textbook ss ii - kerala · textbook ss ii - kerala ... 7

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Hscm‰ `qan 7 Hscm‰ `qan \mw A[n-h-kn-°p∂ Cu `qan a‰p {Kl-ß- fn¬ \n∂pw Gsd hyXy-kvX-am-sW∂p \mw a\- n-em°n. aq∂n¬ c≠p `mKw Pe-hpw sshhn-[y-am¿∂ `q{]-Ir-Xn-bp≈ h≥I-c-I-fpw `qansb Hcp kwc-£-W-I-hNw t]mse Bh- cWw sNbvXn-cn-°p∂ A¥-co-£hpw. Chbp- sS-sbms° Iptd-tbsd khn-ti-j-X-Ifpw \mw a\- n-em-°n. kuc-bq-Y-Ønse a‰p {Kl-߃- s°m∂pw Xs∂ CØcw khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ Cs√-∂Xp Xs∂-bmWv `qansb a‰p-≈-h-bn¬ \n∂p hyXy-kvX-am-°p-∂-Xv. `qan-bn¬ am{X-amWv ssPhafiew (Biosphere) ImWp-∂-Xv. 1875˛¬ FtUz¿Uv kyqbkv (Edward Suess) BWv BZy-ambn ssPh-a-fi- esØ \n¿Δ-Nn-®-Xv. hnhn-[-Xcw kky-P-¥p- Pm-e-߃ Dƒs∏-Sp∂ ssPh-k-aq-lhpw Ah- bpsS \ne-\n-ev]n\v Bh-iy-amb ssPh-˛- AssPh LS-I-ßfpw IqSn-t®¿∂-XmWv "ssPha-fiew'. ssPh-˛-A-ssPh LS-I-ß- fpsS ]mc-kv]-cy-amWv ssPh afi-esØ \ne- \n¿Øp∂X.v GI- tZiw 3500 Zi- e£w h¿j- ߃°papºmWv `qan-bn¬ ssPhafiew cq]-s∏-´-sX∂v IcpXp∂p. AssPh (Inorganic) Ah-ÿ-bn- ep≈ `qansb `ua-a-fiew (Geosphere) F∂mWv hnfn-°p-∂-Xv. inem-a-fiew (Lithosphere), Pe-a-fiew (Hydrosphere), hmbp- a-fiew (Atmosphere) F∂n-h-bmWv `ua-a-fi- e- Øns‚ LS- I- ߃. \nc- ¥- c- amb kqcy- mX-]- \- Øns‚ ^e- ambn `ua- a- - e- Øn¬ \nc- h[n cmk-`u-XnI {]h¿Ø-\-߃ \S-∂p-sh∂pw AXn-s\-Øp-S¿∂v kap-{Z-ß-fn¬ Pohs‚ BZy- cq]w {]Xy-£-s∏-´p-sh-∂p-amWv Icp-Xp-∂-Xv. tªm_v F∂-dn-b-s∏´ Cu PohhkvXp sP√n cq]-Øn-em-bn-cp-∂p. Np‰p-]mSpI-fn¬ \n∂pw Du¿÷w kzoI-cn-°m\pw hf-cm\pw {]Xyp-ev]m- Z\w \S-Øm\pw tªm_n\v tijn-bp-≠m-bn- cp∂p. Cu tªm_n¬ \n∂v ]cnW-an-®p-≠m- bhbm-Wv Poh-Pm-e-ß-sf√mw. Poh-\p-≈h A[n-h-kn-°p∂ Cu afi-e-amWv ssPh- afiew. ssPh-a-fiew˛khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ `qan-bpsS D]-cn-X-e-Øn¬ Hcp \n›nX Db-c- Øn-ep≈ A¥-co-£-Ønepw kap-{Z-Øn-epw Icbn-ep-amWv Pohs‚ km∂n≤yw ImWp-∂Xv. Pohs‚ Dev]-Øn-sb-∏‰n \n߃ ]Tn-®n-´p- ≠t√m? Pohn-Iƒ P\n-°p-Ibpw hf-cp-Ibpw {]Xyp¬∏m-Z\w \S-Øp-Ibpw acn®v atÆmSp tNcp-Ibpw sNøp∂ \nc-¥-c-{]-{Inb \S-°p- ∂Xv `qan-bnse Cu afi-e-Øn-em-Wv. kqcym-X-]\w `qan-bnse Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS \ne- \n-ev]n-\-Sn-ÿm-\-amb Du¿÷-t{km-X- m-Wv. F∂m¬ Cu kqcym-X]-\-Øns‚ Af-hn¬ hyXymkw h∂m¬ AXv ssPh-a-fi-e-Øns‚ LS-\-bn¬Øs∂ am‰-ß-fp-≠m-°pw. `qan-bnse Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-Iƒ tN¿∂- XmWv ssPh-a-fi-ew. CXnse Hmtcm Bhmk hyh-ÿbpw _tbmw (Biome) F∂ t]cn-emWv Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. 7

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Page 1: TEXTBOOK SS II - Kerala · TEXTBOOK SS II - Kerala ... 7

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Hscm‰ `qan

\mw A[n-h-kn-°p∂ Cu `qan a‰p Kl-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw Gsd hyXy-kvX-am-sW∂p \mwa\- n-em°n. aq∂n¬ c≠p `mKw Pe-hpwsshhn-[y-am¿∂ `q]-Ir-Xn-bp≈ h≥I-c-I-fpw`qansb Hcp kwc-£-W-I-hNw t]mse Bh-cWw sNbvXn-cn-°p∂ A¥-co-£hpw. Chbp-sS-sbms° Iptd-tbsd khn-ti-j-X-Ifpw \mwa\- n-em-°n. kuc-bq-Y-Ønse a‰p Kl-߃-s°m∂pw Xs∂ CØcw khn-ti-j-X-IƒCs√-∂Xp Xs∂-bmWv `qansb a‰p-≈-h-bn¬\n∂p hyXy-kvX-am-°p-∂-Xv.

`qan-bn¬ amX-amWv ssPhafiew (Biosphere)

ImWp-∂--Xv. 1875˛¬ FtUz¿Uv kyqbkv(Edward Suess) BWv BZy-ambn ssPh-a-fi-esØ \n¿∆-Nn-®-Xv. hnhn-[-Xcw kky-P-¥p-Pm-e-߃ Dƒs∏-Sp∂ ssPh-k-aq-lhpw Ah-bpsS \ne-\n-ev]n\v Bh-iy-amb ssPh-˛-AssPh LS-I-ßfpw IqSn -t®¿∂-XmWv"ssPha-fiew'. ssPh-˛-A-ssPh LS-I-ß-fpsS ]mc-kv]-cy-amWv ssPh afi-esØ \ne-\n¿Øp∂X.v

GI-tZiw 3500 Zi-e£w h¿j-߃°papºmWv`qan -bn¬ ssPhafiew cq]-s∏-´ -sX∂vIcpXp∂p. AssPh (Inorganic) Ah-ÿ-bn-ep≈ `qansb `ua-a -fiew (Geosphere)F∂mWv hnfn -°p -∂-Xv . inem -a -fiew(Lithosphere), Pe-a-fiew (Hydrosphere), hmbp-a-fiew (Atmosphere) F∂n-h-bmWv ua-a-fi-e-Øns‚ LS-I-߃. \nc-¥-c-amb kqcy-mX-]-

\-Øns‚ ^e-ambn `ua-a-fi-e-Øn¬ \nc-h[ncmk-`u-XnI ]h¿Ø-\-߃ \S-∂p-sh∂pwAXn-s\-Øp-S¿∂v kap-Z-ß-fn¬ Pohs‚ BZy-cq]w ]Xy-£-s∏-´p-sh-∂p-amWv Icp-Xp-∂-Xv.tªm_v F∂-dn-b-s∏´ Cu PohhkvXp sP√ncq]-Øn-em-bn-cp-∂p. Np‰p-]mSpI-fn¬ \n∂pwDu¿÷w kzoI-cn-°m\pw hf-cm\pw ]Xyp-ev]m-Z\w \S-Øm\pw tªm_n\v tijn-bp-≠m-bn-cp∂p. Cu tªm_n¬ \n∂v ]cnW-an-®p-≠m-bhbm-Wv Poh-Pm-e-ß-sf√mw. Poh-\p-≈hA[n-h-kn-°p∂ Cu afi-e-amWv ssPh-afiew.

ssPh-a-fiew˛khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ`qan-bpsS D]-cn-X-e-Øn¬ Hcp \n›nX Db-c-Øn-ep≈ A¥-co-£-Ønepw kap-Z-Øn-epwIcbn-ep-amWv Pohs‚ km∂n≤yw ImWp-∂Xv.Pohs‚ Dev]-Øn-sb-∏‰n \n߃ ]Tn-®n-´p-≠t√m? Pohn-Iƒ P\n-°p-Ibpw hf-cp-Ibpw]Xyp¬∏m-Z\w \S-Øp-Ibpw acn®v atÆmSptNcp-Ibpw sNøp∂ \nc-¥-c-]-Inb \S-°p-∂Xv `qan-bnse Cu afi-e-Øn-em-Wv.kqcym-X-]\w qan-bnse Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS \ne-\n-ev]n-\-Sn-ÿm-\-amb Du¿÷-tkm-X- m-Wv.F∂m¬ Cu kqcym-X]-\-Øns‚ Af-hn¬hyXymkw h∂m¬ AXv ssPh-a-fi-e-Øns‚LS-\-bn¬Øs∂ am‰-ß-fp-≠m-°pw. qan-bnsePoh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-Iƒ tN¿∂-XmWv ssPh-a-fi-ew.CXnse Hmtcm Bhmk hyh-ÿbpw _tbmw(Biome) F∂ t]cn-emWv Adn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.

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NnXw 7.1 ˛ _tbm-ap-Iƒ

Bbn-c-°-W-°n\v kv]ojnkv kky-P¥p Pme-߃ Dƒs°m-≈p∂ \nc-h[n _tbm-ap-IƒtN¿∂-XmWv "ssPha-fiew'.

_tbm-ap-Iƒ Hmtcm∂pw hyXy-kvX-X-c-Øn-ep≈ Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS Bhm-k-tI-µ-am-Wv.Hmtcm _tbm-an\pw khn-ti-j-amb Imem-h-ÿ-bpw hyXy-kvX-amb `q]-IrXn khn-ti-j-X-Ifpw D≠v. CXv B ]tZ-isØ Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS cq]-Øn-epw Pohn-X-co-Xn-bn-epw Poh-k-‘m-c-W-am¿§ß-fnepw hyXy-kvX-X-IƒD≠m-°p-∂p. AXp-sIm≠p Xs∂ Hmtcm_tbm-ap-Iƒ°pw X\-Xmb khn-ti-j-X-I-fpwkzX-¥-amb \ne-\n-ev]p-ap-≠v. F∂m¬ Ch-sb√mw Xs∂ ]c-kv]cw _‘-s∏- -h-bp-amWv.

`qan -bnse ][m\ _tbm-ap -Iƒ GsXms°sb∂pw Ah-bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp∂ D]-Kq-∏p-Iƒ GsX-√m-sa∂pw ]´n-I- (7.1) bn¬ \n∂pwIs≠-Øp. Ah-bpsS hnX-cWamWv NnXw7.1˛¬ \¬In-bn-´p-≈-Xv.

_tbm-ap-Iƒ D]-Kq-∏p-Iƒ

h\-߃ 1. DjvW-ta-J-em-h-\-߃(Forest) a. `qa-[y-tc-Jm-a-g-°m-Sp-Iƒ

b. Ce-s]m-gnbpw ImSp-Iƒ2. Dt]m-jvW-ta-Jem

h\-߃3. ssiXy-ta-Jem

kky-Pm-e-߃acp- q-an-Iƒ 1. DjvW- a-cp- q-an-Iƒ(Deserts) 2. A¿≤-˛-h-c≠

acp-]-tZ-i-߃3. Xoc-tZ-i- a-cp- q-an-Iƒ4. ssiXy acp- q-an-Iƒ

]p¬ta-Sp-Iƒ 1. DjvW-ta-Jem kmh∂(Grassland) 2. Dt]m-jvW-ta-Jem sÃ∏nPem-i-b-߃ 1. ip≤-P-em-i-b-߃(Aquatic) 2. kap-Z-߃D∂XXS-߃ Dbcw IqSnb ]¿∆-X-ß-(Altitudinal) fpsS Ncn-hp-Iƒ

ssPh-a-fi-e-Øns‚ \ne-\n¬∏n¬ `ua-a-fi-e-Ønse Hmtcm LS-I-Øn\pw F¥p ]m[m-\y-am-Wp-≈-sX∂v t\m°mw.

]´nI˛6.1

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7Pe-a-fiew`utam-]-cn-X-e-Ønse kap-Z-߃, XSm-I-߃,\Zn-Iƒ, lnam-\n-Iƒ F∂nßs\-bp≈ Pe-tkm-X- p-Iƒ Dƒs∏-Sp∂XmWv "Pe-a-fiew'.A¥-co-£-Øn¬ _mjv]m-h-ÿ-bnepw Pew\ne-\n¬°p-∂p-≠v.

`qan-bpsS C∂sØ coXn-bn-ep≈ A¥-co£w\ne-\n¬°p-∂-Xn¬ Pe-a-fi-e-Øn\v ][m\]¶p-≠v. kap-Z-ß-fmWv CXn¬ ][m-\w. `qancq]-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ AXn\v C∂sØ _p[s‚A¥-co-£-Øn\v kam-\-amb hfsc I\wIpd™ sslU-P≥˛loenbw kºp-jvS-ambA¥-co-£ta D≠mbn-cp-∂p-≈p. ]n∂oSv sslU-P≥, loenbw F∂o hmX-I-߃ A¥-co-£-Øn¬ \n∂pw ]pd-¥-≈-s∏´p. `qan XWp-Øp-d-bp∂ ka-bØv ]pd-s∏-Sp-hn® hmX-I-ßfpw \ocm-hn-bp-amWv C∂sØ cq]-Øn-ep≈ A¥-co-£-ap-≠m-Im≥ klm-b-I-am-b-Xv. A·n-]¿∆-X-ß-fn-eq-sSbpw hnhn-[-Xcw hmX-I-ßfpw \ocm-hnbpwA¥-co-£-Øn-te-s°-Øn. \nc-¥-c-ambn s]bvXag-bn¬ qan XWp-Ø-t∏mƒ Cu \ocm-hn XWp-Øp-d™v ag-bmbn s]bvXp. A¥-co-£-Øn-ep-

≠m-bn-cp∂ Im¿_ Utbm-IvsskUv ag -sh-≈-Øn¬ ebn-®p-tN-cm≥ XpS-ßn-b-tXmsS A¥-co£ Dujvam-hv Iam-Xo-X-ambn Ipd-bp-IbpwsNbvXp. CXv A¥-co-£-Ønse \ocmhn AXn-th-KØn¬ XWpØv ag-bmbn s]øm≥ klm-b-I-am-bn. Cu ag-sh-≈-amWv `utam-]-cn-X-e-Ønse K¿Ø-ß-fn¬ \nd™v kap-Z-߃ cq]-s∏-Sm≥ Imc-W-am-b-Xv. 4000 Zi-e-£w h¿j-߃°p apºmWv Cu kap-Z-߃ D≠m-b-sX-∂mWv IW-°m-°-s∏- n- p-≈-Xv. BZy Poh-cq-]-߃ cq]w sIm≠Xv kap-Z-ß-fn-emWv. F√mwHmIvkn-P≥ izkn-°m-Ø-h. ]n∂oSv lcnX kky-߃ Dcp-Øn-cn™p h∂-tXmsS Im¿_¨Utbm-Ivssk-Uns\ A∂-Phpw HmIvkn-P-\p-am°n am‰p∂ ]Inb Bcw- n-®p. qan-bpsS A¥-co£ LS-\-bn¬ a‰p Kl-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw hyXy-kvX-amb am‰-Øn\v CXp Imc-W-am-bn. Cu uam-¥-co-£-amWv `qan-bn¬ Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS \ne-\n-ev]n\v ASn-ÿm-\w.

Pe-a-fi-e-Øn-ep-≠m-Ip∂ am‰-߃ Fß-s\-sbms° ssPh-a-fi-esØ _m[n°pw?

NnXw 7.2˛Im¿_¨ NIw

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7Imem-h-ÿm-hy-Xn-bm-\-Øn\v ][m-\-ambpwImc-W-am-Ip-∂Xv Im¿_¨ Utbm-IvsskUvDƒs∏-sSbp≈ lcnX Krl-hm-X-I-ß-fpsSB[nIyw aqe-am-sW∂v \n߃ a\- n-em-°n-bn´p -≠-t√m. A¥-co-£-Øn¬ Im¿_¨Utbm-IvsskUv Iam-Xo-X-ambn h¿≤n-°p-∂Xvkap-Z-PeØns‚ kz`m-h-Øn¬ am‰-Øn\vImcW-amIp∂p.

kap-Z-Øns‚ Aæ-h¬°-cWwA¥-co-£-Øn¬ Im¿_¨ Utbm-Ivssk-Uns‚ Afhv k¥p-en-X-ambn \ne-\n¿Øp∂]Xn- m-k-amWv Im¿_¨ NIw (Carbon cycle).

NnXw (7.2) \nco-£n-°p. GsX√mw tkmX- p-I-fn-eq-sS-bmWv Im¿_¨ UtbmIvsskUvssIam‰w sNø-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv? kzm`m-hn-I-hm-XIkwc-N-\-bn¬ \n∂pw hyXy-kvX-ambn A¥-co-£-Øn¬ Im¿_¨ UtbmIvssk-Uns‚Afhv h¿≤n-∏n-°p-∂-Xn\v Imc-W-am-Ip-∂XvGsXms° ]-h¿Ø-\-ß-fmImw? tkmX- p-I -fm -Imw? A¥co£Ønse Im¿_¨UtbmHmIvssk-Uns‚ Afhv Iam-Xo-X-ambnh¿≤n-®m¬ kap-Z-Øn\v F¥mWv kw`-hn-°pI? ]cn-tim-[n-°mw.

A¥-co-£-Øn¬ Im¿_¨ Utbm-IvsskUvIam-Xo-X-ambn h¿≤n-®m¬ agsh≈-Øn¬ebn-®p tNcp∂ Im¿_¨ U-tbm-Ivssk-Uns‚Afhv IqSp-Ibpw hocyw Ipd™ Im¿t_m-WnIvAæ-ambn amdp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Cu Pew kap-Z-ß-fn¬ FØn-t®-cp-∂Xv kap-Z-P-e-Øns‚AæX h¿≤n -∏n -°p -∂-Xn\v CS -bm -°pw.Cßs\ AæX h¿≤n-°p∂ ]In-b-bmWv Aæ-h¬°-c-Ww. CtXm-sSm∏w kap-Z-Pe aen-\o-I-cWØns‚ `mK-ambpw Aæ-h¬°-cWw\S°p-∂p-≠v. kap-Z-Øns‚ Aæ-h-¬°-cWwF¥v ]Xym-Lm-X-ß-fmWv D≠m-°p-I?

Aæ-h-¬°-cWwaqew ]hng∏p‰p-Iƒ D≠m-°p∂ t]mfn]vkv F∂ Pohn-Iƒ \in-®p-t]mIp∂p. IqSmsX \ne-hn-ep≈ ]hng∏p‰p-Iƒªo®nw-Kn\v hnt[-b-am-Ip-∂p.

NnXw (7.3) \nco-£n-°q. ]hn-g-∏p-‰p-Iƒ°v F¥vam‰-amWv D≠m-bn-´p-≈-Xv? ªo®nw-Kn\v hnt[-b-amb ]hn-g-∏p-‰p-I-fn¬ B¬K ]S¿∂p-]n-Sn-°p-

Ibpw Ah ]hn-g-∏p-‰ns‚ Po¿Æ-X-bv°v ImcW-am-Ip-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.

1982˛83 emWv B^n-°-bpsS Ing-°≥ Xoc-Øp≈ ]hn-g-Zzo-]p-Isf GZ≥ kap-Z-Øns‚Aæ-h-¬°-cWw ]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-°p-∂-Xmbn Is≠-Øn-b-Xv. XpS¿∂v BtKm-f-X-e-Øn¬ 1997˛98¬ \S-Ønb ]hn-g-∏p-‰p-I-sf-°p-dn-®p≈ ]T\w hfsc `bm-\-I-amb hkvXp-X-I-fmWv shfn-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv. kap-Z-Øns‚Aæh¬°-cWw G‰hpw IqSp-X¬ _m[n-®n-´p-≈-Xv C¥y≥ alm-k-ap-Z-Ønse ]hngZzo]p-I-sf-bm-Wv. Cu Zzo]p-I-fnse 50 iX-am-\-Øn-e-[nIw ]hng \nt£-]-ßfpw Po¿Æm-h-ÿ-bn-em-sW-∂mWv Is≠-Ønbn-´p-≈-Xv.

e£-Zzo]v Fhn-sS-bmWv ÿnXn sNøp-∂p-sX∂pw Ah cq]-s∏-´n-´p-≈Xv Fß-s\-bm-sW∂pw a\- n-em-°n-bn-´p-≠t√m? kap-Z-Øns‚ Aæ-h-¬°-cWØn\v B°w IqSn-bm¬Cu Zzo]p-Iƒ°v F¥mWv kw -hn-°p-I? N¿®sNøp.

BtKm-f-Xm-]-\hpw kap-Z-ßfpwA¥-co-£-Øn¬ lcn-X-Kr-l-hm-X-I-ß-fpsSh¿≤-\hv BtKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øns‚ \nc°vIq´psa∂v a\- n -em -°n -bn´p -≠-s√m.

NnXw 7.3˛]hn-g-∏p-‰p-I-fpsS ªo®nwKv

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7BtKm-f-Xm-]\w kapZ-Pe Dujvamhv h¿≤n-∏n-°p-∂-Xn\v ImcW-am-Ip-∂p. CXv A¥-co-£-ÿn-Xnsb _m[n-°p-Ibpw kap-Z-Pe ]hm-l-ß-fpsS kz`mhw, Hgp°v F∂n -hbn¬am‰ßƒ°v Imc-W-am-Ip-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.

kap-Z-Pew KXn-am-dptam?hS°v A‰vem‚nIv kap-Z-Ønse kap-Z-PeDujvamhv Xmc-X-tay\ Ipd-hm-b-Xn-\m¬ B`mKsØ kmµX IqSnb kap-Z-Pew kap-Z-Øn-\-Sn-bn-te°v Xmgv∂n-d-ßp∂p. Cßs\Xmgv∂n-d-ßp∂ Pew D]-cn-X-e-Øn¬ \n∂pwGI-tZiw 2.5 Intem-ao-‰¿ hsc Bg-ap≈]tZiØv IqSn `qa-[y-tcJm ]tZ-isØA`napJo-I-cn®v Hgp-Ip-∂p. kap-Z-Pew Xmgv∂n-d-ßp∂ ]tZ-itØ°vv A‚m¿´n-°n\v Np‰pw]h-ln-°p∂ k¿°w t]mfm¿ kap-Z-P-e-]hmlw BI¿jn-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw Ah `qa-[y-tcJ apdn®p IS∂v Kƒ^v kvSow, hS°vA‰vem‚nIv ]hmlw F∂ t]cn¬ HgpInFØp-Ibpw sNøp∂p. Cßs\ kap-Z-Øn¬]hm-l-߃ NwI-aWw (Circulation) \ne-\n¿Øp-∂p. F∂m¬ hS°v A‰vem‚nIv taJ-e-bn¬ A¥-co£ Dujvamhv Iam-Xo-X-ambnDb¿∂-Xn-s\-Xp-S¿∂v kap-Z-Pe Dujvamhvh¿≤n-°p-Ibpw kap-Z-Pe kmµ-X-bn¬ am‰-߃ D≠m-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Aßs\ kap-Z-Pew Xmgv∂nd-ßp∂ ]Xn-`mkw Ipd™pXpSßpIbpw kapZ-Pe NwI-a-WsØ kzm[o-\n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. Cu \ne XpS¿∂m¬k¿°w-t]m-fm¿ kap-Z-Pe ]hm-l-Øns‚ hS-°≥ A¿≤-tKmf-Øn-te-°p≈ KXn \ne-bv°p-Ibpw hS°v A‰vem‚nIv taJ-e-bnse kap-Z-Pe ]hm-l-ßfn¬ am‰-߃°v Imc-W-amIpIbpw sNøpw. CXv \yq^u≠v em‚ v taJ-e-bnse a’y-_-‘-\sØ ]Xn-Iq-e-ambn_m[n°psa∂v ]T-\-߃ Nq≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂p.

BtKm-f-Xm-]\w B¿´n-Iv, A‚m¿´nIv ]tZ-i-ß-fnse a™p-I´n-Iƒ Dcp-Ip-∂-Xn\v Imc-W-am-Ip-∂-Xmbn dnt∏m¿´p-I-fp-≠v. CXv kap-Z-Pe\nc∏v Db-cp-∂-Xn\v CS-bm-°p-∂p. kap-Z-XocsØ i‡-amb JmZ-\-Øn-\pw Ic-`m-K-tØ°v D∏psh≈w Ib-dp-∂-Xn\pw AXn-eqsSXoc-]-tZ-isØ Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿsb ]Xn-Iqe-

ambn _m[n-°p-∂-Xn\pw CXv Imc-W-am-Ip∂p.Xoc-]-tZ-isØ Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bn¬ D≠m-Ip∂ am‰w kap-Z-P-e-Po-hn-Iƒ \in-°p-∂-Xnt\m ]p\¿hn\y -kn -°-s∏-Sp -∂-Xnt\mhgnsXfn°p∂p.

a\p-jys‚ at‰sX√mw ]h¿Ø-\-ß-fmWvkapZ Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿsb kzm[o-\n-°p-I?GsX√mw ]h¿Ø-\-ß-fmWv \Zn-Iƒ, XSm-I-߃ XpS-ßnb ip≤-Pe Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿsbkzm[o-\n-°pI? N¿® sNøq. CØcw CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ \nß-fpsS ]tZ-isØ Bhmk-hy-h-ÿ-bn¬ am‰-߃ D≠m-°p-∂pt≠m? hnh-c-߃ At\zjn-®-dn-bq.

hmbp-a-fiew`qansb Bh-cWw sNbvXn-cn-°p∂ hmXI-]nfi-amWv (Mass) hmbp-a-fiew AYhmA¥-co-£w F∂v \n߃ a\- n-em-°n-bn-´p-≠v.

a\p-jys‚ hnhn[ ]h¿Ø\߃aqew kzm`m-hnI A¥-co-£-Øns‚ hmXI kwc-N-\-bn¬am‰-߃ D≠m-Ip∂psh∂p t_m[y-s∏- p-h-t√m.Cu am‰w BtKm-f-X-e-Øn¬ A¥-co£Dujvamhv IqSp-∂Xn\pw BtKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øns‚\nc°p h¿≤n-°p-∂-Xn\pw Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p≠v.A¥-co-£-Øns‚ hmX-I-kw-c-N-\-bn-ep-≠m-Ip∂ am‰-߃ ]mtZ-inIXe-Ønepw hnhn[]Xn- m-k-߃°v Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p-≠v. Ah-bn¬NneXv ]cn-tim-[n-°mw.

Aæ-ag

hyh-km-b-im-e-I-fn¬ \nt∂m A·n-]¿∆Xkvt^mS-\-ß-fn¬ \nt∂m A¥-co-£-Øn-te-s°-Øp∂ kƒ^¿ UtbmIvsskUv F∂hmXIw ag -sh-≈-Øn¬ ebn -°p -tºmƒagsh≈w Aæ-ambn amdp-∂p. Cu Aæw ag-bmbns]øp-tºm-gm-Wv Aæ-ag D≠m-Ip-∂-Xv. Aæ-agFs¥ms° ]Xym-Lm-X-ß-fmWv D≠m-°p-I.dnt∏m¿´v i≤n-°p.

ssN\-bnse `qcn -`mKw hyh-km-b-ßfpwI¬°cn- C‘-\-ambn D]-tbm-Kn -°p-∂p.I¬°cn IØn°p-tºmƒ Db-cp∂ ]pI-bn-¬A-S-ßnb ][m\ hmX-I-am-Wv kƒ^¿

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Ibpw sNøp∂p. ]pI]Sew aqe-ap-≠m-Ip∂aqS¬a-™mWv kvtamKv F∂-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂Xv.

NnXw (7.5) i≤n-°q. kvtamKv D≠m-Ip-tºm-gp≈ Hcp Zriy-amWv NnX-Øn¬. \Kc-ß-fnsehml-\-k-©m-c-Øn-\pw P\-Po-hn-X-Øn\pw ]Xn-_-‘-߃ krjvSn-°p∂ "kvtamKv' amc-I-ambizmk-tcm -K -߃°pw CSbm-°p -∂-Xmbndnt∏m¿´p-I-fp-≠v. CØ-cØnep-≠mIp∂ ]iv\-߃ Ipd-bv°m≥ ssN\bnse jßvlmbv \Kc-Øn¬ hml\ KXm-KXw Iao-I-cn°s∏´n- p≠v.Nne ]tXyI ka-b-ß-fn¬ amXw tamt´m¿hml-\-߃ HmSn-°p-∂-Xn-\p≈ A\p-aXn\¬Inbpw a‰v ka-b-ß-fn¬ ssk°nƒ amXwD]-tbm-Kn-°pI XpS-ßnb \nb-¥-W-߃G¿s∏-Sp-Ønbpw CØcw ]iv\-߃ Ipd-bv°m≥ ian-°p-∂p.

DjvW-°m‰v

DjvW-°m-‰p-Isf°p-dn®v \n߃ a\- n-em-°n-bn-´p-≠-t√m. BtKm-f-Xm-]-\-Øns‚ ^e-ambnCu DjvW-°m-‰p-IfpsS Xoh-X- Iq-Sp∂Xmbpw

UtbmIvsskUv. 2001˛¬ amXw GI-tZiw 25Zi-e£w S¨ kƒ^¿ Utbm-IvsskUvssN\-bnse hyh-kmbime-I-fn¬ \n∂pwA¥-co-£-Øn-te°v FØn-t®¿∂Xmbn IW-°p-Iƒ ImWn-°p∂p. 2000˛Ønse IW-°p-IsfAt]-£n®v 27 iX-am\w IqSp-X-em-Wn-Xv.C°mcWØm¬ Xs∂ ssN\bn¬ ]e-t∏mgpwAæag s]øp-∂-Xn\v Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p.

NnXw 7.4˛Aæ-a-g-bpsS ]Xym-Lm-X-߃

NnXw 7.5˛kvtamKns‚ ]Xym-Lm-X-߃

NnXw (7.4) i≤n-°p. Aæ-ag Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bn¬ Fs¥ms° ]Xym-Lm-X-ß-fmWv D≠m-°pI? Poh-Pm-e-߃, ip≤-P-e-tkm-X-kp-IƒF∂n-h-bn¬ henb am‰-߃°v Aæag ImcW-am-Ip-∂p. kzm`m-hnI A¥-co-£-Ønse hmX-I-kw-c-N-\-bn¬ am‰-߃ D≠m-bm¬ ssPh-afi-esØ AXp _m[n-°p-sa∂v t_m[y- -s∏´pht√m.

kvtamKv

hymh-km-bnI ]ptcm-KXn ssIh-cn® \K-c-ß-fmb e≠≥, sSlvdm≥, saIvkn-t°m, temkvG©-¬-kv , \yqtbm¿°v, jmMvlm -b vXpSßnbh A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-°p∂ ][m\ ]iv\-amWv A¥-co-£-Øn-ep-≠m-Ip∂ kvtamKv.ChnS-ß-fnse hyh-km-b-im-e-I-fn¬ \n∂pwhml-\-ß-fn¬ \n∂pw ]pdØph-cp∂ ]pI-bn-e-S-ßn-bn-cn-°p∂ hmX-I-߃ kqcy-]-Im-iØm¬ cmk-]-h¿Ø-\-Øn¬ G¿s∏-Sp-IbpwaqS¬a-™p-t]m-ep≈ ]Xn-`mkw krjvSn-°p-

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7]pXnb Nne ]tZ-i-ß-fn¬ CØ-c-Ønep≈DjvW-°m-‰p -Iƒ cq]w sIm≈p-∂Xmbpwdnt∏m¿´p-I-fp-≠v.

""^vfm‰n-\-IsØ NqSv kln-°m-\m-hmsXh∂t∏mƒ Rm≥ vfm‰n¬ \n∂pw ]pdtØ°vCd-ßn. ]pdØv Ak-l-\o-b-amb NqSv. In´nbioXo -I -cn® _ n¬ Ibdn Rm≥ Hcpkq∏¿am¿°-‰n-\p-ap-ºn¬ Cd-ßn. ioXo-I-cn®kq∏¿am¿°-‰n¬ Rm≥ th≠p-thmfw kabwNne-h-gn-®p. £oW-a-I-‰n....'' Nn°m-tKm-bn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂ ]ufn≥ F∂ hr≤-bpsS Ub-dn-bn¬tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn- p-≈-Xm-Wv Cu kw`hw. 1995Pqsse 13˛\v Nn°mtKm \K-c-Øn¬ `oXn-]-c-Ønb DjvW-°m‰v Ahn-SsØ A¥-co£Dujvamhv 106°F hsc Db-cp-∂-Xn\v Imc-W-ambn. XpS¿∂p≈ A©p Znh-k-ß-fn¬Dujvamhv 90°F˛\v apI-fn¬ Xs∂ \ne-sIm≠p.Cu Znh-k-ß-fn-¬ ac-W-s∏-´-h-cpsS FÆw700˛¬ A[n-I-am -sW-∂mWv IW-°m-°-s∏´n´p≈-Xv. At\-Im-bncw t]¿ tZlm-kzm-ÿysØ XpS¿∂v Bip-]-Xn-I-fn¬ ]th-in-°-s∏- p. 1999˛epw Cu \K-c-Øn¬ CØ-c-Øn¬Hcp A\p-`-h-ap-≠mbn. 2003˛emWv bqtdm-∏n¬BZy-ambn CØ-c-Øn-semcp Zpc¥w D≠m-bXv.Ign™ 5 Zim-_vZ-߃°n-S-bnse G‰hpwNqtS-dnb DjvW-Im-e-amWv ChnsS A\p-`-h-s∏´-Xv. bqtdm-∏nse H´p-an° ]tZ-i-ß-fn-sebpw icm-icn Dujvamhv C°m-eØv 100°F˛epw A[n-I-am-bn-cp-∂p. Cu ]IrXn Zpc-¥-Øn¬ kky-P-¥p-Pm-e-߃°v hym]-I-amb\miw D≠m-hp-Ibpw 27000 Hmfw P\-߃°vPoh-lm\n D≠m-hp -Ibpw sNbvXp. Cudnt∏m¿´p-I-sf√mw \¬Ip∂ kqN-\-Iƒ F¥m-Wv? hmbp-a-fi-e-Øns‚ kzm`m-hnI kwc-N-\-bn¬ am‰w hcptºmƒ \ΩpsS Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿsb _m[n°p∂ am‰-߃ ssPh-a-fi-e-Øn¬ D≠m-°p∂p F∂mWv. CXv ssPh-a-fi-e-Øns‚ \ne-\n-ev]ns\Øs∂ _m[n-°p-∂p.CØcw am‰-߃°v a\p-jys‚ ]Ir-Xn-bnseCS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ Imc-W-am-Ip-∂pt≠m? ¢m n¬Hcp N¿® kwL-Sn-∏n-°p.

inema-fiew`qh¬°w apX¬ am‚n¬ hsc-bp≈ `mK-sØ-bmWv inem-a-fi-e-ambn km[m-cW hnh-£n-

°p-∂-Xv. Cu afi-e-Øn¬ ImWp∂ aqe-I-ß-fn¬ aq∂n¬ c≠p -`m -Khpw Pohs‚\ne-\n¬]n\v Bh-iy-am-Wv. _tbm-ap-IƒHmtcm∂pw hyXykvX Xc-Øn-ep≈ Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS Bhm-k-tI-µ-am-Wv. Hmtcm _tbm-an\pw khn-ti-j-amb Imem-h-ÿ-bpw hyXy-kvX-amb `q]-IrXn khn-ti-j-X-Ifpw D≠v.CXv B ]tZ-isØ Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS cq]-Øn-epw Pohn-X-co-Xn-bn-epw Poh-k-‘m-cW am¿§-ß-fn-epw hyXy-kvX-X-Iƒ D≠m-°p-∂p. AXp-sIm≠p Xs∂ Hmtcm _tbm-ap -Iƒ°pwX\Xmb khn-ti-j-X-I-fpw kzX-¥-amb \ne-\n-ev]p-ap-≠v. F∂m¬ Ch-sb√mw Xs∂]ckv]cw _‘-s∏- -h-bp-am-Wv. Poh≥ ]]©-Øn¬ as‰-hn-sS-sb-¶nepw Ds≠-¶n¬ CuaqeIßsf B[m-c-am-°n-bmhpw F∂v imkvX-temIw hniz-kn-°p-∂p. `qan-bpsS `qh¬°-Øn¬ \ne-\n¬°p∂ Xmc-X-tay\ Ipd™Afhv Xm]-amWv ssPh-a-fi-esØ \ne-\n¿Øp-∂-Xv. `qh¬°-Øn¬ ImWp-∂ -aq-e-I-߃ D]-tbmKn-®mWv ssPh-a-fi-e-ØnseF√m Poh-Pm-e-ßfpsSbpw icocw \n¿Ωn-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈-Xv. Poh-Pm-e-߃ \in-®m¬ AhaÆn-te°v Xs∂ tNcp-∂p. Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsSicoc-Øns‚ hnL-S-\-Øn\v Imc-W-°m-cmbkq£va-Po-hn-Isf∏‰n \n߃ ]Tn-®n- p-≠-t√m.`qh¬°-Ønse aqe-I-߃ sIm≠p \n¿Ωn-°-s∏´ Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS tImi-߃ Ah arX-ß-fmIp-∂-tXmsS ho≠pw AssP-h-tem-I-Øns‚ `mK-ambn amdp-∂p. Cu ]Inb `ua-a-fi-e-Øn¬ ssPh-afi-e-Øns‚km∂n[ywaqew ]pXnb hkvXp-°tfm IqSp-X¬`mctam D≠m-°n-bn-√. F∂m¬ ssPh-a-fi-e-Øn¬ B[n-]Xyw t\Snb a\pjy-\m-hs´ \nc-h[n ]pXnb hkvXp-°ƒ \n¿Ωn®p. Ah-bn-sem-∂mWv πmÃnIv. πmÃnIv hkvXp-°ƒ hf-sc-°m-e-tØ°v hnL-Sn-®p-t]m-Im-Ø-Xn-\m¬AXv qh¬°-Øns‚ ]pdw]mfn-bn¬ ASn-™p-Iq-Sn-°n-S-°p-Ibpw Poh-Pm-e-ß-fpsS arX-ß-fmb tImi-i-co-c-ß-fp-sS-b-S°w hnLS\-Øn\vXS w krjvSn-°p-Ibpw sNøp∂p. CXv `ua-a-fi-e-Ønse aÆns‚ LS-\-bn¬ am‰w hcp-Øp-∂-Xn\v CS-bm-°p-∂p. AXn-thKw hnI-kn®sIm®n-\-K-c-Øn¬ h¿≤n® P\-kw-Jybpw

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7AXns‚ `mK-ambn D≠mb aen-\o-I-c-WhpwB ]tZ-i-Øns‚ kzm`mhnI kwh-l-\-ti-jn-(carrying capacity) bn¬ am‰-߃°nS-bm-°nbXmbn -dn-t∏m¿´p-I-fp-≠v.Ic- m-KsØ _tbm-ap-Isf kzm[o-\n-°p∂ a\p-jys‚ ]h¿Ø-\-߃ hfsctbsdbp≠v.AXn -s\mcpZml-c -W-amWv Umap -I -fpsS\n¿ΩmWw. Ch F¥p ]Xym-Lm-X-ß-fmWv_tbm-ap-I-fn¬ D≠m-°p-∂Xv F∂v \ap°v]cntim-[n-°mw.

Pe-kw-`-c-Wn-I-fpsS cq]o-I-cWw

\Zn°p IpdpsI Umw \n¿Ωn-°p-tºmƒ Uman\p]pd-In-embn Pe-kw-`-c-Wn- cq]wsIm≈p-∂p.XpS¿∂v AhnsS \ne -hn -ep -≠m -bn -cp∂kkyP¥p-Pm-e-߃ Pe-kw- -c-Wn-bn¬ AI-s∏-Sp-∂p. \mfn-Xp-hsc temI-Øns‚ hnhn[`mK-ß-fn-embn Db¿∂p-h∂ Umap-IƒaqewGI-tZiw 4 e£w NXp-c-i-In-tem-ao-‰¿ hnkvXr-Xn-bn-ep≈ Ic-`mKw Pe-kw-`-c-Wn-I-fmbn amdnF∂mWv IW-°m-°-s∏- n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. Pe-Øn-s‚bpw sshZyp -Xn -bp -sSbpw Bh-iy-IXh¿≤n®phcp∂ Ct∏m-gsØ kml-N-cy-Øn¬CXns‚ tXmXv KWy-ambn h¿≤n-°p-sa-∂mWvkqN-\.

Bhm-k-hy-h-ÿ-bnse am‰-߃Umw hcp-∂-tXm-Sp-IqSn \ZnbpsS kzm`m-hnI\oscm-gp°v XS- -s∏-Sp-∂p. Hgp-Ip∂ Pe-Øn-t\-°mƒ sI´n-\n¬°p∂ Pe-Øns‚ D]-cn-XeDujvamhv h¿≤n-°p-sa∂-Xn-\m¬ B `mK-ß-fnse kq£va-Po-hn-Iƒ \in-®p-t]m-Ip-IbpwNne kky-˛-P¥pPme-ßfpsS \ne-\nev]n\v`ojWnbmhp -Ibpw sNøp -∂p. CØ-cwÿnXnhntijw Xs∂-bmWv Pe-kw-`-c-Wn-bpsS ASn-Ø- nepw kw -hn-°p-∂Xv. Ahn-sS-bm-Is´ kutcm¿÷w e`n-°mØXn-\memWvCßs\ kw -hn-°p-∂-Xv.

a\p-jy-Po-hn-X-Øn-ep-≠m-°p∂]Xym-Lm-X-߃\Zn-bpsS \oscm-gp°v XS- -s∏-Sp-tºmƒ Ahhln-®p-sIm-≠p-h-cp∂ ^e-`q -bn -jvS -ambF°¬a-Æv, \Zo-Xo-c-ß-fn¬ \nt£-]n-°p-∂-Xn\p]Icw Umans‚ Pe-kw-`-c-Wn-I-fn¬

\nt£-]n-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw XpS¿∂v Umans‚ Pe-kw- -c-W-tijn Ipd-bp-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Uman\pXmsg-bp≈ \Zo-Xo-c-ß-fn¬ Xma-kn-°p∂I¿j-I-cpsS Irjnsb CXv kmc-ambn _m[n-°p-∂p-≠v. F°¬ \nt£-]w- aq-e-ap-≠m-tI≠kzm`m-hnI e- q-bn-jvSX e`n-°msX aÆnse[mXp-e-h-W-߃ timjn-°p-Ibpw cmk-hfwIqSp-X-embn D]-tbm-Kn-t°≠ ÿnXn-hn-tijwD≠m-Ip-Ibpw sNøp-∂p. Cß-s\-bp≈ AanXcmk-hf ]tbm-Khpw \Zn-bpsS Pe-Øns‚KpWsØ ]Xn-Iq-e-ambn _m[n-°p-∂Xmbndnt∏m¿´p-I-fp-≠v.

B^n-°≥ h≥I-c-bnse ip≤-Pe Pohn-I-sf-°p-dn®v 200˛¬ A[nIw imkvX-⁄¿5 h¿jw sIm≠v \S-Ønb Hcp ]T-\-Øn¬20 iX-am-\-Øn-e-[nIw kv]ojo-kp-Iƒ hwi-\m-i-`o-jWn t\cn-Sp-∂-Xmbn Is≠-Øn.Irjn-bn-S-ß-fn¬ \n∂p≈ KpW-\n-e-hmcwIpd™ Pew Hgp-In-sb-ج, Umap-I-fpsS\n¿ΩmWw XpS-ßn-b-h-bmWv ][m\ Imc-W-ß-fmbn Is≠-Øn-bn-´p-≈-Xv. CXp-aqewB^n-°-bnse ]mh-s∏´hcpsS £-W-amba’y-e`y-X-bpsS Af-hns\ CXv kmc-ambn_m[n-®n-´p-≠v.

`qansb-Øs∂ _m[n-°p∂p

Pe-kw- -c-Wn-Iƒ°v `qan-bpsS Imem-h-ÿsbkzm[o-\n-°m≥ Ignbpw. Pe-kw-`-c-Wn-Iƒ\n¿Ωn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xns‚ `mK-ambn Pe-Øn-\-Sn-bn-em-Ip∂ Poh-Pm-e-߃ Po¿Wn-°p-∂-Xns‚`mK-ambn D≠m-Ip∂ aotY≥ t]mep≈ lcnXKrl-hm-X-I-ß-fpw, Ch ]Im-i-kw-t«-jWw\S-Øp-∂-Xns‚ mK-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-°-s∏-Sp-am-bn -cp∂ Im¿_¨ Utbm-Ivssk-Uns‚Afhpw A¥-co-£-Øn¬ h¿≤n-°p-∂-Xn-\n-S-bmhp-∂p. CXv BtKm-f-Xm-]\w h¿≤n-∏n-°p-∂-Xn\v CS-bm-°p-∂p. Cßs\ a\p-jys‚h¿≤n-®p-h-cp∂ ]Ir-Xn-bnse CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ\ΩpsS ssPh-a-fi-e-Øns‚ kzm`m-hnI LS\-bn¬ henb am‰-߃°v Imc-W-am-Ip-∂p.

`qan \ΩpsS ss]XrI kzØv`ua-a-fi-e-Øn¬ \nc-h[n h¿j-߃°p-tijw cq]-s∏´ khn-tij kml-N-cy-amWv

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7ssPh-a-fi-e-Øn\v P∑w \¬In-bXv F∂v \mwI≠p. amX-a√ AXns‚ \ne-\n-ev]n-\pw]cn]me-\-Øn\pw AXn-kq-£va-amb ssPh-˛-A-ssP-h-L-S-I-ß-fpsS HsØm-cp-an® ]h¿Ø-\hpw thWw. CXn¬ GsX-¶nepw LS-I-Øn¬hcp∂ ÿmbn-bmb am‰-߃ Pohs‚ hnhn[taJ-e-Isf k¶o¿W-amb hn[-Øn¬ kzm[o-\n-°p-∂p-s≠∂pw ]T-\-߃ hy‡-am-°p-∂p.

Xe-ap-d-I-fmbn a\p-jy≥ kz¥w Pohn-XsØA`n-hr-≤n-bn¬ \n∂v A`n-hr-≤n-bn-te°v \bn®vPohn-°p-∂Xv qan-bpsS hn -h-߃ D]-tbmK-s∏-Sp-Øn-bm-Wv. `qan-bn-ep≈ hn -h-߃ C\nbpw

P\n-°m-\p≈ FXtbm Xe-ap-d-Iƒ°p-IqSn hn\n-tbm-Kn-°m-\p-≈-Xm-Wv. F∂m¬ Cu `qan-bp-sS,AXnse ssPh-a-fi-e-Øn-s‚, kp£va-L-S-\bv°v ÿmbn-bmb am‰ßƒ D≠m-°p∂]h¿Ø-\-߃ \mw ]n¥pS¿∂m¬ \ΩpsSCu ss]XrI kzØv \mi-Øn-te°v hfscthKw IpXn-°pw. Htckabw AXn-thKwhf-cm\pw F∂m¬ hf¿®-bn-eqsS hcm≥t]mIp∂ A]-I-SsØ ap≥Iq´n ImWm\pw ]Xn-hn[n tXSm\pw Ign-bp∂ a\p-jy-\-√m-sX, Ah-cpsS Iq´m-b -i-a-߃°-√msX B¿°mWv Cuss]Xr-I-kzØv kwc£n-°m-\m-hpI!

XpS¿ ]h¿Ø\߃

1. a\p-jy≥ `qan-bn¬ \S-Øp∂ CS-s]-S-ep-Iƒ ssPh-a-fi-e-Øns‚ \ne-\n-ev]ns\Fßns\-sb√mw _m[n-°p-∂p-sh∂v N¿® sNøp.

2. BtKm-f-Xm-]\w kap-Z-]-cn-ÿn-Xn-bn¬ D≠m-°p∂ am‰-߃ Fs¥m-s°-bmWv? Ch-bpsS hnhc-߃ tiJ-cn®v Hcp teJ\w Xøm-dm-°p.

3. `qan \ΩpsS ss]Xr-I-kz-Øm-Wv. hcpw Xe-ap-d-Iƒ°mbn CXp ssIam-td-≠-Xp-≠v.CXn\p hnLm-X-am-Ip∂ a\p-jys‚ CS-s]-S-ep-Ifpw Ah krjvSn-°p∂ ]Xym-Lm-X-ßfpw ap≥\n¿Øn Hcp t]mPIvSv Xøm-dm-°p-I.