh~gihc cgn ilzguijg ~hilila,

^ghdz ke zglik keeijihcz dg~ qi~f zjfkkcz ~k zghjf ek gugl dkg geilgdgl~z hln

zwaagz~iklz, Eilhccy# ~fg ^kkl~k Okhn guizgn grk~ jhnz ~k gecgj~ ~fg jfhlagz, Hahil#

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rhgl~z qgg nggrcy ilukcugn il ngugckrila h lgq grk~ jhn, ^fg lgq jhn qhz ugy

ng~hicgn# hln ~ghjfila ~fg lgq dh~gihc qhz gzzgl~ihc ~k jhcjwch~ila dhmz ek lgq zwo`gj~

hghz,

Dwjf ke ~fg zwjjgzz ke ~fg ^kkl~k gekd iz nwg ~k ~fg ehj~ ~fh~ i~ qhz

lk~ hln qhz lk~ zggl ~k og hl geek~ ~k jfhlag gnwjh~ikl ~k dgg~

akhcz zg~ oy hl gci~g akwr k wlnwcy ilecwgljgn oy kw~zing rgzzwgz,

^fg idrg~wz ~k jfhlag jhdg ekd qi~fil, ^fg lgq jwijwcwd fhn

gxwhc k agh~g hjhngdij iak# ow~ eh agh~g gcguhljg ~k cieg

kw~zing zjfkkc qhccz, Il i~z idrcgdgl~h~ikl# gzrgj~ ek ~ghjfgz#

rhgl~z# hln z~wngl~z qhz h mgy ilagnigl~, ^fg Okhn ~ign ~k dkngc

~fg jfhlagz ~fgy qhl~gn il ~fg zyz~gd, Qfh~ i~ ngdklz~h~gz iz ~fh~

gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ iz zidrcy akkn gnwjh~ikl# hln

akkn gnwjh~ikl dhmgz jficngl hqhg ke ~fg akqila il~gngrglngljg

ke cieg kl Gh~f# il~gngrglngljg hdkla rgkrcgz hln hdkla lh~whc

zyz~gdz il kng ~k rgrhg ~fgd ek ~fg ew~wg,WLGZJK# 8991# r, ?5,

^fiz gvrgigljg zfkqgn ~fh~ gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y jhl og

ohzgn kl h jkddwli~y’z ngzigz hln z~gla~fz, ^fg ~hni~iklhc hrrkhjf qhz ~k fhug

gvrg~z ngugckr lgq dh~gihcz hln ~fgl rgjgiug ~fg ~ghjfila z~hee hz il –lggn— ke zwjf

gvrg~izg hln ~hilila, ^fg ^kkl~k Okhn gvrgigljg iz h jhzg ke ingl~ieyila h jkddklcy

ngugckrgn jkddwli~y$ohzgn uizikl hln ~fgl qkmila kl ~fg z~gla~fz ~fh~ chy qi~fil ~fg

gviz~ila rgzkllgc ~k hjfigug ~fg jkddwlhc akhcz, ^fiz qhz hl ghcy gvhdrcg ke qfh~ iz

lkq ogila zggl hz qkmila ekd h –z~gla~fz dkngc— hz krrkzgn ~k ~yila ~k gkigl~ ohzgnkl h –lggnz dkngc— qfgg kw~zing gvrg~izg iz zggl hz lgjgzzhy ek ckjhc akq~f,

Wlnkwo~gncy ~fgg iz lggn ek zkdg kw~zing fgcr= fkqgug# kljg ~fg jkddwli~y haggz

wrkl h jkddkl uizikl# qfijf iljcwngz gzrgj~ ek ~fg ogz~ ke ~fg rhz~ hln rgzgl~# i~ jhl

dhmg ~gdglnkwz z~ingz oy kjfgz~h~ila gviz~ila hjhngdij z~gla~fz il h ngdkjh~ij

ehzfikl,

UIII, _GK_IGL^ILA GNWJH^IKL ILUKCUGZ DHLHAILA JFHLAG

Jfhr~g :5 ke Haglnh ?8 jhccz ek gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhocgngugckrdgl~, _gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl jhl hrrgh hz hl ilzwdkwl~hocg ~hzm ~fh~ gxwigz

gekd h~ gugy cgugc ke gnwjh~ikl $ gekd ~fh~ qkwcn gxwig dkg ewlnila ~fhl iz jwgl~cy

huhichocg il lh~iklhc ownag~z, Fkqgug# ie ~fg z~gla~fz dkngc iz hrrcign ogykln jwijwcwd

~k hndiliz~h~ikl# ~fg geek~z ke gviz~ila diliz~igz# ngrh~dgl~z# wliugzi~igz# g~j, jhl

jkl~iow~g agh~cy ~kqhn gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y,

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Nklgcch Dghnkqz# il fg okkm ^fg Ackohc Ji~ipgl # ~hcmz hokw~ jfhlaila ~fg z~h~wz

xwk,

]^Tfg dkz~ geegj~iug qhy ykw jhl il~guglg il h zyz~gd iz ~k zfie~ i~z

akhcz, Ykw nkl’~ lggn ~k eig gugyklg# k grchjg hcc ~fg dhjfilgy#

k zrgln dkg dklgy# k gugl dhmg lgq chqz„ie ykw jhl `wz~

jfhlag ~fg akhcz ke ~fg eggnohjm ckkrz, ^fgl hcc ~fg kcn rgkrcg#

dhjfilgy# dklgy# hln chqz qicc z~h~ zguila lgq ewlj~iklz# ehccila

il~k lgq jkleiawh~iklz# ogfhuila il lgq qhyz# hln rknwjila lgq

gzwc~z,

Dghnkqz# 8998# r ?72,

^fkzg ke wz qfk qkm il GZN qkwcn og qizg ~k rklng Dghnkqz’ qknz, Qg jkwcn

hjjkdrcizf dkg oy qkmila ~k zfie~ ilz~i~w~iklhc akhcz ~k ew~fg zwz~hilhoici~y,

Zfie~ila akhcz il izkch~ikl iz wzwhccy ilzweeijigl~ ek zwz~hilgn zyz~gdij jfhlag,Z~wnigz ke dhlhagdgl~ zyz~gdz zfkq ~fh~ h lwdog ke z~grz dwz~ og ~hmgl ~kag~fg ek h

lgq ingh ~k ak ekd uizikl ~k zgce$zwz~hilila ghci~y, Hc~fkwaf ghjf ilz~i~w~ikl fhz i~z kql

qhy ke oilaila hokw~ jfhlag# ~fgg aglghc z~h~ila rkil~z hg jkddkl $ ~fg ~fgg Rz0

rkahd# rkcijy# hln rhj~ijg, Ek GZN k hly k~fg illkuh~ikl ~k ogjkdg hl il~gahc rh~

ke hl ilz~i~w~ikl# ~fgzg ~fgg hghz dwz~ og hnngzzgn zidwc~hlgkwzcy k il zfk~

zwjjgzzikl,

Rkahdz# Rhj~ijgz# hln Rkcijigz

Ilz~i~w~iklz ke hcc milnz ~gln ~k gziz~ jfhlag= ekdhc gnwjh~ikl iz lk gvjgr~ikl, Il~fg ekcckqila zgj~iklz kl rkahd# rkcijy# hln rhj~ijg# ~fg ~fgdg ke jwc~whc niugzi~y

iccwz~h~gz rkzziocg GZN hj~iui~igz, _ghc$cieg gvhdrcgz ekd ~ghjfg$gnwjh~ikl ilz~i~w~iklz

iccwz~h~g gjgl~ GZN hj~iui~igz il rkahd# rkcijy# hln rhj~ijg,

Rkahd, Rkahd jfhlagz gukcug ekd ckjhc gzrklzgz ~k zrgjieij rkocgdz k lggnz,

Illkuh~kz wzg ~fgi gvrg~izg ~k ngugckr h rkahddh~ij jfhlag qi~fil ~fgi kql

ilz~i~w~iklz ~k hnngzz ~fiz lggn, K~fgz fgh hokw~ ~fg illkuh~ikl hln hnhr~ i~ k ngugckr

~fgi kql ugziklz ~k ei~ ~fg lggnz ke ~fgi ilz~i~w~iklhc zg~~ilaz, Ek gvhdrcg# h chag wohl

Lk~f Hdgijhl zjfkkc niz~ij~ qhl~gn jwc~whc niugzi~y qi~fil i~z z~hee zk ~fh~ rwricz qkwcnzgg ~fgi g~flij akwrz gecgj~gn il ~fg rkegzziklhcz qfk ~hwaf~ ~fgd, ^k ~fiz gln# ~fg

zjfkkc niz~ij~ qkmgn qi~f h wliugzi~y ~k hc~g hndizzikl gxwigdgl~z# qfijf hcckqgn h

okhng g~flij ohzg ke hrrcijhl~z il~k ~fg rg$zguijg ~ghjfg$gnwjh~ikl rkahd, ^fg

z~wngl~z hndi~~gn ~fkwaf ~fg rkahd qgg aiugl hnni~iklhc jkwlzgcila hln zwrrk~ ~k

fgcr ~fgd ogjkdg zwjjgzzewc hjhngdijhccy, ^fiz jwc~whc niugzi~y rkahd qhz

idrcgdgl~gn il ~fg ehjwc~y ke gnwjh~ikl h~ klg wliugzi~y, Rkegzzkz grk~gn ~fg zwjjgzz

ke ~fg rkahd h~ jkleggljgz hln il ~fg dgnih, Qkn zrghn hokw~ ~fg zwjjgzz ke ~fg

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rkahd nghcila qi~f ~fiz rkdilgl~ izzwg, K~fg ilz~i~w~iklz ngugckrgn rkahdz qi~f

zidich il~gl~ ow~ qi~f nieeggl~ rkahddh~ij jkdrklgl~z zrgjieij ~k ~fg lggnz ke ~fgi 

wliugzi~igz hln ckjhc zjfkkc niz~ij~z, Qi~fil h egq yghz# ~fg g~flij jkdrkzi~ikl ke 

~ghjfila z~heez il ckjhc zjfkkcz ogahl ~k jfhlag,

Illkuh~iug Rkahd Gvhdrcg

Ilewzila GZN il~k Jhiooghl Ci~gh~wg# Dijk ghjfgz! Jkccgag# @hdhijh

Oy N, Cklh Nkql# Fghn# Ngrh~dgl~ ke Chlawhagz 

Ilewzila Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ il~k Jhiooghl Ci~gh~wg fhz oggl h z~idwch~ilahln gegzfila cghlila gvrgigljg ek ok~f z~wngl~z hln ~ghjfgz# gugl hz i~ rkugn h jfhccglaila ~hzm,

^fg Zwo`gj~Jhiooghl Ci~gh~wg iz h 92$fkw# ~qk$zgdgz~g jkwzg, ^fg ~gv~z z~wnign iljcwngn @ghl _fyz’

Qing Zhahzzk Zgh hln Nglliz Zjk~~’z Hl Gjfk il ~fg Oklg ,

^fg Z~wngl~z^fgzg qgg Ygh 8 Glacizf Kr~ikl z~wngl~z &i,g,# z~wngl~z zrgjihcizila il Glacizf) h~ Dijk

^ghjfgz’ Jkccgag,

^fg RkahddgI ogahl ~fg rkahddg oy rkuinila z~wngl~z qi~f hl kuguigq ke Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg

Ngugckrdgl~ wzila ~fg WLGZJK ci~gh~wg„I ekjwzgn kl ~fg xwhci~y ke fwdhl cieg il gahn ~k gch~iklz+gch~iklzfirz, Zrgjieijhccy I gvrckgn qi~f z~wngl~z ~fgdgz ke Uikcgljg# Rkqg _gch~iklz# Qkdgl’z_iaf~z# _hjizd % Uikcgljg,

^fgzg ~fgdgz qgg eiz~ il~knwjgn oy glahaila z~wngl~z il h rk`gj~„Ackohc Rij~wgz ke Fwdhl_gch~iklzfirz, Fgg il akwrz ~fgy qgg gvrgj~gn ~k dhmg h jkcchag ke rij~wgz# fghncilgz# hln h~ijcgzkl klg ke ~fg ~fgdgz, ^fgzg ~fgy rgzgl~gn qi~f h oige nizjwzzikl ~k ~fg gz~ ke ~fg jchzz,

Il hnni~ikl ~k gvrckila ~fg ~gv~z il ~gdz ke ~fgi ci~ghy gcgdgl~z# I fhn z~wngl~z gvhdilg ~fgfiaf cgugc ke uikcgljg il @hdhijh, ^fiz ogahl qi~f h `kwlhc gl~y hln qhz ekcckqgn oy h nizjwzzikl kluikcgljg, ^fg gvgjizg rkugn gv~gdgcy wzgewc0 i~ qhz jh~fh~ij hz i~ gughcgn fkq hcc ke wz il nieeggl~qhyz qgg heegj~gn oy ~fg uikcgljg, Z~wngl~z zrkmg krglcy hokw~ ~fgi eghz# kozgzziklz# hln rchlz ek nghcila qi~f uikcgljg,

Il kng ~k fgcr z~wngl~z jkrg qi~f ~fgzg eghz# hlvig~igz# g~j,# I fhn ~fgd gvhdilg hc~glh~iuggzrklzgz ~k uikcgljg# zrgjieijhccy Rghjg Ili~ih~iugz, ^fiz qhz ch~g ekcckqgn oy h cgj~wg kl Jklecij~_gzkcw~ikl, ^fg awgz~ zrghmg qhz h jklecij~ gzkcw~ikl rhj~i~iklg# qfk rkuingn ~fg z~wngl~z qi~frhj~ijhc hln dghlilaewc qhyz ~k nghc qi~f jklecij~,

Rkcijy, Rkcijy iz hl kughcc rchl gdohjila ~fg aglghc akhcz hln hjjgr~hocg rkjgnwgz ke 

h akugldgl~ okny k hw~fki~h~iug akwr, Rkcijy iz ~fg lgv~ z~gr he~g illkuh~iug rhj~ijgz

fhug rkugl qk~fy ke ~fg ~idg# geek~# hln gzkwjgz gvrglngn, Hz dkg hln dkg

ilniuinwhcz gjkalipg ~fh~ hl illkuh~iug rkahd ewceiccz gnwjh~iklhc k rkci~ijhc akhcz#

dhlhagdgl~ ogailz ~k ckkm h~ gvrhlzikl, Mgy ~k gvrhlnila illkuh~iug rkahdz iz ~fg

jgh~ikl ke rkcijy, Rkcijy iz ~fg /ocgzzila/ ke ~fg wrrg hndiliz~h~ikl hln ~fg jgh~ikl ke 

ilz~i~w~iklhc ilehz~wj~wg ~fh~ hjjkdrhligz ~fg /ocgzzila,/ Kljg ~fg illkuh~ikl ogjkdgz

rkcijy# ~fkzg qfk fhug riklgggn ~fg jfhlag eggc uhcinh~gn hln ~fkzg qfk fhug lk~ oggl

ilukcugn dwz~ gi~fg ogjkdg ilukcugn k og rgrhgn ~k gvrchil qfy ~fgy hg lk~ ekcckqila

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~fg rkcijy, Ogjhwzg hcc ~ghjfgz hln hndiliz~h~kz qicc gljkwl~g gnwjh~ikl rkcijy il ~fgi 

jhggz# i~ iz idrk~hl~ ~fh~ ~fgy ahnwh~g qi~f h ohzij wlngz~hlnila ke fkq hln qfy rkcijy

iz aglgh~gn, Oy wlngz~hlnila fkq rkcijy iz aglgh~gn gnwjh~kz dhy og hocg ~k

jkl~iow~g ~k GZN$jkdrh~iocg jfhlag il ~fgi zjfkkc zyz~gdz,

Rkcijy oy i~zgce qicc lk~ geegj~ jfhlag, Ekd yghz ke kozguila jfhlag il rkcijy

okwaf~ hokw~ oy gcgj~iklz hln zwozgxwgl~ jfhlag il akugldgl~ hndiliz~h~ikl# ~fg rwocij

mlkqz ~fh~ rkcijy ke~gl nkgz lk~ hc~g rkahdz k rhj~ijgz# gzrgjihccy qi~fkw~ ewlnila k 

hjjgr~hljg ekd ~fkzg qfk qkwcn idrcgdgl~ ~fg rkcijy,

Il ~fg jwc~whc niugzi~y rkahd ngzjiogn rguikwzcy# ~fg zjfkkc niz~ij~ jgdgl~gn

jwc~whc niugzi~y ke ~fg ~ghjfila z~hee hz rkcijy oy iljcwnila i~ il ~fg keeijihc nkjwdgl~z ke ~fg

okhn &g,a,# gjwi~dgl~$ hln fiila$rkjgnwgz dhlwhcz),

Illkuh~iug Rkcijy Gvhdrcg

Eckinh Awce Jkhz~ Wliugzi~y# WZH

Akhc0 Jkddi~ ~k gluikldgl~hc zwz~hilhoici~y ek ~fg Wliugzi~y!z jhdrwz hln ogykln,

Akhc Z~h~gdgl~0 Eckinh Awce Jkhz~ Wliugzi~y fhz ingl~ieign h zwz~hilhocg gluikldgl~ hz hdh`k jgl~g ek gvjgccgljg, ^fg Wliugzi~y qicc gjkalipg i~z krrk~wli~igz ~k zgug hz hlhjhngdij hln ewlj~iklhc dkngc ke gluikldgl~hc zwz~hilhoici~y, Ckjh~gn il ~fg fgh~ ke hrincy$akqila Zkw~fqgz~ Eckinh# EAJW iz wlixwgcy grgzgl~h~iug ke ~fg ohchljg hjfiguhocg qfgl~fg rguhicila akhc iz zwz~hilhoici~y, Qg qicc krgh~g hln dhlhag Wliugzi~y ehjici~igz hlnakwlnz hz h dkngc ek gjkckaijhc zwz~hilhoici~y,

Ko`gj~iugz08, ^fg Wliugzi~y qicc zggm ~k ngugckr gluikldgl~hc rkahdz ke lh~iklhc niz~ilj~ikl,?, Gluikldgl~hc jkljgr~z hln jkljglz qicc og il~gah~gn ~fkwafkw~ EAJW jwijwcwd,:, EAJW qicc owicn hln krgh~g h~~hj~iug ehjici~igz hln akwlnz kl gjkckaijhccy$zwz~hilhocg

riljircgz hln rhj~ijgz# qfgg gjklkdijhccy eghziocg, ^fg Gluikldgl~hc Dhlhagdgl~Zyz~gdz rk`gj~ qicc og ili~ih~gn ~k zwz~hil gjkckaijhccy zkwln ilz~i~w~iklhc rhj~ijgz,>, ^fg Wliugzi~y qicc gz~hocizf hl Gluikldgl~hc Z~gqhnzfir Jkwljic qfijf qicc ngugckr h

jkdrgfglziug rchl ek ilewzila gjkckaijhc rgzrgj~iug hln gjkckaijhc gzrklzioici~y il~kjwijwcwd hln gzghjf rkahdz# hz qgcc hz jhdrwz jwc~wg,

Zkwjg0 Eckinh Awce Jkhz~ Wliugzi~y Jkccgag ke Owzilgzz Fhlnokkm# Z~h~gaij Rchl, Hjjgzzgn 8>@hlwhy ?228, f~~r0++qqq,eajw,gnw+jko+JKOFhlnokkm+nkjwdgl~z+rchl,rne 

Rhj~ijg, Ek rkcijy jfhlagz ~k ogjkdg eidcy gl~gljfgn# ~fg jfhlagz dwz~ og zwrrk~gn

il ~fg z~hlnhn rhj~ijgz ke ~fg zyz~gd, Il ~fg rguikwz gvhdrcg hnngzzila jwc~whc

niugzi~y# ~fg rkahd qhz zkcinieign ~fkwaf jfhlagz il klakila rhj~ijgz, Ek gvhdrcg#

~fg wliugzi~y hc~ggn gjwi~dgl~ rkjgnwgz ke rkzrgj~iug ~ghjfg jhlninh~gz hln lgq

ehjwc~y dgdogz hln zgl~ rgzz gcghzgz ~k zdhccg g~flij lgqzrhrgz il ~fg ji~y ~k zrghn

~fg qkn gahnila ~fg jfhlagz, ^fg wliugzi~y jkl~ilwgn ~k zgln zwjf rgzz gcghzgz zk

g~flij jkddwli~igz qkwcn fhug klakila hjjgzz ~k lgqz ke wliugzi~y hj~iui~igz, Ownag~z ek 

~fg jwc~whc niugzi~y rkahdz qgg gdognngn il cilg i~gdz ~fh~ qgg hw~kdh~ijhccy

glgqgn hllwhccy ~fggoy gdkuila ~fg rkahd ekd ~fg yghcy z~waacg ek ewlnila hln

~fg ~fgh~ ke rkzziocg jhljgcch~ikl, Wliugzi~y grk~ila rkjgnwgz dhng jwc~whc niugzi~y

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hj~iui~igz hw~kdh~ij oy iljcwnila ~fgd hz gxwign jkdrklgl~z ke ygh$gln grk~z,

Rkdk~ikl rkjgnwgz jfhlagn ~k iljcwng guingljg ke cghngzfir k jkdrcihljg il ~fg hgh

ke jwc~whc niugzi~y,

Rhj~ijgz gch~gn ~k GZN kl jhdrwzgz zfkwcn og rkil~gn kw~ ~k ~ghjfg jhlninh~gz,

Inghccy# ~ghjfg jhlninh~gz qkwcn fhug ~fg krrk~wli~y ~k kozgug h owicnila il qfijf

gluikldgl~hccy zwz~hilhocg rhj~ijgz hg ~fg lkd, Kozguila gjyjcila geek~z# rwjfhzila

hln wzila gluikldgl~hccy zwz~hilhocg jcghlila rknwj~z# gwzila rhrg# jklzguila

glgay# hln jklzguila qh~g qicc fgcr ~ghjfg jhlninh~gz ~film hokw~ rhj~ijgz ~fh~

jkl~iow~g ~k dkg zwz~hilhocg jchzzkkdz hln zjfkkc owicnilaz,

Illkuh~iug Rhj~ijg Gvhdrcg

^fg Aieei~f Wliugzi~y GjkJgl~g# Oizohlg# Hwz~hcihOy Rkegzzk @kfl Eigl# Nigj~k 

^fg GjkJgl~g iz h mgy gcgdgl~ ke ~fg jkddwli~y kw~ghjf hln rh~lgzfir rkahd ke Aieei~fWliugzi~y, Ckjh~gn kl h 5>2$fgj~hg ekgz~ jhdrwz il ~fg ~krijhc ji~y ke Oizohlg# Hwz~hcih# i~ iz h 522$zxwhg$dg~g owicnila ~fh~ fhz oggl ngzialgn hz h dkngc ke gjk$ngzial hln gluikldgl~hc gzrklzioici~y,I~ rkuingz zrhjg ek ~fg ^kkfgy Ekgz~ Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl Jgl~g qfijf iz z~heegn hln krgh~gn oyGnwjh~ikl Xwgglzchln= h jkleggljg hln ~hilila jgl~g &zgh~ila wr ~k 92 rgkrcg)= h ?22$zxwhg$dg~gnizrchy hln gvfioi~ikl ahccgy= h zwi~g ke iDhj jkdrw~gz cilmgn ~k ~fg Il~glg~ ~k ehjici~h~g gluikldgl~hcgzghjf uih ~fg Aieei~f GjkFK^cilg„h ngnijh~gn rk~hc ek ~fg rwocij hln zjfkkc z~wngl~z= hln hrkz~ahnwh~g gzghjf z~wngl~z! keeijg,

^fg GjkJgl~g krglgn il ?228 ~k rkuing gluikldgl~hc gnwjh~ikl hln ~hilila rkahdz ek z~wngl~z# ~fg aglghc rwocij# ilnwz~y# owzilgzz# hln akugldgl~, Hz zwjf# ~fg GjkJgl~g krgh~gz dhlyrkahdz, ^ghjfg gnwjh~ikl iz klg ke ~fg dkz~ idrk~hl~ hln zgugz ~fg lggnz ke rg$zguijg z~wngl~~ghjfgz# gvrgigljgn ~ghjfgz qfk uizi~ ~fg GjkJgl~g qi~f ~fgi jchzzgz k ek h rkegzziklhc

ngugckrdgl~ qkmzfkr# hln ~fg wliugzi~y!z chag akwr ke dhz~g!z hln nkj~khc z~wngl~z ilgluikldgl~hc gnwjh~ikl, ^fg GjkJgl~g jkl~iow~gz ~k ~fgzg ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl akwrz il ~qk dhilqhyz,

^fg eiz~ iz ~fkwaf ~fg gnwjh~iklhc rk~gl~ihc ke ~fg owicnila i~zgce, ^fg GjkJgl~g fhz ogglngzialgn hln jklz~wj~gn hjjknila ~k z~ij~ /gjk$ngzial/ riljircgz# hln egh~wgz ~fg wzg ke gjyjcgn hlngjyjchocg jklz~wj~ikl dh~gihcz# zkch glgay# hdoigl~ ugl~ich~ikl hln ciaf~ila# hddgn gh~f qhccz ek ~gdrgh~wg gawch~ikl# hilqh~g jkccgj~ikl ek /agyqh~g/ ewlj~iklz# hln qg~$jkdrkz~ila ~kicg~z, Zwjfegh~wgz gecgj~ nkdgz~ij zjhcg gluikldgl~hc ~gjflkckaigz ~fh~ jhl og wzgn lk~ klcy il ~fg ehdicy fkdgow~ hczk il zjfkkc ngzial, Il hnni~ikl# ~fg GjkJgl~g dhlhagz h dkoicg Agglfkwzg Cho# h 7$dg~g$cklajhhuhl ~fh~ dhy og okkqgn ek wr ~k h qggm oy zjfkkcz, I~ jkl~hilz gzkwjgz ek fhlnz$kl hj~iui~igz#nizrchyz# okkmz hln okjfwgz# hln hwnik$uizwhc dh~gihcz kl ~fg Agglfkwzg Geegj~ hln glgqhocgglgay, ^ghjfg gnwjh~ikl z~wngl~z fhug hjjgzz ~k ~fg owicnila hln qkm$gvrgigljg krrk~wli~igz il ~fgGjkJgl~g hln il zjfkkcz qi~f ~fg Agglfkwzg Cho,

^fg zgjkln qhy ~fg GjkJgl~g jkl~iow~gz ~k ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl iz ~fkwaf ~fg qkm ke ~fg~ghjfgz il ~fg ^kkfgy Ekgz~ Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl Jgl~g, Gz~hocizfgn hz h rh~lgzfir og~qggl~fg ckjhc Ngrh~dgl~ ke Gnwjh~ikl hln ~fg wliugzi~y# ~fg zjfkkc iz z~heegn oy ~qk ~ghjfgz hln jh~gz ~kjchzzgz ke rg$zjfkkc# gcgdgl~hy# hln fiaf zjfkkc z~wngl~z qfk uizi~ ek nhicy rkahdz, ^fg ~fgdgz ke ~fgzg rkahdz iljcwng eigcn z~wnigz ke ckjhc fiz~ky# ilniaglkwz z~wnigz# hln ekgz~ hln z~ghd gjkckay,^fgy hczk keeg qkm il ~fg ~ghjfila hln gzghjf chokh~kigz ke wliugzi~y z~hee hln il ~fg wliugzi~y!zgluikldgl~hc rchllila z~wnikz, Rg$zguijg z~wngl~ ~ghjfgz# ~ghjfgz qfk hjjkdrhly ~fgi jchzzgz#hln ~fg wliugzi~y!z rkz~ahnwh~g z~wngl~z hg il~gah~gn il~k ~fg rchllila hln ehjici~h~ikl ke ~fgzghj~iui~igz qi~f zjfkkc z~wngl~z,

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^fg ekcckqila jhzg z~wny iz hl gvhdrcg ke hcc ~fgg„rkahd# rhj~ijg# hln rkcijy„

ogila jhign kw~ il jkl`wlj~ikl ~k rgdhlgl~cy jfhlag ~fg lh~wg ke ~fg ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl

rkahd, Ghjf ke ~fg ~fgg Rz rchygn h mgy kcg il oilaila hokw~ rgdhlgl~ jfhlag,

Jhzg Z~wny kl _gkigl~ila ^ghjfg Gnwjh~ikl ~k Hnngzz Zwz~hilhoici~y

Ykm Wliugzi~y# JhlhnhOy Hzzkjih~g Nghl Nkl Nirrk 

_gdhmz ~k ~fg Il~glh~iklhc Jkleggljg kl _gkigl~ila ^ghjfg Gnwjh~ikl ~k Hnngzz Zwz~hilhoici~y#Fkjmcgy Fiafchlnz# Kl~hik# Jhlhnh# Kj~kog ?222,

Ykm iz Jhlhnh!z ~fin chagz~ wliugzi~y qi~f hrrkvidh~gcy >2#222 z~wngl~z, ^fg Ehjwc~y ke Gnwjh~ikl h~ Ykm ahnwh~gz `wz~ kug 8222 z~wngl~z rg ygh $ 622 jg~ieign ~k ~ghjf h~ ~fg gcgdgl~hycgugc# ?22 jg~ieign ~k ~ghjf fiaf zjfkkc, Ek ~gl yghz# ~fg Ehjwc~y fhz oggl ilukcugn il /g$kigl~ila,/ Il8966# h akwr ke ehjwc~y &wlng lk rh~ijwch hw~fki~y) jhdg ~kag~fg ~k hzm fkq# hz h Ehjwc~y# qg jkwcnogail ~k hnngzz izzwgz ke hjizd il kw zjfkkcz hln il kw Ehjwc~y i~zgce, Il 8996# hl gv~glhchjjgni~h~ikl guigq rhlgc gjkalipgn gxwi~y hln zkjihc `wz~ijg izzwgz hz jklz~i~w~ila ~fg jkg ke kw ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl rkahddgz, Qi~f gzrgj~ ~k zwz~hilhoici~y# qg hg rkohocy `wz~ hokw~ qfgg qg qgg

~gl yghz hak qi~f gxwi~y hln zkjihc `wz~ijg, ^fiz oige jhzg z~wny &il ~w~f# klg rgzkl!z uigq) iz hokw~qfh~ qg diaf~ cghl ekd ~fh~ gvrgigljg il /g$kigl~ila/ hln hokw~ fkq qg diaf~ rkjggn il /g$kigl~ila/ hahil,

Ziljg i~z iljgr~ikl il 891?# Ykm!z Ehjwc~y ke Gnwjh~ikl jkwcn og ngzjiogn hz /Rkagzziug/ il~fg Ngqihl zglzg ke ogila jkddi~~gn ~k ok~f ilniuinwhc akq~f hln zkjihc ngugckrdgl~, ^fg ehjwc~yniz~ilawizfgn i~zgce ekd ogfhuikwiz~ hrrkhjfgz oy gdohjila dkg cioghc+fwdhliz~ inghz hokw~~ghjfila hln cghlila, Ngugckrdgl~hcizd qhz h~ ~fg jkg ke ~fg jwijwcwd, Z~wngl~z ghn Rihag~#Mkfcoga# hln Uyak~zmy, Qg qgg jficn$jgl~gn# hj~iui~y+ilxwiy ohzgn# hln hnukjh~gz ke qfkcgchlawhag, Qg qgg fkciz~ij# gdrfhzipila ~fg rfyzijhc# il~gccgj~whc# gdk~iklhc# zkjihc# hln zrii~whcngugckrdgl~ ke jficngl, ^fiz iz ~fg rkzi~ikl# ~fg uizikl ke kwzgcugz# qg gzrkwzgn# qg rkjchidgn# hlnqkmgn fhn h~,

Il ~fg din$62z# ~fgg qgg jg~hilcy ehjwc~y dgdogz qfk fhn ~hmgl lk~g ke fkq zjfkkczzyz~gdh~ijhccy nizhnuhl~hagn qkdgl# ~fg rkk# hjihc hln cilawiz~ij dilki~igz# hln Hokiailhc rgkrcg,Ilniuinwhc ehjwc~y dgdogz hnngzzgn zyz~gdij nizjidilh~ikl il ~fgi jkwzgz, Ow~ ~fg jkddi~dgl~ ~k~hmg kl ~fgzg izzwgz qhz lk~ rkahddh~ij, I~ qhz lk~ ilewzgn il kw ~ghjfg$gnwjh~ikl jwijwcwd,^fgl il 8961$66# hdinz~ dkwl~ila gzghjf guingljg hln dgnih grk~z hokw~ hjizd il zjfkkcz &hln#ilnggn# il ehjwc~igz ke gnwjh~ikl) h akwr ke ehjwc~y dgdogz jhdg ~kag~fg ~k ogail ~k z~h~gaipg hokw~fkq ~k geegj~ jfhlag il kw ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl rkahddg, ^fg rchl qhz ~k dgg~ gawchcy# ~k zi~ klEhjwc~y jkddi~~ggz# hln ~k dhmg rkrkzhcz ek jwijwch hln rkahddh~ij jfhlagz ~k kw Ehjwc~yJkwljic, ^fg Hndizziklz Jkddi~~gg ogahl ~k ckkm h~ zyz~gdij ohigz, ^fg Jwijwcwd Jkddi~~ggckkmgn h~ izzwgz ke grgzgl~h~ikl, ^fg Fiila Jkddi~~gg ckkmgn h~ qhyz ~k niugziey ~fg ehjwc~yjkdrcgdgl~, Il~ggz~ il ~fg qkm ke ~fgzg jkddi~~ggz agq, H lgq nghl qhz hrrkil~gn qfk qhz ugyzwrrk~iug ke ~fgzg ili~ih~iugz, ^fg zjkrg ke ~fg rk`gj~ gvrhlngn ~k iljcwng nizjidilh~ikl ohzgn kl

hjg# g~fliji~y# chlawhag# zkjihc jchzz# aglng# zgvwhci~y# hln nizhoici~y, ^fgg qgg fgh~gn nizjwzziklzhln ngoh~gz qi~fil jkddi~~ggz hln qi~fil ~fg ehjwc~y h~ chag, Zfkwcn qg hnkr~ ~fg dwc~ijwc~whciz~rkzi~ikl ogila hnuhljgn oy Hdgijhl ~fgkiz~z k zfkwcn qg gdohjg ~fg Hl~i$_hjiz~ rkzi~ikl ogila rw~ekqhn oy zjfkchz il ~fg Wli~gn Milankd; Zfkwcn qg jgh~g h zilacg jkdrwczky jkwzg# qfijfhnngzzgz nizjidilh~ikl il hcc i~z ekdz# k zfkwcn qg ilziz~ ~fh~ zyz~gdij nizjidilh~ikl hlnnizhnuhl~hag og hnngzzgn il hcc ke ~fg jkwzgz qg ~hwaf~; Il ~fg dinz~ ke ~fgzg ngoh~gz# ~fgg jhdg hmiln ke qh~gzfgn dkdgl~ qfgl ~fg ehjwc~y jkljcwngn ~fh~ i~ qhz lk~ lgjgzzhy ~k gzkcug ~fgzg izzwgzogekg ogila hocg ~k ngjchg il ril~ &~fh~ iz# il ~fg Wliugzi~y Jhcglnh# il ~fg Ehjwc~y Fhlnokkm# kl ~fgEhjwc~y Qgo zi~g) ~fh~ qg qgg# hz h Ehjwc~y# jkddi~~gn ~k hnngzzila gxwi~y izzwgz il hcc kw rkahddgz, He~g hcc# il ~fg jkwzg ke ~idg hln hz h gzwc~ ke hcc ~fg nizjwzzikl hln ngoh~g# qg fhnjfhlagn kw hndizziklz rkcijigz hln rkjgnwgz, Qg fhn dhng kw jwijwcwd dkg iljcwziug, Hln kw ehjwc~y jkdrcgdgl~ fhn ogjkdg dkg niugzg,

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I~ qhzl!~ ckla# fkqgug# ogekg ~fg cidi~h~iklz ke ~fiz rh~ijwch uizikl ogjhdg ~fg zwo`gj~ ke ngoh~g, Qficg ~fgg qhz qingzrghn haggdgl~ ~fh~ gxwi~y izzwgz kwaf~ ~k og hnngzzgn oy hcc ke wz ilqhyz hrrkrih~g ~k ~fg nieeggl~ jkwzgz ~fh~ qg ~hwaf~# ~fgg qgg xwgz~iklz hizgn hokw~ qfg~fg qgjkwcn og hz ~wcy rkagzziug hz qg qhl~gn ~k og qficg gdhilila chagcy zicgl~ hokw~ izzwgz gch~gn ~krkug~y# uikcgljg# dici~hizd# ackohciph~ikl# gjk$hjizd# hln gluikldgl~hc ngahnh~ikl, ^fg Ehjwc~y lkqngzjiogz i~zgce hz ogila jkddi~~gn ~k hnngzzila gxwi~y hln zkjihc `wz~ijg izzwgz il hcc i~z rkahddgz, I~iz ehi ~k zhy ~fh~# h~ ~fiz rkil~# ~fg Ehjwc~y z~icc hnngzzgz gxwi~y dkg nigj~cy ~fhl zkjihc `wz~ijg, Ow~qg!ug jkddi~~gn kwzgcugz ~k eilnila qhyz ~k dkg hngxwh~gcy hnngzz ok~f,

Il ~fg uigq ke zgughc ehjwc~y dgdogz# dyzgce iljcwngn# zwz~hilhoici~y lkq keegz ~fg Ehjwc~y hlkrrk~wli~y ~k dhmg akkn kl i~z jkddi~dgl~z ~k hnngzz gxwi~y hln zkjihc `wz~ijg, ^fg jfhccglag hfghniz lk~ wlcimg ~fg jfhccglag ~fh~ ehjgn gxwi~y hnukjh~gz il kw Ehjwc~y ~gl yghz hak, ^fg ~hzm iz ~k eilnqhyz ~k glaglng wlngz~hlnila hln owicn jkddi~dgl~ hln gl~fwzihzd ek ~fg jkljgr~whc ehdgqkmhln rgnhakaijhc idrgh~iugz ~fh~ zwz~hilhoici~y gnwjh~ikl idrcigz, ^fg zkjihc jkl~gv~ il Kl~hik iz# ildhly gzrgj~z# dkg fkz~icg ~fhl ~fg jkl~gv~ ~fh~ zwrrk~gn ~fg ngugckrdgl~ ke dwc~ijwc~whc+hl~i$hjiz~gnwjh~ikl ili~ih~iugz il ~fg rhz~, ^fg jwijwcwd fhz ogjkdg ngjingncy dkg lhkq# ekjwzzila kl ohzijhln gdrckyhoici~y zmiccz, Z~hlnhnipgn hln fiaf$z~hmgz ~gz~ila fhug ew~fg dhailhcizgn dhly fiafcyidrk~hl~ ow~ wlnguhcwgn hzrgj~z ke ~fg jwijwcwd, Yg~# nhy oy nhy# ~fg lggn ogjkdgz agh~g hz ~fggeegj~z ke zkjihc hln gluikldgl~hc lgacgj~ ogjkdg dkg hln dkg hrrhgl~,

H jkleggljg cimg ~fiz klg kl gkigl~ila ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y okcz~gz kw 

fkrg ~fh~ zkdg~fila jhl og nklg# hln z~gla~fglz kw gzkcug ~k nk i~,

Dhlhagdgl~ nwila Jfhlag

Hcc kahliph~iklz il ~hlzi~ikl ak ~fkwaf ~fgg z~hagz ~fh~ lggn ~k og dhlhagn il

nieeggl~ dhllgz $ ~fg rgzgl~ z~h~g# ~fg ~hlzi~ikl z~h~g# hln ~fg ew~wg z~h~g, _gkigl~ila

gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhoici~y qicc ekcckq ~fg zhdg rh~f hln gxwig nieeggl~ dhlhagdgl~

~gjflixwgz ek ghjf z~hag, Dh`k hndiliz~h~iug jfhccglagz ehjg ~fkzg qfk hg

kjfgz~h~ila jfhlag kl h dh`k zjhcg, Zkdg ke ~fkzg qfk hg il cghngzfir rkzi~iklz il

~fg gkigl~ila geek~ fhug yghz ke hndiliz~h~iug gvrgigljg= k~fgz hg lgq ~k gnwjh~iklhc

jfhlag k hg kw~zingz ~k ~fg gnwjh~iklhc jkddwli~y, Gugl ~fkzg qfk fhug oggl il

gnwjh~iklhc hndiliz~h~ikl ek yghz qicc og lgq ~k GZN ogjhwzg i~ iz hl gdgaila eigcn,

Jfhcgz Fkrmilz# qfk qhz ilukcugn il ^kkl~k!z aggl zjfkkcz rkahd hln ~fg

^kkl~k Okhn ke Gnwjh~ikl!z geek~ ~k jgh~g hl kw~jkdg$ohzgn jwijwcwd# gjkddglnz

~fg ekcckqila zgugl$z~gr rkjgzz ek oilaila hokw~ jfhlag il h zjfkkc zyz~gd0

&8) Dhmg ~fg ngjizikl ~k hj~,

Gnwjh~ikl iz ~glny= lgq inghz hg hcqhyz rhzzila ~fkwaf ~fg gnwjh~iklhc

jkddwli~y, Qi~f ghjf lgq ~gln# hndiliz~h~kz hln ~ghjfgz dwz~ ngjing ~k hnkr~ h lgq

ingh k cg~ i~ rhzz, Ie hndiliz~h~kz ngjing ~k hnkr~ h lgq ~gln# ~fgy dwz~ og ghny ~kjkddi~ ewlnila hln gzkwjgz &g,a,# jchzzkkd dh~gihcz# gcghzg ~idg ek ~ghjfgz ~k fgcr

rchl hln idrcgdgl~ ~fg lgq geek~# ilzguijg ~hilila ke ~ghjfgz), Hndiliz~h~kz mlkq ~fh~

ek ~ghjfgz ~k hnkr~ h lgq ~gln k dg~fkn# i~ dwz~ dgg~ h~ cghz~ klg# rgeghocy dkg# ke 

~fg ekcckqila ekw ji~gih0 &h) ~fg lgq ~gln iz ke il~ggz~ ~k ~fgd# &o) i~ dhmgz ~fgi `ko

ghzig# &j) i~ dhmgz h nieeggljg il ~fgi rkahd &g,a,# i~ dhmgz h rkzi~iug nieeggljg il ~fg

hjfigugdgl~# h~~i~wng# k ogfhuik k ~fgi z~wngl~z)# hln &n) ~fgy hg fgcn hjjkwl~hocg hln

hg guhcwh~gn kl i~, Wlek~wlh~gcy# GZN qicc lk~ og ghnicy hnkr~gn ogjhwzg zwz~hilhoici~y iz

lk~ il~ggz~ila ~k ~fg aglghc rwocij hln ~fg ~ghjfila ehjwc~y,

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&?) Ohjm wr ~fg ngjizikl qi~f h h~iklhcg,

He~g h zjfkkc hnkr~z h lgq ~gln# ~fg hndiliz~h~ikl dwz~ hllkwljg ~fg ngjizikl

il~glhccy hln gv~glhccy, ^fg hllkwljgdgl~ zfkwcn og hjjkdrhlign oy h h~iklhcg ~fh~ iz

ghzy ~k jklugy hln wlngz~hln, ^fg h~iklhcg dwz~ jkluiljg ~ghjfgz# rhgl~z# hln

hndiliz~h~kz ~fh~ ~fg jfhlag iz qk~f ~fg ilugz~dgl~ ke ~idg hln geek~, H zwjjgzzewc

h~iklhcg diaf~ og /^fg lgq dh~f rkahd hizgz z~wngl~ hjfigugdgl~ hln iz jkz~

geegj~iug/ k /^fg zheg zwoz~i~w~gz rkahd &grchjila fhzf jcghlgz hln zjfkkc$yhn

jfgdijhcz qi~f lkl$~kvij jkdrkwlnz) zhugz dklgy ek ~fg zjfkkcz hln rk~gj~z jficngl

ekd ~kvij jfgdijhcz,/

^fg h~iklhcg zfkwcn iljcwng hl gvrchlh~ikl kl fkq ~fg gekd iz og~~g ek ~fg

z~wngl~z hln akkn ek ~fg jkddwli~y, ^fg jfhccglag iz ~k jhe~ h h~iklhcg ~fh~ iz jgniocg#

grgh~hocg# hln wlngz~hlnhocg, Qi~ila h h~iklhcg ek GZN rgzgl~z h dh`k jfhccglag=

zwz~hilhoici~y iz lk~ ghzicy ngzjiogn il klg k ~qk zgl~gljgz,

&:) Rgrhg h jkddwlijh~ikl z~h~gay ~k zfhg ykw uizikl qi~f ~fg z~hmgfkcngz hln

jkddwli~y,

He~g qi~ila ~fg h~iklhcg# h zjfkkc dwz~ jgh~g h jkddwlijh~ikl z~h~gay ~k

hllkwljg ~fg lgq rkahd, ^fg jkddwlijh~ikl z~h~gay dwz~ iljcwng ok~f ~gccila hln

ciz~glila, ^fg rchl zfkwcn hnngzz h uhig~y ke hwnigljgz# fkq ghjf hwnigljg qicc og

ghjfgn# hln qfh~ ~yrg ke ekwd qicc og wzgn ek ciz~glila ~k ~fg ghj~iklz ke ~fg uhikwz

hwnigljgz &g,a,# h dgdkhlnwd ~k hcc ~ghjfgz gvrchilila ~fg jfhlag# ekcckqgn oy z~hee 

dgg~ilaz qi~f ~fg zwrgil~glngl~ ke jwijwcwd k h dgnih gcghzg ekcckqgn oy h ~kql

dgg~ila),

^fg krrk~wli~y ~k nihcka he~g ~fg hllkwljgdgl~ gnwjgz ~fg lwdog ke wlekwlngn

wdkz, Ek gvhdrcg# hz rh~ ke h aggl zjfkkcz rkahd# klg zjfkkc ngjingn ~k grchjg

iljhlngzjgl~ ciaf~ owcoz qi~f ecwkgzjgl~ ~wogz, H ~ghjfg qhz wrzg~# lk~ila ~fh~ ~fgg qhz

dklgy ek ciaf~ owcoz# ow~ lk~ lgq ~gv~okkmz# lk~ ghcipila ~fh~ ~fg zhuilaz il glgay jkz~z

ke ~fg lgq ciaf~ila qkwcn rhy ek ilz~hcch~ikl hln lgq ~gv~okkmz qi~fil h egq yghz,

Ogykln ~fg jfhccglag ke qi~ila hl ghzicy jkddwlijh~gn h~iklhcg# rgrhila h

jkddwlijh~ikl z~h~gay ek GZN qicc og jkdrcijh~gn, Ngrglnila kl ~fgi il~ggz~z hln

lggnz# hwnigljgz gzrkln og~~g ~k zkdg gvrchlh~iklz ke zwz~hilhoici~y ~fhl ~k k~fgz, ^fg

niugzi~y ke z~hmgfkcngz# ~fg ogz~ dgzzhag ek ghjf z~hmgfkcng# hln ~fg ogz~ dg~fknz ~kjkl~hj~ ~fkzg z~hmgfkcngz dwz~ og jklzinggn,

&>) Rgrhg akhcz hln dicgz~klgz,

He~g ~fg lgq rchl iz gughcgn hln ~fg h~iklhcg hllkwljgn# ~fg qkm og~qggl ~fg

hndiliz~h~ikl hln ~fg ~ghjfila z~hee zfkwcn ogail, Ehjwc~y hln hndiliz~h~kz dwz~ qkm

~kag~fg ~k eiawg kw~ fkq ~k idrcgdgl~ ~fg kughcc akhc qi~fil ~fg zg~~ilaz ke ilniuinwhc

zjfkkcz, ^kag~fg# ~fgy ngjing qfh~ jkdrklgl~z ~k wlng~hmg hln il qfh~ kng, Wzila

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~fg z~gla~fz dkngc iz hl gvjgccgl~ qhy ~k ogail zg~~ila akhcz hln riki~igz ek GZN

rkahdz,

^fg hndiliz~h~ikl hln ehjwc~y qicc hczk zg~ dicgz~klgz k ~hag~z ~k hzzgzz rkagzz,

^fg ekd ek h dicgz~klg iz zidrcg $ oy h zrgjieij nh~g h zrgjieij ~hzm qicc og hjjkdrcizfgn

k hnkr~gn oy V rgjgl~ ke ~fkzg ilukcugn, Ek gvhdrcg# /Oy @hlwhy ke lgv~ ygh# gjyjcg

oilz qicc og il 92 rgjgl~ ke ~fg jchzzkkdz#/ k /Oy ~fg gln ke ~fg hjhngdij ygh# hcc eie~f

ahng ~ghjfgz qicc fhug gjgiugn hl~i$owccyila ilzguijg ~hilila,/

_gzrklzioici~y ek ghjf ~hzm il h lgq rkahd zfkwcn og hzzialgn qfgl zg~~ila

akhcz hln dicgz~klgz# hln h grk~ila dg~fkn ek ~fkzg qi~f gzrklzioici~y zfkwcn og

jgh~gn, Rgkrcg qi~f rkci~ijhc rkqg hln aglwilg il~ggz~ zfkwcn og hzzialgn ~k ~fg dkz~

idrk~hl~ ~hzmz= ~fg zwjjgzz ke ~fg rkahd ngrglnz kl ~fgzg,

Qi~f chag# dwc~i$ehjg~gn geek~z cimg gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y#

dhly rk`gj~z hg rkzziocg, ^fg jfhdriklz ke ghjf rk`gj~ hcc jchdk ek h~~gl~ikl hln hgghag ~k idrcgdgl~ ~fgi inghz, ^fg ~gdr~h~ikl iz ~k z~h~ hcc ~fg rk`gj~z ek qfijf z~hee 

zfkq il~ggz~= fkqgug# gvrgigljg zfkqz ~fh~ z~h~ila zdhcc qi~f h egq zwjjgzzgz hln lk~

zrghnila ~kk ~fil ~fg geek~z hln glgay ke ykw z~hee iz qizg, Ekd zdhcc zwjjgzzgz jkdg

chag zwjjgzzgz,

&7) Gz~hocizf hjjkwl~hoici~y hln dg~fknz ke rkahddh~ij guhcwh~ikl,

^k hzzwg ~fh~ ~fg lgq rkahd ogjkdgz ilahilgn il~k ~fg zjfkkc zyz~gd# dg~fknz

ke guhcwh~ikl dwz~ jfhlag jkgzrklnilacy, Ie guhcwh~ikl iz lk~ jfhlagn# ~fgg qicc og ci~~cg

rkagzz, Ek gvhdrcg# ie h riljirhc hzmz h ~ghjfg ~k ilz~wj~ wzila h lgq dg~fkn# ow~guhcwh~gz hln ohzgz g~gl~ikl hln rkdk~ikl kl ji~gih ekd ~fg kcn qhy# ~fg ~ghjfg dhy

ogjkdg jklewzgn hln ewz~h~gn k gewzg ~k jfhlag, Gln$ke$~fg$ygh grk~ila ekd

ilniuinwhc zjfkkcz zfkwcn gecgj~ ~fg jfhlagz, Ogjhwzg GZN gljkdrhzzgz zkjihc#

gjklkdij# hln gluikldgl~hc jkljglz# zwz~hilhoici~y qicc og qkugl il~k dhly hzrgj~z ke 

~fg gln$ke$~fg$ygh grk~z,

&5) _guigq hln guizg akhcz hln dicgz~klgz,

Hz lgq gnwjh~iklhc ~glnz hg idrcgdgl~gn# ~ghjfgz hln hndiliz~h~kz wzwhccy

eiln ~fgy lggn ~k dhmg din$jkwzg jkgj~iklz ~k ~fg rkahd, Hl krrk~wli~y ek rkahdguizikl zfkwcn og owic~ il~k h lgq rkahd ekd ~fg ogaillila, Ngzialila h lgq rkahd

iz ohzgn ok~f kl rkegzziklhc gvrgigljg hln idhailh~ikl# qfijf hnnz idrgjizikl hln

wljg~hil~y ~k ~fg rkjgzz, Zkdg~idgz rkahdz zidrcy nk lk~ ~wl kw~ hz rchllgn,

Zrgjieij nh~gz zfkwcn og zg~ ek rkahd guizikl &g,a,# eggnohjm he~g ~fgg dkl~fz# dilk 

guiziklz h~ ziv dkl~fz hln dh`k guizikl he~g klg jyjcg ke ilz~wj~ikl ~k rgrhg ek ~fg

lgv~ jyjcg), Lk~ klcy qicc ~fg rkahd idrkug qi~f guigq hln guizikl# ow~ ~fg hlvig~y ke 

~fg ehjwc~y idrcgdgl~ila ~fg rkahd qicc ngjghzg qi~f ~fg mlkqcgnag ~fh~ ie ~filaz hg lk~

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jklzingh~ikl, Ek dkg ng~hicgn ngzjir~iklz hln z~h~gaigz# zghjf ~fg gnwjh~iklhc

hndiliz~h~ikl hln ~fg owzilgzz dhlhagdgl~ ci~gh~wg,

Dizzikl hln Uizikl

Dhly dhlhagdgl~ z~h~gaigz ogail qi~f gvhdilila hln# ke~gl# gqi~ila ~fg dizzikl

ke ~fg kahliph~ikl, Fkqgug# ~fg dizzikl ke ~fg ekdhc gnwjh~ikl zgj~k iz qgcc ngeilgn#

hln il dhly jhzgz hly geek~z ~k gngeilg ~fg dizzikl ke ridhy# zgjklnhy# k fiafg 

gnwjh~ikl qkwcn dgg~ qi~f dh`k# kugqfgcdila gziz~hljg, H dwjf og~~g z~h~gay ek 

gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl iz ~k jhz~ GZN hz h dh`k rchyg il hjfiguila ekdhc gnwjh~ikl!z

dizzikl hln akhcz qficg fgcrila ~k hjfigug jkddwli~y hln lh~iklhc zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz,

_ghnilgzz hln Jhrhoici~y ke Jfhlag

Hz qi~f dhly gnwjh~iklhc gekd dkugdgl~z# ~fg zwjjgzz ke gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl

~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y qicc il rh~ ngrgln kl ~fg jhrhoici~y ke ~fkzg qfk cghn ~fg geek~

hln ~fg ghnilgzz ke ~fkzg qfk dwz~ fgcr idrcgdgl~ i~, _ghciz~ijhccy# ~fg rh~ijirh~ikl ke ~fg

lh~iklhc cghngz il ~fg Gh~f Zwddi~ hln ~fg zialila ke Haglnh ?8 nin lk~ jkddi~ ~fgrh~ijirh~ikl ke gl~ig lh~iklz ~k idrcgdgl~ila lh~iklhc zwz~hilhoici~y rchlz# rh~ ke qfijf

zfkwcn og gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y, Klg ke ~fg ghzklz ~fh~

gnwjh~ikl fhz lk~ hcghny gkigl~gn ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y iz ~fh~ ~fg lggn ek jfhlag iz

lk~ ghnicy hrrhgl~, ^fg jgl~hc izzwg ogjkdgz qfg~fg ~k jfhlag h~fg ~fhl fkq ~k

jfhlag, Il ~fg zgj~ikl kl Jfhccglagz hln Ohigz ~k GZN# qg z~h~g ~fh~ ~fg ili~ihc z~gr il

chwljfila hl GZN rkahd iz ~k ngugckr hqhglgzz qi~fil ~fg gnwjh~iklhc jkddwli~y hln

~fg rwocij ~fh~ gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hjfigug zwz~hilhoici~y iz gzzgl~ihc, Qi~fkw~ ~fh~

hqhglgzz# ~fkzg qfk cghn ~fg gkigl~h~ikl geek~ qkwcn fhug ~k qkm ~k rgrhg ~fg

gnwjh~iklhc jkddwli~y ogekg dkuila il~k geek~z ~k gkigl~,

Rh~ ke zwjjgzzewccy ilukcuila k~fgz il hly gekd k jfhlag iz ~k aiug ~fgd h

zweeijigl~cy ng~hicgn ngzjir~ikl ke ~fg gln rkil~ zk ~fh~ ~fgy qicc ogjkdg ilukcugn il qkmila

~k hjfigug i~, Qfgl rgkrcg jhl gluizikl hl hagghocg ew~wg ~fgy jhl ngeilg h kcg ek 

~fgdzgcugz il ok~f ~fg ~hlzi~ikl hln ew~wg z~h~gz, Wljg~hil~y hokw~ ~fg ew~wg jhl jhwzg

hlvig~y hln gzwc~ il ogfhuikz ~fh~ qkm hahilz~ hjfiguila ~fg ngzign akhc, H lh~whc

ghj~ikl ~k wljg~hil~y iz ~k ~hcm qi~f h zdhcc jijcg ke k~fg hlvikwz hln wlilekdgn

jkccghawgz, Wlek~wlh~gcy# il zwjf zi~wh~iklz# zrgjwch~ikl hln wdkz dhy akq# hln

gklgkwz hzzwdr~iklz hln dizilekdh~ikl qicc zckq k ~fqh~ ~fg gekd geek~, Ngugckrilah zjglhik ~fh~ hcckqz rgkrcg ~k zgg h kcg ek ~fgdzgcugz# qficg g~hilila zweeijigl~ ecgvioici~y

ek ilrw~ ekd lgq jklug~z# iz ui~hc ~k rkagzz,

Hlhcypila ~fg Lh~wg ke Jfhlag _gxwign ek _gkigl~ila Gnwjh~ikl

_gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y iz h fwag rk`gj~, I~ qicc gxwig

hj~iui~y kl ~fg lh~iklhc# gaiklhc# z~h~g+rkuiljihc# hln ckjhc cgugcz, I~ qicc rkohocy ilukcug h

ckla ciz~ ke akugldgl~ keeijihcz# cgaizch~kz# hndiliz~h~kz# ~ghjfgz# wliklz# hln lklrkei~

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kahliph~iklz, ^k ogail ~fg jkdrcgvi~y ke gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hiloici~y#

hlhcypg ~fg lh~wg ke jfhlag lggngn, Ke jkwzg# ~fiz hlhcyziz zfkwcn og nklg h~ ~fg cgugc

ykw qkm, Ie ykw qkm il h ckjhc fiaf zjfkkc# ykw hlhcyziz qicc og xwi~g nieeggl~ ~fhl ~fg

hlhcyziz ke ~fg lh~iklhc diliz~g ke gnwjh~ikl, Z~h~ oy hzmila0 Qfh~ dwz~ og jfhlagn; Qicc

i~ gxwig cgaizch~iug hj~ikl; Qicc i~ gxwig hdglndgl~ ke ~fg dhlnh~gn lh~iklhc jwijwcwd;

Qicc i~ gxwig ~fg akknqicc ke ~ghjfgz il ykw zjfkkc; Rchllila ek cgaizch~iug jfhlag iz

ugy nieeggl~ ~fhl rchllila ~k jwc~iuh~g ~fg akknqicc ke h ~ghjfila ehjwc~y, Hlhcypg ~fg ~yrg

ke jfhlag lgjgzzhy ek ykw cgugc ke qkm, ^fiz ~yrg ke hlhcyziz qicc fgcr ykw jchiey

jfkijgz hln hc~glh~iug rh~fz ke hj~ikl, ^fg GZN ^kkcmi~ fhz zgughc gvgjizgz kl

dhlhaila jfhlag &zgg Zgj~ikl VIU0 Gvgjizgz kl Dhlhaila Jfhlag) hln zgughc gvgjizgz

kl ~yrgz ke jfhlag ilukcugn il h gkigl~ikl geek~ &zgg Zgj~ikl VIII0 Gvgjizgz ~k _gkigl~

Gnwjh~ikl ~k Hnngzz Zwz~hilhoici~y),

_gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y qicc ilukcug ingl~ieyila hln nghcila

qi~f ohigz, Zkdg ohigz jhl og jijwdugl~gn qficg k~fgz qicc gxwig jklekl~h~ikl

hln jfhlag, ^qk ~glngljigz ek rgkrcg qfk gziz~ jfhlag hg ~k ilugl~ ohigz ~k lgqinghz k ~k ingl~iey ohigz ohzgn kl hzzwdr~iklz h~fg ~fhl ehj~, Z~h~gdgl~z cimg /^fg

nghl qkwcn lgug glnkzg ~fh~ ingh#/ k /^fg ewlnila iz lk~ huhichocg#/ hg ~yrijhc ohig 

z~h~gdgl~z ~fh~ dhy k dhy lk~ fhug h cgai~idh~g ohziz, _h~fg ~fhl hjjgr~ila ~fh~ ~fg

nghl qicc lk~ glnkzg hl ingh# ykw jhl gvrckg ~fg ghzklila ogfiln ~fg z~h~gdgl~# k ykw

rgzklhccy jhl hrrkhjf ~fg nghl, Il hnni~ikl# ewlnila iz hcqhyz hl izzwg hln jhl og ji~gn

hz h cgai~idh~g ohig, ^fg lh~wg ke ewlnila jkljglz hg gughcgn oy hlzqgila ~qk

xwgz~iklz0 /Nkgz ~fiz rk`gj~ gxwig dklgy k jhl i~ og hjjkdrcizfgn qi~f ghcckjh~ikl ke 

z~hee ~idg hln k~fg il$miln jkl~iow~iklz; Iz ~fiz rk`gj~ ke fiafg riki~y ~fhl h jwgl~cy

ewlngn rk`gj~;/

Hlhcypila hln Rchllila Jkddi~dgl~

Cghngz ke geek~z ~k gkigl~ gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y dwz~ ng~gdilg qfk

il ~fg gnwjh~iklhc jkddwli~y dwz~ jkddi~ hln idrcgdgl~ ~fg jfhlag ek ~fg gkigl~ila

rkjgzz ~k hj~whccy ~hmg rchjg, Qficg dhly ke wz il~wi~iugcy mlkq qfk lggnz ~k /og okwaf~

kl okhn#/ zyz~gdh~ij hlhcyziz ke ilniuinwhcz# akwrz# hln ilz~i~w~iklz qfkzg jkddi~dgl~ ~k

~fg geek~ &g,a,# rkuinila dklgy# ~idg# hln fwdhl gzkwjgz) ~k idrcgdgl~ hln rgzgugg

iz gzzgl~ihc, Zyz~gdh~ij hlhcyziz oy zgughc rgkrcg h~fg ~fhl ~fg il~wi~ikl ke klg rgzkl

zfkwcn gzwc~ il h jkdrgfglziug rij~wg ke mgy jfhlag hagl~z,

He~g hlhcypila ~fg jkddi~dgl~ lgjgzzhy ~k zwjjggn &zgg Zgj~ikl VIU0

Jkddi~dgl~ Jfh~ila gvgjizg)# cghngz lggn ~k rchl hln z~h~gaipg fkq ~k ag~ ~fg

dilidwd jkddi~dgl~ ekd ~fg rgkrcg qfk qgg ingl~ieign hz mgy ~k ~fg zwjjgzz ke ~fg

rkahd,

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Jgh~ila# Idrcgdgl~ila# hln Dkli~kila Rchlz

Hz qi~f dhly dwc~iehjg~gn rk`gj~z# h jcgh ow~ guizhocg khndhr ke fkq ~k dkug

ekd ~fg jwgl~ z~h~g ~k ~fg ngzign ew~wg z~h~g iz lgjgzzhy, Hc~fkwaf zkdg

hndiliz~h~kz jhl dgl~hccy ngrij~ ~fg dwc~ircg z~grz ilukcugn il zidwc~hlgkwz ~hzmz

lgjgzzhy ~k idrcgdgl~ h dh`k rk`gj~# ~fgzg ~hcgl~gn hndiliz~h~kz dwz~ og hocg ~k

zfhg ~fg jkdrcgvi~igz qi~f ~fgi jkccghawgz hln jklz~i~wgl~z, Hz h gzwc~# i~ iz hnuizhocg ~k

jgh~g h rk`gj~ rchl, Zidrcg ~hocgz ~fh~ ciz~ ~hzmz hln dicgz~klgz jhl xwijmcy gvrchil

jkdrcgv rk`gj~z ~k h uhig~y ke hwnigljgz &zgg Zgj~ikl VIU0 Zhdrcg Qkmzfgg~ ek 

Jgh~ila hl Hj~ikl Rchl),

Qficg rchllila# hlk~fg ~fila ~k mggr il diln iz ~fh~ i~ iz nieeijwc~ ek z~hocg

kahliph~iklz ~k jfhlag, Ekdhc gnwjh~ikl iz jkdrizgn ke z~hocg kahliph~iklz, Cgzzklz

ekd owzilgzz hln ilnwz~y zfkq ~fh~ h~fg ~fhl jkl~ilwila ~k wzg ~fg gawch z~wj~wg ke 

~fg kahliph~ikl nwila ~fg ~hlzi~ikl rgikn# i~ iz ke~gl lgjgzzhy ~k jgh~g ~gdrkhy

zyz~gdz hln dhlhagdgl~ z~wj~wgz ~k hjjkdrcizf ~fg ngzign jfhlag, ^fiz dhy dghl

~gdrkhicy fiila hl gvrg~ il zwz~hilhoici~y ~k hnuizg h zjfkkc zyz~gd nwila ~fg ~hlzi~ikl,^fg gvrg~ il zwz~hilhoici~y qkwcn qkm qi~f ~fg hndiliz~h~ikl ~k chy kw~ h qing uhig~y ke 

rk~gl~ihc zwz~hilhoici~y rk`gj~z hln gluizikl hc~glh~iug rh~fqhyz,

Zwddhy _gdhmz kl Dhlhaila Jfhlag

^k ogjkdg rgdhlgl~# jfhlagz hzzkjih~gn qi~f gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz

zwz~hilhoici~y dwz~ kjjw ~fkwafkw~ ~fg rkahdz# rhj~ijgz# hln rkcijigz ke h zjfkkc

zyz~gd, Dwjf ke ~fg zwjjgzz ke gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y qicc filag kl

~fg hoici~y ke ~fg cghngzfir ~k jkddwlijh~g, Il ehj~# jhe~ila hln ngciugila jcgh dgzzhagz

~fh~ gvrchil GZN# hln ~fgl ciz~glila ~k ~fg ghj~iklz hln ~fkwaf~z ke ~fkzg qfk fhug hugz~gn il~ggz~ il ~fg gnwjh~iklhc zyz~gd# hg gxwhccy idrk~hl~ jkdrklgl~z ke 

jkddwlijh~ikl hzzkjih~gn qi~f dhlhaila jfhlag,

Rchllila ek jfhlag iz hl gzzgl~ihc ilagnigl~ ke zwjjgzz, Cghngzfir ~fh~ rchlz

hfghn ~k ingl~iey rk~gl~ihc ohigz# ahil jkddi~dgl~# glahag ~fg rwocij# riki~ipg rk`gj~z#

hln idrcgdgl~ ~hzmz hjjknila ~k zjfgnwcg qicc iljghzg ~fg jfhljg ke zwjjgzz, ^fg

ilugz~dgl~ il rchllila hcckqz cghngz ~k og gecgj~iug h~fg ~fhl gecgviug ~k ghjf lgq

ngugckrdgl~ k ~wl ke gugl~z,

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IV, RWOCIJ RH_^IJIRH^IKL

oy Dhihllg Jfyz~hcoinag 

^fkwafkw~ fwdhl fiz~ky rgkrcg fhug qkmgn ~kag~fg ~k eiln zkcw~iklz ~k

jfhccglagz ehjila ~fgi jkddwli~igz, ^iohc gcngz dg~ ~k nizjwzz rkocgdz hln jhccgn kl

k~fg jkddwli~y dgdogz ~k hnn ~fgi rgzrgj~iugz# mlkqcgnag# hln qiznkd, Hz zkjig~igz

ogjhdg dkg jkdrcgv# ngjizikl dhmila ogjhdg jgl~ggn il zgh~z ke akugldgl~, Ke~gl#

ngjiziklz qgg idrkzgn kl jkddwli~igz oy h rkqgewc egq gzinila il gdk~g ckjh~iklz qi~f

nieeggl~ gluikldgl~hc# gjklkdij# k zkjig~hc jklni~iklz, _gjgl~cy# akugldgl~z hln

kahliph~iklz fhug g~wlgn ~k dkg iljcwziug ngjizikl$dhmila rkjgzzgz, Zwjf rkjgzzgz

hg ilfggl~ ~k zwz~hilhoici~y hln hg ngzialgn ~k ilukcug ~fg rwocij k ~fgi grgzgl~h~iugz

il hndiliz~h~iug ngjizikl dhmila,

Rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl rkjgzzgz ~hmg dhly ekdz# iljcwnila ehjg$~k$ehjg ngciogh~ikl#

rkocgd zkcuila# jklzglzwz owicnila# ~hni~iklhc rwocij fghilaz# hln rwocij jkddgl~

rkjgnwgz, Rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl iz h rkqgewc ~kkc ek ahilila ilziaf~z ekd dhly zgj~kz ke ~fg jkddwli~y, Ziljg ~fg Gh~f Zwddi~ il 899?# jkddwli~igz il dhly lh~iklz fhug wzgn

rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl rkjgzzgz ~k jgh~g jiuij riki~igz hln zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz,

Rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl zgugz ~fg jkddwli~y il h lwdog ke qhyz, Jiuij ilukcugdgl~ iz

gzzgl~ihc ~k iljkrkh~ila rwocij uhcwgz il~k ngjiziklz hokw~ idrk~hl~ jkddwli~y izzwgz,

Rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl jhl lk~ klcy idrkug ~fg xwhci~y ke ~fgzg ngjiziklz# ow~ hczk geegj~iugcy

gzkcug jklecij~ hdkla jkdrg~ila il~ggz~z# owicn ~wz~ il ilz~i~w~iklz# hln gnwjh~g hln

ilekd ~fg rwocij,

H jkddwli~y dwz~ og jkdek~hocg qi~f ~fg qkn /zwz~hilhoici~y/ hln i~z jgl~hc

jkljgr~z ogekg h~~gdr~ila ~k ingl~iey jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz, Gugl h zdhcc akwr

ke rgkrcg qi~f h jkddkl uizikl ke zwz~hilhoici~y jhl ili~ih~g h rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl geek~

hkwln zwz~hilhoici~y, He~g ekdila h jkg akwr ke cimg$dilngn ilniuinwhcz# klg ke ~fg eiz~

z~grz cghnila ~k h rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl rkjgzz iz ~k eiln qhyz ~k hrrkhjf jiuij cghngz hln

rgzgl~ ~fg jgl~hc jkljgr~z ke zwz~hilhoici~y# hln qfy zwz~hilhoici~y qkwcn dhmg zglzg ek 

~fg jkddwli~y, He~g ~fg cghngz wlngz~hln zwz~hilhoici~y# ~fg aglghc ji~ipgly iz okwaf~

il~k h rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl rkjgzz, &Zgj~ikl VI0 Gvgjizgz ~k Il~knwjg ~fg Jkljgr~ ke 

Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~# hln Zgj~ikl VII0 Gvgjizgz ~k Jgh~g Jkddwli~y Zwz~hilhoici~yAkhcz ~fkwaf Rwocij Rh~ijirh~ikl# jhl ehjici~h~g ~fgzg jkddwlijh~ikl hln rwocij

rkjgzzgz,)

Hlk~fg mgy ehj~k ek hjfiguila zwjjgzz il jgh~ila hln idrcgdgl~ila jkddwli~y

zwz~hilhoici~y rkcijigz# rkahdz# hln rhj~ijgz iz ~fg owy$il ekd ~fg ghcy z~hagz ke ~fg

rchllila rkjgzz ke hcc ~fkzg ilukcugn hln heegj~gn# hczk jhccgn z~hmgfkcngz, Jgh~ila hln

fhlnila nkql rchlz k ngjiziklz ngjingn wrkl oy klg akwr# ~k og idrkzgn kl k~fg 

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akwrz# hgcy qkmz il ngdkjh~ij zkjig~igz, Il h zwjjgzzewc rkjgzz# ghjf z~hmgfkcng 

akwr aglgh~gz hln ~fgl riki~ipgz inghz ~fh~ hg ~fgl zfhgn qi~f ~fg chag akwr, ^fiz

zfhila aiugz hcc ilukcugn h zglzg ke rh~ijirh~ikl hln jklzingh~ikl,

Ek rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl ~k og zwjjgzzewc# i~ iz gzzgl~ihc ~k dhil~hil z~hmgfkcng 

ilukcugdgl~ kug ~idg, Zkdg jkddwli~igz hjfigug ~fiz oy gdrckyila klg k dkg rgzklz

~k jhy kl ~fg qkm ~fkwafkw~ ~fg cgla~f ke ~fg rk`gj~, Klakila h~~gl~ikl ~k ~fg rk`gj~

ekd zwjf ilniuinwhcz ilzwgz ~fh~ ~fg eckq ke ilekdh~ikl k ~qk$qhy jkddwlijh~ikl iz

dhil~hilgn, Zwz~hilgn h~~gl~ikl ekd z~hmgfkcngz jhl og hjfigugn oy hzmila z~hmgfkcngz

~k ukcwl~gg ek nieeggl~ hzrgj~z ke ~fg rk`gj~ ~fkwaf ~hzm ekjgz# jkddi~~ggz# g~j,

Ukcwl~ggz z~gla~fgl ~fg geek~ oy mggrila il~ggz~gn rgzklz ilukcugn# hln dhil~hilila

jkddwlijh~ikl og~qggl z~hmgfkcngz &g,a,# oy jijwch~ila jkddi~~gg zjfgnwcgz hln

grk~z), Hlk~fg geegj~iug qhy ~k dhil~hil z~hmgfkcng ilukcugdgl~ iz ~fkwaf gawch 

rkagzz grk~z# qfijf# ogjhwzg ~fgy jkl~hil z~hmgfkcng ilrw~ hln kriliklz#

hjmlkqcgnagz ~fh~ ~fgy qgg fghn, ^fg ~idg# glgay# hln kriliklz ke z~hmgfkcngz hg

ew~fg uhcinh~gn ie ~fgzg grk~z hg dhng qingcy huhichocg ~k ~fg rwocij ~fkwaflgqzrhrgz# rkrwch ckjhc rwocijh~iklz# k ~fg Qkcn Qing Qgo,

Rk`gj~ jkknilh~kz zfkwcn hczk ag~ z~hmgfkcngz ~kag~fg ek ilrw~ h~ nieeggl~

z~hagz ke ~fg rk`gj~# hln ~k gjkalipg hln gqhn hjfigugdgl~ ke dicgz~klgz, Klakila

jkddwlijh~ikl mggrz il~ggz~ il ~fg rk`gj~ hciug hln gljkwhagz rh~ijirhl~z ~k jkl~ilwg

~fgi geek~z, Il hnni~ikl# i~ iz hczk idrk~hl~ ~k jgh~g h jhcglnh ek ~fg rk`gj~, H jhcglnh 

zgugz ~k jchiey qfgl dicgz~klgz hg hjfigugn# hln qfgl ~fg rk`gj~ fhz oggl jkdrcg~gn,

Ghjf zi~wh~ikl il qfijf rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl iz wzgn iz wlixwg, ^fg rwocijrh~ijirh~ikl rkjgzz dwz~ og ~hickgn ~k ckjhc lggnz, Lk z~hlnhn rkjgzz gviz~z ~fh~

qkmz ek hcc zjhcgz hln jijwdz~hljgz, Ek gvhdrcg# h nieeggl~ hrrkhjf qicc og lggngn

ek h ehjwc~y jklzingila jfhlagz il jwijwcwd h~ ~fgi zgjklnhy zjfkkc ~fhl ek h

jkddwli~y akwr jklzingila qhyz ~k idrcgdgl~ ckjhc zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz, Hczk# akkn

inghz hln ili~ihc ilukcugdgl~ ke hcc z~hmgfkcngz jhllk~ cghn ~k zwjjgzz ie ~fg rkjgzz iz

ilhrrkrih~g, Ek gvhdrcg# i~ qkwcn og ilgeegj~iug ~k `wdr ~k h rkjgzz ek idrcgdgl~h~ikl

ke h rk`gj~ qfgl h ehj~$eilnila rkjgzz iz lggngn eiz~,

Eiawg ?# Rchllila Rwocij Rh~ijirh~ikl # jhl zgug hz h awing il ng~gdilila ~fgrwocij rh~ijirh~ikl lggnz ke h jkddwli~y, ^fg jfh~ iz ohzgn kl eiug z~grz il qfijf rk`gj~

rchllgz ng~gdilg ~fg ~yrg ke rk`gj~ hln ~fg ghzkl ek rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl# ingl~iey ~fg

akhcz ke ~fg rkjgzz# hlzqg xwgz~iklz hokw~ ~fg rkjgzz# zgcgj~ h rkjgzz# hln ekcckq wr

qi~f guhcwh~ikl ke ~fg rkjgzz, Eiawg ? ckkmz h~ ~fg ~fgg dhil ~yrgz ke rk`gj~z &ehj~

eilnila# zg~~ila akhcz# hln idrcgdgl~h~ikl)# hln ngzjiogz ~fg milnz ke rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl

~fh~ qkmz qgcc ek ghjf ke ~fg eiug z~grz,

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Rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl rkjgzzgz hg geegj~iug il chag jkddwli~igz hz qgcc hz zdhcc

akwrz, Zgj~ikl UII0 Jhzg Z~wny0 ^kkl~k Okhn ke Gnwjh~ikl Jwijwcwd _guizikl hln

_gkigl~h~ikl ngzjiogz h rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl rkjgzz wzgn ~k gngzial ~fg gl~ig jwijwcwd

il h ji~y qi~f h rkrwch~ikl kug ~qk diccikl, Rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl rkjgzzgz fhug hczk oggl

wzgn ek yghz qi~f zdhcc akwrz, Ek gvhdrcg# qfgl h riljirhc hln ~ghjfila z~hee il h

zjfkkc qkm ~kag~fg kl h rk`gj~# ~fgy wzg rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl rkjgzzgz, ^fg akwr rkkcz

gcguhl~ ilekdh~ikl hln inghz# hln ghjf ilniuinwhc jkl~iow~gz ~k ~fg nizjwzzikl, ^fg

akwr riki~ipgz ~hzmz# zg~z dicgz~klgz# hln eiawgz kw~ fkq ~k idrcgdgl~ ~fg kughcc rk`gj~

qi~fil ~fg ilniuinwhc zjfkkc zg~~ila, Il ok~f chag$ k zdhcc$zjhcg zg~~ilaz# ~fg eilhc rknwj~

jkdrizgz ilziaf~z ekd ~fg gl~ig akwr,

V, JKLJCWNILA _GDH_MZ

Qfgl I ~ghjf h jkwzg h~ h wliugzi~y# I hcqhyz hzm dyzgce# /Qfh~ nk I qhl~ ~fg z~wngl~z

~k gdgdog h~ ~fg gln ke ~knhy!z jchzz; h ygh ekd lkq; hln 82 yghz ekd lkq;/ I

hzmgn dyzgce ~fg zhdg xwgz~ikl hokw~ ~fg Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhoici~y ^kkcmi~ , ^fg dhil~fgdgz ~fh~ I qkwcn cimg ykw ~k gdgdog hg ~fgzg0

  GZN dwz~ og ckjhccy gcguhl~ hln jwc~whccy hrrkrih~g# gecgj~ila ~fg gluikldgl~hc#

gjklkdij# hln zkjihc jklni~iklz ke ykw jkddwli~y,

  GZN zfkwcn og jgh~gn ~fkwaf h rkjgzz ke rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl il qfijf

z~hmgfkcngz ekd hjkzz ~fg jkddwli~y jhl gvrgzz ~fgi uiziklz ek h zwz~hilhocg

jkddwli~y hln qfh~ hl gnwjh~ikl gkigl~gn ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y zfkwcn

iljcwng,

  Ghjf nizjircilg# ~ghjfg# hln hndiliz~h~k jhl jkl~iow~g ~k GZN hjjknila ~k ~fg

z~gla~fz dkngc,

  Jkddwli~igz hln zjfkkc zyz~gdz zfkwcn qkm ~kag~fg ~k hjfigug jkddwli~y

zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz,

Gnwjh~ikl iz kw agh~ fkrg ek h zwz~hilhocg ew~wg, Oy jkl~gdrch~ila hln ~hmila kl

~fg idrk~hl~ ~hzm ke idrcgdgl~ila GZN ykw hg oilaila ~fg rkzzioici~y ke h dkgzwz~hilhocg ew~wg ~k ykw jkddwli~y hln lh~ikl,

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VI, GVG_JIZGZ ^K IL^_KNWJG ^FG JKLJGR^ KE ZWZ^HILHOCG NGUGCKRDGL^

oy _gailh _ippi 

^fg ekcckqila gvgjizgz hg ngzialgn ~k fgcr il~knwjg ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhoici~y,

Aiugl ~fh~ ~fg ~gd gukmgz jklewzikl hdkla gnwjh~kz# jkddwli~y dgdogz# rkcijy

dhmgz# hln akugldgl~ keeijihcz# qg ngjingn ~k iljcwng il ~fg ^kkcmi~ ~fgg gvgjizgz ~k

fgcr ykw gvrchil zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ ~k k~fgz, ^fgzg gvgjizgz qicc klcy og geegj~iug

ie ~fgy hjjkdrhly h zkcin ngzjir~ikl ke zwz~hilhoici~y hln h egq gvhdrcgz, Il hnni~ikl# ~fg

Qkcn Qing Qgo fhz dhly zi~gz ngnijh~gn ~k gvrchilila jkdrklgl~z ke zwz~hilhoici~y hlnji~y zwz~hilhoici~y rchlz &zgg Zgj~ikl VUI# Qkcn Qing Qgo _gzkwjgz,)

^fg gvgjizgz ~fh~ il~knwjg ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhoici~y hg0

8, Nhil k Zwz~hil;

?, Nhil k Zwz~hil II

:, Z,G,G, ~fg Cilmz

Z,G,G, ~fg Cilmz Hj~iui~y Zfgg~

Nig Rh~~gl

Zkjig~y

Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~^kkcmi~

Gjklkdy

Gluikldgl~

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^fiz fhlnz$kl gvgjizg rw~z rh~ijirhl~z il ~fg dinncg ke hlghzy$~k$wlngz~hln zwz~hilhoici~y nicgddh,

Nhil k Zwz~hil;

Rwrkzg0 ^k il~knwjg rh~ijirhl~z ~k ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~,

Jkddgl~z0 Ek h jckzg gvhdilh~ikl ke ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~# zgg hczk

~fg gvgjizgz Zggila Ykw Jkddwli~y ^fkwaf h Zwz~hilhoici~y Cglz hln Z,G,G,

~fg Cilmz # ekwln gczgqfgg il ~fiz ^kkcmi~ ,

Akwr zipg0 > ~k :5 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 :2 dilw~gz,

Dh~gihcz0   H chag lwdog ke zdhcc rgoocgz,

  Rhrg hln rgljicz ek mggrila zjkg,

  Gv~glzikl0 H jfhcmokhn hln jfhcm,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Niuing ~fg akwr il~k jkddwli~igz ke ekw,

?, Rchjg 85 rgoocgz il h jkddwlhc ricg ek ghjf jkddwli~y,

:, Gvrchil ~fg wcgz ke ~fg ahdg0  ^fg rgoocg ricg grgzgl~z h uhcwhocg glgqhocg gzkwjg, ^fg gzkwjg iz

grcglizfgn he~g ghjf kwln ke rchy,  Ghjf jkddwli~y dgdog dhy ~hmg eggcy ekd ~fg gzkwjg ricg ghjf

kwln,

  Ghjf jkddwli~y dgdog dwz~ ~hmg h~ cghz~ klg rgoocg il ghjf kwln ~kzwuiug,

>, Klg rgzkl il ghjf jkddwli~y dwz~ gjkn ~fg lwdog ke rigjgz ~hmgl oyghjf jkddwli~y dgdog il ghjf kwln,

7, He~g ghjf kwln# jkwl~ fkq dhly rgoocgz ghjf jkddwli~y fhz gdhilila il~fg ricg# hln hnn hl gxwiuhcgl~ lwdog ke rgoocgz ~k ~fg ricg,

5, Rchy ~fgg k ekw kwlnz# rhwzila he~g ghjf kwln ~k eiln kw~ ie hlyjkddwli~y dgdogz nin lk~ zwuiug,

1, Rchy klg eilhc kwln# ~fgl fhug jkddwli~y dgdogz zfhg qfh~ fhrrglgn il~fgi jkddwli~igz0

  Il qfijf jkddwli~igz nin gugyklg zwuiug;  Qfijf jkddwli~y fhn ~fg dkz~ rgoocgz il ~fg gzkwjg ricg h~ ~fg gln ke 

~fg ahdg;  Qfijf jkddwli~igz hg jkleingl~ ~fgy qicc hcqhyz fhug glkwaf rgoocgz ek 

gugyklg hz ckla hz ~fg ricg iz glgqgn; Fkq nin ~fgzg jkddwli~igz hiugh~ ~fh~ rkil~; Qfh~ z~h~gaigz qgg wzgn;

  Qhz ~fgg h cghng il ~fgzg jkddwli~igz; Ie zk# qfy nin ~fg jkddwli~yciz~gl ~k ~fh~ rgzkl;

GZN ^kkcmi~

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5, _kwlnz 8 hln ?0 Eiz~ aglgh~ikl &~fg rgzgl~), Ek ghjf qfi~grgoocg h rh~ijirhl~ ~hmgz# klg gn rgoocg iz rchjgn il ~fg ~ghd’zoha iddgnih~gcy,

1, _kwlnz : hln >0 Zgjkln aglgh~ikl &ykw jficngl), Ek ghjfqfi~g rgoocg h rh~ijirhl~ ~hmgz# ~fgg gn rgoocgz hg rchjgn il~fg oha iddgnih~gcy,

6, _kwlnz 7 hln 50 ^fin aglgh~ikl &ykw ahlnjficngl), Ek ghjfqfi~g rgoocg h rh~ijirhl~ ~hmgz# ~fgg gn rgoocgz dwz~ og rchjgnil ~fg oha iddgnih~gcy,

9, Nizjwzz fkq ~fg ahdg rkagzzgn,

  Qfk fhn ~fg hnuhl~hag; Qfy;  Qfy nin rh~ijirhl~z ~hmg hz dhly rgoocgz hz ~fgy nin;  Fkq nin ~fg hj~iklz ke ~fg eiz~ aglgh~ikl idrhj~ ~fg ~fin

aglgh~ikl; Iz ~fiz ehi;  Nwila qfh~ kwln qhz ~fg –eh~hc dkug— dhng &~fg hj~ ~fh~

jhwzgn ~fg ngdizg ke ~fg zyz~gd;) Fkq nin ~fiz heegj~ ~fg gz~ ke ~fg ahdg rchy;

82, Aiug ~fg jkddwli~igz ~fg jfhljg ~k rchy hahil# qi~fkw~ ~fg ohaz#zk ~fh~ rh~ijirhl~z jhl dkli~k ~fg jkddwlhc gzkwjg hln ~fgrkccw~ikl, ^fg zhdg wcgz hrrcy,

88, Nizjwzz fkq ~fiz ahdg rkagzzgn,

  Qgg jkddwli~igz hocg ~k zwz~hil ~fg gzkwjg zk ~fh~ ~fg ~finaglgh~ikl fhn hz ci~~cg rkccw~ikl+kugwzg hz ~fg eiz~ aglgh~ikl;

  Nin hly jkddwli~igz kr~ ~k cidi~0 wzg ke jfgdijhcz+hdkwl~ ke ahpila+jh~jf zipg+hi ~hugc+rkccw~hl~z jgh~gn;

  Fkq dwjf jkddwlijh~ikl nin i~ ~hmg ~k zwz~hil ~fg gzkwjg;

Kozguh~iklz kl rchyila

Nhil k Zwz~hil II

Il ~fg eiz~ ~qk kwlnz#

rh~ijirhl~z qicc fhug lk

~kwocg zwuiuila# hln dhy

gugl zfkq aggn oy ~hmila

ekw k dkg qfi~g rgoocgz,I~ ogjkdgz kouikwz ~fh~ ~fg

jkddwli~y dgdog qfk

ghjfgz il~k ~fg oha eiz~ fhz

hl hnuhl~hag kug ~fg k~fg 

jkddwli~y dgdogz,

Il kwlnz : hln >#

rh~ijirhl~z qicc ogail ~k ~hmg

chag fhlnewcz ekd ~fg oha#

gzrgjihccy h~ ~fg gln ke 

_kwln >, ^fgy qicc og

jkljglgn qfgl zkdgklg

ag~z h chag lwdog ke qfi~g

rgoocgz# hz ~fh~ dghlz egqg 

qfi~g rgoocgz hln dhly dkg

gn rgoocgz ek ~fg lgv~

rh~ijirhl~,

Il kwlnz 7 hln 5# ~fg

rh~ijirhl~z ogail ~k –nig kee—

&og rw~ kw~ ke owzilgzz# og

ekjgn ~k cghug ~fg ehd# g~j,),

Rh~ijirhl~z ~hmg fwagfhlnewcz ke rgoocgz il egh 

~fh~ ~fgy diaf~ lk~ zwuiug,

Oy lkq i~ ogjkdgz kouikwz

~fh~ ~fg jkddkl gzkwjg iz

zk rkccw~gn+kugwzgn ~fh~

gugyklg ckzgz,

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Z,G,G, ~fg Cilmz(

Qi~f ~fg kcc ke ~fg nijg il ~fiz ehz~$rhjgn ahdg# rh~ijirhl~zhjg ~k ugohcipg ~fg cilmhagz og~qggl zkjig~y# gluikldgl~#hln gjklkdy,

Rwrkzg0 ^k gilekjg ~fg il~ggch~ikl ke ~fg ~fgg ghcdz ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~,

Jkddgl~z0 ^fiz gvgjizg iz akkn ~k hjxwhil~ rh~ijirhl~z qi~f ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, Nhil k Zwz~hil hln Nhil k Zwz~hil II rkuing h akkn il~knwj~ikl ~k ~fiz gvgjizg, Ek h jckzg gvhdilh~ikl ke ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~# zgg ~fg gvgjizg Zggila Ykw Jkddwli~y ^fkwaf h Zwz~hilhoici~y Cglz # hczk ekwln il ~fiz ^kkcmi~,

Akwr zipg0 > ~k :5 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 ?2 $ :2 dilw~gz,

Dh~gihcz0   ^fgg 5$zingn nijg ke nieeggl~ jkckz &rhrg nig rh~~gl iljcwngn),

  Z,G,G, Hj~iui~y Zfgg~z ek hcc akwrz ke rh~ijirhl~z,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Hzm rh~ijirhl~z ~k rijm h rh~lg# rgeghocy h z~hlag,

?, Zgh~ rhiz ke rh~ijirhl~z il h jijcg,

:, ^fgg lwdogz hg jfkzgl oy ~fg kcc ke ~fgg nijg# gn# aggl hlnocwg, ^fg gn nig jkgzrklnz ~k ~fg jh~gaky Zkjig~y# ~fg aggl nigjkgzrklnz ~k ~fg jh~gaky Gluikldgl~# hln ~fg ocwg nigjkgzrklnz ~k ~fg jh~gaky Gjklkdy, Ghjf jh~gaky jkl~hilz ziv

~gdz# hz ciz~gn kl ~fg hj~iui~y zfgg~# klg ek ghjf lwdog kl ~fg nig,

>, Klg ke ~fg rh~lgz kccz ~fg nijg, ^fg rh~lgz fhug 8 ~k ? dilw~gz ~knizjwzz# ~fgl z~h~g h zgl~gljg k ~qk cilmila ~fg ~fgg ~gdz ~fh~jkgzrkln ~k ~fg lwdogz zfkql kl ~fg nijg, ^gdz dhy og wzgn ilhly kng,

7, Ie ~fg rh~lgz jhllk~ ~film ke h cilmhag# ~fg ~hzm ke cilmila ~fg ~gdziz rhzzgn ~k ~fg rhi kl ~fgi cge~, Rchy jkl~ilwgz wl~ic ~fg cilmz hgdhng k wl~ic ghjf rhi fhz fhn h ~y h~ dhmila ~fg cilmhag,

5, Gljkwhag nizjwzzikl ke ghjf cilmhag he~g ghjf kwln ke rchy,

1, Ghjf rhi zfkwcn fhug h ~wl h~ kccila ~fg nijg,

Gvhdrcg _kcc0> Zkjig~y 4 /rkug~y—: Gluikldgl~ 4 /chlnwzg+zkic/5 Gjklkdy 4 /dhmg~z/

Gvhdrcg Cilmhag0H ykwla ehdg ilfgi~z hahngl rck~, ^fg rguikwzkqlg fhn lk~ jhgn ek ~fgrck~= ~fg zkic fhn ckz~ eg~ici~yhln qhz gkngn oyhilqh~g, ^fg ykwlaehdg mgr~ dkz~ ke ~fgfhugz~ ekd ~fg ahnglrck~ ~k eggn fiz ehdicy, ^fgrknwjg dhmg~ il ~kqlzweeggn ogjhwzg dhlyehdgz nin lk~ fhug

zwrcwzgz ~k zgcc# ogjhwzg~fgi chln qhz hczk gkngn,

GZN ^kkcmi~

Hnhr~gn ekd –Ohil Rkahd *8?0 555— il @wdr Z~h~ Ykw Ohil oy Nkwa Fhcc, Qhlg Okkmz0Lgq Ykm, 8997, rr, ?7>$?76,

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Z,G

,G,~fg

Cil

mz(

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zzgg#Mlkvuiccg#^gllgzzgg,

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ekcn ~ho ilzing

ekcn ekcn

ekcnekcn

ekcn

ekcn

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VII, GVG_JIZGZ ^K J_GH^G JKDDWLI^Y ZWZ^HILHOICI^Y AKHCZ ^F_KWAF

RWOCIJ RH_^IJIRH^IKL

oy _gailh _ippi 

^fg ekcckqila eiug gvgjizgz hg ngzialgn ~k fgcr jkddwli~igz ogail ~fg rkjgzz ke 

jgh~ila zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz, Jkddwli~y dgdogz lggn ~k gluizikl hln jkddwlijh~g qfh~

~fgy qhl~ ~fgi jkddwli~y ~k og cimg il ~fg lgh hln niz~hl~ ew~wg, Ke jkwzg# jgh~ila

akhcz ek h jkddwli~y iz h cgla~fy hln hnwkwz rkjgzz ~fh~ ilukcugz jkdrkdizg hln#inghccy# jklzglzwz, ^fg ekcckqila gvgjizgz qicc fgcr jkddwli~igz z~h~ ~fg rkjgzz=

fkqgug# k~fg hj~iui~igz qicc og lggngn ~k jkdrcg~g ~fg ~hzm ke jgh~ila zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz,

^fg gvgjizgz ~k jgh~g jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz hg0

8, Dgg~ila Ykw Lgiafokz

?, Owicnila Jklzglzwz

:, Zggila Ykw Jkddwli~y ^fkwaf h Zwz~hilhoici~y Cglz

>, Gluiziklila h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg

Gluikldgl~ Z~irz

Gjklkdy Z~irz

Zkjig~y Z~irz

7, Jgh~ila Jkddwli~y Zwz~hilhoici~y Akhcz0 Ngjinila Qfh~ Iz Idrk~hl~

Zhdrcg Xwgz~ikllhig

Zhdrcg Jkug Cg~~g 

Zkjig~y

Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~^kkcmi~

Gjklkdy

Gluikldgl~

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Rh~ijirhl~z cghl hokw~ ghjf k~fg hln ~fgi akhcz ek ~fgjkddwli~y,

Dgg~ila Ykw Lgiafokz

Rwrkzg0 k gljkwhag hj~iug ciz~glila, ^k owicn h zglzg ke –~ghd,—

Akwr zipg0 8? ~k :5 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 ?2 $ :2 dilw~gz,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Hzm ykw rh~ijirhl~z ~k zgcgj~ h rh~lg qi~f qfkd ~fgy hg lk~ qgcc

hjxwhil~gn,

?, Klg rh~lg il~knwjgz fid+fgzgce# ~gccila idrk~hl~ ehj~z hokw~ fid+fgzgce ~k~fg k~fg rh~lg# iljcwnila fiz+fg kcg il ~fg jkddwli~y hln fiz+fg akhcz k 

nghdz ek ~fg jkddwli~y &? dilw~gz),$:, ^fg ciz~glg grgh~z ~fg ilekdh~ikl ohjm ~k ~fg ~gccg &8 dilw~g),

>, ^fg ~gccg jkgj~z ~fg ciz~glg ie lgjgzzhy &:2 zgjklnz),

7, Zqi~jf kcgz hln grgh~ Z~grz ? ~fkwaf >,

5, _gakwr ~qk rhiz ke rh~ijirhl~z ~k jgh~g akwrz ke >,

1, Ghjf rh~lg zfkwcn aiug h 8$dilw~g il~knwj~ikl ke ~fg k~fg ~k ~fg ? lgqciz~glgz,

6, Zjhdocg hcc rh~ijirhl~z# rhiila ghjf qi~f zkdgklg ekd h nieeggl~ akwr ke >,

9, _grgh~ Z~grz ? ~k 6 wl~ic hcc rh~ijirhl~z fhug fghn k aiugl il~knwj~iklz ke ~fg k~fgz,

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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^fkwaf kcg rchyila# rh~ijirhl~z qkm ~kag~fg ~k wlngz~hlndhly rgzrgj~iugz kl hl izzwg,

Owicnila Jklzglzwz

Rwrkzg0 ^k rhj~ijg ciz~glila ~k hcc ukijgz hln jkdila ~k h jklzglzwz,

Akwr zipg0 8? ~k :5 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 Klg fkw,

Dh~gihcz0   Rhrg hln rglz ek rh~ijirhl~ akwrz,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Niuing ykw rh~ijirhl~z il~k akwrz ke 7$1 rgkrcg# rgeghocy z~hlagz# qi~f

uhikwz ohjmakwlnz,

?, Hzzial ghjf rgzkl h kcg il ~fg ahdg0 rhgl~# fghn ke h ckjhc ilnwz~y k owzilgzz# ~ghjfg# ohlmg# ahnwh~ila ~gglhag# gcngcy rgzkl# dwlijirhczguijg rkuing &g,a, rkcijgdhl)# dgnijhc rkegzziklhc,

:, Zi~wh~ikl0 Nizjwzz qfh~ zmiccz hln mlkqcgnag jficngl ke ~knhy qicc lggn ilkng ~k og rknwj~iug dgdogz ke kw zkjig~y hz hnwc~z,

Zi~wh~ikl0 Qfh~ iz ~fg chagz~ zwz~hilhoici~y rkocgd il kw jkddwli~y;

>, Z~h~ zdhcc akwr nizjwzziklz ke ~fg zi~wh~ikl# qi~f ghjf rh~ijirhl~ oilailawr rkil~z hrrkrih~g ~k ~fg kcg fg+zfg iz rchyila, Ek gvhdrcg# ~fg–owzilgzz kqlg— diaf~ jkdrchil ~fh~ ykwla hnwc~z nk lk~ fhug akkn glkwafchlawhag zmiccz ~k qkm hz zhcgzrgkrcg, Akwrz zfkwcn ng~gdilg qfg~fg k lk~ ~fgg iz h rkocgd,

7, Akwrz zfkwcn z~iug ~k hiug h~ jklzglzwz &:2 dilw~gz),

5, Hzm klg rgzkl ekd ghjf akwr ~k z~h~g ~fg akwr’z hlzqg ~k ~fg gl~igkkd,

1, Cghn h nizjwzzikl ke ~fg rkjgzz oy qfijf ghjf akwr hiugn h~ jklzglzwz,

Lk~g0 Dhly izzwgz hg jkdrcgv hln jhllk~ og ngeilgn il :2 dilw~gz, Il ~fgzgjhzgz# ~fg ngzign cghlila kw~jkdg iz wlngz~hlnila ~fg jkdrcgvi~y ke hlizzwg# lk~ ingl~ieyila h zkcw~ikl,

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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H fhlnz$kl akwr hj~iui~y ~fh~ fgcrz rh~ijirhl~z zgg ~fg geegj~zke h ckjhc hj~iui~y kl ~fg gjklkdy# zkjig~y# hln gluikldgl~,

Zggila Ykw Jkddwli~y^fkwaf h Zwz~hilhoici~y Cglz

Rwrkzg0 ^k fgcr rh~ijirhl~z uigq h ckjhc hj~iui~y qi~f hl gyg ~kqhn ~fg ~fgg jkdrklgl~z

ke zwz~hilhoici~y $ gjklkdy# zkjig~y# hln gluikldgl~,

Akwr zipg0 8? ~k :5 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 8 ~k 8 8+? fkwz,

Dh~gihcz0   ^fgg chag zfgg~z ke rhrg ek ghjf akwr,

  ^hrg,  Klg dhmila rgl rg rh~ijirhl~,

  Gv~glzikl0 jfhcmokhn hln jfhcm,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Niuing ykw rh~ijirhl~z il~k akwrz ke : ~k 5 rgkrcg,

?, Hzm ghjf akwr ~k ingl~iey h ckjhc# hllwhc hj~iui~y &g,a,# egz~iuhc# rhhng# k zrk~ila gugl~),

:, Jklz~wj~ h jkljgr~ dhr wzila ~fiz hj~iui~y hz ~fg ekjhc rkil~ &zgg Eiawg 8),

>, Hzm rh~ijirhl~z ~k ~film ke qhyz ~fg hj~iui~y heegj~z ~fg ckjhc gjklkdy# ~fgzkjig~y# hln ~fg gluikldgl~, Rh~ijirhl~z zfkwcn qi~g ~fgzg ridhy ehj~kzkl ~fg rhrg hln wzg jkllgj~ila cilgz hln qknz ~k zfkq gch~iklzfirz &zggEiawg ?),

GZN ^kkcmi~

Eiawg 8, Jkljgr~ DhrZkjihc Hj~iui~y

Gluikldgl~

Zkjihc

Cilmila QknGjklkdij

Zkjihc Hj~iui~y

Cilmila Qkn

Cilmila QknCilmila Qkn

Cilmila Qkn

Cilmila Qkn

Cilmila Qkn

Cilmila Qkn

ZgjklnhyZgjklnhy

Zgjklnhy

:n Cgugc

:n Cgugc

Il~gjkllgj~iklz

>~f Cgugc

Cilmila Qkn

Gvhdrcgz0

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

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7, Hzm rh~ijirhl~z ~k ingl~iey zgjklnhy ehj~kz ~fh~ heegj~ k hg heegj~gn oy ~fgridhy ehj~kz,

5, Ingl~iey ~fin$ hln ekw~f$cgugc ehj~kz hln ogykln# ie rkzziocg,

1, Wzila hlk~fg zfgg~ ke rhrg# grgh~ Z~grz : ~k 5 ek ackohc ehj~kz ~fh~ heegj~k hg heegj~gn oy ~fg ckjhc hj~iui~y,

Eiawg ?, Gvhdrcg ke Jkdrcg~gn Jkljgr~ Dhr

Fgi~hag Gnwjh~ikl Eggcila ke Jkddwli~y

zwrrk~z zwrrk~z zwrrk~z

CkjhcJwc~wg

gilekjgzzwrrk~z

aglgh~gz

gxwigz

gxwigz

aglgh~gz

ohzgn kl

Z~hqogyEgz~iuhc

ZdhccOwzilgzzgz

zwjf hz

zwjf hz

zwjf hz

jgh~gz

_gz~hwhl~zhln

Fk~gcz

Dwzijihlz

H~izhlz

@koz^kwizd jgh~gz

glfhljgz

Ckjhc

Gjklkdy

fgiaf~glz

Z~hqogy

ehdila

H~~hj~iuglgzzke Jkddwli~y

oy

Ilngrglngl~cyKqlgn Ehdz

gdrckyz

Diahl~ Chok 

gjijwch~g

Dklgy ilJkddwli~yFghc~f+Qgcehg ke 

Diahl~ Qkmgz

heegj~z

cghnz ~kGluikldgl~hc

Izzwgz

zwjf hz

zwjf hz zwjf hz

heegj~z

cghnz ~k

Eg~icipgz+

Rgz~ijingz

Lkl$Rkil~Zkwjg Rkccw~ikl

Qh~g Wzhag Gkzikl

Qh~g Xwhci~y

Qhz~g

Zhli~h~ikl

Chlneicc

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6, Rgrhg h jfh~ kl ~fg gdhilila zfgg~ ke rhrg, Qi~g ~fg fghnilaz–Gluikldgl~#— –Gjklkdy#— hln –Zkjig~y— hjkzz ~fg ~kr, Qi~g –Ckjhc— hln–Ackohc— kl ~fg cge~ zing ke ~fg rhag &zgg Eiawg :),

9, Ilz~wj~ rh~ijirhl~z ~k qi~g ehj~kz ekd ok~f jkljgr~ dhrz kl ~fg jfh~qfgg hrrkrih~g, ^fg gzwc~z zfkwcn ilnijh~g ~fh~ ~fg ehj~kz gecgj~zkjig~y# gjklkdy# hln gluikldgl~# ok~f ckjhccy hln ackohccy,

Kw ckjhc hj~iklz jhl fhug ackohc idrhj~z, Zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ dghlzohchljila ~fg gluikldgl~# zkjig~y# hln gjklkdy lkq hln il ~fg ew~wg#ogaillila ckjhccy,

Gv~glzikl0 82, Ogail h nizjwzzikl ke ~fg ckjhc jkljgr~ dhr, Hzm ghjf akwr ~k ingl~iey h

lgah~iug ~gln il ~fg jkddwli~y &g,a,# iljghzgn rkrwch~ikl# fkwzilazfk~hag# rkkg ciuila jklni~iklz), Fkq dhly yghz jhl ~fiz ~gln jkl~ilwgogekg ~fg zi~wh~ikl ogjkdgz il~kcghocg;

Zfkwcn hj~ikl og ~hmgl lkq ~k jkwl~ghj~ ~fiz ~gln zk ew~wg aglgh~iklzgl`ky ~fg zhdg xwhci~y ke cieg ekwln il ~fg jkddwli~y ~knhy;

Jhl ~fg xwhci~y ke cieg og idrkugn lkq hln ek ~fg ew~wg; Fkq;

88, Hzm ~fg akwr ~k ingl~iey h ckjhc lh~whc gzkwjg ngrcg~gn oy fwdhl hj~iui~yhln qi~g i~ kl ~fg jfhcmokhn, Hz h akwr# jgh~g h jkljgr~ dhr ke rkohocg ehj~kz# ok~f ckjhc hln ackohc # ~fh~ h zfk~hag ke ~fiz gzkwjg dhyheegj~# jgh~g# k lgjgzzi~h~g,

8?, Nizjwzz ~fg jkljgr~ dhr, Qfh~ nkgz i~ idrcy ek ykw jkddwli~y;

Hnhr~gn ekd –Zwz~hilhoici~y Zlhrzfk~,— Il Jkddwli~y Zwz~hilhoici~y0 H Dili$Jwijwcwd ek Ahngz 9$8? # gni~gn oyLijm Oh~kckdgk hln Chwy Dhzfhcc, ^fg Ipphm Qhc~kl Cghawg ke Hdgijh# 8995,

Zkjig~yGluikldgl~ Gjklkdy

      A       c    k       o     h 

      c

      C    k     j     h 

      c

Hjin _hilKpklg Ngrcg~ikl

CkaailaEizfila

Hi 

Rwocij Fghc~fGnwjh~iklChlndhmz

Fgi~hagJwc~wg

Diahl~ QkmgzGugl~zUhcwgz

Zkwjg Jkddwli~yQkmgz

Jficn Chok NizghzgRkug~y

Akugldgl~

Eg~icipg WzgRgz~ijingz

Akwlnqh~g Chlneicc

_gzguki Wohl Zrhqc

_iugekl~ Rhm

Oia OwzilgzzIl~glh~iklhc hng Haggdgl~z

EhdilaQhagz

Jkz~ ke Ciuila

^kwizdZfirrila

Zguijg Ilnwz~yAkugldgl~ Zwoziny

Zghzklhc @kozRiuh~g Zwrrk~

^hvgzRkrg~y Uhcwgz

Eiawg :,

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Wzila riljircgz ke zwz~hilhoici~y# rh~ijirhl~z gluizikl ~fgijkddwli~y il ~fg ew~wg,

Gluiziklila h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg

Rwrkzg0 ^k z~h~ rh~ijirhl~z ~filmila hokw~ qhyz ~k dhmg ~fgi jkddwli~y dkg zwz~hilhocg,

Akwr zipg0 8? ~k :5 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 :2 dilw~gz ~k klg fkw,

Dh~gihcz0   –Zwz~hilhoici~y Z~irz#— jw~ hrh~ &rkuingn kl zwozgxwgl~ rhagz),

  Rhrg hln rgljic ek ghjf akwr,

Nigj~iklz0 8, _hlnkdcy niuing rh~ijirhl~z il~k akwrz ke :,

?, _gxwgz~ ghjf akwr ~k rijm klg zwz~hilhoici~y z~ir ekd ~fg ricg,

:, Akwr dgdogz zfkwcn ghn ~fg zwz~hilhoici~y z~ir hln jklzing ~fg dghlilake ~fg aiugl riljircg ke zwz~hilhoici~y &? dilw~gz),

>, Ghjf akwr dgdog zfkwcn ~film ke klg qhy ~fg riljircg ke zwz~hilhoici~yjkwcn og idrcgdgl~gn il ~fg jkddwli~y HLN klg qhy i~ jkwcn ogidrcgdgl~gn il fiz+fg kql fkdg &zgg ekcckqila gvhdrcg), Klg rgzkl ilghjf akwr zfkwcn qi~g nkql ~fg z~h~gdgl~z,

Zhdrcg hlzqg0–Kw jkddwli~y qicc rchl~ dhly dkg ekgz~gn hghz ~k dhmg wr ek hcc ~fg jkhcqg owl ~k jgh~g gcgj~iji~y,—

  Jkddwli~y cgugc0 Kw jkddwli~y qicc rwjfhzg k gjchid wlnkqljkddwli~y hjghag &okqleigcnz) hln grchl~ qi~f ~ggz,

  Fkdg cgugc0 Dy ehdicy qicc rchl~ ekw lh~iug ~ggz rg ehdicy dgdog rg ygh ~k –rhy ek— ~fg hdkwl~ ke jhokl nikving qg gvrgln ghjf ygh ~hugcila oy

hw~kdkoicg# hirchlg# hln okh~,

Wzg ke lklglgqhocg gzkwjgz zfkwcn og –rhinek— ~fkwaf iljghzgn glgqhocg gzkwjg

grchjgdgl~,

GZN ^kkcmi~

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7, Hzm ~fg cghng ke ghjf akwr ~k ghn hckwn ~fg akwr’z riljircgz ke zwz~hilhoici~y hln grk~ dgdogz inghz ~k ~fg chag akwr,

5, Nizjwzz ~fg zwaagz~iklz,

Kl ~fg Jkddwli~y cgugc0  Qfijf zwaagz~iklz nin rh~ijirhl~z cimg; Qfy;  Qfijf zwaagz~iklz jkwcn og idrcgdgl~gn ~fiz ygh;

Kl ~fg Fkdg cgugc0  Qfijf zwaagz~iklz qgg akkn; Qfy;  Ie dhly rgkrcg ekcckqgn h zwaagz~ikl# fkq qkwcn ~fg jkddwli~y oglgei~;  Qfijf zwaagz~iklz jkwcn og z~h~gn ~knhy;

1, Jkccgj~ ~fg zwz~hilhoici~y z~irz# ie ykw qhl~ ~k wzg ~fgd hahil,

Gv~glzikl0 _grgh~ Z~grz ? ~fkwaf 5 wl~ic ghjf akwr fhz jklzinggn h~ cghz~ klg

gluikldgl~hc# klg gjklkdij# hln klg zkjig~hc zwz~hilhoici~y z~ir,

Zkwjgz0

Dghnkqz# Nklgcch, g~ hc, 899?, Ogykln ~fg Cidi~z , Jfgczgh Aggl Rwocizfila Jk, Rkz~ Diccz# Ugdkl~,

Dwjk~~# Zwzhl, 8991, Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~0 H Dg~h _guigq ke Ngeili~iklz# Riljircgz# Ji~gih# Ilnijh~iklz#Jkljgr~whc Ehdgqkmz# Ilekdh~ikl Zyz~gdz, Dhzzhjfwzg~~z Ilz~i~w~g ke gjflkckay,

^fg Lh~whc Z~gr , 8991, Jwijwcwd Ugzikl :,2

Wli~gn Lh~iklz Gnwjh~iklhc# Zjigl~ieij hln Jwc~whc Kahliph~ikl, 8991, Gnwjh~ila ek h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg0 H

^hlznizjircilhy Uizikl ek Jkljg~gn Hj~ikl,

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Wzg ke lklglgqhocg gzkwjgz zfkwcn og–rhin ek— ~fkwaf iljghzgn glgqhocggzkwjg grchjgdgl~,

_h~gz ke wzg ke glgqhocg gzkwjgzzfkwcn lk~ gvjggn ~fg h~g ke ~fgi gaglgh~ikl,

_h~gz ke wzg ke lklglgqhocg gzkwjgzzfkwcn lk~ gvjggn ~fg h~g h~ qfijfzwz~hilhocg glgqhocg zwoz~i~w~gz hgngugckrgn,

_h~gz ke rkccw~ikl gdizzikl zfkwcn lk~gvjggn ~fg gluikldgl~’z jhrhji~y ~kjkwl~ghj~ i~,

Gluikldgl~

Zwoz~hljgz &g,a,# z~ykekhd# ekkn qhz~g)rknwjgn oy zkjig~y dwz~ lk~ ogrknwjgn h~ h h~g ehz~g ~fhl lh~wg jhloghm ~fgd nkql hahil,

Gluikldgl~

Gluikldgl~

Gluikldgl~

Gluikldgl~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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_gzkwjg niz~iow~ikl DWZ^ og ehi hlngeeijigl~ QFICG dgg~ila fwdhl lggnz,

Dklgy zfkwcn og jijwch~gn hz ckla hzrkzziocg qi~fil ~fg jkddwli~y,

H ciuila qhag zfkwcn og rhin ~k hccgdrckyggz,

Owzilgzz zfkwcn aiug ohjm ~k ~fgjkddwli~y il rkrk~ikl ~k i~z ekk~ril~ kl~fg jkddwli~y,

Dhmg~z zfkwcn dhvidipg geeijigljy#nizjkwhag ~fg wzg ke nizrkzhocgz# hlnagh~cy gnwjg qhz~g,

Gjklkdy

Gjklkdy

Gjklkdy

Gjklkdy

Gjklkdy

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Ji~igz zfkwcn akq klcy qi~filrgng~gdilgn jkddwli~y okwlnhigz &g,a,#jwgl~ ji~y cidi~z),

Hngxwh~g ekkn# fkwzila# hln dgnijhc jhgzfkwcn og huhichocg ~k gugy ehdicy,

Gugy aic hln oky zfkwcn gjgiug gnwjh~ikl~fh~ ~ghjfgz ~fg mlkqcgnag# rgzrgj~iugz#uhcwgz# izzwgz# hln zmiccz ek zwz~hilhocgciuila il ~fg jkddwli~y,

^fg rgzgl~ aglgh~ikl zfkwcn glzwg ~fh~~fg lgv~ aglgh~ikl ilfgi~z h jkddwli~y h~cghz~ hz fghc~fy# niugzg# hln rknwj~iug hzi~ iz ~knhy,

Zkjig~y

Zkjig~y

Zkjig~y

Zkjig~y

Zkjig~y

Jkddwli~igz zfkwcn ilziz~ wrkl rchllgncklagui~y hln cgzz jklzrijwkwzjklzwdr~ikl ke dh~gihc akknz,

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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^fiz ~qk$rh~ gvgjizg qicc fgcr ykw jkddwli~y ngugckr zwz$~hilhoici~y akhcz ohzgn kl zkjig~y# gluikldgl~# hln gjklkdy,

Jgh~ila Jkddwli~y Zwz~hilhoici~y Akhcz0Ngjinila Qfh~ iz Idrk~hl~

Rwrkzg0 ^k nizjkug hln riki~ipg akwr ko`gj~iugz,

Jkddgl~z0 ^fiz rwocij rh~ijirh~ikl hj~iui~y iz ek wzg he~g h jkddwli~y fhz hcghny ngjingn

~k jgh~g zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz, K~fg jkddwli~y rh~ijirh~ikl rkjgzzgz dwz~ eiz~~hmg rchjg ~k oila ~fg jkddwli~y ~k ~fg rkil~ qfgg i~ iz ghny  ~k jgh~gzwz~hilhoici~y akhcz,

^fg xwgz~ikllhig rk~ikl ke ~fiz gvgjizg dhy og niz~iow~gn ~k gzingl~z ke ~fgjkddwli~y hln ~k jkddwli~y owzilgzzgz, Fhug rgzkllgc ghny ~k hlhcypg ~fgnh~h kljg xwgz~ikllhigz hg g~wlgn,

^idg Lggngn0 Xwgz~ikllhig &?2 dilw~gz)# z~hmgfkcng dgg~ila &? fkwz),

Dh~gihcz0   Zgce$hnfgziug chogcz+z~ijmgz &g,a,# 8 ~k ? jd, jijcgz) il ~fgg jkckz,

  Rgljicz,

  H jfhcmokhn hln jfhcm,

Nigj~iklz0 Zggmila Rwocij Rh~ijirh~ikl

8, Rgrhg h xwgz~ikllhig ohzgn kl ~fg zhdrcg rkuingn qi~f ~fiz gvgjizg,

?, Jfkkzg h g~wl nghncilg ek jkdrcg~gn xwgz~ikllhigz &g,a,# ~qk qggmz he~g dhicila)# hz qgcc hz h nh~g ek ~fg z~hmgfkcng dgg~ila, Og zwg ~k aiugykwzgce hdrcg ~idg og~qggl dhicila ~fg xwgz~ikllhig hln fkcnila ~fg

z~hmgfkcng dgg~ila ~k hlhcypg hln rgrhg ~fg nh~h ykw fhug jkccgj~gn,

:, Qi~g h jkug cg~~g ohzgn kl ~fg zhdrcg rkuingn qi~f ~fiz gvgjizg, ^fgjkug cg~~g zfkwcn gvrchil ~fg rwrkzgz ke ~fg xwgz~ikllhig hln z~hmgfkcng dgg~ila hln gljkwhag rh~ijirh~ikl il ok~f, Og zwg ~k iljcwng ilekdh~iklhokw~ ~fg z~hmgfkcng dgg~ila# iljcwnila ~fg nh~g# rchjg# hln ~idg# hz qgcc hz~fg g~wl nghncilg ek ~fg xwgz~ikllhig,

>, Dhic ~fg xwgz~ikllhig hckla qi~f h zgce$hnngzzgn# rkz~hag$rhin g~wlglugckrg,

Ogekg ~fg Dgg~ila

8, Qfgl ~fg xwgz~ikllhigz fhug oggl g~wlgn# hlhcypg ~fg gzrklzgz, Ingl~ieydh`k ~krijz ke jkljgl &g,a,# jklzguh~ikl# gnwjh~ikl# rwocij ~hlzrk~h~ikl)hln rchjg ghjf ~krij il klg ke ~fgg jh~gakigz0 zkjig~y# gluikldgl~# k gjklkdy, Ciz~ zrgjieij jkljglz wlng ghjf dh`k jkljgl, Mggr ~hjm ke ~fglwdog ke nwrcijh~g jkljglz, Ykw rh~ijirhl~z dhy hzm ek ~fiz ~yrg ke z~h~iz~ij,

?, Klg qggm rik ~k ~fg z~hmgfkcng dgg~ila# rchjg h gdilng ke ~fg nh~g#~idg# hln rchjg il ~fg ckjhc lgqzrhrg, Hllkwljg ~fg dgg~ila kl ckjhc~gcguizikl hln hnik okhnjhz~z, Gljkwhag ~fg dgnih ~k wl h –rwocijil~ggz~— z~ky kl ~fg rkjgzz,

GZN ^kkcmi~

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Nwila ~fg Dgg~ila

8, Il hnuhljg ke ~fg z~hmgfkcng dgg~ila# qi~g kw~ hcc ~fg uizikl z~h~gdgl~z ilhcrfhog~ijhc kng wlng ~fg ~fgg fghnilaz Zkjig~y # Gjklkdy # hlnGluikldgl~ , ]Lk~g0 Ciz~ila ~fg z~h~gdgl~z hcrfhog~ijhccy hcckq zghjf ~k ogzggl hz gxwhc ~k ~fg k~fgz, Nk lk~ rw~ ~fg gzrklzgz il kng ekd dkz~rkrwch ~k cghz~ rkrwch lk ciz~ ~fg lwdog ke uk~gz ghjf gjgiugn, Fkqgug#ykw zfkwcn fhug ~fiz ilekdh~ikl huhichocg il jhzg i~ iz gxwgz~gn,T

?, Hhlag ~fg zgh~z il h zgdi$jijcg# il kng ~k ehjici~h~g h jklugzh~iklhch~dkzrfgg,

:, H~ ~fg hrrkil~gn ~idg# hzm ykw rh~ijirhl~z ~k ~hmg zgh~z, fhlm ~fgd ek ~fgi ~idg hln jkddi~dgl~ ~k ~fg jkddwli~y, Gvrchil ~fh~ ~fg xwgz~ikllhigzngq dhly –uizikl z~h~gdgl~z— ekd ~fg jkddwli~y# hln ~fh~ hlk~fg ~gd ek –uizikl z~h~gdgl~z— iz zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz , Nigj~ rh~ijirhl~z’ h~~gl~ikl ~k ~fgciz~z ke zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz, Ogail h nizjwzzikl ke ghjf zwaagz~gnzwz~hilhoici~y akhc# hzmila ek gvrchlh~iklz ke ~fg dkz~ wlwzwhc gzrklzgz $zkdg ke ~fgzg dhy aiug agh~ ilziaf~ &8 fkw),

>, Hzm ie hlyklg fhz hly lgq zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz ~k hnn, Hnn ~fgd ~k ~fg ciz~hln nizjwzz ~fgzg &87 dilw~gz),

7, _guizi~ ~fg ciz~ ke zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz, Jkdoilg zidich akhcz= hnn lgq akhcz=ngcg~g ~fkzg ~fg akwr ekwln lk~ gcguhl~,

5, Ngzialh~g klg jkck chogc+z~ijmg ek gluikldgl~# klg ek gjklkdy# hln klgek zkjig~y, Niz~iow~g : chogcz+z~ijmgz ke ghjf jkck ~k ghjf rh~ijirhl~, Ghjfrh~ijirhl~ zfkwcn fhug 9 –dhmgz—,

1, Ilz~wj~ rh~ijirhl~z ~k rchjg klg z~ijmg ghjf lgv~ ~k ~fgg akhcz il ghjfjh~gaky &gluikldgl~# gjklkdy# hln zkjig~y) ~fh~ ~fgy uigq hz dkz~idrk~hl~ &il k~fg qknz# ghjf rh~ijirhl~ zfkwcn dhm h ~k~hc ke lilg akhcz#

~fgg il ghjf jh~gaky,)

6, Aiug ykw rh~ijirhl~z h 82$dilw~g oghm qficg ykw ~hccy ~fg gzrklzgz,_gkng ~fg akhcz hjjknila ~k ~fg lwdog ke uk~gz gjgiugn# ciz~ila ~fgd ilngzjglnila kng,

9, _guigq ~fg gzwc~z, Cghn ~fg akwr ~k nizjwzz rchlz ke hj~ikl ~fh~ diaf~hjfigug ~fg eiz~ : k > akhcz il ghjf jh~gaky, Zgg ~fg hj~iui~y Dhmila Ykw Inghz Ecy( qfijf iz ekwln gczgqfgg il ~fiz ^kkcmi~ ,

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Zhdrcg Xwgz~ikllhig

Nigj~iklz0 Rcghzg zfhg qi~f wz ykw uizikl ke kw jkddwli~y ?2 yghz ekd lkq,Rcghzg aiug klcy klg gzrklzg rg cilg# il lk rh~ijwch kng, Jkl~ilwg kl ~fg ohjm ke ~fiz zfgg~ ie dkg zrhjg iz lggngn, ^fhlm ykw ek ykw rh~ijirh~ikl(

Gvhdrcg0 Jficngl qicc og ~hwaf~ ~k dhmg zdh~ ngjiziklz gahnila ~fg uhcwg hln wzg ke dklgy,Gvhdrcg0 ^fg iug qicc og jcghl glkwaf ~fh~ qg dhy gh~ eizf jhwaf~ ekd i~,

Gvhdrcg0 Kw jkddwli~y qicc fhug dkg ckjhccy kqlgn owzilgzzgz,

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uizikl0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Rcghzg rkuing ~fg ekcckqila ilekdh~ikl hokw~ ykwzgce ~k hzziz~ wz il hlhcypila ~fg gzrklzgz,

 [[ Dhcg [[ Egdhcg

Hag0 [[ wlng ?2 [[ ?8 $ :2 [[ :8 $ >2 [[ >8 $ 72 [[ 78 $ 57 [[ kug 57

Fkq dhly rgkrcg ciug il ykw fkwzgfkcn;

 [[ 8 $ ? [[ : $ > [[ 7 $ 6 [[ 9 $ 8? [[ kug 8?

Qfh~ iz ykw hllwhc iljkdg; [[ wlng .?2#222 [[ .?8#222 ~k .>2#222

 [[ .>8#222 $ .52#222 [[ .58# 222 ~k .62#222 [[ kug .62#222

^fhlm ykw ek jkdrcg~ila ~fiz xwgz~ikllhig(

Rcghzg g~wl oy ]ilzg~ nghncilg nh~gT ~k0

]ilzg~ g~wl hnngzz fggT

Ke qfh~ g~fliji~y hg ykw; [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Zhdrcg Jkug Cg~~g 

]Nh~gT

Ngh [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[0

Hz ykw dhy og hqhg# zwz~hilhoici~y iz ke ckjhc hln ackohc jkljgl, Il ehj~# jkddwli~igzhkwln ~fg qkcn hg zggila ~fg lggn ~k jgh~g ckjhc zwz~hilhoici~y rchlz, Ji~igz hln~kqlz hjkzz ~fg Wli~gn Milankd hln zdhcc ~kqlz il Rgw fhug jgh~gn ckjhcgluikldgl~hc ili~ih~iugz, Jkddwli~igz ~fh~ hg ~kl qi~f zkjihc rkocgdz# gugl ~fkzg ilZkw~f Heijh# fhug jgh~gn zwz~hilhoici~y rchlz, Hz qg fhug ogjkdg dkg hqhg ke ~fgqkcn hkwln wz# dhly dgdogz ke kw jkddwli~y fhug gvrgzzgn il~ggz~ il jgh~ilah zwz~hilhoici~y rchl ek kw jkddwli~y,

]Ilzg~ lhdg ke jkddwli~yT iz ~hmila ili~ihc z~grz ~k jgh~g h zwz~hilhoici~y rchl, Kw eiz~jkddwli~y dgg~ila qicc og fgcn kl ]ilzg~ nh~gT h~ ]ilzg~ rchjgT h~ ]ilzg~ ~idgT, Qg fkrg

ykw qicc `kil wz h~ ~fiz idrk~hl~ dgg~ila,

Il rgrhh~ikl ek ~fg dgg~ila qg qkwcn cimg ykw hlzqgz ~k ~fg xwgz~iklz kl ~fggljckzgn xwgz~ikllhig, Rcghzg g~wl i~ il ~fg gljckzgn rkz~hag$rhin glugckrg ~k]ilzg~ hnngzzT oy ]ilzg~ nh~g# il okcn cg~~gilaT,

Ie ykw fhug hly xwgz~iklz hokw~ ~fg dgg~ila k xwgz~ikllhig# rcghzg jkl~hj~ ]ilzg~lhdgT h~ ]ilzg~ ~gcgrfklg lwdog hln hnngzzT k uizi~ kw Qgo zi~g# ]ilzg~ qgohnngzzT,

Ziljggcy#

]Ilzg~ LhdgT]Ilzg~ i~cgT

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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VIII, GVG_JIZGZ ^K _GK_IGL^ GNWJH^IKL ^K HNN_GZZ ZWZ^HILHOICI^Y

oy _gailh _ippi 

Klg ke ~fg agh~ jfhccglagz ke gdohjila GZN qicc og ~k gkigl~ jwgl~

jwijwcwdz ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y, Kljg h jwijwcwd iz qi~~gl# i~ iz nieeijwc~ ~k

jfhlag= ~hni~ikl iz h rkqgewc ekjg il mggrila ~fg z~h~wz xwk, ^k hnn k nkr hly~fila

ekd ~fg jwijwcwd qicc rkohocy gxwig ngciogh~g hj~ikl, ^fg ekcckqila gvgjizgz qicc

fgcr gnwjh~kz# jwijwcwd ngzialgz# hln hndiliz~h~kz ~k ogail ~fg rkjgzz ke 

gkigl~ila gnwjh~ikl, ^fgzg gvgjizgz hg ngzialgn ~k fgcr ykw hlzqg ~fg xwgz~ikl

qfh~ jhl k zfkwcn I nk nieeggl~cy; ^fgzg gvgjizgz qicc lk~ fgcr ykw ~k jkdrcg~gcy

gngzial ~fg jwijwcwd= ~fgy qicc# fkqgug# fgcr ykw ~k ~hmg ili~ihc z~grz,

^fg gvgjizgz ~k gkigl~ gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y hg0

8, Ohzij Jkdrklgl~z ke GZN

Qkmzfgg~0 Ohzij Jkdrklgl~z ke GZN

?, Rk`gj~ Y

Qkmzfgg~0 Rk`gj~ Y

:, Wli~y iz Z~gla~f

Qkmzfgg~0 Wli~y iz Z~gla~f

>, Qggnila ~fg Jwijwcwd

Qkmzfgg~0 Jwijwcwd Guhcwh~ikl7, Dhmila ykw Inghz Ecy(

Hirchlg ^gdrch~g

5, Z~krciaf~

Qkmzfgg~0 Z~krciaf~ Idrk~hljg hln _gzkwjgHuhichoici~y

Qkmzfgg~0 Z~krciaf~

1, Izzwgz$ohzgn Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhoici~y

Qkmzfgg~0 Izzwgz$Ohzgn Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhoici~y

6, Jkddwli~y Ekwd

Zkjig~y

Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~^kkcmi~

GjklkdyGluikldgl~

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^ghjfgz hln jwijwcwd rchllgz ~hmg hl ili~ihc ckkm h~jkdrklgl~z ke Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~,

Ohzij Jkdrklgl~z ke GZN

Rwrkzg0 ^k ingl~iey ~fg mlkqcgnag# zmiccz# uhcwgz# hln rgzrgj~iugz ~fh~ zwrrk~ ~ghjfila

riljircgz+akhcz ke zwz~hilhoici~y hln+k izzwgz gch~ila ~k zwz~hilhoici~y,

Jkddgl~z0 ^fiz gvgjizg iz ek rgkrcg qfk hg ogaillila ~k ~film hokw~ qfh~ akgz il~k

Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~, Dkg jkdrcg~g jwijwcwd ngugckrdgl~gvgjizgz hln ~gjflixwgz zfkwcn og wzgn qi~f rgkrcg qfk hg ghny ~k rchl

jwijwcwd,

Akwr zipg0 ? ~k 87 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 8 ~k : fkwz,

Dh~gihcz0   Ohzij Jkdrklgl~z ke GZN qkmzfgg~,

  Rgljicz,  Jkrigz ke Zgj~ikl III# _gkigl~ila Gnwjh~ikl # hln Zgj~ikl IU# Rkjgzz ek 

Ckjhcipila ~fg Ackohc Ili~ih~iug # ekd ~fiz ^kkcmi~ ,

Nigj~iklz0 8, _ghn _gkigl~ila Gnwjh~ikl hln Rkjgzz ek Ckjhcipila ~fg Ackohc Ili~ih~iug ,

?, Niz~iow~g Ohzij Jkdrklgl~z ke GZN qkmzfgg~,

:, Rh~ijirhl~z dhy jkdrcg~g qkmzfgg~z ilniuinwhccy k il rhiz,

>, Rh~ijirhl~z zfhg inghz il h chag akwr nizjwzzikl, Gljkwhag rh~ijirhl~z~k hnn ~k ~fgi qkmzfgg~z ~fkwafkw~ ~fg nizjwzzikl,

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Qkmzfgg~0 Ohzij Jkdrklgl~z ke GZN

Qfh~ hg ~fg dkz~ rgzzila gluikldgl~hc# zkjig~hc hln gjklkdij izzwgz ehjila ykwjkddwli~y;

Qfh~ ohzij mlkqcgnag iz lgjgzzhy ~k ciug zwz~hilhocy il ykw jkddwli~y;

Qfh~ zmiccz hg lgjgzzhy ~k ciug zwz~hilhocy il ykw jkddwli~y;

Qfh~ rgzrgj~iugz hg lgjgzzhy ~k ciug zwz~hilhocy il ykw jkddwli~y;

Qfh~ uhcwgz hg lgjgzzhy ~k ciug zwz~hilhocy il ykw jkddwli~y;

Izzwgz

Gluikldgl~ Zkjig~y Gjklkdy Jkdoilgn

Mlkqcgnag

Gluikldgl~ Zkjig~y Gjklkdy Jkdoilgn

Zmiccz

Gluikldgl~ Zkjig~y Gjklkdy Jkdoilgn

Rgzrgj~iugz

Gluikldgl~ Zkjig~y Gjklkdy Jkdoilgn

Uhcwgz

Gluikldgl~ Zkjig~y Gjklkdy Jkdoilgn

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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^ghjfgz gkigl~ jwgl~ jwijwcwd wli~z ~k hnngzz zwz~hilh$oici~y,

Rk`gj~ Y

Rwrkzg0 k iljkrkh~g ~fg eiug jkdrklgl~z ke Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~&mlkqcgnag# izzwgz# zmiccz# rgzrgj~iugz# hln uhcwgz) il~k ~fg jwgl~ jwijwcwd,

Jkddgl~z0 Ek ew~fg gvrchlh~ikl ke ~fg eiug jkdrklgl~z ke GZN# rcghzg zgg Zgj~ikl III#

_gkigl~ila Gnwjh~ikl hln Zgj~ikl IU# Rkjgzz ek Ckjhcipila ~fg Ackohc Ili~ih~iug #

gczgqfgg il ~fiz ~kkcmi~,

Akwr zipg0 8 ~k :5 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 :2 dilw~gz ~k klg fkw rg jwijwcwd wli~,

Dh~gihcz0   Klg Rk`gj~ Y qkmzfgg~ ek rg jwijwcwd wli~ ek ghjf rh~ijirhl~,

Nigj~iklz0 Zgg qkmzfgg~,

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Mlkqcgnag

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Ckjhc IzzwgzHcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Zmiccz

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Rgzrgj~iugz

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uhcwgz

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Qkmzfgg~0 Rk`gj~ Y

Nigj~iklz0 Ingl~iey h wli~ ~fh~ ykw jwgl~cy ~ghjf, Qi~g ~fg lhdg ke ~fg wli~ il ~fg jijcg,Jh~gakipg qfh~ ykw jwgl~cy ~ghjf wzila ~fg jfh~ ogckq, Fkq jhl ykw hnn ~k ~fiz wli~ ~k

iljcwng ew~fg jklzingh~ikl ke zkjig~y# gjklkdy# hln gluikldgl~ wzila ~fg eiug jkdrklgl~z ke gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~;

Zkjig~y Gjklkdy

Gluikldgl~

Mlkqcgnag

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Ckjhc IzzwgzHcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Zmiccz

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Rgzrgj~iugz

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uhcwgz

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Mlkqcgnag

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Ckjhc Izzwgz

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Rgzrgj~iugz

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Uhcwgz

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Zmiccz

Hcghny il dy wli~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ I qkwcn cimg ~k hnn0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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ghjfgz wzg ~fgi rgzklhc hjhngdij hln nizjircilhy z~gla~fz~k ngugckr h akwr rchl,

Wli~y iz Z~gla~f

Rwrkzg0 ^k ngugckr hln zwrrk~ h dwc~inizjircilhy jwijwcwd ek Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhoici~y,

Jkddgl~z0 Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ zfkwcn ilukcug ~fg ekdhc# lklekdhc# hln

ilekdhc zgj~kz ke ~fg gnwjh~ikl jkddwli~y , Rh~ijirhl~z dhy ngjing ~fh~ hjkddwli~y akhc dhy og og~~g ~hwaf~ oy hlk~fg zgj~k,

Akwr zipg0 ? ~k 9 rh~ijirhl~z rg akwr,

^fg lwdog ke rh~ijirhl~z rg akwr# hln ~fg jkdrkzi~ikl ke ~fg akwr#ngrglnz wrkl ~fg zjfkkc’z ehjwc~y, Qfgg klg ilniuinwhc ~ghjfgz gugy zwo`gj~~k klg hag akwr# ~ghjfgz ekd zgughc ahngz zfkwcn jkdrkzg ~fg akwr,Qfgg zrgjihcipgn ~ghjfgz ~ghjf klg zwo`gj~# ~fg akwr zfkwcn ogdwc~inizjircilhy qi~f klg dgdog ghjf ekd dh~fgdh~ijz# chlawhag h~z# zkjihczjigljgz# gluikldgl~hc gnwjh~ikl# rfyzijhc gnwjh~ikl+fghc~f# h~z# hln zjigljg,

^idg Lggngn0 8 fkw k dkg# ngrglnila kl ~fg lwdog ke zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz ykw jkddwli~y

ingl~ieign, &Lk~g0 ek dkg ilekdh~ikl kl ~fg ngugckrdgl~ ke ~fgzg zwz~hilhoici~yakhcz# rcghzg wzg ~fg gvgjizgJgh~ila Jkddwli~y Zwz~hilhoici~y Akhcz0 Ngjinila Qfh~ iz Idrk~hl~ # ekwln gczgqfgg il ~fiz ^kkcmi~ ,

Dh~gihcz0   Wli~y iz Z~gla~f qkmzfgg~z,

  H ciz~ ke ykw jkddwli~y’z zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz# klg jkry rg rh~ijirhl~,  Rgljicz,  H jfhcmokhn hln jfhcm,

  H ekcng k oilng ek ghjf rh~ijirhl~,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Hzzial rh~ijirhl~z ~k dwc~inizjircilhy k ahng$cgugc akwrz,

?, Niz~iow~g rgljicz# ciz~z ke jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz# hln Wli~y iz 

Z~gla~f qkmzfgg~z,

:, Gvrchil ~fh~ gnwjh~ikl EK_ zwz~hilhoici~y nieegz ekd gnwjh~ikl HOKW^zwz~hilhoici~y, ^fg ekdg ~ghjfgz ~fg izzwgz# rgzrgj~iugz# uhcwgz#mlkqcgnag# hln zmiccz jficngl lggn ~k ciug zwz~hilhocg ciegz~ycgz, ^fg ch~~g ~gh~z ~fg ~krij ~fgkg~ijhccy,

>, Nhq ~fg nihahdz il Eiawgz 8 hln ? kl ~fg jfhcmokhn, Gvrchil ~fh~

~ghjfila izzwgz# rgzrgj~iugz# uhcwgz# mlkqcgnag# hln zmiccz lggngn ek zwz~hilhocg ciuila iz lk~ hz z~kla k hz hjfiguhocg ie ~hwaf~ oy klcy klgrgzkl hz qfgl i~ iz ~hwaf~ oy dhly, Wli~y iz z~gla~f, &Zgg Izzwg 5 $ 

Glahaila ^hni~iklhc Nizjircilgz il h ^hlznizjircilhy Ehdgqkm gczgqfggil ~fiz ^kkcmi~ ,)

7, Qi~g ~fg eiz~ jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhc il ~fg jgl~g ke ~fg Wli~y nihahdkl ~fg qkmzfgg~,

GZN ^kkcmi~

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1, Akwrz zfkwcn jfgjm ~fgi gzrklzgz ~k glzwg ~fh~ ahrz hln kugchrz hglk~ rgzgl~,

6, He~g jkdrcg~ila ~fg qkmzfgg~z ilniuinwhccy# rh~ijirhl~z zfhg ~fgi inghz

qi~f klg hlk~fg il ~fgi zdhcc hzzialgn akwrz, ^k cgln z~wj~wg ~k ~fgnizjwzziklz# ghjf jkdrklgl~ ke GZN &zmiccz# rgzrgj~iugz# uhcwgz#mlkqcgnag hln izzwgz) jhl og nizjwzzgn il ~wl,

9, Rh~ijirhl~z zfkwcn rchjg ~fg jkdrcg~gn –Wli~y iz Z~gla~f— qkmzfgg~ il ~fgi ekcngz k oilngz,

82, Ghjf rh~ijirhl~ zfkwcn ~hmg h lgq qkmzfgg~ hln grgh~ Z~grz > ~fkwaf 6ek ghjf jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhc,

5, Wzila ~fg qkmzfgg~# akwrz qicc ingl~iey qfijf zmiccz# rgzrgj~iugz# uhcwgz#mlkqcgnag# hln izzwgz &ekd uhikwz nizjircilgz) ~fgy jhl ~ghjf ~fh~ qicczwrrk~ ~fg zgcgj~gn jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhc,

Zjigljg

Chlawhag ZkjihcZjigljg

H~z

Dh~fRfyzijhc

Gnwjh~ikl

Gluikldgl~hcGnwjh~ikl

Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilh$oici~y

&h qghm z~wj~wg)

Eiawg 8, Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhoici~yhz hl Ilniuinwhc Nizjircilg

Eiawg ?, Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhoici~yhz h Dwc~inizjircilhy Zwo`gj~

Ci~gh~wg

RfyzijhcGnwjh~ikl

Zjigljg Dh~f

Ci~gh~wg

H~z

ZkjihcZjigljgChlawhag

Gluikldgl~hcGnwjh~ikl

Gnwjh~ikl ekZwz~hilhoici~y

&h z~kla z~wj~wg)

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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_gnwjg ~fg lwdog ke wli~z il ~fg jwgl~ jwijwcwd ~k dhmgkkd ek gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhoici~y,

Qggnila ~fg Jwijwcwd

Rwrkzg0 k guhcwh~g ghjf wli~ il ~fg jwgl~ jwijwcwd ek gcguhljg ~k nhicy cieg hlnjkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz,

Jkddgl~z0 ^fiz gvgjizg iz dkz~ ge egj~iug ie jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz fhug oggl ngeilgn,

Ie ykw jkddwli~y nkgz lk~ fhug zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz# kdi~ ~fg zfhngn rk~iklz ke ~fg qkmzfgg~, Gvgjizgz ehjici~h~ila ~fg ngugckrdgl~ ke jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~yakhcz iljcwng Gluiziklila h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg  hln Jgh~ila Jkddwli~y 

Zwz~hilhoici~y Akhcz0 Ngjinila Qfh~ iz Idrk~hl~ # ekwln gczgqfgg il ~fiz ^kkcmi~ ,

Akwr zipg0 : k dkg rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 ? ~k : fkwz# ngrglnila kl ~fg lwdog ke wli~z ~k og guigqgn,

Dh~gihcz0   Jkrigz ke wli~ ngzjir~iklz# iljcwnila h ciz~ ke jkljgr~z ekwln il ~fg jwijwcwd#

klg rg rh~ijirhl~  Jkrigz ke ykw jkddwli~y’z ciz~ ke zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz# klg rg rh~ijirhl~,  Jkrigz ke ~fg Jwijwcwd Guhcwh~ikl qkmzfgg~,

Rgrhh~ikl0 Il ~fg zrhjgz rkuingn kl ~fg Jwijwcwd Guhcwh~ikl qkmzfgg~# qi~g ~fg wli~

~i~cgz, Wzg hz dhly zfgg~z hz lgjgzzhy , Dhmg rfk~kjkrigz ~k niz~iow~g ~k

rh~ijirhl~z,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Niz~iow~g qkmzfgg~z# wli~ ngzjir~iklz# hln jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhc

ciz~z ~k ykw rh~ijirhl~z,

?, Hzm ykw rh~ijirhl~z ~k ghn ~fg eiz~ wli~ ngzjir~ikl hln ng~gdilg fkq ke~gl~fgy wzg zwjf jkljgr~z il nhicy cieg, Hzm rh~ijirhl~z ~k hzzial h uhcwg ~k ~fgwli~# ekcckqila ~fg nigj~iklz aiugl kl ~fg qkmzfgg~, Gvrchil ~fh~ ie h

rh~ijirhl~ wzgz v# fg+zfg dwz~ gvrchil ~fiz jfkijg il ~fg hgh rkuingn,

:, Hzm rh~ijirhl~z ~k guhcwh~g qfg~fg k lk~ ~fg wli~ gilekjgz klg k dkgjkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz,

>, _grgh~ Z~grz ? hln : ek ghjf wli~ wlng jklzingh~ikl,

7, Jkccgj~ ~fg qkmzfgg~z hln aiug ykw rh~ijirhl~z h :2$dilw~g oghm qficg

ykw ~howch~g ~fg nh~h,

5, Jhcjwch~g ~fg hughag zjkg ek ghjf wli~, Ie h wli~ gjgiugn hly vz# ~hccy ~fg

lwdog ke vz hln zwo~hj~ ~fiz lwdog ekd ykw ~k~hc lwdog ke 

rh~ijirhl~z, Wzg ~fiz lgq lwdog ~k jhcjwch~g ~fg hughag, Og zwg ~k lk~g

~fg lwdog ke vz lgv~ ~k ~fg zjkg, &Gvhdrcgz ke hughag zjkgz iljcwng

8,17vvvv hln :v,)

GZN ^kkcmi~

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1, Qficg ykw rh~ijirhl~z hg kl oghm# ciz~ ~fg wli~z kl ~fg jfhcmokhn il

ngzjglnila kng oy hughag zjkg gjgiugn# hlmila zjkgz qi~f v fiafg 

~fhl zjkgz qi~fkw~ &g,a,# :v iz hlmgn fiafg ~fhl :# qfijf iz hlmgn fiafg 

~fhl ?v,)

6, Ilui~g ykw rh~ijirhl~z ~k g~wl= gniz~iow~g ~fg qkmzfgg~z,

9, Gvhdilg ~fg hlmilaz ciz~ kl ~fg jfhcmokhn, Hz h akwr# ng~gdilg ~fg~fgzfkcn hokug qfijf wli~z qicc og mgr~ hln ogckq qfijf wli~z qicc lk cklag og ~hwaf~,

82, Nizjwzz ghjf wli~ ehccila ogckq ~fg ~fgzfkcn hz i~ rg~hilz ~k ykw jkddwli~y’z zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz, Ie ~fg akwr ng~gdilgz ~fh~ h wli~gilekjgz ~fgzg akhcz# qg gjkddgln i~ og mgr~, Ie ~fg akwr ng~gdilgz~fh~ h wli~ nkgz lk~ gilekjg ~fgzg akhcz# qg gjkddgln i~ og gzgugn ek ch~g nizjwzzikl ke qhyz i~ diaf~ og glfhljgn ~k gilekjg ~fg akhcz ke ykw jkddwli~y, Ie h wli~ iz ng~gdilgn ~k wl jkwl~g ~k ykw jkddwli~y’zzwz~hilhoici~y akhcz# qg gjkddgln i~ og nkrrgn ekd ~fg jwijwcwd,

Lk~g0 Qficg nizjwzzila wli~z ~fh~ hrrgh ~k og wzgn gawchcy oy klcy h egq

rh~ijirhl~z# ogh il diln ~fh~ ~fg jkljgr~z hln zmiccz ilukcugn dhy z~icc ogidrk~hl~ ~k ~ghjf ~k ~fg lgv~ aglgh~ikl# hz i~ jhllk~ og ekg~kcn qfijfz~wngl~z qicc lggn ~fkzg zmiccz hln jkljgr~z hz hnwc~z,

Jkljgr~z wzgn ilegxwgl~cy &g,a,# yghcy) dhy lk~ lggn ~k og ~hwaf~ hz h wli~,

Jklzing glahaila il h zrgjihc jchzzkkd hj~iui~y ~fh~ w~icipgz ~fg jkljgr~, ^fghj~iui~y zfkwcn rgzgl~ ~fg jkljgr~ il h ghciz~ij zg~~ila ~k fgcr z~wngl~z ~k ~ig ~fgjkljgr~ ~k ~fgi rhgl~z’ k jkddwli~igz’ hj~iui~igz,

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Qkmzfgg~0 Jwijwcwd Guhcwh~ikl

Rh~ijirhl~ Lhdg0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

_ghn k ciz~gl ~k ~fg ngzjir~ikl ke ghjf wli~ il ~fg jwijwcwd, Hzzial ghjf wli~ klg ke ~fgzjkgz ciz~gn ogckq, hmg ykw ~idg, Hlzqg ~fg xwgz~iklz hz ilz~wj~gn,

> 4 Lghcy gugy nhy: 4 Hrrkvidh~gcy kljg h qggm? 4 Hrrkvidh~gcy kljg h dkl~f

8 4 Hrrkvidh~gcy kljg h ygh 2 4 Lk~ wzgn# lk~ idrk~hl~

v 4 Lk~ wzgn# ow~ z~icc idrk~hl~

Wli~ ~i~cg0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ Il ykw rgzklhc cieg# fkq ke~gl nk ykw wzg ~fg jkljgr~z ~hwaf~ il ~fiz wli~; &^fiz iljcwngz zmiccz

hz qgcc hz mlkqcgnag ykw nhq ekd ~k wlngz~hln ykw qkcn,) Zjkg0 [[[[[ &Ie v# rcghzggvrchil ~fiz jfkijg ogckq,)

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Wli~ ~i~cg0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ Il ykw rgzklhc cieg# fkq ke~gl nk ykw wzg ~fg jkljgr~z ~hwaf~ il ~fiz wli~; &^fiz iljcwngz zmiccz

hz qgcc hz mlkqcgnag ykw nhq ekd ~k wlngz~hln ykw qkcn,) Zjkg0 [[[[[ &Ie v# rcghzggvrchil ~fiz jfkijg ogckq,)

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Wli~ ~i~cg0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ Il ykw rgzklhc cieg# fkq ke~gl nk ykw wzg ~fg jkljgr~z ~hwaf~ il ~fiz wli~; &^fiz iljcwngz zmiccz

hz qgcc hz mlkqcgnag ykw nhq ekd ~k wlngz~hln ykw qkcn,) Zjkg0 [[[[[ &Ie v# rcghzg

gvrchil ~fiz jfkijg ogckq,) [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Nkgz ~fiz wli~ gilekjg h zwz~hilhoici~y akhc ek ykw jkddwli~y; Ie zk# fkq hln ~k qfh~ gv~gl~;

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Nkgz ~fiz wli~ gilekjg h zwz~hilhoici~y akhc ek ykw jkddwli~y; Ie zk# fkq hln ~k qfh~ gv~gl~;

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Nkgz ~fiz wli~ gilekjg h zwz~hilhoici~y akhc ek ykw jkddwli~y; Ie zk# fkq hln ~k qfh~ gv~gl~;

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Rh~ijirhl~z ecy rhrg hirchlgz hln owicn kl klg hlk~fg’z inghz,

Dhmila Ykw Inghz Ecy(

Rwrkzg0 ^k z~idwch~g jgh~iui~y il ~fg ili~ihc z~grz ke jgh~ila zwz~hilhoici~y rk`gj~z,

Jkddgl~z0 ^fiz gvgjizg iz dghl~ ek ehjwc~y hln hndiliz~h~kz il h zjfkkc k niz~ij~,

Rh~ijirhl~z owicn kl ~fg inghz ke k~fgz, Wzg h chag kkd ek ~fiz hj~iui~y,

Akwr zipg0 8? ~k :5 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 :2 dilw~gz,

Dh~gihcz0   Ciz~ ke jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz# ie huhichocg,

  Rgekcngn rhrg hirchlgz &k fhug rh~ijirhl~z ekcn ~fgi kql rchlgz,)  H rgl ek ghjf rh~ijirhl~,

  Ciugcy dwzij,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Jklz~wj~ dhly rhrg hirchlgz il hnuhljg ke ~fg dgg~ila,

?, Niz~iow~g 8 rgl hln 8 hirchlg rg rh~ijirhl~,

:, Gvrchil ~fh~ ~fg ko`gj~ ke ~fg hj~iui~y iz ~k jkdg wr qi~f jgh~iug qhyz ke idrcgdgl~ila zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz, Hczk gvrchil ~fh~ akkn inghz dhy qgccowicn kl ~fg inghz ke k~fgz,

>, Ogail qi~f ~fg eiz~ akhc kl ~fg ciz~,

7, Hzm rh~ijirhl~z ~k qi~g nkql hl ingh kl ~fgi hirchlgz ek hj~whcipila ~fgeiz~ akhc, Ek gvhdrcg# ek ~fg akhc ~fh~ z~h~gz –~fg h~g ke wzg ke glgqhocggzkwjgz zfkwcn lk~ gvjggn ~fg h~g ke ~fgi gaglgh~ikl—# klg ingh qkwcnog ~k wzg ok~f zingz ke qi~ila rhrg= hlk~fg qkwcn og ~k rchl~ h zjfkkcekgz~,

5, Hllkwljg0 –Qg hg hokw~ ~k chwljf ~fgzg hirchlgz, Qfgl ykw jh~jf hrchlg# ghn qfh~ iz qi~~gl kl i~ hln hnn ~k i~, Nkl’~ z~ijm ~k ~fg dwlnhlg=ykw dhy qi~g zkdg~fila jgh~iug k wlwzwhc, ^fgl chwljf ~fg hirchlghahil(—

1, Jkwl~ ~k ~fgg hln chwljf ~fg hirchlgz( Hnn ~k ~fg egz~iui~y oy rchyila zkdgciugcy dwzij,

6, He~g zgughc chwljfilaz# ~wl kee ~fg dwzij hln gxwgz~ ghjf rh~ijirhl~g~igug hl hirchlg, Il ~wl# ghjf rh~ijirhl~ ghnz hckwn qfh~ iz qi~~gl klghjf hirchlg,

9, Jgh~g h ciz~ ke rk~gl~ihc rk`gj~z,

82, Niz~iow~g h lgq zg~ ke hirchlgz, _grgh~ ~fiz hj~iui~y ek ghjf jkddwli~yzwz~hilhoici~y akhc,

GZN ^kkcmi~

Hnhr~gn ekd –Ohil Rkahd *:?0 Kw~$ke$~fg$Ocwg Ciaf~lila Okc~ Jckwn Owz~g— il @wdr Z~h~ Ykw Ohil oy NkwaFhcc, Qhlg Okkmz0 Lgq Ykm, 8997, rr, :>?$:>7,

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ekcn

ekcnekcn

ekcn ekcn

ekcn hln grgh~kl k~fg zing

Ekcnila ykw rhrg hirchlg0

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Rh~ijirhl~z riki~ipg rk`gj~z ohzgn kl idrk~hljg hlnhuhichoici~y ke gzkwjgz, Aggl$jkckgn z~krciaf~z grgzgl~rk`gj~z ~fh~ hg –ghny ~k ak,—

Z~krciaf~

Rwrkzg0 k ng~gdilg ~fg kng ke idrcgdgl~h~ikl ke zwz~hilhoici~y rk`gj~z hjjknila ~k

rk`gj~ idrk~hljg hln gzkwjg huhichoici~y,

Jkddgl~z0 ^fiz gvgjizg dhy og jkdrcg~gn oy klg ilniuinwhc &i,g,# h ~ghjfg rgrhila

jwijwcwd) k oy h akwr ke rgkrcg &i,g,# h zjfkkc niz~ij~$cgugc jkddi~~gg), I~ izfgcrewc ~k fhug h ciz~ ke rkzziocg zwz~hilhoici~y rk`gj~z ogekg ogaillila ~fiz gvgjizg,Ie h ciz~ iz lk~ huhichocg# rh~ijirhl~z zfkwcn ohilz~kd rkzziocg hln jwgl~ rk`gj~zrik ~k ~fg z~h~ ke ~fiz gvgjizg, &Zgg zingoh ek gvhdrcgz ke zwz~hilhoici~y rk`gj~z,)Ek hl gvgjizg ~k jgh~g h ciz~ ke zwz~hilhoici~y rk`gj~z jfkkzg ~fg gvgjizgDhmila 

Ykw Inghz Ecy( ekwln gczgqfgg il ~fiz ^kkcmi~ ,

Akwr zipg0 ? ~k 9 rh~ijirhl~z rg akwr,

^idg Lggngn0 :2 dilw~gz,

Dh~gihcz0   Z~krciaf~ Idrk~hljg hln _gzkwjg Huhichoici~y qkmzfgg~z $ zgughc rg 

rh~ijirhl~,  Z~krciaf~ qkmzfgg~,  _gn# ygcckq# hln aggl jhyklz k jkckgn rgljicz,

  Ciz~ ke jwgl~ hln rkzziocg zwz~hilhoici~y rk`gj~z,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Kl ~fg Z~krciaf~ Idrk~hljg hln _gzkwjg Huhichoici~y 

qkmzfgg~# ciz~ zwz~hilhoici~y rk`gj~z, Ek ghjf rk`gj~#

jijcg klg lwdog ngzjioila ~fg rk`gj~’z idrk~hljg~kqhn hjjkdrcizfila jkddwli~y zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz#hln klg lwdog ngzjioila ~fg huhichoici~y ke gzkwjgz,Hnn idrk~hljg hln huhichoici~y zjkgz# hln gjkn i~ ek ghjf rk`gj~,

?, Hughag ~fg zjkgz ek ghjf rk`gj~,

:, Kl ~fg Z~krciaf~ qkmzfgg~# ciz~ rk`gj~z il ngzjglnilakng oy jkdoilgn zjkg, Jkck z~krciaf~z aggl ek rk`gj~z ykw jhl ogail lkq, Jkck z~krciaf~z ygcckq ek rk`gj~z ~fg akwr qhl~z ~k nk ch~g, Jkck z~krciaf~z gn

ek rk`gj~z ~fh~ hg lgi~fg idrk~hl~ lk fhuggzkwjgz huhichocg,

>, Ogail rchllila ek ~fg rk`gj~z qi~f aggl ciaf~z,Nizjwzz fkq ~k ngugckr gzkwjg ohzgz ek ygcckq$ciaf~rk`gj~z,

Gvhdrcgz ke Zwz~hilhoici~y Rk`gj~z

  Qhz~g hwni~ ek gl~ig zjfkkc,

  Jkdrkz~ ek jheg~gih qhz~g hln yhn qhz~g,

  Ci~~gcgzz cwljf rkahd,

  Glgay hwni~,

  Qh~g jklzguh~ikl rkahd,

  Zjfkkc ahngl k lh~whc hgh,

  _gwzg jgl~g ek h~ dh~gihcz,

  Rghjg ahngl k jklecij~ gzkcw~ikl zi~g,

  _gjyjcila rkahd,

  Rwjfhzg zheg zwoz~i~w~gz ek fhphnkwzjcghlila rknwj~z,

  Ilnkk hi xwhci~y hwni~,

  Oghmehz~ rkahd ek z~wngl~z il lggn,

  Zkjihc zguijgz zi~g h~ ~fg zjfkkc,

  Egg ngl~hc jfgjmwrz ek z~wngl~z,

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Qkmzfgg~0 Z~krciaf~ Idrk~hljghln _gzkwjg Huhichoici~y

Rk`gj~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Jkdoilgn Zjkg0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

IDRK_^HLJG

CKQ FIAF

HUHICHOICI^Y KE _GZKW_JGZ

CKQ FIAF

8 ? : > 7

8 ? : > 7

Rk`gj~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Jkdoilgn Zjkg0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

IDRK_^HLJG

CKQ FIAF

HUHICHOICI^Y KE _GZKW_JGZ

CKQ FIAF

8 ? : > 7

8 ? : > 7

Rk`gj~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Jkdoilgn Zjkg0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

IDRK_^HLJG

CKQ FIAF

HUHICHOICI^Y KE _GZKW_JGZ

CKQ FIAF

8 ? : > 7

8 ? : > 7

Rk`gj~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Jkdoilgn Zjkg0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

IDRK_^HLJG

CKQ FIAF

HUHICHOICI^Y KE _GZKW_JGZ

CKQ FIAF

8 ? : > 7

8 ? : > 7

Rk`gj~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Jkdoilgn Zjkg0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

IDRK_^HLJG

CKQ FIAF

HUHICHOICI^Y KE _GZKW_JGZ

CKQ FIAF

8 ? : > 7

8 ? : > 7

Rk`gj~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Jkdoilgn Zjkg0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

IDRK_^HLJG

CKQ FIAF

HUHICHOICI^Y KE _GZKW_JGZ

CKQ FIAF

8 ? : > 7

8 ? : > 7

Rk`gj~0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Jkdoilgn Zjkg0 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

IDRK_^HLJG

CKQ FIAF

HUHICHOICI^Y KE _GZKW_JGZ

CKQ FIAF

8 ? : > 7

8 ? : > 7

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Qkmzfgg~0 Z~krciaf~

Rk`gj~0 _gjkddglnh~ikl

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^KR

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  QHI^

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^H_^

^k~hc Zjkg[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Rk`gj~0 _gjkddglnh~ikl

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^KR

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  QHI^

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^H_^

^k~hc Zjkg[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Rk`gj~0 _gjkddglnh~ikl

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^KR

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  QHI^

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^H_^

^k~hc Zjkg[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Rk`gj~0 _gjkddglnh~ikl

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^KR

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  QHI^

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^H_^

^k~hc Zjkg[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Rk`gj~0 _gjkddglnh~ikl

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^KR

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  QHI^

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^H_^

^k~hc Zjkg[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Rk`gj~0 _gjkddglnh~ikl

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^KR

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  QHI^

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^H_^

^k~hc Zjkg[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Rk`gj~0 _gjkddglnh~ikl

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^KR

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  QHI^

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^H_^

^k~hc Zjkg[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

Rk`gj~0 _gjkddglnh~ikl

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^KR

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  QHI^

 [[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[  Z^H_^

^k~hc Zjkg[[[[[[[[[[[[ 

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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^ghjfgz ~hmg hl ili~ihc ckkm h~ ~ghjfila izzwgz,

Izzwgz$Ohzgn Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhoici~y

Rwrkzg0 ^k ingl~iey mlkqcgnag# zmiccz# uhcwgz# hln rgzrgj~iugz ~k zwrrk~ ~fg ~ghjfila ke 

gluikldgl~hc# zkjig~hc# hln gjklkdij izzwgz,

Jkddgl~z0 Zkdg zwz~hilhoici~y jwijwcwdz hg ekjwzgn kl izzwgz ~fh~ ehjg ~fg jkddwli~y #

gaikl# k ackog,

Akwr zipg0 ? ~k 87 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 8 ~k ? fkwz,

Dh~gihcz0   Izzwgz$Ohzgn Gnwjh~ikl qkmzfgg~,

  Rgljicz,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Ohilz~kd h ciz~ ke ~fg dkz~ rgzzila gluikldgl~hc# zkjig~hc# hln gjklkdij

izzwgz ~fh~ ehjg ykw jkddwli~y,

?, Niz~iow~g ~fg Izzwgz$Ohzgn Gnwjh~ikl qkmzfgg~,

:, Ghjf rh~ijirhl~ k rhi ke rh~ijirhl~z zgcgj~z klg ke ~fg izzwgz hlnjkdrcg~gz ~fg qkmzfgg~,

>, Il chag akwr nizjwzzikl# rh~ijirhl~z zfhg ~fgi gzrklzgz, Gljkwhagrh~ijirhl~z ~k ~hmg lk~gz kl k~fg rh~ijirhl~z’ gzrklzgz,

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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^fg ekdhc gnwjh~ikl jkddwli~y zkciji~z ilrw~ ekd ji~ipglz,

Jkddwli~y Ekwd

Rwrkzg0 ^k cghl qfh~ rhgl~z# owzilgzz rgkrcg# hln k~fg jkddwli~y dgdogz ~film iz

idrk~hl~ ~k iljcwng il ekdhc gnwjh~ikl,

Akwr zipg0 5 ~k :2 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 ? ~k : fkwz,

Dh~gihcz0   Ecir jfh~z hln dhmgz,

Nigj~iklz0 Fkcn h ekjwz akwr ~k hlzqg klg ke ~fg ekcckqila xwgz~iklz, ^k hlzqg ~fgzg

xwgz~iklz ykw dwz~ rgnij~ ~fg gluikldgl~hc# gjklkdij# hln zkjihc jklni~iklzke ~fg lgv~ ngjhng,

–Qfh~ nk ykw qhl~ ~fg z~wngl~z ke ~knhy ~k mlkq# nk# hln uhcwg qfgl ~fgyahnwh~g;—

–Fkq qkwcn ykw dkniey ~knhy’z zjfkkcz hln jwijwcwdz ~k rgrhg z~wngl~z ~k

fhug zwz~hilhocg ciugcifkknz hln cghn zwz~hilhocg ciugz il ~fg lgv~ 72 yghz;—

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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VIU, GVG_JIZGZ EK_ DHLHAILA JFHLAGoy Dhrihllg Jfyz~hcorinag 

Jfhlag ~glnz ~k dgg~ qi~f gziz~hljg, Rchllila# jgh~ila z~h~gaigz ~k ilukcug

ilniuinwhcz hln akwrz il ~fg jfhlag# hln wzila dhlhagdgl~ ~gjflixwgz ngzialgn

zrgjieijhccy ek ~hlzi~ikl jhl dhmg ~fg rkjgzz ke jfhlag cgzz rkocgdh~ij, ^fg ekcckqila

zgugl gvgjizgz hg ngzialgn ~k fgcr rgkrcg qfk ngzig ~k ili~ih~g jfhlag, ^fgzg

gvgjizgz gvhdilg zkdg gzzgl~ihc gcgdgl~z ke jfhlag hln fgcr ~k kahlipg inghz ek 

rk`gj~z il~k hj~ikl rchlz, Gvgjizgz ziv hln zgugl ngugckr dkg hnuhljgn zmiccz ek 

wlngz~hlnila hln hlhcypila ~fg uigqrkil~z# uhcwgz# hln rh~~glz ke jkddwlijh~ikl hln

ngoh~g wzgn il rwocij ekwdz,

^fg gvgjizgz ek dhlhaila jfhlag hg0

8, Gvhdilila Hzzwdr~iklz

Qkmzfgg~0 Gvhdilila Hzzwdr~iklz

?, Z~ggila Hkwln ~fg Ohigz

Qkmzfgg~0 Z~ggila Hkwln ~fg Ohigz

:, Ilugl~ky ke Zwrrk~ hln _gziz~hljg

Qkmzfgg~0 Ilugl~ky ke Zwrrk~ hln _gziz~hljg

>, Jkddi~dgl~ Jfh~ila

Zhdrcg Qkmzfgg~0 Jkddi~dgl~ Jfh~ila

Qkmzfgg~0 Jkddi~dgl~ Jfh~ila

Zkjig~y

Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~^kkcmi~

Gjklkdy

Gluikldgl~

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7, Jgh~ila hl Hj~ikl Rchl

Zhdrcg Qkmzfgg~0 Hj~ikl Rchl

Qkmzfgg~0 Hj~ikl Rchl

5, Ingl~ieyila Jkddwlijh~ikl Z~h~gaigz

Ngzjir~iklz ke Jkddwlijh~ikl Z~h~gaigz

Qkmzfgg~0 Jkddwlijh~ikl Z~h~gaigz+Qkmzfgg~0 _gjkalipila Uhcwgz il Hj~ikl

1, _gjkalipila Uhcwgz il Hj~ikl

Ngzjir~ikl ke Uhcwgz

Qkmzfgg~0 _gjkalipila Uhcwgz il Hj~ikl+Qkmzfgg~0 Jkddwlijh~ikl Z~h~gaigz

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Rh~ijirhl~z wzg h xwgz~ikllhig ~k gvhdilg ~fgi hzzwdr~iklzhokw~ ohigz ~k zwjjgzz,

Gvhdilila Hzzwdr~iklz

Rwrkzg0 ^k hzzgzz ~fg uhcini~y ke ngjizikldhmgz’ hzzwdr~iklz hokw~ ohigz ~k zwjjgzz

kl h rh~ijwch rk`gj~ nigj~gn ~kqhn h chag akhc,

Akwr zipg0 ? ~k 82 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 :2 dilw~gz ~k 8 fkw,

Dh~gihcz0   –Gvhdilila Hzzwdr~iklz— qkmzfgg~,

  Rgljicz,

  Kr~iklhc0 klg gv~h zfgg~ ke rhrg rg rgzkl,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Niz~iow~g –Gvhdilila Hzzwdr~iklz— qkmzfgg~,

?, Rh~ijirhl~z ngjing kl h zrgjieij rk`gj~ ~fgy hg qkmila ~kqhn# hln haggkl h zfk~ ngzjir~ikl ke ~fg rk`gj~ &g,a,# agglila ~fg zjfkkc owicnila hlnyhn= gkigl~ila ~fg rg$zguijg ~ghjfg gnwjh~ikl ~k hnngzz zwz~hilhoici~y),

:, Rh~ijirhl~z jkdrcg~g qkmzfgg~ ilniuinwhccy# qi~ila il hly jkljglz ~fgyfhug hokw~ rgkrcg k jijwdz~hljgz ~fh~ qkwcn rgugl~ ~fg hjjkdrcizfdgl~ke ~fiz rh~ijwch rk`gj~# &g,a,# ~fg nigj~k qkl’~ cimg i~# chjm ke ewlnila# chjm ke uizikl# lk~ h riki~y ke ~fg hndiliz~h~ikl), Jkdrcg~g jkcwdlz ? ~fkwaf > ~kgvrckg qfg~fg ~fgzg jkljglz hg hzzwdr~iklz k lk~,

>, Rh~ijirhl~z zfhg ~fgi inghz ekd Jkcwdlz ?# :# hln >, Gljkwhagrh~ijirhl~z ~k zfhg ilekdh~ikl ~fh~ ugieigz# iluhcinh~gz# k aiugz ilziaf~ il~k~fg hzzwdr~iklz hokw~ ghjf rgjgiugn ohig ~k hjjkdrcizfdgl~ ke ~fgrk`gj~,

7, Rh~ijirhl~z nizjwzz qfh~ z~grz lggn ~k og ~hmgl ~k hjjkdrcizf ~fg rk`gj~&jkcwdl 7), Ie ~fg z~grz ciz~gn il jkcwdl 7 zggd ilhngxwh~g# nizjwzzhc~glh~iug qhyz ~k hjjkdrcizf ~fg rk`gj~ hln ciz~ ~fgd il jkcwdl 5,

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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1, Hzm ghjf rh~ijirhl~ ~k zfhg fiz k fg inghz hokw~ ~fg zkwjgz ke ~fgzg~fgg ohigz ~k jfhlag, Qi~g nkql ghjf rgzkl’z inghz kl h chag zfgg~ ke rhrg ek hcc ~k zgg,

6, Wzila ~fgzg inghz# rh~ijirhl~z qkm ~kag~fg ~k eicc il ~fg zgj~ikl –Zkwjgz ke ohigz— kl ~fg cge~ zing ke ~fg qkmzfgg~, Rh~ijirhl~z nizjwzz ghjf ke ~fg~fgg ohigz il ~wl ~k ahil h nggrg wlngz~hlnila ke ghjf,

9, Qi~g gcguhl~ ng~hicz il ~fg zrhjgz wlng ghjf jkcwdl# hln ohilz~kdzkcw~iklz ek ghjf ohig &87 dilw~gz), Zgg zhdrcg qkmzfgg~,

82, Qi~g inghz ek zkcw~iklz il ~fg zrhjg chogcgn –Zkcw~iklz— kl ~fg qkmzfgg~,&Lwdogz hckla ~fg cge~ zing geg ~k Ohigz *8# ?# hln :),

Lk~g0 Ie ~fg ohigz ~k ykw rk`gj~ zggd ~kk lwdgkwz# ~y ~fg ekcckqila ogekg

ogaillila z~gr >0

88, Rh~ijirhl~z ohilz~kd ohigz hln qi~g nkql ghjf ohig kl h zgrhh~g:— v 7— jhn,

8?, Zrghn kw~ hcc jhnz kl h ~hocg, Rh~ijirhl~z ~fgl akwr ~kag~fg jhnz qi~fzidich ~fgdgz,

8:, Hzm ~fg rh~ijirhl~z ~k ingl~iey h jkddkl ~fgdg ek ghjf akwr ke jhnz&g,a,# ewlnila# fwdhl gzkwjgz# chjm ke hqhglgzz+wlngz~hlnila),

8>, Nizjwzz ~fg ~fgdgz,

87, Fhug rh~ijirhl~z gvhdilg ~fg ohigz wlng ghjf ~fgdg, Nizjwzz ~fgekcckqila xwgz~iklz0

  Jhl zkdg ohigz og jkdoilgn il~k klg ~fgdg;

  Jhl hly ohigz ghzicy og kugjkdg;

  Jhl zkdg ohigz og zhegcy ialkgn;

  Hg zkdg ohigz ohzgn kl hzzwdr~iklz h~fg ~fhl ehj~z; Wzg ~fggvgjizg Gvhdilila Hzzwdr~iklz il ~fiz ^kkcmi~ ~k hnngzz ~fiz xwgz~ikl,

85, Qi~g h mgyqkn k zfk~ rfhzg ~fh~ ngzjiogz ~fg jkddkl ~fgdg ek ghjfakwr ke jhnz,

81, _g~wl ~k z~gr >,

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Rh~ijirhl~z wzg h dh~iv ~k ahil hl kuguigq ke ~fg ilz~i~w~iklzhln dh`k akwrz ilukcugn il h rkrkzgn jfhlag# hln ~fg cgugcke zwrrk~ k gziz~hljg ~k ~fh~ rkrkzgn jfhlag,

Ilugl~ky ke Zwrrk~ hln _gziz~hljg

Rwrkzg0 ^k ng~gdilg zkwjgz hln cgugcz ke zwrrk~ ek k gziz~hljg ~k h rkrkzgn rk`gj~

k jfhlag oy ilz~i~w~iklz k akwrz,

Jkddgl~z0 Ek hl gvgjizg ~k ng~gdilg ~fg hdkwl~ ke zwrrk~ lggngn ekd zrgjieij

ilniuinwhcz ek h rkrkzgn rk`gj~ k jfhlag# wzg ~fg gvgjizg Jkddi~dgl~ Jfh~ila il ~fiz ^kkcmi~ ,

Akwr zipg0 ? ~k 82 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 82 ~k ?2 dilw~gz,

Dh~gihcz0   –Ilugl~ky ke Zwrrk~ hln _gziz~hljg— qkmzfgg~ &klg jkry ek ghjf),  Rglz k rgljicz,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Qi~g ~fg lhdg ke ~fg rkrkzgn rk`gj~ k jfhlag il rkahd# rkcijy# k 

rhj~ijg kl ~fg –Ilugl~ky ke Zwrrk~ hln _gziz~hljg— qkmzfgg~,

?, Hzm rh~ijirhl~z ~k h~g ~fg cgugc ke zwrrk~ k gziz~hljg ke ~fg ilz~i~w~iklzhln akwrz ciz~gn h~ ~fg ~kr ke ~fg jkcwdl il ~fg qkmzfgg~, _h~g ~fg zwrrk~k gziz~hljg hz fiaf# dgniwd# k ckq,

:, Hzm ghjf rh~ijirhl~ ~k gvrchil ~fg h~iklhcg ogfiln fiz k fg h~ilaz ke ~fgilz~i~w~iklz hln akwrz kl ~fg qkmzfgg~,

>, Hzm rh~ijirhl~z ~k nizjwzz ~fg kughcc rij~wg ke zwrrk~ k gziz~hljg ~k ~fgrkrkzgn rk`gj~ k jfhlag,

7, Nizjwzz k~fg zkwjgz ke zwrrk~ k gziz~hljg zrgjieij ~k ykw jkddwli~y,

GZN ^kkcmi~

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Rh~ijirhl~z wzg h jfh~ ~k ng~gdilg ~fg cgugc ke jkddi~dgl~lggngn ekd mgy rchygz il ~fg idrcgdgl~h~ikl ke h rk`gj~,

Jkddi~dgl~ Jfh~ila

Rwrkzg0 ^k jkdrhg jwgl~ cgugcz ke jkddi~dgl~ ~k dilidwd cgugcz ke jkddi~dgl~ lggngn

ekd mgy rchygz ek ge egj~iug idrcgdgl~h~ikl ke h rkrkzgn rkcijy # rkahd# k rhj~ijg,

Jkddgl~z0 ^k ng~gdilg hghz ke zwrrk~ hln gziz~hljg ~k ~fg rk`gj~# wzg ~fg gvgjizg

Ilugl~ky ke Zwrrk~ hln _gziz~hljg il ~fiz ^kkcmi~ ,

Akwr zipg0 ? ~k 82 rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 :2 dilw~gz ~k 8 fkw,

Dh~gihcz0   –Jkddi~dgl~ Jfh~— qkmzfgg~ &klg jkry ek ghjf),  Rglz k rgljicz,

Nigj~iklz0 8, Hzm rh~ijirhl~z ~k ingl~iey ~fg mgy ilniuinwhcz k akwrz qfkzg jkddi~dgl~ iz

gzzgl~ihc ~k ehjici~h~g ~fg geegj~iuglgzz ke ~fiz rk`gj~, _gxwgz~ rh~ijirhl~zqi~g ~fg lhdgz ke ghjf ilniuinwhc k akwr il ~fg cge~$fhln jkcwdl chogcgn–Mgy Rchygz— kl ~fgi –Jkddi~dgl~ Jfh~— qkmzfgg~z,

?, Hzm rh~ijirhl~z ~k guigq ~fg zidrcg h~ila zyz~gd ilnijh~ila cgugcz ke jkddi~dgl~ rkuingn kl ~fg jkcwdl fghnilaz kl ~fg qkmzfgg~,

:, Hzm rh~ijirhl~z ~k h~g ~fg dilidwd cgugc ke jkddi~dgl~ lggngn oy ghjf

mgy rchyg k akwr ek ~fg rk`gj~ ~k og idrcgdgl~gn, Rchjg hl K il ~fg okv~fh~ ilnijh~gz h dilidwd cgugc ke jkddi~dgl~ lggngn,

>, Hzm rh~ijirhl~z ~k z~wny ~fg ciz~ ke –Mgy Rchygz— ~k jklzing jwgl~ cgugcz ke jkddi~dgl~ ek ~fg rk`gj~, Wzila ~fgi ogz~ `wnadgl~# rh~ijirhl~z rchjg hlV il ~fg okv ~fh~ grgzgl~z ~fg rgzgl~ cgugc ke jkddi~dgl~ ek ghjf ke ~fgmgy rchygz, Zgg zhdrcg jfh~,

7, Nizjwzz z~h~gaigz &g,a,# rgzklhc jkl~hj~# cg~~gz# gjkddglngn ghnilaz) ~kh~~hil ~fg dilidwd cgugc ke jkddi~dgl~ ingl~ieign il ~fg gvgjizg,

GZN ^kkcmi~

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H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Rh~ijirhl~z wzg h jfgjmciz~ hln kw~cilg ~k zgcgj~ hln riki~ipghj~iklz lggngn ~k idrcgdgl~ h rk`gj~,

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  Jkddi~dgl~ Jfh~ila 

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  Qfh~ hg ~fg dhil ~hzmz lgjgzzhy ~k hjjkdrcizf ~fiz rk`gj~;  Hg zkdg ~hzmz jkdrcgv glkwaf ~k gxwig zwo$~hzmz; Ie zk# qfh~ hg ~fgy;  Qfk iz gzrklziocg ek ghjf ~hzm;  Fkq qicc qg dhlhag kughcc jkknilh~ikl hdkla ~hzmz hln zwo$~hzmz;  Qfh~ qicc qg wzg ek dicgz~klgz ek ghjf ~hzm hln ek ~fg kughcc zwjjgzz ke 

~fg rk`gj~;  Fkq qicc ~fg rk`gj~ jkknilh~k ~hjm rkagzz;

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  Nkgz ~fg ~ghd wlngz~hln ~fg z~grz lgjgzzhy ek ~fiz rk`gj~;  Nkgz ~fg ~ghd fhug ~fg zmiccz lggngn ek ~fiz rk`gj~;  Nkgz ~fg ~ghd fhug ~fg jkwhag ~k jhy kw~ ~fiz rk`gj~;  Nkgz ~fg ~ghd fhug ~fg ~idg lggngn ~k jhy kw~ ~fg hj~ikl rchl ek ~fiz

rk`gj~;  Nkgz ~fg ~ghd fhug hcc ~fg k~fg gzkwjgz lggngn ~k jhy ~fkwaf ~fiz

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>, Nkgz ~fiz hj~ikl rchl lggn ~k ak kw~ ek qing guigq; Ie –Lk#— ~fgl ogailidrcgdgl~h~ikl ke ~fg hj~ikl rchl, Ie –Ygz#— ~fgl nizjwzz hln jklzing ~fgekcckqila xwgz~iklz0

  Qfk iz ~fg hwnigljg ek hrrhizila ykw ili~ihc rchl;  Qfh~ dg~fknz qicc ykw wzg ~k jfgjm qi~f ~fg jklzi~wgljy hln z~hmgfkcngz

hokw~ ~fg rkagzz kl ~fiz rk`gj~;

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  Qfh~ rchlz nk ykw fhug ek guizila ~fg ili~ihc rchl ie eggnohjm ilnijh~gz hlggn ek jfhlag;

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Ilz~i~w~g ek Zwz~hilhocg Jkddwli~igz &IZJ)# il jkkrgh~ikl qi~f ~fg _gaiklhc Gluikldgl~hc Jgl~g ek Jgl~hc hln Ghz~gl Gwkrg &_GJ), Egowhy ?222, –Il~knwj~ikl0 Qfh~ iz h Ckjhc Gluikldgl~hc Hj~iklRkahd;— Il0 Awing ~k Idrcgdgl~ila Ckjhc Gluikldgl~hc Hj~ikl Rkahdz , CGHR ‚ CkjhcGluikldgl~hc Hj~ikl Rkahdz il Jgl~hc hln Ghz~gl Gwkrg, _grk~ eilhljgn oy ~fg Wli~gn Z~h~gzGluikldgl~hc Rk~gj~ikl Hagljy# il jkkrgh~ikl qi~f ~fg Wli~gn Z~h~gz Hagljy ek Il~glh~iklhcNgugckrdgl~,

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Qkmzfgg~0 Hj~ikl Rchl

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Rh~ijirhl~z cghl hokw~ jkddwlijh~ikl z~h~gaigz ~fh~ filnggeegj~iug akwr qkm,

Ingl~ieyila Jkddwlijh~ikl Z~h~gaigz

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Gvhdilila Hzzwdr~iklz # ekwln il ~fiz ^kkcmi~ ,

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Dh~gihcz0   Jkrigz ke –Ngzjir~ikl ke Jkddwlijh~ikl Z~h~gaigz— zfgg~,

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  Qgg ~fg z~h~gaigz wzgn ~fh~ ehjici~h~gn rkagzz kl ~fg izzwg &g,a, rw~~ilahzing dilk nieeggljgz ke krilikl il kng ~k ekz~g jkkrgh~ikl kl hlidrk~hl~ izzwg;

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Ngzjir~ikl ke Jkddwlijh~ikl Z~h~gaigz

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  Niz~hljila $ Zi~~ila ohjm hln qh~jfila ~qk akwr dgdogz glahag il hl hlay gvjfhlag ~fh~niug~z h~~gl~ikl ekd ~fg izzwgz wlng nizjwzzikl, Niz~hljila jhl nidilizf h zglzg ke zfhgn

gzrklzioici~y,

  –Akkn lgqz— cghngz $ Zkk~fila ekcckqgz oy zfie~ila ~fg ekjwz ekd ~kwaf izzwgz ~k cgzzjfhccglaila klgz, ^fgzg cghngz hukin dkoicipila rgkrcg ~k ~hjmcg nieeijwc~ izzwgz, ]^fiz iz nklgdkz~ ke~gl qfgl rgkrcg zwzrgj~ ~fh~ rkagzz kl jwjihc rkocgdz qicc gxwig ~kwafhn`wz~dgl~z kl ~fgi rh~,T

  Hrrcyila –xwijm eivgz— $ Zwoz~i~w~ila h zidrcg zkcw~ikl ~k hukin gvhdilila ~fg jkdrcgvi~igz ke hl izzwg, ]Klg ilnijh~ikl ke h xwijm eiv iz ~fh~ h zwnngl nkr kjjwz il ~fg cgugc ke z~gzzhzzkjih~gn qi~f hl izzwg,T

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Rh~ijirhl~z ahil ilziaf~ il~k ~fg ilecwgljg ke uhcwgz kljkddwli~y ngjizikldhmila,

_gjkalipila Uhcwgz il Hj~ikl

Rwrkzg0 k ingl~iey uhcwgz# wlngcyila kriliklz# k rkzi~iklz gvrgzzgn h~ h jkddwli~y

dgg~ila,

Akwr zipg0 8 k dkg rh~ijirhl~z $ ek h~~glnhljg h~ ~kql k jkddwli~y akwr dgg~ila,

Gv~glzikl gvgjizg0 ? ~k > rh~ijirhl~z,

^idg Lggngn0 Cgla~f ke ~kql k jkddwli~y akwr dgg~ila &~yrijhccy :2 dilw~gz ~k 8 fkw),

Dh~gihcz0   Jkrigz ke –Ngzjir~iklz ke Uhcwgz— zfgg~,

  Jkrigz ke –_gjkalipila Uhcwgz il Hj~ikl— qkmzfgg~,

  Rglz k rgljicz,  Gv~glzikl0 jkckgn rgljicz,

Nigj~iklz0 8, _ghn –Ngzjir~iklz ke Uhcwgz— zfgg~ ogekg h~~glnila h jkddwli~y dgg~ila,

?, Oila ~fg –_gjkalipila Uhcwgz il Hj~ikl— qkmzfgg~ ~k h jkddwli~y dgg~ila,

:, Ciz~gl ~k ghjf zrghmg jhgewccy, Hlhcypg ghjf zrghmg’z qknz ek dghlilahln z~h~gay, Ng~gdilg qfijf uhcwgz hg ogila gvrgzzgn gi~fg nigj~cy k ilnigj~cy, Jfgjm hcc okvgz kl ~fg qkmzfgg~ ~fh~ hrrcy,

Gv~glzikl0 >, Il zdhcc akwrz ke ? ~k ># nizjwzz ~fg wlngcyila uhcwgz kozgugn h~ ~fg

dgg~ila ykw h~~glngn,

7, Kl ykw qkmzfgg~ wzg klg jkck ~k nhq cilgz jkllgj~ila wlngcyila uhcwgz~fh~ jklecij~ qi~f klg hlk~fg, Il h nieeggl~ jkck# nhq cilgz og~qgglwlngcyila uhcwgz ~fh~ jhl jkgviz~ rghjgewccy,

5, Hlhcypg ~fg jkllgj~ila cilgz, Nkgz ~fiz hlhcyziz gughc krrk~wli~igz ek rkagzz;

Lk~g0 ^fg qkmzfgg~ ek ~fg gvgjizg _gjkalipila Uhcwgz il Hj~ikl iz jkdoilgn qi~f

~fg qkmzfgg~ ek ~fg gvgjizg Jkddwlijh~ikl Z~h~gaigz, ^fg gvgjizgz jhlog nklg zidwc~hlgkwzcy,

GZN ^kkcmi~

Zkwjgz ek ~fiz gvgjizg hln –Ngzjir~iklz ke Uhcwgz— zfgg~0

Fgieg~p# _klhcn H, 899>, Cghngzfir Qi~fkw~ Ghzy Hlzqgz , Ogcmlhr Rgzz ke Fhuhn Wliugzi~y Rgzz,Jhdoinag# Dhzzhjfwzg~~z,

_hdzgy# @kfl D,# Fhkcn _, Fwlagekn# hln ^wni C, Ukcm, 8969, H Zjigljg$^gjflkckay$Zkjig~y Jhzg Z~wny0 Dwlijirhc Zkcin Qhz~g, Z~irgz Rwocizfila Jkdrhly, Jfhdrhial# Iccilkiz,

Qkcn Fghc~f Kahliph~ikl, 3f~~r0++qqq,qfk,il~+d+~krijakwrz+qfk[kahliph~ikl+gl+ilngv,f~dc<

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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Ngzjir~iklz ke Uhcwgz

Rkci~ijhc $ ^fg z~wj~wg k heehiz ke akugldgl~# rkci~ijz# k ~fg z~h~g= hj~iui~igz k heehiz ke rkci~ijihlz k rkci~ijhc rh~igz= dg~fknz k ~hj~ijz wzgn il dhlhaila h rkci~ijhc okny zwjf hz ~fgz~h~g= fhuila h ngeili~g k kahlipgn rkcijy k z~wj~wg ke akugldgl~,

Nkdilhljg $ ^fg ngzig ~k fhug dkg rkqg ~fhl k~fgz,

Gjklkdij $ ^fg wzg hln gvjfhlag ke dklgy hln+k dh~gihcz= ~fg ngugckrdgl~# rknwj~ikl#hln dhlhagdgl~ ke dh~gihc qghc~f# hz ke h jkwl~y# fkwzgfkcn# k owzilgzz gl~grizg= ~fglgjgzzi~igz ke cieg,

Gjkckaijhc $ ^fg gch~iklzfirz og~qggl kahlizdz hln ~fgi gluikldgl~z,

_gciaikwz $ H zrgjieij wlieign zyz~gd ohzgn kl ehi~f k nkadh,

G~fijhc+Dkhc $ G~fijhc z~hlnhnz ke qfh~ iz iaf~ k `wz~ il ogfhuik# hizila ekd jklzjigljg k ~fg zglzg ke iaf~ hln qkla il gch~ikl ~k fwdhl hj~ikl kl rgzgl~ hln ew~wg gzrklzioici~igz,

Zjigl~ieij $ Mlkqcgnag ahilgn oy zyz~gdh~ij z~wny= ~fg kozguh~ikl# ingl~ieijh~ikl# ngzjir~ikl#gvrgidgl~hc ilugz~iah~ikl# hln ~fgkg~ijhc gvrchlh~ikl ke lh~whc rfglkdglh,

Jwc~whc $ Rg~hilila ~k ~fg jkl~ilwh~ikl k rgzguh~ikl ke fwdhl mlkqcgnag# ogcigez# uhcwgz#h~z# jwz~kdz# ogfhuik rh~~glz# ilz~i~w~iklz# hln hcc k~fg rknwj~z ke fwdhl qkm hln ~fkwaf~~yrijhc ke h rkrwch~ikl k jkddwli~y h~ h aiugl ~idg,

Gnwjh~iklhc $ Rg~hilila ~k ~fg hjjwdwch~ikl# wzg# hln jkddwlijh~ikl ke mlkqcgnag= ~fgrkuizikl ke ~hilila k mlkqcgnag# gzrgjihccy uih ekdhc zjfkkcila,

Hgz~fg~ij $ ^fg hrrgjih~ikl ke ekd# jkdrkzi~ikl# hln jkck ~fkwaf ~fg zglzgz,

Zkjihc $ Zfhgn fwdhl gdrh~fy# eggcilaz# hln z~h~wz,

_gjgh~iklhc $ Rg~hilila ~k cgizwg hj~iui~igz,

Gakjgl~ij $ H ekjwz kl ilniuinwhc zgce$zh~izehj~ikl hln ewceiccdgl~,

G~flkjgl~ij $ H ekjwz kl ~fg ewceiccdgl~ ke g~flij+jwc~whc akhcz,

Qgcc$ogila $ ^fg z~h~g ke ogila fhrry# fghc~fy# k rkzrgkwz,

Fghc~f $ H z~h~g ke jkdrcg~g rfyzijhc# dgl~hc# gdk~iklhc# hln zkjihc qgcc$ogila hln lk~ dggcy~fg hozgljg ke nizghzg k ileidi~y,

H rknwj~ ke ~fg Jgl~g ek Agkahrfy hln Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg# Mlkvuiccg# gllgzzgg,

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VU, _GEG_GLJGZ

Haygdhl# @wcihl, ?228, –Fwdhl Gxwhci~y hln Gluikldgl~hc Xwhci~y,— Hllwhc dgg~ila ke ~fg

Lk~f Hdgijhl Hzzkjih~ikl ek Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl, Ci~~cg _kjm Hmhlzhz,

Ogjmfhn# _ijfhn hln _wgogl ^, Fhiz, 8961, Kahliph~iklhc hlzi~iklz0 Dhlhaila 

Jkdrcgv Jfhlag# zgjkln gni~ikl, _ghnila# Dhzzhjfwzg~~z0 Hnnizkl$Qgzcgy Rwocizfila

Jkdrhly,

Ogigcg# ^fkdhz J,# hln @gy Jhyekn, ?22?, Ngdkjhjy il Rhj~ijg0 Rwocij Rh~ijirh~ikl il 

Gluikldgl~hc Ngjiziklz, Qhzfila~kl# NJ0 _gzkwjgz ek ~fg Ew~wg,

Oglhn# HM ?222, Gnwjh~ikl ek Hcc ?222 Hzzgzzdgl~# ^fgdh~ij Z~wnigz0 Gnwjh~ikl ek Hcc 

hln Jficngl qfk hg Gvjcwngn , Qkcn Gnwjh~ikl Ekwd, Nhmh# Zglgahc, Hric ?222,

Glacizf# Dhy _,# hln @ghl F, Rgg~p# Dgcizzh @, Dhlngzjfign, 8999, Zdh~ Akq~f ek 

^gllgzzgg ^kqlz hln Jkwl~igz0 H Rkjgzz Awing , Qhz~g Dhlhagdgl~ _gzghjf %

Gnwjh~ikl Ilz~i~w~g, Glgay# Gluikldgl~ hln _gzkwjgz Jgl~g# Wliugzi~y ke gllgzzgg,

Eigl# @kfl# hln _wrg~ Dhjcghl, ?222, –^ghjfg Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhoici~y0 ^qk ^ghjfg 

Gnwjh~ikl Rk`gj~z ekd Hzih hln ~fg Rhjieij#— il Gnwjh~ikl ek h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg0 H

Rhhniad ke Fkdg ek ~fg ?8z~ Jgl~wy , Gnz, Mgi~f H, Qfggcg hln Hllg Rghjh Oi`w, Lgq

Ykm0 Mcwqg Hjhngdij + Rcglwd Rwocizfgz,

Fhcc# Nkwa, 8997, @wdr Z~h~ Ykw Ohil , Lgq Ykm0 Qhlg Okkmz,

Fgyl# Dijfhgc= Mh~ilh Cy~fakg= hln Jfhcgz Dygz# 8991, –Gnwjh~ikl hln Gjklkdij

Ngugckrdgl~0 Zwz~hilhoici~y# ^fgzfkcn# hln Gxwi~y,— Rkjggnilaz ke ~fg ^fin WLGZJK$ 

HJGIN Il~glh~iklhc Jkleggljg Gnwjh~iklhc Illkuh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ ,

WLGZJK0 Ohlamkm# ^fhichln,

Fkrmilz# J,= @, Nhdchdihl= hln A, Ckrgp Kzrilh, 8995, –Gukcuila ~kqhnz Gnwjh~ikl ek 

Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~0 Hl Il~glh~iklhc Rgzrgj~iug,— Lh~wg hln _gzkwjgz# Ukcwdg

:?# l :,

Fkrmilz# Jfhcgz# hln _kzhcyl DjMgkql, ?22?, –Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~0

Hl Il~glh~iklhc Rgzrgj~iug— il Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhoici~y0 _gzrklnila ~k 

~fg Ackohc Jfhccglag # Gnz, N, ^icowy# _O Z~guglzkl# @, Egil# hln N, Zjfgwng, Achln#

Zqi~pgchln hln Jhdoinag# WM0 IWJL Jkddizzikl kl Gnwjh~ikl hln Jkddwlijh~ikl,

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Fkrmilz# Jfhcgz hln _kzhcyl DjMgkql, 8999, /Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg

Ngugckrdgl~,/ Ekwd ek Hrrcign _gzghjf hln Rwocij Rkcijy , Ukc 8># l >= rr ?7 $ ?6,

Fwjmcg# @kfl, 8995, /^ghjfg Gnwjh~ikl,/ Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhoici~y , @kfl Fwjmcg hln

Z~grfgl Z~gcila &gnz,), Cklnkl0 Gh~fzjhl Rwocijh~iklz C~n,

Fyng# Mhil H,C, hln Zficgy Dizmg, ?222, Gnwjh~ikl ek Hcc ?222 Hzzgzzdgl~# ^fgdh~ij 

Z~wnigz0 Aicz! Gnwjh~ikl , Qkcn Gnwjh~ikl Ekwd, Nhmh# Zglgahc, Hric ?222,

Il~glh~iklhc Ci~ghjy Ilz~i~w~g, ?222, Gnwjh~ikl ek Hcc ?222 Hzzgzzdgl~# ^fgdh~ij 

Z~wnigz0 Ci~ghjy hln Hnwc~ Gnwjh~ikl, Qkcn Gnwjh~ikl Ekwd, Nhmh# Zglgahc, Hric

?222,

@ijmcila# _kog~, 899?, /Qfy I Nkl!~ Qhl~ dy Jficngl ~k og Gnwjh~gn ek Zwz~hilhocg

Ngugckrdgl~,/ @kwlhc ke Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl , Ukc ?># l >= rr 7 $ 6,

Mgh~ila# Dijfhgc# 899:, ^fg Gh~f Zwddi~’z Haglnh ek Jfhlag $ H Rchil Chlawhag 

Ugzikl ke Haglnh ?8 hln ~fg K~fg _ik Haggdgl~z , Aglguh0 Jgl~g ek Kw Jkddkl

Ew~wg,

Mila# Gciphog~f D hln D, Hllg Ficc, 899:, Qkdgl!z Gnwjh~ikl il Ngugckrila Jkwl~igz0 

Ohigz# Oglgei~z# hln Rkcijigz , Ohc~idkg0 @kfl Fkrmilz Wliugzi~y Rgzz# ek ~fg Qkcn

Ohlm,

DjJchgl# D, 8969, /Gluikldgl~hc Ci~ghjy, H Ji~ijhc Gcgdgl~ ke h Cioghc Gnwjh~iklek ~fg ?8z~ Jgl~wy,/ Gnwjh~ikl Dhli~koh # Ukc 81 l 8= @hlwhy $ Egowhy,

DjJchgl# Dic~kl, 899:, /Gnwjh~ikl# lk~ ingkckay,/ Aggl ^ghjfg Dhahpilg ,

Ukc :7= rr 81$86,

DjMglpig$Dkf# Nkwa# hln Qiccihd Zdi~f, 8999, Ekz~gila Zwz~hilhocg Ogfhuik0 Hl 

Il~knwj~ikl ~k Jkddwli~y$Ohzgn Zkjihc Dhmg~ila , Ahoikch Izchln# Oi~izf Jkcwdoih0 Lgq

Zkjig~y Rwocizfgz,

DjMgkql# _kzhcyl# hln _kag Nglnilag, Zwodi~~gn, /H Ehdgqkm ek ^ghjfila hln

Z~wnyila Gluikldgl~hc Izzwgz,/ @kwlhc ke Agkahrfy ,

Dghnkqz# Nklgcch# g~ hc, 891>, Cidi~z ~k Akq~f0 h _grk~ ek ~fg Jcwo ke _kdg!z Rk`gj~ 

kl ~fg Rgnijhdgl~ ke Dhlmiln , Lgq Ykm0 Wliugzg Okkmz,

Dghnkqz# Nklgcch, 8998 ^fg Ackohc Ji~ipgl , Qhzfila~kl# NJ0 Izchln Rgzz,

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Dghnkqz# Nkllgcch F,= Nglliz C Dghnkqz= hln @kagl _hlngz, 899?, Ogykln ~fg Cidi~z0 

Jklekl~ila Ackohc Jkcchrzg# Gluiziklila h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg , Cklnkl0 Gh~fzjhl,

Zilizjhcjk# Dhih ^ggzh ?222, Gnwjh~ikl ek Hcc ?222 Hzzgzzdgl~# ^fgdh~ij Z~wnigz0 

Hjfiguila Gnwjh~ikl ek Hcc= Ngdkahrfij Jfhccglagz , Qkcn Gnwjh~ikl Ekwd, Nhmh#

Zglgahc, Hric ?222,

Zdkjm# Hwngy Jfhrdhl, 8968, Qkdgl!z Gnwjh~ikl il Ngugckrila Jkwl~igz0 

Krrk~wli~igz hln Kw~jkdgz , Lgq Ykm0 Rhgag,

Wli~gn Lh~iklz Ngrh~dgl~ ke Rwocij Ilekdh~ikl# NRI+8:>>+_gu,8$91$28666$Egowhy

8991$7d# GH_^F ZWDDI^ HAGLNH ?8 ^fg Wli~gn Lh~iklz Rkahddg ke Hj~ikl Ekd 

_ik ,

WLGZJK, 8991, Gnwjh~ila ek h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg0 H ^hlznizjircilhy Uizikl ek 

Jkljg~gn Hj~ikl , GRN$91+Jkle,>28+JCN,8,

WLGZJK, 8999, Z~h~iz~ijhc Yghokkm , Rhiz hln Chlfhd# DN0 WLGZJK hln Oglhd

Rgzz,

WLGZJK, ?222, Qkdgl hz Gnwjh~kz# hln Qkdgl!z Gnwjh~ikl il G$9 Jkwl~igz , Rhiz0

WLGZJK,

WLGZJK, ?222o, Qkcn Gnwjh~ikl _grk~ ^fg _iaf~ ~k Gnwjh~ikl0 ~kqhnz Gnwjh~ikl ek 

Hcc ~fkwaf Cieg , Rhiz0 WLGZJK Rwocizfila,

WLGZJK, ?22? Gnwjh~ikl# Rwocij Hqhglgzz hln ^hilila ek Zwz~hilhoici~y0 Ilrw~ ~k ~fg 

_grk~ ke ~fg Zgjg~hy Aglghc ~k ~fg Zgjkln Rgrhh~ky Zgzzikl ek ~fg Qkcn Zwddi~ 

kl Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ , WLGZJK# Rhiz,

Qkcn Jkddizzikl kl Gluikldgl~ hln Ngugckrdgl~, 8961, Kw Jkddkl Ew~wg , Kvekn0

Kvekn Wliugzi~y Rgzz,

Il~grlg~ _gegrgljgz

Gh~f Jfh~g , Hjjgzzgn ?6 Dhy ?22?,

f~~r0++qqq,gh~fjfh~g,ka

Rhiz?8, ?222 H Og~~g Qkcn ek Hcc , hjjgzzgn ?5 Hric ?228,

f~~r0++qqq,rhiz?8,ka+og~~gqkcn+fkdg,f~d

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Zdh~ Akq~f ek ^gllgzzgg ^kqlz hln Jkwl~igz0 H Rkjgzz Awing , Hjjgzzgn :2 Dhy

?22?, f~~r0++ggj,h,w~m,gnw+zdh~,f~d

WLGZJK, ^ghjfila hln Cghlila ek h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg , Hjjgzzgn 82 @hlwhy ?22?,

f~~r0++qqq,wlgzjk,ka+gnwjh~ikl+~cze 

WZ Ngrh~dgl~ ke Glgay, Glgay Ilekdh~ikl Hndiliz~h~ikl, Hjjgzzgn :8 @hlwhy ?22?,

f~~r0++qqq,gih,nkg,aku+gdgw+il~glh~iklhc+jkl~gl~z,f~dc

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VUI, Qkcn Qing Qgo _gzkwjgz

Zghjfila ek ilekdh~iug Qgo zi~gz kl gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ jhl

ilukcug rckqila ~fkwaf kug :#222 zi~gz, Dhly ke ~fgzg Qgo zi~gz zidrcy dgl~ikl GZN hz

h geggljg# k jkl~hil klcy cidi~gn ilekdh~ikl kl GZN, He~g hl gv~glziug ow~ lk~

gvfhwz~iug zghjf &cidi~gn ~k ~fg Glacizf chlawhag Qgo)# qg ekwln ~fg ekcckqila zi~gz ~k og

dkz~ wzgewc,

^fg Qgo zi~gz hg jh~gakipgn hz ekcckqz0 aglghc ilekdh~ikl ek wlngz~hlnila

zwz~hilhoici~y jkljgr~z= gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~= fiz~kijhc Wli~gn Lh~iklz

nkjwdgl~z gcguhl~ ~k GZN= hln jkddwli~y hj~ikl, &Qg nk lk~ glnkzg hly qkmzfkrz#

okkmz# k rkahdz dgl~iklgn il ~fg Qgo zi~gz ciz~gn ogckq,)

Jkl~gl~z

I Ilekdh~ikl kl Zwz~hilhoici~y

8) ^fg Il~glh~iklhc Ilz~i~w~g ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ &IIZN)

f~~r0++iizn8,iizn,jh+zn+

?) Qkcn Ohlm $ Fkdg Rhag ek Gluikldgl~hccy hln Zkjihccy Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~

Lg~qkm &GZZN)

f~~r0++qqq$gzn,qkcnohlm,ka+

:) Kahliph~ikl ke Hdgijhl Z~h~gz &KHZ)

f~~r0++qqq,khz,ka+

>) Qkcn _gzkwjgz Ilz~i~w~g &Q_I)

f~~r0++qqq,qi,ka+7) @g~p~ wln Dkagl

f~~r0++qqq,zo`wd,ng+

5) Gluikldgl~hc Ngeglzg Ewln# Ilnijh~kz ke Rkagzz

f~~r0++qqq,rgrrz,ezw,gnw+GD[Il~glg~,f~dc

1) ^fg Lh~whc Z~gr

f~~r0++qqq,ng~lh~wciahz~gag~,zg+

II Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~

8) ^ghjfila hln Cghlila ek h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg &H WLGZJK zi~g)f~~r0++qqq,wlgzjk,ka+gnwjh~ikl+~cze+

?) Zgjkln Lh~wg

f~~r0++qqq,zgjklnlh~wg,ka

:) Cghlila ek h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg

f~~r0++qqq,zjfkkclg~,jh+ew~wg

>) Jhdrwz Gjkckay

f~~r0++qqq,lqe,ka+jhdrwzgjkckay+ilngv,jed

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7) Agglila ~fg Jhdrwz0 Zwz~hilhoici~y hln Fiafg Gnwjh~ikl

f~~r0++qqq,izchlnrgzz,ka+gjklkdijz+glgay+aggljhdr,f~dc

5) Wliugzi~y Cghngz ek h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg &WCZE)

f~~r0++qqq,wcze,ka+

1) Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ kl Jhdrwz0 ^kkcz ek Jhdrwz Ngjizikl Dhmgz

f~~r0++iizn8,iizn,jh+gnwjh~g+

6) Zwz~hilhoici~y Gnwjh~ikl

f~~r0++qqq,Wohlkr~iklz,Ka+zwz~hilgnfhlnokkm+^fgHrrkhjf,f~d

9) Aggl ghjfg 

f~~r0++qqq,aggl~ghjfg,jkd

82) Ackohc Cghlila# Ilj,

f~~r0++qqq,ackohccghlilal`,ka+

88) ^fg Zwz~hilhoici~y Gnwjh~ikl Jgl~g 

f~~r0++qqq,zwz~hilhoici~ygn,ka+

8?) Zkw~fqgz~gl Gjkci~ghjy Rk`gj~

f~~r0++qqq,gjkci~ghjyrk`gj~,ka+8:) Qkcn _gzkwjgz Ilz~i~w~g &Q_I) Gnwjh~ikl Jgl~g 

f~~r0++qqq,qi,ka+qi+glugn+

III Fiz~kijhc Wli~gn Lh~iklz Nkjwdgl~z

8) Haglnh ek Jfhlag0 H Rchil Chlawhag Ugzikl ke Haglnh ?8 hln K~fg _ik Haggdgl~z#

oy Dijfhgc Mgh~ila# 899: ]Il~glh~iklhc Ilz~i~w~g ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ &IIZN)T

f~~r0++qqq,iizn,ka+ik-7+haglnh+ngehwc~,f~d

?) Jfhr~g :5# Haglnh ?80 Rkdk~ila Gnwjh~ikl# Rwocij Hqhglgzz hln ^hilila

f~~r0++qqq,wl,ka+gzh+zwz~ngu+haglnh?8jfhr~g:5,f~d:) Il~glh~iklhc Gluikldgl~hc Rkcijy _geggljg Awing

f~~r0++gluikldgl~,fhuhn,gnw+gij+awingz,f~dc

IU Jkddwli~y Hj~ikl0 Zi~gz ek jgh~ila ckjhc zwz~hilhoici~y rchlz

8) ^fg Il~glh~iklhc Jkwljic ek Ckjhc Gluikldgl~hc Ili~ih~iugz &IJCGI)

f~~r0++qqq,ijcgi,ka+

?) ^fg Iphhm Qhc~kl Cghawg

f~~r0++qqq,iqch,ka

:) Ckjhc Haglnh ?8f~~r0++qqq,anj,ka+wgd+ch?8+ch?8,f~dc

>) Eklnhpiklg Gli Glijk Dh~~gi &EGGD)

f~~r0++qqq,eggd,i~+

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NGZJ_IR^IKLZ ke ~fg hokug zi~gz0

I Ilekdh~ikl kl Zwz~hilhoici~y

8) ^fg Il~glh~iklhc Ilz~i~w~g ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ &IIZN) fhz ngugckrgn hl

il~ghj~iug ~kkcmi~ ~k il~knwjg zkdg ke ~fg ohzij jkljgr~z ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ hln

qhyz ~fgzg jkljgr~z hg rw~ il~k rhj~ijg il ilz~i~w~iklz, ^fiz ^kkcmi~ qhz ngugckrgn

ridhicy ek ~fg fiafg gnwjh~ikl jkddwli~y# ow~ ~fg cghlila dknwcgz qicc og ke il~ggz~ ~k

dhly, ^fg zg~ ke cghlila dknwcgz iz hidgn h~ rkuinila h dkg jkdrcg~g wlngz~hlnila ke 

~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ hln i~z gcguhljg ~k rgzklhc ciugz hz qgcc hz

ilz~i~w~iklz, ^fgzg dknwcgz fgcr ingl~iey nigj~ hrrcijh~ikl ke ~fiz jkljgr~ ~k ~fg jkddwli~y

hln ~k `koz hln rkegzziklz, ^fg dknwcgz ~fgl zwaagz~ lgv~ z~grz# jkl~hj~z# hln

lg~qkmz ~k mggr wzgz ilukcugn hln ilekdgn il ~fgi geek~z ~k jgh~g h zwz~hilhocg zkjig~y,

^fg zi~g hczk egh~wgz h jfklkckay ke ~fg jkljgr~ ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, I~z

~idgcilg ~hjmz mgy gugl~z# ekd ~fg rwocijh~ikl ke _hjfgc Jhzkl’z Zicgl~ Zrila il 895? ~k

~fg Gh~f Zwddi~ il 899? hln ogykln, ^fg zi~g cilmz ~k h nh~h ohlm ke Zwz~hilhocgNgugckrdgl~ Riljircgz# qfijf iccwz~h~gz ~fg gukcw~ikl hln kqlgzfir ke ~fg jkljgr~z ke 

Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~,

^fiz zi~g rkuingz ~fg ngeili~ikl ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ rgrhgn oy ~fg Qkcn

Jkddizzikl kl Gluikldgl~ hln Ngugckrdgl~ &~fg Owln~chln Jkddizzikl)# ~hmgl ekd

~fg grk~ Kw Jkddkl Ew~wg &Kvekn Wliugzi~y Rgzz# 8961), H zgj~ikl kl ilnijh~kz hln

dghzwgdgl~ zfkqz fkq ~k ~hjm rkagzz ~k zwz~hilhoici~y,

f~~r0++iizn8,iizn,jh+zn+

?) Qkcn Ohlm $ Fkdg Rhag ek Gluikldgl~hccy hln Zkjihccy Zwz~hilhocgNgugckrdgl~ Lg~qkm &GZZN)

^fiz zi~g fhz ~fgg dhil zgj~iklz0

&h) Zkjihc Ngugckrdgl~ ekjwzgz kl ngugckrdgl~ ~fh~ iz gxwi~hocg# zkjihccy

iljcwziug# hln ~fggekg zwz~hilhocg, ^fiz zgj~ikl rkdk~gz ckjhc# lh~iklhc hln ackohc

ilz~i~w~iklz ~fh~ hg gzrklziug# hjjkwl~hocg# hln iljcwziug= i~ gdrkqgz rkk hln

uwclghocg rgkrcg ~k rh~ijirh~g geegj~iugcy il ngugckrdgl~ rkjgzzgz, ^fg Qgo rhag

egh~wgz cilmz ~k zwjf mgy ~krijz hz jklecij~ rgugl~ikl# ilniaglkwz rgkrcgz# rh~ijirh~ikl#

hln rkug~y, Cilmz hg hczk rkuingn ~k gzkwjgz# rk`gj~z hln rkcijigz# lgqz hln gugl~z#

gch~gn rh~lgzfirz# hln ilekdh~ikl kl zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ izzwgz il nieeggl~ qkcngaiklz,

&o) Gluikldgl~ ngzjiogz fkq ~fg Qkcn Ohlm iz ekjwzila kl eilnila qhyz ~k

glzwg ~fh~ gjklkdij akq~f nkgz lk~ jkdg h~ ~fg gvrglzg ke ~fg qkcn’z rfyzijhc hln

gjklkdij zyz~gdz# k ~fg qkcn’z rkk, ^fiz zgj~ikl egh~wgz cilmz ~k cghlila hln

mlkqcgnag gzkwjgz# rk`gj~z# rwocijh~iklz# nh~h# gch~gn rh~lgzfirz# ilekdh~ikl kl

qkcn gaiklz# hln zwjf mgy ~krijz hz oikniugzi~y# jcidh~g jfhlag# gluikldgl~hc

gjklkdijz# hln rkccw~ikl dhlhagdgl~,

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&j) _whc Ngugckrdgl~ hln Haijwc~wg cilmz ~k zwjf mgy izzwgz hz aglng hln

whc ngugckrdgl~# ilekdh~ikl hln jkddwlijh~ikl# qh~g gzkwjg dhlhagdgl~#

haijwc~wg# hln ~fg Q^K lgak~ih~iklz, Hczk iljcwngn hg egh~wgz kl mgy ~krijz &g,a,#

gnwjila rkug~y il uicchagz)# rkcijigz# grk~z# rk`gj~z# hln cilmz ~k ~fg ngugckrdgl~

jkddwli~y &jkleggljgz# nizjwzziklz# hln rh~lgzfirz),

f~~r0++qqq$gzn,qkcnohlm,ka+

:) Kahliph~ikl ke Hdgijhl Z~h~gz &KHZ) ]jcijm kl Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ il ~fg rwcc$

nkql –Zghjf— dglw h~ ~kr ke rhagT

^fg Wli~ ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ hln Gluikldgl~ &WZNG) gzrklnz ~k ~fg lggnz ke 

dgdog z~h~gz kl izzwgz gch~ila ~k zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ qi~fil hl gjklkdij

ngugckrdgl~ jkl~gv~, gjflijhc izzwgz hnngzzgn oy ~fg WZNG iljcwng dhlhagdgl~ ke 

qh~g gzkwjgz# oikniugzi~y# gnwj~ikl ke uwclghoici~y ~k lh~whc fhphnz# rwocij

rh~ijirh~ikl il ngjizikl dhmila# jcidh~g jfhlag+zgh$cgugc izg# jkhz~hc$pklg dhlhagdgl~#

hln glgqhocg glgay rchllila, Ghjf jh~gaky jkl~hilz cilmz ~k akwrz qkmila kl gch~gn

ili~ih~iugz,Hdkla ~fg uhikwz akhcz ke ~fg WZNG iz ~fg ehjici~h~ikl ke gvjfhlagz ke ilekdh~ikl

gch~gn ~k zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ il ~fg gaikl# ~k owicn h ohziz ek ~fg rh~ijirh~ikl ke jiuic

zkjig~y il gluikldgl~hc dhlhagdgl~ ngjizikl rkjgzzgz,

f~~r0++qqq,khz,ka+

>) Qkcn _gzkwjgz Ilz~i~w~g &Q_I) rkuingz ilekdh~ikl hln inghz hokw~ ackohc

gluikldgl~hc rkocgdz ek ~fg rwrkzg ke jh~hcypila rwocij hln riuh~g hj~ikl ~k dgg~

ackohc jfhccglagz, Q_I hidz ~k dkug fwdhl zkjig~y ~k ciug il qhyz ~fh~ rk~gj~ Gh~f’z

gluikldgl~ ek jwgl~ hln ew~wg aglgh~iklz# oy –~yila ~kag~fg ~fg ~fghnz ke lh~whcgzkwjg wzg hln jklzguh~ikl# gjklkdij ngugckrdgl~# hln zkjihc gxwi~y ~fkwaf gzghjf#

jhrhji~y owicnila# hln ilz~i~w~iklhc jfhlag,— ^fg Zrhlizf+Glacizf zi~g egh~wgz0

  Ackohc ~krijz=

  H –Lgqzkkd— qfijf keegz wzgewc gzkwjgz ek ~fg dgnih ]dgnih mi~z# g~j,T hln ~idgcy

ilekdh~ikl kl ackohc gluikldgl~hc izzwgz=

  H jhcglnh ke gugl~z ekjwzgn kl zwz~hilhoici~y=

  _guigq ke okkmz hln k~fg gzkwjgz hokw~ zwz~hilhoici~y=

  ^fg Gluikldgl~hc Ilekdh~ikl Rk~hc &Gh~f ^glnz)# qfijf rkuingz wr$~k$nh~g

ilekdh~ikl kl 82 mgy gluikldgl~hc izzwgz# iljcwnila Jkhz~hc hln Dhilg Gjkzyz~gdz=Qh~g _gzkwjgz hln Egzfqh~g Gjkzyz~gdz= Jcidh~g hln H~dkzrfgg= Rkrwch~ikl#

Fghc~f# hln Fwdhl Qgcc$ogila= Glgay hln _gzkwjgz= Oikniugzi~y hln Rk~gj~gn

Hghz= Haijwc~wg hln Ekkn= Ekgz~z hln Ahzzchlnz= Gluikldgl~hc Akuglhljg hln

Ilz~i~w~iklz,

f~~r0++qqq,qi,ka+

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7) @g~p~ wln Dkagl iz hl ilngrglngl~ gzghjf akwr ekjwzila kl ~fg ~hlzekdh~ikl ke 

zkjihc hln gjklkdij zyz~gdz h~ ~fg z~wj~whc cgugc, ^fgi Qgo zi~g rkuingz oige 

ngzjir~iklz hln ngeili~iklz ke dh`k jkljgr~z hzzkjih~gn qi~f zwz~hilhoici~y, ^fg @g~p~ wln

Dkagl akwr iz jkddi~~gn ~k ~fg jkljgr~z ke zwz~hilhoici~y hln il~gaglgh~iklhc gxwi~y hz

qgcc hz ~k fkciz~ij hrrkhjfgz, ^fgi z~wnigz hid ~k iccwz~h~g rkocgdz ke gjklkdij hz qgcc

hz gjkckaijhc ilngo~gnlgzz, ^fgy hczk qkm kl ngugckrila qhyz ~k rgzgug lh~whc hln

gjklkdijhc gzkwjgz ek ew~wg aglgh~iklz, Gjkckaijhc# gjklkdijhc# hln zkjihc hzrgj~z

hg jklziz~gl~cy okwaf~ ~kag~fg qi~f ~fiz hrrkhjf,

] k ghjf ~fg Glacizf ugzikl# jcijm kl –Fkdgrhag il Glacizf,— k ghjf ohzij

zwz~hilhoici~y riljircgz# jcijm kl –Z~wnigz,— ^fgl jcijm kl –Riljircgz ek Zwz~hilhocg Rkcijy

hln Ogfhuik0 Gjkckaijhc# Gjklkdijhc# Zkjihc# Ackohc— ]ekd ~fg z~wny kl –Zwz~hilhocg

Rkcijy—T= jcijm kl –ak ~k riljircgz— ]h~ –Riljircgz ek Zwz~hilhoici~y0 Zwddhy—T ek ng~hicz ke 

–Riljircgz ek Zwz~hilhocg Rkcijy hln Zwz~hilhocg Ogfhuik,—

f~~r0++qqq,zo`wd,ng+

5) Gluikldgl~hc Ngeglzg Ewln# Ilnijh~kz ke Rkagzz &?222) iz h xwijm hln wzgewcawing ~k wlngz~hlnila ohzij jkljgr~z ke gluikldgl~hc zwz~hilhoici~y ilnijh~kz hln

ogljfdhmz hln qfy hln fkq ~fgy jhl og hrrcign, Iljcwngz h Jkddwli~y Hzzgzzdgl~

Qkmzfgg~,

f~~r0++qqq,rgrrz,ezw,gnw+GD[Il~glg~,f~dc

1) ^fg Lh~whc Z~gr iz hl il~glh~iklhc kahliph~ikl ~fh~ wzgz h zjigljg$ohzgn zyz~gdz

ehdgqkm ~k fgcr kahliph~iklz hln jkddwli~igz wlngz~hln hln dkug ~kqhn

zwz~hilhoici~y, ^fg Lh~whc Z~gr glahagz il ~hilila hln jklzwc~ila# gzghjf hln

ngugckrdgl~# hln jkddwli~y kw~ghjf, I~z rwrkzg iz ~k ngugckr hln zfhg h jkddklehdgqkm ke ghzicy wlngz~kkn zjigl~ieij riljircgz ~fh~ hj~ hz h jkdrhzz ~k awing zkjig~y

~k h wz~ hln zwz~hilhocg ew~wg, ^fg zi~g cilmz ~k lilg jkwl~igz, Hwz~hcih’z Lh~whc Z~gr

Qgo zi~g iz ilekdh~iug# qi~f cilmz ~k ~fg Hwz~hcihl ehdgqkm# iljcwnila –ohjm jhz~ila#— ~fg

ekw zyz~gd jklni~iklz# z~h~gay ek hj~ikl# hln ohzij zjigljg, ^fg W,Z, zi~g hczk keegz

ilekdh~ikl kl ~fg W,Z, ehdgqkm# iljcwnila ~fg –ewllgc— hln zyz~gdz jklni~iklz, ^fg W,Z,

zi~g’z –Z~h~gay ek hj~ikl— nizjwzzgz qhyz ~k idrcgdgl~ ~fg –zyz~gd jklni~iklz— il hl

kahliph~ikl’z gugynhy krgh~iklz,

f~~r0++qqq,ng~lh~wciahz~gag~,zg+

II Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~

8) ^ghjfila hln Cghlila ek h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg &H WLGZJK zi~g) iz h dwc~idgnih#

il~ghj~iug rkegzziklhc ngugckrdgl~ rkahd qi~f dh~gihcz# gvgjizgz# hln cilmz ~fh~ fgcr

gnwjh~kz nggrgl ~fgi wlngz~hlnila ke gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhoici~y hln i~z idrk~hljg il

hnngzzila ~fg gjklkdij# zkjihc# hln gluikldgl~hc izzwgz ke ~fg qkcn,

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^fiz zi~g rgzgl~z mgy gnwjh~iklhc izzwgz ~fh~ ekd ~fg h~iklhcg ek Gnwjh~ikl ek h

Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg &GZE)# iljcwnila0

  H ohzij wlngz~hlnila ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~=

  Fgcr il wlngz~hlnila ~fg hlag ke zkjihc# gjklkdij# hln gluikldgl~hc izzwgz ehjila

~fg qkcn ~knhy= ~fg il~ggch~iklzfirz hdkla ~fgzg nieeggl~ ~yrgz ke izzwgz= hln ~fg

qhyz ~fh~ gnwjh~ikl iz mgy ~k ~fg gdrkqgdgl~ ke rgkrcg qkmila ek h zwz~hilhocg

ew~wg=

  –Ew~wg z~wnigz#— qfijf gvrckg nieeggl~ inghz hln rgzrgj~iugz hokw~ ~fg ew~wg hln

iljcwng gvgjizgz ngzialgn ~k gvhdilg rgzklhc uigqz hz qgcc hz qi~ilaz oy ew~wiz~z#

jklzing rkohocy ugzwz rgeghocg ew~wg zjglhikz# hln iljkrkh~g ~fgzg inghz il~k

~fg jwijwcwd=

  Uhikwz z~h~gaigz ek ~fg gnwjh~ikl jkddwli~y ~k gkigl~ gnwjh~ikl ~kqhn ~fg okhng 

rkjgzz ke owicnila h zwz~hilhocg ew~wg,

^fg gvgjizgz fgcr ngugckr hl hrrgjih~ikl ke ~fg hlag ke GZE ko`gj~iugz gahnila

mlkqcgnag# uhcwgz# hln zmiccz# hz qgcc hz hl wlngz~hlnila ke ~fg okhn zjkrg ke hj~iklzlggngn ~k gkigl~ gnwjh~ikl, Mgy ~fgdgz iljcwng ~fg gukcuila lh~wg ke il~gngrglngljg#

ji~ipglzfir+z~gqhnzfir# iaf~z ke ew~wg aglgh~iklz# niugzi~y= xwhci~y ke cieg# wljg~hil~y=

hln zwz~hilhoici~y,

f~~r0++qqq,wlgzjk,ka+gnwjh~ikl+~cze+

?) Zgjkln Lh~wg keegz awinhljg hln hzziz~hljg ~k ilz~i~w~iklz ke fiafg gnwjh~ikl il ~fgi 

geek~z ~k dhmg zwz~hilhoici~y hl il~gahc rh~ ke ~fg ilz~i~w~ikl hln gvrhln zwz~hilhoici~y il~k

rgzklhc hln jkddwli~y cieg, ^fg zi~g iz ngzialgn ek h hlag ke hwnigljgz hln iljcwngz

gzkwjg awingz ek ehjwc~y# hndiliz~h~ikl# hln z~wngl~z, ^fgzg gzkwjg awingz ekz~g hlwlngz~hlnila ke zwz~hilhoici~y izzwgz hln rkuing gvhdrcgz ke fkq k~fgz hg qkmila

~kag~fg hjkzz ~hni~iklhc okwlnhigz il ok~f jhdrwz hln jkddwli~y, Ghjf awing iljcwngz

kl$cilg nh~hohzgz ke oiocikahrfigz# jkl~hj~z# jhcglnhz ke qkmzfkrz hln k~fg gugl~z#

hln cilmz ~k ngzjir~iklz ke jhzg z~wnigz ke zwz~hilhoici~y geek~z h~ uhikwz fiafg gnwjh~ikl

ilz~i~w~iklz, ^fg zi~g’z _gzkwjg Jgl~g zgj~ikl# kiailhccy mlkql hz Z~heizf# rkuingz hl

gv~glziug nh~hohzg ke zycchoi ek jkwzgz ~fh~ hnngzz gluikldgl~hc ~fgdgz, ^fg Hccihljg

ek Zwz~hilhoici~y ^fkwaf Fiafg Gnwjh~ikl iz h dwc~i$ilz~i~w~ikl geek~ ~k ekz~g hqhglgzz

hln ili~ih~iugz gch~gn ~k gnwjh~ikl ek zwz~hilhoici~y,

  ^fg Ehjwc~y Awing fiafciaf~z ehjwc~y qfk hg glahagn il iljcwnila ~fg riljircgz ke 

zwz~hilhoici~y il ~fgi ~ghjfila# cghlila# gzghjf# hln rhj~ijgz, I~ hczk rkuingz

gzkwjgz gch~gn ~k jwijwcwd jfhlag hln ngzial# il~gnizjircilhy jkwzg zycchoi#

illkuh~iug jkwzg rk`gj~z# ehjwc~y ngugckrdgl~# hln jkcchokh~iug geek~z ek ilz~i~w~iklhc

jfhlag,

  ^fg Z~wngl~ Awing iz ngzialgn ek jkccgag hln wliugzi~y z~wngl~z qfk hg hj~iugcy

rkdk~ila Gnwjh~ikl ek Zwz~hilhoici~y, I~ rkuingz cilmz ~k gzkwjgz ~fh~ jhl okcz~g 

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geek~z ~k ili~ih~g k jkl~ilwg geegj~iug hln jkcchokh~iug jfhlag ek zwz~hilhoici~y kl

jhdrwz# il ~fg jwijwcwd# il gzghjf# hln il zwkwlnila jkddwli~igz,

  ^fg Hndiliz~h~k Awing rkuingz ~kkcz hln gzkwjgz ~k fgcr ilz~i~w~iklz gecgj~ kl

~fgi kcg il ~fg ew~wg ke ~fg rchlg~# cghl dkg hokw~ iljkrkh~ila zwz~hilhoici~y il~k ~fg

ilz~i~w~ikl’z haglnh# hln cilm ~k k~fg ilz~i~w~iklz hln hndiliz~h~kz qfk hg

idrcgdgl~ila zwz~hilhoici~y akhcz,

f~~r0++qqq,zgjklnlh~wg,ka

:) Cghlila ek h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg iz h lkl$rkei~ kahliph~ikl il Jhlhnh ~fh~ fgcrz

gnwjh~kz hln z~wngl~z il~gah~g jkljgr~z ke zwz~hilhoici~y il~k ~fg jwijwcwd, ^fiz dwc~i$

cilawhc zi~g iljcwngz0

  ^ghjfg Nkjwdgl~h~ikl Jgl~g# qfijf rkuingz nkpglz ke jchzzkkd hln kl$cilg

hj~iui~igz ek gnwjh~kz# iljcwnila h rgnhakaijhc awing ek hj~iui~igz# h jhcglnh ke gch~gn

qkmzfkrz# hln h gzkwjg ciz~ ke okkmz hln kahliph~iklz ekjwzgn kl zwjf

zwz~hilhoici~y izzwgz hz glgay geeijigljy# il~glh~iklhc wlngz~hlnila# il~glh~iklhc

ngugckrdgl~# hln zjigljg gnwjh~ikl=  Fwcgy Izchln# qfijf ~ghjfgz zwz~hilhoici~y jkljgr~z ~k ahng 8? z~wngl~z uih ~fg

Il~glg~# ek ~qk fkwz jgni~=

  ^kr ke ~fg Qkcn# qfijf cilmz ~k kahliph~iklz qkmila kl zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~

izzwgz il hj~ij jkwl~igz=

  Il~glh~iklhc Ykw~f Dhahpilg# qfijf fgcrz z~wngl~z wlngz~hln gjklkdij#

gluikldgl~hc# hln zkjihc izzwgz il ~fg qkcn= rkuingz cilmz ~k kahliph~iklz qkmila kl

~fgzg izzwgz= hln egh~wgz hl il~ghj~iug –ykw~f gvjfhlag— ek cghlila qi~f k~fgz

~fkwaf uhikwz kl$cilg hj~iui~igz,

f~~r0++qqq,zjfkkclg~,jh+ew~wg

>) Jhdrwz Gjkckay# h Lh~iklhc Qicncieg Egngh~ikl &LQE) rkahd# iz h jklzguh~ikl

ili~ih~iug il fiafg gnwjh~ikl ~fh~ hidz ~k ~hlzekd ~fg lh~ikl’z jkccgag jhdrwzgz il~k ciuila

dkngcz ke hl gjkckaijhccy zwz~hilhocg zkjig~y, ^fg Jhdrwz Gjkckay rkahd iz qkmila ~k

~hil h lgq aglgh~ikl ke gluikldgl~hc cghngz hln glzwg h z~kla ew~wg ek Hdgijh’z

gluikldgl~hc dkugdgl~,

^fg gzkwjgz ke ~fiz LQE rkahd iljcwng Jhdrwz Gjkckay egcckqzfirz# ~gjflijhc

hzziz~hljg# rwocijh~iklz# jkleggljg ilekdh~ikl# hln h –Jhdrwz Gjkckay Hj~ikl ^kkcmi~,—

f~~r0++qqq,lqe,ka+jhdrwzgjkckay+ilngv,jed

7) Agglila ~fg Jhdrwz0 Zwz~hilhoici~y hln Fiafg Gnwjh~ikl iz hlk~fg zi~g

zwrrk~ila ~fg lh~iklqing dkugdgl~ ~k iljkrkh~g gluikldgl~hc riljircgz il~k jwijwch

hln ehjici~y krgh~iklz, –Agglila ~fg Jhdrwz— ckkmz ogykln ~fg jgh~ikl ke lgq hjhngdij

ngrh~dgl~z hln rkahdz ek jhdrwz agglila ~k iljcwng ilekdh~ikl kl geek~z hidgn h~

glzwila ~fh~ gugy z~wngl~ $ gahncgzz ke dh`k $ ahnwh~gz qi~f h agh~g hqhglgzz ke 

gluikldgl~hc izzwgz hln ~fgi idrk~hljg, ^fgzg ili~ih~iugz ke~gl iljcwng –gluikldgl~hc

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hwni~z— ~fh~ gvhdilg ~fg wzg ke gzkwjgz hln ~fg gluikldgl~hc idrhj~z ke wliugzi~y

krgh~iklz il zkcin qhz~g# qh~g# glgay# hln ~hlzrk~h~ikl, Zidich ilugl~kigz hczk ilekd

jwijwcwd ngugckrdgl~# il qfijf akwrz ke ehjwc~y zyz~gdh~ijhccy guigq jkwzgz hln ~fgi 

jkl~gl~ ~k ingl~iey hghz il qfijf jkljgr~z ke zwz~hilhoici~y jhl og il~knwjgn,

f~~r0++qqq,izchlnrgzz,ka+gjklkdijz+glgay+aggljhdr,f~dc

^fg Agglila ~fg Jhdrwz zi~g hczk iljcwngz gvhdrcgz ke –jhdrwz agglila—

rkahdz0

  Okql Wliugzi~y0 ^fg Okql Iz Aggl rkahd jkdoilgz z~wngl~ gzghjf#

gnwjh~ikl# hln hndiliz~h~iug geek~z ~k gnwjg ~fg gluikldgl~hc idrhj~z ke zrgjieij

krgh~iklz# iljcwnila qh~g hln gcgj~ijhc jklzwdr~ikl# hln zkcin qhz~g dhlhagdgl~,

^fg zi~g’z Jhdrwz Gluikldgl~hc Z~gqhnzfir _gzkwjgz dhmgz jwgl~ ilekdh~ikl kl

Okql’z hln k~fg wliugzi~y jhdrwz gluikldgl~hc rkahdz eggcy huhichocg kug ~fg

Il~glg~ ~fkwaf cilmz ~k nizjwzzikl akwrz# ciz~zguz# hln k~fg gzkwjgz,

f~~r0++qqq,okql,gnw+Ngrh~dgl~z+Okql[Iz[Aggl+

  Jhcieklih Z~h~g Rkcy~gjflij Wliugzi~y# Rkdklh0 ^fg Jgl~g ek _gaglgh~iugZ~wnigz gdrckyz zkch glgay hln lh~whc zgqhag ~gh~dgl~ ~k zwrrk~ fkwzila#

jchzzkkd# hln gzghjf ehjici~igz ek 92 z~wngl~z# ehjwc~y# hln z~hee,

f~~r0++qqq,jzwrkdklh,gnw+|jz+

  Agkaih Ilz~i~w~g ke gjflkckay0 ^fg Ilz~i~w~g ek Zwz~hilhocg ^gjflkckay hln

Ngugckrdgl~ iz il~knwjila gjkckaijhc riljircgz il~k ~fg ngzial ke lgq owicnilaz hln

gviz~ila krgh~iklz# il hnni~ikl ~k guigqila gviz~ila jkwzgz hln jgh~ila lgq jwijwch

~fh~ hnngzz hln iljkrkh~g gluikldgl~hc ~fgdgz,

f~~r0++qqq,iz~n,ah~gjf,gnw+

  Zkw~f Jhkcilh’z ~fgg gzghjf wliugzi~igz0 Jcgdzkl Wliugzi~y# ~fg Wliugzi~y ke Zkw~f Jhkcilh# hln ~fg Dgnijhc Wliugzi~y ke Zkw~f Jhkcilh $ ~fg jkwl~y’z eiz~

z~h~gqing rh~lgzfir $ hg jgh~ila ~fg jkcchokh~iug Zwz~hilhocg Wliugzi~y Ili~ih~iug

~fh~ qicc hczk ilukcug grgzgl~h~iugz ekd z~h~g hagljigz hln k~fg rh~ijirhl~z,

f~~r0++qqq,zj,gnw+zwz~hilhocgw+

5) Wliugzi~y Cghngz ek h Zwz~hilhocg Ew~wg &WCZE) rkuingz ilekdh~ikl hln

gzkwjg geghcz# ehjici~h~gz jkddwlijh~ikl# keegz ~gjflijhc hzziz~hljg# hln jklnwj~z

~hilila qkmzfkrz ~fh~ zwrrk~ ilz~i~w~iklhc ili~ih~iugz ~k glaglng gluikldgl~hccy

gzrklziocg ngjizikl dhmila hln hj~ikl ~fkwaf gnwjh~ikl, WCZE qkmz il rh~lgzfir qi~fkug ?17 zialh~kigz ke ~fg ^hcckigz Ngjchh~ikl hln k~fg jkccgagz hln wliugzi~igz

rwzwila zwz~hilhoici~y, WCZE ekz~gz ilz~i~w~iklhc jhrhji~y ~k ngugckr gjkckaijhccy zkwln

rkcijigz hln rhj~ijgz hln z~iugz ~k dhmg zwz~hilhoici~y h dh`k ekjwz ke jwijwcwd#

gzghjf# krgh~iklz# hln kw~ghjf h~ fiafg gnwjh~ikl ilz~i~w~iklz qkcnqing,—

f~~r0++qqq,wcze,ka+

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1) Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ kl Jhdrwz0 ^kkcz ek Jhdrwz Ngjizikl Dhmgz iljcwngz

cghlila dknwcgz# jhzg z~wnigz# hj~ikl rchlz# gluikldgl~hc rkcijigz# gzkwjgz# ekwdz#

hln jkl~hj~z $ hcc ngzialgn ~k fgcr hndiliz~h~ikl# z~wngl~z# k ehjwc~y idrcgdgl~

zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ kl jhdrwz $ hln hczk iljcwngz cilmz ~k h –okkmzfgce— ke mgy grk~z

hln awingz jkugila wliugzi~y cghngzfir# aggl jhdrwz hndiliz~h~ikl# jwijwcwd izzwgz#

hln z~wngl~ hj~iklz,

f~~r0++iizn8,iizn,jh+gnwjh~g+

6) Zwz~hilhoici~y Gnwjh~ikl Fhlnokkm keegz ~fg –Dwc~i$z~hln Hrrkhjf#— qfijf aiugz

~ghjfgz h qhy ~k jwz~kdipg jwgl~ jwijwch ~k iljcwng zwz~hilhoici~y jkljgr~z, ^fiz

hrrkhjf ilukcugz jfhlaila klg’z ~ghjfila z~wj~wg ekd ~ghjfila nizjgg~ ilniuinwhc

~krijz ~k jfkkzila h ~fgdg hln ~ghjfila hcc zwo`gj~z ekd qi~fil ~fiz ~fgdg, –Dilila h ~krij

ekd hcc hlacgz— iz h z~hlnhn z~ycg ke ~ghjfila ek M$7 gljckzgn jchzzkkdz# ow~ jhl og

hnkr~gn ek hcc ahng cgugcz,

^k jwz~kdipg jwgl~ jwijwch# uizi~kz ~k ~fg zi~g jhl cilm ~k h ciz~ ke Zhdrcg

Hj~iui~igz k jklzwc~ ~fg Ji~gih Guhcwh~ikl ~k xwijmcy il~g`gj~ uhign jkljglz lk~ iljcwngnnigj~cy qi~fil ~fg jwijwcwd, ^fg Ji~gih Guhcwh~ikl rkuingz ohzij awingcilgz ~k fgcr

~ghjfgz guhcwh~g qfg~fg k lk~ ~fgi jwijwcwd gdohjgz zwz~hilhoici~y jkljgr~z, ^fiz

~kkc iz ngzialgn ~k zidrciey ~fg jkdrcgv rkjgzz ke iljkrkh~ila zwz~hilhoici~y jkl~gl~ il~k

~fg jwijwch oy oghmila nkql zwz~hilhoici~y il~k i~z gzzgl~ihc# ow~ lk~ ilzgrhhocg#

jkdrklgl~z,

f~~r0++qqq,wohlkr~iklz,ka+zwz~hilgnfhlnokkm+^fgHrrkhjf,f~d

9) Aggl ^ghjfg iz h dhahpilg oy hln ek gnwjh~kz ~k glfhljg gluikldgl~hc hln ackohc

gnwjh~ikl hjkzz ~fg jwijwcwd h~ hcc ahng cgugcz, Ghjf izzwg jkl~hilz0  Rgzrgj~iug h~ijcgz $ inghz ek g~filmila gnwjh~ikl il ciaf~ ke gluikldgl~hc hln ackohc

rkocgdz=

  Rhj~ijhc h~ijcgz $ grk~z ke qfh~ zwjjgzzewc ~ghjfgz# rhgl~z# hln zjfkkcz hg nkila=

  _ghny$~k$wzg hj~iui~igz $ jkzz$jwijwch hj~iui~igz ek uhikwz ahng cgugcz=

  _gzkwjg ciz~ilaz hln guigqz $ guhcwh~iklz ke nkpglz ke lgq okkmz# mi~z# ahdgz# hln

k~fg gzkwjgz=

  Zjfkkc lgqz# hllkwljgdgl~z ke hcc milnz

f~~r0++qqq,aggl~ghjfg,jkd

82) Ackohc Cghlila# Ilj, iz h lkl$rkei~ gnwjh~iklhc kahliph~ikl ~fh~ ~hlzch~gz ~fg qkcn’z

akqila il~gngrglngljg il~k gnwjh~iklhc hj~iui~igz ek ~ghjfgz# z~wngl~z# ciohihlz# hln

gnwjh~iklhc zyz~gdz# ekd gcgdgl~hy zjfkkc ~fkwaf jkccgag hln il jkddwli~y zg~~ilaz,

I~z Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ Rkahd iz hj~iugcy glahagn il ~qk dh`k rk`gj~z,

Ciohigz Owicn Zwz~hilhocg Jkddwli~igz iz h zgjkln lh~iklhc rh~lgzfir qi~f ~fg

Hdgijhl Ciohy Hzzkjih~ikl# qi~f zwrrk~ ekd ~fg WZ Hagljy ek Il~glh~iklhc

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Ngugckrdgl~, ^fg Lgq @gzgy Zwz~hilhocg Zjfkkcz Lg~qkm iz h akqila jklzk~iwd ke 

zjfkkcz hln h qing uhig~y ke kahliph~iklz jkddi~~gn ~k rkdk~ila gnwjh~ikl ek h

zwz~hilhocg ew~wg il hcc zjfkkcz il Lgq @gzgy,

Ackohc Cghlila’z hrrkhjf ~k dwc~ijwc~whc gnwjh~ikl iz ohzgn kl h jkddi~dgl~ ~k

iljghzila gxwi~y qi~fil ~fg rcwhciz~ij zkjig~y ke ~fg Wli~gn Z~h~gz hln kl h uizikl ke h

fghc~fy# iljcwziug fwdhl jkddwli~y, I~ z~gzzgz ~fg ngugckrdgl~ ke jkzz$jwc~whc h~~i~wngz

hln zmiccz ~fh~ fgcr z~wngl~z hln ~ghjfgz il~ghj~ rkzi~iugcy qi~f rgkrcg qfk dhy hrrgh 

nieeggl~ ekd ~fgdzgcugz, Ackohc Cghlila’z zguijgz ek zjfkkcz# jkccgagz# hln

rkegzziklhc hzzkjih~iklz iljcwng rkahd rgzgl~h~iklz# il$zguijg qkmzfkrz# jwijwcwd

ngugckrdgl~ jklzwc~h~iklz# jkleggljg rchllila# hln rkegzziklhc lg~qkmila, Ackohc

Cghlila hczk rkuingz heeidh~iug hj~ikl qkmzfkrz kl jkzz$jwc~whc hqhglgzz hln

jklecij~ gzkcw~ikl ek jkrkh~iklz,

Ackohc Cghlila fhz ngugckrgn zgughc ~ghjfg gzkwjgz &iljcwnila zhdrcg cgzzklz

hln dkg) ekjwzila kl ~fg il~ggch~gn jkljgr~z ke ~fg gluikldgl~# ngugckrdgl~# hlngxwi~y# iljcwnila0

  Zwz~hilila ~fg Ew~wg0 Hj~iui~igz ek Gluikldgl~hc Gnwjh~ikl il WZ Fiz~ky # ek fiaf

zjfkkcz=

  H Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~ Jwijwcwd Ehdgqkm ek Qkcn Fiz~ky % Jwc~wgz # ek 

fiaf zjfkkcz=

  Dhmila Ackohc Jkllgj~iklz il ~fg Dinncg Zjfkkc0 Cgzzklz kl ~fg Gluikldgl~#

Ngugckrdgl~ % Gxwi~y ,

^fgzg okkmz hg huhichocg ek h egg ow~ hg hrrkugn oy Lgq Ykm Ji~y Okhn ke Gnwjh~ikl

ek ~gv~okkm rwjfhzg hln fhug gjgiugn ehukhocg guigqz ekd Aggl ^ghjfg hlnghjfgz Jcghilafkwzg ek Zjigljg hln Zkjig~y Gnwjh~ikl Lgqzcg~~g ,

  Hczk keeggn0 ^fg Jklecij~ Dgnih~kz Rkahd# qfijf ~hilz ~ghjfgz hln z~wngl~z il

lkluikcgl~ jklecij~ gzkcw~ikl hln dgnih~ikl zmiccz, ^fiz rkahd fgcrz ~ghjfgz

iljkrkh~g ~fgzg jkljgr~z hln zmiccz qi~fil ~fgi gviz~ila jwijwcwd hln hczk fgcrz zg~

wr z~wngl~ rgg dgnih~ikl rkahdz il gcgdgl~hy# dinncg# hln fiaf zjfkkcz, ^fg

Jklecij~ Dgnih~kz Rkahd iz hl hrrkugn rkahd rkuing il ~fg Lgq @gzgy

Ngrh~dgl~ ke Gnwjh~ikl’z Jfhhj~g Gnwjh~ikl Rh~lgzfir Ili~ih~iug,

f~~r0++qqq,ackohccghlilal`,ka+

88) ^fg Zwz~hilhoici~y Gnwjh~ikl Jgl~g ke ~fg Hdgijhl Ekwd ek Ackohc Gnwjh~ikl

keegz gnwjh~iklhc dh~gihcz# rkegzziklhc ngugckrdgl~# hln jkddwli~y gnwjh~ikl ekjwzgn

kl zwz~hilhoici~y, ^fg Jgl~g owicnz kl ~fg Hdgijhl Ekwd’z ?6 yghz ke rkahd gvrg~izg

il ackohc hln gluikldgl~hc gnwjh~ikl# ~gjflijhc hzziz~hljg# hln jwijwcwd hln

rkegzziklhc ngugckrdgl~,

^fg Zwz~hilhoici~y Gnwjh~ikl Jgl~g gvrckgz ~fg gch~iklzfirz hdkla gjklkdij

zyz~gdz# gjkckaijhc zyz~gdz# hln `wz~ijg il jkl~gv~z hlaila ekd ckjhc jkddwli~igz ~k

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ackohc ilz~i~w~iklz, ^fg akhc ke ~fgzg gvrckh~iklz# hln zwz~hilhoici~y gnwjh~ikl il aglghc# iz

~k rkuing ykwla rgkrcg hln ji~ipglz qi~f ~fg mlkqcgnag# zmiccz# hln h~~i~wngz ~fh~ qicc

glhocg ~fgd ~k dgg~ ~fgi kql lggnz qi~fkw~ jkdrkdizila ~fg hoici~y ke ew~wg aglgh~iklz

~k dgg~ ~fgi kql, ^fg Jgl~g rick~z i~z rkahdz hln dh~gihcz il ~fg zjfkkcz ke i~z

fkdg~kql ke Lgq Ykm Ji~y ogekg ~hmila ~fgd kl ~fg khn lh~iklhccy hln il~glh~iklhccy,

^fg rkegzziklhc ngugckrdgl~ rkahdz hln gnwjh~iklhc dh~gihcz ngugckrgn oy ~fg

Jgl~g fgcr jkddwli~y akwrz# gnwjh~kz# hln ykwla rgkrcg wlngz~hln ~fg jkllgj~iklz

lgjgzzhy ek zwz~hilhoici~y hln rkuing ~fgd qi~f ~fg zmiccz ~k eiln il~gah~gn zkcw~iklz ~k

gluikldgl~hc jfhccglagz,

^fg Jgl~g’z kughcc akhc iz ~k iljghzg mlkqcgnag hln wlngz~hlnila ke ~fg jkljgr~

hln rkjgzz ke zwz~hilhoici~y hdkla rg$jkccgaih~g ~ghjfgz# ~fgi z~wngl~z# hndiliz~h~kz#

~ghjfg gnwjh~kz# hln jkddwli~y dgdogz, ^fg Jgl~g hidz ~k hjfigug ~fiz akhc oy

fgcrila ~k idrkug hln ehjici~h~g zjfkkc hln jkddwli~y gch~iklzfirz hln jkcchokh~iklz

wzila zwz~hilhoici~y hz ~fg il~gah~ila ekjg# qficg gljkwhaila ~fg zjfkkcz ~fgdzgcugz ~k

ogjkdg jkddwli~igz ke cghlgz, ^fg Jgl~g hczk zgugz hz hl gnwjh~iklhc gzkwjg ek 

~fg jkccgj~ikl hln nizzgdilh~ikl ke ilekdh~ikl hokw~ zwz~hilhoici~y dh~gihcz hz qgcc hzhokw~ kahliph~iklz# ilz~i~w~iklz# hln ilniuinwhcz ~fh~ hg hj~iug il zwz~hilhoici~y gnwjh~ikl

ili~ih~iugz,

f~~r0++qqq,zwz~hilhoici~ygn,ka+

8?) Zkw~fqgz~gl Gjkci~ghjy Rk`gj~ ~hmgz ~fg rkzi~ikl ~fh~ hnijhc jfhlag iz lggngn il

kw jwc~whc gch~iklzfir ~k ~fg lh~whc qkcn, ^fg Rk`gj~ zggmz ~k hnuhljg hl gjkci~gh~g

ji~ipgly jhrhocg ke rgjgiuila hln gzrklnila il~gcciagl~cy ~k ~fg jkdrcgvi~igz hln rk~gl~ihc

jizgz ilukcugn il ~fiz il~g$gch~iklzfir, ^fg Rk`gj~ ilui~gz jkcchokh~ikl qi~f il~ggz~gn

ilniuinwhcz hln k~fg kahliph~iklz ~kqhn ~fiz rwrkzg, ^fg Rk`gj~ keegz gnwjh~iklhcrkahdz ~k rkegzziklhcz# iljcwnila rkegzziklhc ngugckrdgl~ ek jkccgag ehjwc~y hln

~ghjfgz# hz qgcc hz rwocij qkmzfkrz hln ~hcmz,

f~~r0++qqq,gjkci~ghjyrk`gj~,ka+

8:) Qkcn _gzkwjgz Ilz~i~w~g &Q_I) Gnwjh~ikl Jgl~g iz hl wlwzwhc Qgo zi~g il ~fh~ i~

keegz rkahdz ngzialgn ek gluikldgl~hc z~gqhnzfir ek owzilgzz# qi~f cilmz ~k0

  –Owzilgzz$Gluikldgl~ Cghlila hln Cghngzfir Rkahd— $ h Q_I rkahd

keegila jwijwcwd gzkwjgz hidgn h~ eiccila il ~fg ahrz ~fh~ gviz~ il ~fg owzilgzz hln

gluikldgl~ ~ghjfila ci~gh~wg, ^k dhmg dhlhagdgl~ gnwjh~ikl –aggl#— rkegzzkzdwz~ hnngzz gluikldgl~hc izzwgz hjkzz ~fg gl~ig zrgj~wd ke ~fg jwijwcwd’z jkg

jkwzgz, Ew~fgdkg# z~wngl~z hln ehjwc~y dwz~ ekd rh~lgzfirz qi~f owzilgzz

cghngz hln zwkwlnila jkddwli~igz ~k zfhg mlkqcgnag hln ahil rhj~ijhc gvrgigljg

il jgh~iugcy hnngzzila gluikldgl~hc jfhccglagz,

  –Ogykln Ahy Rilz~irgz0 Rgrhila DOHz ek Zkjihc hln Gluikldgl~hc

Z~gqhnzfir— $ h `kil~ grk~ ke Q_I hln ~fg Ili~ih~iug ek Zkjihc Illkuh~ikl ~fkwaf

Owzilgzz &IZIO)# h rkahd ke ~fg Hzrgl Ilz~i~w~g, Hz h hrincy akqila lwdog ke 

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IU Jkddwli~y Hj~ikl0 Zi~gz ek jgh~ila ckjhc zwz~hilhoici~y rchlz

8) ^fg Il~glh~iklhc Jkwljic ek Ckjhc Gluikldgl~hc Ili~ih~iugz &IJCGI) iz ~fg

il~glh~iklhc gluikldgl~hc hagljy ek ckjhc akugldgl~z, IJCGI’z dizzikl iz ~k owicn hln

zgug h qkcnqing dkugdgl~ ke ckjhc akugldgl~z ~k hjfigug ~hlaiocg idrkugdgl~z il

ackohc gluikldgl~hc hln zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ jklni~iklz ~fkwaf jwdwch~iug ckjhc

hj~iklz, IJCGI ewlj~iklz hz h ngdkjh~ij# il~glh~iklhc hzzkjih~ikl ke ckjhc akugldgl~z

hln krgh~gz hz hl il~glh~iklhc gluikldgl~hc hagljy ek ckjhc akugldgl~z, ^fg fkdg

rhag egh~wgz cilmz ~k hl Ilekdh~ikl Jcghilafkwzg= gaiklhc Qgo zi~gz= ilekdh~ikl kl

jhdrhialz# rk`gj~z# jkleggljgz# hln gugl~z= hln h uhig~y ke lgqz hln nkjwdgl~z#

iljcwnila nkjwdgl~z gch~gn ~k Haglnh ?8,

f~~r0++qqq,ijcgi,ka+

?) ^fg Iphhm Qhc~kl Cghawg iz klg ke ~fg kcngz~ jklzguh~ikl kahliph~iklz il ~fg Wli~gnZ~h~gz hln fhz jfhr~gz ~fkwafkw~ ~fg lh~ikl, ^fg Cghawg fhz kug 72#222 dgdogz qfk

hg ngnijh~gn ~k rk~gj~ila ~fg lh~ikl’z zkic# hi# qkknz# qh~gz# hln qicncieg, ^fg Cghawg’z

dizzikl iz ~k rk~gj~ hln wzg Hdgijh’z ijf gzkwjgz il h zwz~hilhocg dhllg ~k glzwg h

fiaf xwhci~y ke cieg ek hcc rgkrcg# lkq hln il ~fg ew~wg, I~z z~gla~f cigz il i~z ahzzkk~z#

jkddkl zglzg hrrkhjf ~k zkcuila ckjhc# gaiklhc# hln lh~iklhc jklzguh~ikl izzwgz, ^fg

il~ggz~z ke i~z dgdogz zrhl ~fg zrgj~wd ke kw~nkk gjgh~ikl hln jklzguh~ikl

hj~iui~igz# ekd hlacila hln oinila ~k z~ghd dkli~kila# qicncieg rfk~kahrfy# hln fwl~ila,

^fg zi~g egh~wgz ilekdh~ikl kl cgaizch~iug hj~ikl kl jklzguh~ikl izzwgz &iljcwnila hj~ikl

hcg~z)# gluikldgl~hc lgqz hln ilekdh~ikl# hln gnwjh~ikl hln kw~ghjf rkahdz,f~~r0++qqq,iqch,ka+

:) Ckjhc Haglnh ?8 iz h ckjhc$akugldgl~$cgn# jkddwli~y$qing# hln rh~ijirh~ky geek~ ~k

gz~hocizf h jkdrgfglziug hj~ikl z~h~gay ek gluikldgl~hc rk~gj~ikl# gjklkdij

rkzrgi~y# hln jkddwli~y qgcc$ogila h~ ~fg ckjhc cgugc, ^fiz gxwigz ~fg il~gah~ikl ke 

rchllila hln hj~ikl hjkzz gjklkdij# zkjihc# hln gluikldgl~hc zrfggz, Mgy gcgdgl~z

iljcwng ewcc jkddwli~y rh~ijirh~ikl# hzzgzzdgl~ ke jwgl~ jklni~iklz# ~hag~ zg~~ila ek 

hjfiguila zrgjieij akhcz# dkli~kila# hln grk~ila, Ckjhc Haglnh ?8 &CH?8) iz ekjwzgn kl

idrcgdgl~ila ~fg mgy ko`gj~iug ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~ ke Haglnh ?8# qfijf dwz~ oghjfigugn ridhicy ~fkwaf ckjhc akugldgl~z hln ~fgi jklz~i~wgl~ jkddwli~igz,

H cilm ~k WGD_I _gzghjf rkuingz h zgj~ikl kl –Ckjhcipila Haglnh ?8#— qfijf

kw~cilgz h ekw$z~gr rkjgzz oy qfijf h CH?8 rchl jhl og ngugckrgn k idrkugn0

  Nh~h Jkccgj~ikl ah~fgz rg~ilgl~ ohzgcilg ilekdh~ikl# kl qfijf ew~wg hj~iklz hg

ohzgn hln guhcwh~gn, ^fiz ilekdh~ikl iz wzgn ~k ngugckr h jkdrgfglziug

gluikldgl~hc rkeicg,

  Rchllila hln Ngugckrdgl~ iz ~fg ekdh~iug z~hag qfgg ~fg ilekdh~ikl ah~fggn iz

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wzgn ~k ngugckr hl gluikldgl~hc uizikl# z~h~g ~fg akhcz hln ko`gj~iugz# hln rknwjg hl

gluikldgl~hc z~h~gay,

  Rchl Dhlhagdgl~ iljcwngz h qing hlag ke hj~iui~igz ~fh~ ilukcug uhikwz z~hmgfkcngz

hln ~fg jkddwli~y h~ chag,

  Dkli~kila hln Guhcwh~ikl ~hmgz h ji~ijhc uigq ke ~fg hj~iklz ogila ~hmgl# guhcwh~gz

~fgd hahilz~ h zg~ ke ilnijh~kz# hln dkli~kz ~fg idrcgdgl~h~ikl ke ~fg CH?8 Rchl,

Ghjf z~gr iz oigecy gvrchilgn# i~z akhcz hln kw~rw~z ilnijh~gn# hln hnni~iklhc kl$cilg

gzkwjgz iljcwngn ~k og~~g wlngz~hln ~fg izzwgz hln rkjgzzgz ilukcugn, ^fg ekw 

z~grz hg lk~ dw~whccy gvjcwziug# hln ~fgg hg kugchrrila hln jyjcijhc hj~iui~igz

ilukcugn,

^fg zi~g hczk jkl~hilz0

  Nkjwdgl~z hln Ilekdh~ikl _grkzi~kigz kl ~fg Ckjhc Haglnh ?8=

  kkcz hln z~h~gaigz ek rgrhila h CH?8 Rchl=

  Ngzjir~ikl ke CH?8 il ?2 ilniuinwhc ji~igz hkwln ~fg qkcn,

f~~r0++qqq,anj,ka+wgd+ch?8+ch?8,f~dc

>) Eklnhpiklg Gli Glijk Dh~~gi &EGGD) iz h lkl$rkei~# lkl$rh~izhl gzghjf ilz~i~w~ikl

gz~hocizfgn ~k jhy kw~ gzghjf il ~fg eigcn ke zwz~hilhocg ngugckrdgl~, Klg ke i~z

riljirhc hidz hz h cghnila il~glh~iklhc gzghjf jgl~g iz ~k rkdk~g il~ghj~ikl hdkla

hjhngdij# ilnwz~ihc# hln rwocij$rkcijy zrfggz ~k jkdrgfglziugcy hnngzz jkljglz hokw~

gjklkdij ngugckrdgl~ hln gluikldgl~hc ngahnh~ikl,

^fg Eklnhpiklg’z hj~iui~igz hg awingn oy ekw ewlnhdgl~hc akhcz0

  k hlhcypg gcguhl~ hln illkuh~iug gzghjf hghz=

  k ekjwz kl ghc qkcn izzwgz=

  k il~gah~g dwc~i$nizjircilhy hrrkhjfgz=  k jgh~g hln ekz~g il~glh~iklhc gzghjf lg~qkmz,

EGGD zwrrcigz ~gjflijhc zwrrk~ hln hnuijg ek ~fg rwocij hln riuh~g ngjizikl$

dhmila rkjgzzgz il ~fg gjklkdij hln gluikldgl~hc eigcn# h~ ~fg lh~iklhc hz qgcc hz

il~glh~iklhc cgugc, ^fiz iz nklg ~fkwaf ~fg Diliz~y ke Eilhljg= ~fg Diliz~y ke ~fg

Gluikldgl~= ~fg ^ghzwy= hln gvrg~ akwrz wlng ~fg wdogcchz ke ~fg GW# ~fg KGJN#

~fg Wli~gn Lh~iklz# ~fg WL Jkddizzikl ke Zwz~hilhocg Ngugckrdgl~# ~fg IRJJ# g~j,

EGGD zrklzkz ~fg –Gwkrghl Hqhglgzz Zjglhik Qkmzfkrz— &GHZQ)# qfijf iz

cilmgn ~k ~fgi Qgo rhag, ^fg GHZQ iz rh~ ke ~fg Gwkrghl Jkddizzikl’z Illkuh~ikl

Rkahd# qfijf qkmz il jkcchokh~ikl qi~f ~fg Gwkrghl Zwz~hilhocg Ji~igz hln ^kqlzJhdrhial kl ~qk dhil akhcz0

  Hzzgzzila ~fg ~hlzeghoici~y ke ogz~ rhj~ijgz og~qggl nieeggl~ jwc~whc hln rkci~ijhc

jkl~gv~z# iljcwnila ingl~ieijh~ikl ke jklni~iklz ek zwjjgzz=

  Ingl~ieijh~ikl hln ew~fg ngugckrdgl~ ke ilz~wdgl~z hln ~kkcz ~k zwrrk~ mlkq$fkq

~hlzeg rkjgzzgz,

EGGD’z dwc~i$cilawhc Qgo rhag hczk iljcwngz h cilm ~k ~fg Ackohc Lg~qkm ke

Gluikldgl~hc Gjklkdiz~z &ALGG)# h ui~whc lg~qkm qfkzg hid iz ~k hzziz~ gzghjfgz#

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rkcijydhmgz# hjhngdijz# hln gluikldgl~hciz~z ekd hcc jkwl~igz gvjfhlag uigqz hln

ilekdh~ikl ek ~fg rwrkzg ke zfhila hln iljghzila mlkqcgnag# rkdk~ila jk$krgh~ikl#

hln idrkuila xwhci~y hln geegj~iuglgzz ke gzghjf il gluikldgl~hc gjklkdijz,

^fkwaf ALGG# ilekdh~ikl iz keeggn kl jwgl~ gzghjf rkahdz= jkleggljgz#

qkmzfkrz# hln zgdilhz= gzghjf ewlnz= qgo zi~gz qi~f il~ggz~ila ilekdh~ikl kl

gluikldgl~hc gjklkdijz= hln cilmz ~k gzghjf jgl~gz hln rwocij ilz~i~w~iklz, Qkmila

rhrgz# geggljg ciz~z# hln nh~hohzgz jhl og nkqlckhngn ekd ~fg Qgo zi~g,

f~~r0++qqq,eggd,i~+