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27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki) Seiji Kawamura, Takashi Nakamura, Kimio Tsubono, Takahiro Tanaka, Ikkoh Funaki, Naoki Seto, Kenji Numata, Shuichi Sato, Nobuyuki Kanda, Takeshi Takashima, Kunihito Ioka, Kazuhiro Agatsuma, Tomotada Akutsu, Tomomi Akutsu, Koh-suke Aoyanagi, Koji Arai, Yuta Arase, Akito Araya, Hideki Asada, Yoichi Aso, Takeshi Chiba, Toshikazu Ebisuzaki, Motohiro Enoki, Yoshiharu Eriguchi, Masa-Katsu Fujimoto, Ryuichi Fujita, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, Toshifumi Futamase, Katsuhiko Ganzu, Tomohiro Harada, Tatsuaki Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Hayama, Wataru Hikida, Yoshiaki Himemoto, Hisashi Hirabayashi, Takashi Hiramatsu, Feng-Lei Hong, Hideyuki Horisawa, Mizuhiko Hosokawa, Kiyotomo Ichiki, Takeshi Ikegami, Kaiki T. Inoue, Koji Ishidoshiro, Hideki Ishihara, Takehiko Ishikawa, Hideharu Ishizaki, Hiroyuki Ito, Yousuke Itoh, Shogo Kamagasako, Nobuki Kawashima, Fumiko Kawazoe, Hiroyuki Kirihara, Naoko Kishimoto, Kenta Kiuchi, Shiho Kobayashi, Kazunori Kohri, Hiroyuki Koizumi, Yasufumi Kojima, Keiko Kokeyama, Wataru Kokuyama, Kei Kotake, Yoshihide Kozai, Hideaki Kudoh, Hiroo Kunimori, Hitoshi Kuninaka, Kazuaki Kuroda, Kei-ichi Maeda, Hideo Matsuhara, Yasushi Mino, Osamu Miyakawa, Shinji Miyoki, Mutsuko Y. Morimoto, Tomoko Morioka , Toshiyuki Morisawa, Shigenori Moriwaki, Shinji Mukohyama, Mitsuru Musha, Shigeo Nagano, Isao Naito, Noriyasu Nakagawa, Kouji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Nakano, Kenichi Nakao, Shinichi Nakasuka, Yoshinori Nakayama, Erina Nishida, Kazutaka Nishiyama, Atsushi Nishizawa, Yoshito Niwa, Masatake Ohashi, Naoko Ohishi, Masashi Ohkawa, Akira Okutomi, Kouji Onozato, Kenichi Oohara, Norichika Sago, Motoyuki Saijo, Masaaki Sakagami, Shin-ichiro Sakai, Shihori Sakata, Misao Sasaki, Takashi Sato, Masaru Shibata, Hisaaki Shinkai, Kentaro Somiya, Hajime Sotani, Naoshi Sugiyama, Yudai Suwa, Hideyuki Tagoshi, Kakeru Takahashi, Keitaro Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Hirotaka Takahashi, Ryuichi Takahashi, Ryutaro Takahashi, Takamori Akiteru, Tadashi Takano, Keisuke Taniguchi, Atsushi Taruya, Hiroyuki Tashiro, Mitsuru Tokuda, Masao Tokunari, Morio Toyoshima, Shinji Tsujikawa, Yoshiki Tsunesada, Ken- ichi Ueda, Masayoshi Utashima, Hiroshi Yamakawa, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Toshitaka Yamazaki, Jun'ichi Yokoyama, Chul-Moon Yoo, Shijun Yoshida, Taizoh Yoshino Masaki Ando (Department of Physics, Kyoto University) Original Picture : Sora DECIGO the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna

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Page 1: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Seiji Kawamura, Takashi Nakamura, Kimio Tsubono, Takahiro Tanaka, Ikkoh Funaki, Naoki Seto, Kenji Numata, Shuichi Sato, Nobuyuki Kanda, Takeshi Takashima, Kunihito Ioka, Kazuhiro Agatsuma, Tomotada Akutsu, Tomomi Akutsu, Koh-suke Aoyanagi, Koji Arai, Yuta Arase, Akito Araya, Hideki Asada, Yoichi Aso, Takeshi Chiba, Toshikazu Ebisuzaki, Motohiro Enoki, Yoshiharu Eriguchi, Masa-Katsu Fujimoto, Ryuichi Fujita, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, Toshifumi Futamase, Katsuhiko Ganzu, Tomohiro Harada, Tatsuaki Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Hayama, Wataru Hikida, Yoshiaki Himemoto, Hisashi Hirabayashi, Takashi Hiramatsu, Feng-Lei Hong, Hideyuki Horisawa, Mizuhiko Hosokawa, Kiyotomo Ichiki, Takeshi Ikegami, Kaiki T. Inoue, Koji Ishidoshiro, Hideki Ishihara, Takehiko Ishikawa, Hideharu Ishizaki, Hiroyuki Ito, Yousuke Itoh, Shogo Kamagasako, Nobuki Kawashima, Fumiko Kawazoe, Hiroyuki Kirihara, Naoko Kishimoto, Kenta Kiuchi, Shiho Kobayashi, Kazunori Kohri, Hiroyuki Koizumi, Yasufumi Kojima, Keiko Kokeyama, Wataru Kokuyama, Kei Kotake, Yoshihide Kozai, Hideaki Kudoh, Hiroo Kunimori, Hitoshi Kuninaka, Kazuaki Kuroda, Kei-ichi Maeda, Hideo Matsuhara, Yasushi Mino, Osamu Miyakawa, Shinji Miyoki, Mutsuko Y. Morimoto, Tomoko Morioka , Toshiyuki Morisawa, Shigenori Moriwaki, Shinji Mukohyama, Mitsuru Musha, Shigeo Nagano, Isao Naito, Noriyasu Nakagawa, Kouji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Nakano, Kenichi Nakao, Shinichi Nakasuka, Yoshinori Nakayama, Erina Nishida, Kazutaka Nishiyama, Atsushi Nishizawa, Yoshito Niwa, Masatake Ohashi, Naoko Ohishi, Masashi Ohkawa, Akira Okutomi, Kouji Onozato, Kenichi Oohara, Norichika Sago, Motoyuki Saijo, Masaaki Sakagami, Shin-ichiro Sakai, Shihori Sakata, Misao Sasaki, Takashi Sato, Masaru Shibata, Hisaaki Shinkai, Kentaro Somiya, Hajime Sotani, Naoshi Sugiyama, Yudai Suwa, Hideyuki Tagoshi, Kakeru Takahashi, Keitaro Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Hirotaka Takahashi, Ryuichi Takahashi, Ryutaro Takahashi, Takamori Akiteru, Tadashi Takano, Keisuke Taniguchi, Atsushi Taruya, Hiroyuki Tashiro, Mitsuru Tokuda, Masao Tokunari, Morio Toyoshima, Shinji Tsujikawa, Yoshiki Tsunesada, Ken-ichi Ueda, Masayoshi Utashima, Hiroshi Yamakawa, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Toshitaka Yamazaki, Jun'ichi Yokoyama, Chul-Moon Yoo, Shijun Yoshida, Taizoh Yoshino

Masaki Ando(Department of Physics, Kyoto University)

Original Picture : Sora

DECIGOthe Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna

Page 2: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Baseline length: 1000 km3 S/C formation flight

3 FP interferometersDrag-free control

DECIGO

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

LaserPhoto-detector

1000kmArm cavity

Drag-free S/C

Mirror

DECIGO

Space GW antenna (~2024)Obs. band around 0.1 Hz

(Deci-hertz interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory)

Page 3: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

1. DECIGOGW observation and SciencePre-conceptual Design

2. DECIGO PathfinderOverview and DesignStatus

3. Summary

Page 4: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

1. DECIGOGW observation and SciencePre-conceptual Design

2. DECIGO PathfinderOverview and DesignStatus

3. Summary

Page 5: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Gravitational Waves

"Mass tells space-time how to curve, and space-time tells mass how to move.“

John Archibald Wheeler

From presentation by Laura Cadonati

General Relativity

Einstein equation

Interpret gravity asnature of space-time

Curvature ofSpace-time

Mass(Energy-Momentum)

Motion of Mass Ripples in gravitational field Propagate as waves

Gravitational Waves

Page 6: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

EM and GW waves

A. Einstein

Solution of the Einstein equation

Gravitational wave

Waves in space-time (gravitational field)

1918: Predicted by Einstein1989: Confirmed by

a Binary pulsar observation

Electromagnetic wave

Waves in electromagnetic field

1864 : Predicted by Maxwell1888 : Confirmed by

the Hertz’s experiment

Radiated by acceleration of masses

High transmittance through matter (Small interactions with matter)

Radiated by acceleration of charged particles

Utilized in telecommunications and observations

J.C. Maxwell

Solution of the Maxwell equations

‘Gravitational-wave astronomy’Independent Information

Direct probe of dynamic motion of matters Early universe before recombination

Page 7: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

重力波による天文学

Astronomical Probes

AstronomyStarsGalaxies

Black HolesMassive BHs

Planets

Gamma-ray burstSupernovae

AstronomicalPhenomenaGamma

X-rayVisible rayInfrared

Microwave

EM waveobservation

CosmologyInflation

Dark matterDark energy

Cosmic Background

Nuclear PhysicsHigh-Density Matter

Cosmic-Rayobservation

NeutrinoHigh-energy CR

Background: NASA/WMAP Science Team

General RelativityRelativity in Strong Gravitational-Field

GWobservation

Low-freq. GWs

High-freq. GWsCompact Inspiral

Supernovae

BackgroundGWs

Pulsar

Page 8: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Effect of Gravitational waves

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Gravitational WavesChange in proper distanceTidal force for finite-sized matter

x

y

z

GW

Typical amp. h =10-21

distance change by 10-21mfor 1-m separation

GW amplitude h : Strain (dimensionless)

Precise length measurementwith long baseline Formation flight mission

Page 9: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

DECIGO Interferometer

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Interferometer Unit: Differential FP interferometer

LaserPhoto-detector

1000kmArm cavity

Drag-free S/C

Mirror

Baseline length: 1000 km3 S/C formation flight

3 FP interferometersDrag-free control

Page 10: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Targets and Science

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

DECIGO (1 unit)

Merger

Frequency [Hz]

GW

am

plit

ude

[H

z-1

/2]

10-4 10-2 100 102 104

10-24

10-22

10-20

10-18

10-16

10-26

DECIGO (Correlation)

NS inspiral (z~1)

Merger

3month

IMBH binary inspiralNS binary inspiralStochastic background

Galaxy formation (Massive BH)

Cosmology(Inflation, Dark energy)

Page 11: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Stochastic Background GWs

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Page 12: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

1. DECIGOGW observation and SciencePre-conceptual Design

2. DECIGO PathfinderOverview and DesignStatus

3. Summary

Page 13: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Pre-Conceptual Design

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Interferometer Unit: Differential FP interferometer

LaserPhoto-detector

Arm cavity

Drag-free S/C

Mirror

Arm length: 1000 kmFinesse: 10Mirror diameter: 1 mMirror mass: 100 kgLaser power: 10 WLaser wavelength:532 nm

S/C: drag free3 interferometers

Page 14: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Cavity and S/C control

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Local Sensor

Actuator

Displacement signal between the two Mirrors

Thruster Thruster

Displacement Signal between S/C and Mirror

Mirror

S/C 1 S/C 2

Fig: S. Kawamura

Cavity length changePDH error signal Mirror position (and Laser frequency)

Relative motion between mirror and S/CLocal sensor S/C thruster

Page 15: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Requirements

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Sensor NoiseShot noise 3 x 10-18 m/Hz1/2 (0.1 Hz)

Acceleration NoiseForce noise 4x10-17 N/Hz1/2 (0.1 Hz)

Other noises should be well below the shot noiseLaser freq. noise: 1 Hz/Hz1/2 (1Hz)

Stab. Gain 105, CMRR 105

x 10 of LCGT in phase noise

x 1/50 of LISA

External force sourcesFluctuation of magnetic field, electric field,

gravitational field, temperature, pressure, etc.

Page 16: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Thruster

Max. thrust 100 μN (variable thrust)Thrust noise δFthruster < 10-7 N/Hz1/2

Response > 10 HzTotal impulse > 104 Ns

JPL Miniature XenonIon Thruster ESA FEEP Thruster Array

Ion Thruster FEEP Thruster Cold Gas Jet

Gas pressureBias VoltageVoltage, Pressure

<100ms0<10ms<500ms ?

0.1µN/Hz1/2 500µN/Hz1/2

Gas flow, VulveCurrent, Heat, DischargeNoise sources

Response

Type

Thrust control

Thruster candidates

Requirements for thrusters

Compensate external forcesLow thrust noiseQuick responseLong lifetime

Current, Heat, Discharge

Page 17: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Orbit and Constellation

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Record-disk orbit around the Sun

Relative acc. 4x10-12 m/s2

Halo orbit around L2 (or L1)

Relative acc. 4x10-7 m/s2

(Mirror force ~10-9 N )

(Mirror force ~10-4 N )

Separatedunit

Constellation

4 interferometer units

2 overlapped units Cross correlation2 separated units Angular resolution

overlappedunits

Separatedunit

Candidate of orbit:

Page 18: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Roadmap

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Figure: S.Kawamura

2007 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Mission

Objective

Space test of key tech.GW observation

Detect GW with min. spec

FP between S/C

GW astronomy

Design

Single small satelliteShort FP interferometer

3 S/C 1 interferometer unit

3 S/C x 3-4 units

DECIGO Pathfinder(DPF)

Pre-DECIGO DECIGO

R&DFabrication

R&DFabrication

R&DFabrication

SDS-1/SWIM

Page 19: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

1. DECIGOGW observation and SciencePre-conceptual Design

2. DECIGO PathfinderOverview and DesignStatus

3. Summary

Page 20: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

DECIGO-PF

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

DECIGO Pathfinder (DPF)

Single satellite(Payload ~1m3 , 350kg)

Low-earth orbit(Altitude 500km, sun synchronous)

30cm FP cavity with 2 test massesStabilized laser source Drag-free control

Local Sensor

Actuator

Thruster

First milestone mission for DECIGOShrink arm cavity

DECIGO 1000km DPF 30cm

Page 21: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

DPF satellite

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Stabilized. Laser source

Interferometermodule

Satellite Bus system

Solar Paddle

MissionThruster head

On-boardComputer

Bus thruster

Mast structure

Satellite Bus(‘Standard bus’ system)

DPF PayloadSize : 950mm cubeWeight : 150kgPower : 130WData Rate: 800kbpsMission thruster x12

Power SupplySpW Comm.

Size : 950x950x1100mm

Weight : 200kgSAP : 960W Battery: 50AHDownlink : 2MpbsDR: 1GByte3N Thrusters x 4

Page 22: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

1. DECIGOGW observation and SciencePre-conceptual Design

2. DECIGO PathfinderOverview and DesignStatus

3. Summary

Page 23: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

R&D for DPF (2)

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Attitude control and Drag-freeSatellite structure (mass distribution)

Passive attitude stabilization by gravity gradient

Mission thruster positionControl topology

ThrusterSystem design

with existing tech.Noise meas. system

(thruster stand) Development of Slit FEEP

By I.Funaki

ByS.Moriwaki

Page 24: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

SWIM launch and operation

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Tiny GW detector moduleLaunched in Jan. 23, 2009

Test mass

Photo sensor

Coil

TAM: Torsion Antenna Module with free-falling test mass (Size : 80mm cube, Weight : ~500g)

Reflective-type optical displacement sensor

Separation to mass ~1mmSensitivity ~ 10-9 m/Hz1/2

6 PSs to monitor mass motion

~47g Aluminum, Surface polishedSmall magnets for position control

Photo:JAXA

In-orbit operation

Page 25: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Successful control

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

SWIM In-orbit operation

z control on

yaw control on

Operation: May 12, 2009

Downlink: ~ a week

Test mass controlled

Damped oscillation(in pitch DoF)

Error signal zero

Signal injection OL trans. Fn.

Free oscillationin x and y DoF

By W.Kokuyama

Page 26: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

DPF mission status

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

DPF : One of the candidate ofJAXA’s small satellite series

At least 3 satellite in 5 years withStandard Bus + M-V follow-on rocket

1st mission (2012): SPRINT-A/EXCEED2nd mission (~2013) in selection

DPF is one of candidates

SPRINT-A /EXCEED

Next-generationSolid rocket booster (M-V FO)

Fig. by JAXA

Page 27: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Collaboration and support

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

・Supports from LISATechnical advises from LISA/LPF experiencesSupport Letter for DECIGO/DPFLISA-DECIGO workshop (2008.11)

・Collab. with Stanford univ. groupDrag-free control of DECIGO/DPFUV LED Charge Management System for DPF

・Collab. with JAXA navigation-control section formation flight of DECIGO, DPF drag-free control

・Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Univ. of TokyoSupport DECIGO as ones of main projects (2009.4-)

・Collab. with UNISEC (University Space Engineering Consortium) Call for active young engineers

Page 28: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

1. DECIGOGW observation and SciencePre-conceptual Design

2. DECIGO PathfinderOverview and DesignStatus

3. Summary

Page 29: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Summary

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

DECIGO :

Fruitful SciencesVery beginning of the UniverseDark energy, Galaxy formation

DECIGO PathfinderImportant milestone for DECIGOStrong candidate of JAXA’s satellite series

SWIM – under operation in orbitfirst precursor to space!

Formation flight with 3 S/C1000 km separationPrecise meas. by laser interferometer

Page 30: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

End

Page 31: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

DECIGO

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

DECIGO

Space GW antenna (~2024)Obs. band around 0.1 Hz

10–4 10–2 100 102 104

10–26

10–24

10–22

10–20

10–18

10–16

Frequency [Hz]

Stra

in

[1/H

z1/2 ] Terrestrial Detectors

(Ad. LIGO, LCGT, etc)

DECIGO

LISA

(Deci-hertz interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory)

‘Bridge’ the obs.gap between LISA and Terrestrial detectors

Page 32: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

GW target of DPF

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Observable range reaches the Galactic center (SNR~5 )

BH QNMh ~ 10-15 , f ~ 0.3 Hz Distance 1Mpc, m = 105 M sun

IMBH inspiral and merger

Obs. Duration (~1000sec)

h ~ 10-15 , f ~ 4 Hz Distance 10kpc, m = 103 M sun

KAGAYA

Blackholes eventsin our galaxy

Hard to access by others Original observation

103 104 105 10610–1

100

101

102

Obs

erva

ble

Ran

ge

Mass [Msolar]

[kpc

, SN

R=5

]

Galactic Center

BH QNMBH Inspiral

(By N.Kanda)

Page 33: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Standard Sources

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Absolute poweror amplitude

Supernova (EM wave) Neutron-star binary (GW)‘Standard Candle’ ‘Standard Siren’

Extrapolated from nearby events

General Relativity

Event rate 2000/yr (SNAP) 104-5/yr (DECIGO)

Error in distance ~10%

Identificationof host galaxy

Others Uncertainty bydust absorption

Negligible interactionwith matters

~~

>Require multiple detectors

or statistics

R.Takahashi (2006)

10% at z=1

Easy?

Fig. fromSNAPweb page

Page 34: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Comparison with LPFLPF (LISA Pathfinder) DPF (DECIGO Pathfinder)

Stabilized Laser

InterferometerModule

Thruster Control Unit

Solar Paddle

Interfererometer Control Unit

Housing Control Unit

Mission Thrusters

Central Processing Unit

Bus Thrusters

Purpose

Launch

WeightOrbit

Test MassLaser sourceInterferometerSensitivity

Demonstration for LISA

2010Dedicated launcher (Vega)

1,900 kgHalo orbit around L1

Drag-free attitude controlAu-Pt alloy x2

Nd:YAG (1064nm)Mach-Zehnder

3x10-14 m/s2/Hz1/2 (1mHz)

Demonstration for DECIGO GW observation

~2013Dedicated launcher (M-V follow-on)

350 kgSSO altitude 500km

Drag-free attitude controlTBD x2

Yb:YAG (1030nm)Fabry-Perot

1x10-15 m/s2/Hz1/2 (0.1Hz)

Page 35: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

LCGT and DECIGO

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

LCGT (~2014)Terrestrial Detector High frequency events

Target: GW detection

DECIGO (~2024)Space observatory Low frequency sources

Target: GW astronomy

Page 36: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

R&D for DPF (1)

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Stabilized LaserBBM development

Yb:YAG (NPRO) sourceSaturated absorption by I2

Stability test, Packaging

By M.Musha

By S.Sato

IFO and housingBBM-EM development Test of concepts+ Earth gravity sensors

By A.Araya

S.Sato’s talk(P. Session #2, Today)

Y.Wakabayashi’s poster

Page 37: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

SWIM launch

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Test of signal processing and control system

Photo:JAXA

CPU: HR5000(64bit, 33MHz)

System Memory:2MB Flash Memory4MB Burst SRAM4MB Asynch. SRAMData Recorder:1GB SDRAM1GB Flash MemorySpW: 3ch

SpaceCube2: Space-qualified Computer SWIMµν : User ModuleProcessor test board GW+Acc. sensor

FPGA boardDAC 16bit x 8 chADC 16bit x 4 ch 32 ch by MPX

Torsion Antenna x2~47g test mass

Size: 71 x 221 x 171Weight: 1.9 kgPower: 7W

Data Rate : 380kbpsSize: 124 x 224 x 174Weight: 3.5 kgPower: ~7W

Photo by JAXAPhoto by JAXA

SWIM (Space-wire Demonstration module)

on SDS-1 satelliteLaunched in Jan. 23, 2009

Page 38: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Organization

PI: Kawamura (NAOJ)Deputy: Ando (Kyoto)

Executive CommitteeKawamura (NAOJ), Ando (Kyoto), Seto (Kyoto), Nakamura (Kyoto),

Tsubono (Tokyo), Tanaka (Kyoto), Funaki (ISAS), Numata (Maryland), Sato (Hosei), Kanda (Osaka city), Takashima (ISAS), Ioka (KEK)

Pre-DECIGO

Sato (Hosei)

Satellite

Funaki (ISAS)

Science, Data

Tanaka (Kyoto)Seto (Kyoto)

Kanda (Osaka city)

DECIGO pathfinderLeader: Ando (Kyoto)

Deputy: Takashima (ISAS)

Detector

Ando (Kyoto)

Housing

Sato (Hosei)

LaserUeda (ILS)

Musya (ILS)

Drag freeMoriwaki (Tokyo)Sakai (ISAS)

Thruster

Funaki (ISAS)

Bus

Takashima (ISAS)

Data

Kanda (Osaka

city)

Detector

Numata (Maryland)

Ando (Kyoto)

Mission phase

Design phase

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Page 39: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

DPF mission payload

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Fabry-Perot interferometerFinesse : 100Length : 30cmTest mass : 1kgSignal extraction by PDH

Drag-free controlLocal sensor signal Feedback to thrusters

Mission weight : ~150kgMission space : ~90 x 90 x 90 cm

Laser source Yb:YAG laser (1030nm)Power : 25mWFreq. stab. by Iodine abs. line

Page 40: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

レーザー干渉計型重力波検出器

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

それぞれ、鏡で打ち返し干渉させる

干渉光を光検出器で観測する

基本: マイケルソン干渉計レーザー光源からの光を直交する2方向に分岐

腕の長さの差動変動を干渉光量の変動として検出

重力波が入射

Page 41: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Introduction (3)

Expected science by GW observation

(ex.) Inspiral of binary neutron stars

Loose orbital energy by GW rad. Higher freq. and larger GWs

(Chirp wave)

Collision and merger Short GW radiation

(Burst wave)

BH quasi-normal mode oscillation Decay of oscillation

(Ringdown wave)

Stationary orbital motion of 2 neutron stars Stationary GWs

(Continuous wave)

BH and NS physicsTest of GR

Page 42: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

戎崎俊一(理化学研究所) 先生のwebページより引用http://atlas.riken.go.jp/~ebisu/smbh.html

Introduction (4)

Merger of intermediate-mass BHs Formation of super-massive BHs

Galaxy formation

Distant neutron-star binaries Direct measurement of

acceleration of expansion of the universe

Information on dark energy

GWs from early universe Insight on inflation

Unexpected GW sources Paradigm change on the universe?

Expected science by GW observation (contd.)

NS-NS (z~1)

GW

DECIGO

Output

Expansion +Acceleration?

Time

Str

ain

Template(No Acceleration)

Real Signal ?

Phase Delay~1sec (10 years)

Seto, Kawamura, Nakamura, PRL 87, 221103 (2001)

Page 43: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

DPF Sensitivity

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Satellite mass : 350kg, Area: 2m2

Altitude: 500kmThruster noise: 0.1μN/Hz1/2

Laser source : 1030nm, 25mW IFO length : 30cmFinesse : 100, Mirror mass : 1kgQ-factor : 105, Substrate: TBDTemperature : 293K (Preliminary parameters)

10–2 10–1 100 101 10210–18

10–17

10–16

10–15

10–14

10–13

10–12

10–11

10–18

10–17

10–16

10–15

10–14

10–13

10–12

Noi

se le

vel

[1/H

z1/2 ]

Frequency [Hz]

Shot noiseMirror thermal

Laser Radiation

Laser: 1030nm, 25mWFinesse: 100Mirror mass: 1kgQ–value of a mirror: 106

Cavity length: 30cm

pressure noiseThruster noise

PM acceleration Noise

Geogravity Laser Frequency

noise

Dis

plac

emen

t Noi

se

[m/H

z1/2 ]

Page 44: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

DPF sensitivity

10–4 10–2 100 102 104

10–26

10–24

10–22

10–20

10–18

10–16

Frequency [Hz]

Stra

in

[1/H

z1/2 ]

DECIGO

LCGT

Core-collapseSupernovae

NS binaryinspiral

ScoX-1(1yr)

Pulsar(1yr)

Massive BHinspirals

Galaxybinaries

Gravity-gradient noise(Terrestrial detectors)

DPF limit

Background GWsfrom early universe

(Ωgw=10-14)

DPF sensitivity h ~ 2x10-15 Hz1/2

(x10 of quantum noises)

Foreground GWs

LISA

Page 45: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Interferometer Design

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Transponder type vs Direct-reflection type

10–4 10–3 10–2 10–1 100 101 102 10310–25

10–24

10–23

10–22

10–21

10–20

10–19

10–18

Frequency [Hz]

Stra

in

[1/H

z1/2 ]

LCGT

LISA

DECIGO(LISA type, 5x104km)

DECIGO(FP type, 1000km)

Laser: 10W, 532nmMass: 100kgMirror: 1m dia.

Decisive factor: Binary confusion noise

Compare : Sensitivity curves and Expected Sciences

Page 46: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

1. Gravitational Waves and observation

Gravitational-wave astronomy

Page 47: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Gravity of the Earth

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Measure gravity field of the Earth for Satellite Orbits

Determine global gravity field Density distribution

Monitor of change in timeGround water motionStrains in crusts by

earthquakes and volcanoes

GPS satellite

東京大字地震研・新谷氏、

京都大学・福田氏の資料/情報提供

Observation Gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO

(2012-16) DPF contribution

in international network

Page 48: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Objectives of DPF

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Page 49: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

DPF and DECIGO

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

DECIGO requirements

1000km FP cavityIFO control in spaceLow external forceLarge optics

Ultra stable LaserStabilization of sourceStabilization by long arm

Formation flightStable orbitInter S/C RangingDrag-free controlLow-noise thruster

ObservationData processionData analysisTriggered search

DPF requirements

Satellite disp.10-9 m/Hz1/2

Freq. Stability0.5 Hz/Hz1/2

Disp. noise6x10-16 m/Hz1/2 4x10-18 m/Hz1/2

Force noise10-14 N/Hz1/2

10-17 N/Hz1/2

Thruster noise10-7 N/Hz1/2

0.1 Hz bandObservation and Data analysis

Precise meas.by IFO

Stab. Laser

Drag-freecontrol

GW Obs.

1 Hz/Hz1/2

Page 50: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Arm length

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Cavity arm length : Limited by diffraction lossEffective reflectivity (TEM00 TEM00)

Laser wavelength : 532nm Mirror diameter: 1mOptimal beam size

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 101010–4

10–3

10–2

10–1

100

Arm Length [m]

Rat

io o

f ava

ilabl

e po

wer

LISALCGTTAMA DECIGO Diff

ract

ion

Loss

(5x109m)(3x103m)(300 m)

Mirror diameter : 1mOptimal beam profile

(1x106m)

Nd:YAG laser : 532nm

1000 km is almost max.

Page 51: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

IMBH inspiral and Merger

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

戎崎俊一(理化学研究所) 先生のwebページより引用http://atlas.riken.go.jp/~ebisu/smbh.html

DECIGO will observeIntermediate-mass BH (IMBH)

binary merger with SNR>6000 for z~1 source

Information on the formation of Supermassive BHs

at the center of galaxies

Page 52: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

DPF targets

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Credit: NASA, STScI

BHs in Globular clustersBH masses estimated from star motion

Estimate SNR of GW signalsEqual mass, Mass ratio 1:1/3, 100Msun BH capture

(~150 Globular Clusters in our Galaxy)

(By N.Seto)

Page 53: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

Pre-DECIGOPre-DECIGO

DECIGO

Arm length 100 km 1000 km

Mirror diameter 30 cm 1 m

Laser wavelength 0.532 µm 0.532 µm

Finesse 30 10

Laser power 1 W 10 W

Mirror mass 30 kg 100 kg

# of interferometers in each cluster

1 3

# of clusters 1 4

•27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July

9 2009 Tsukuba Ibaraki)

Page 54: the Japanese Space Gravitational Wave Antenna Masaki Andotamago.mtk.nao.ac.jp/decigo/File/international/ISTS09... · 2009-08-09 · Attitude control and Drag-free Satellite structure

SWIMµν

27th International Symposium on Space Technology and Science (July 9, 2009, Tsukuba, Ibaraki)

Tiny GW detector ~47g test masses inside Levitated control in space

Test mass

Photo sensor

Coil

TAM: Torsion Antenna Module with free-falling test mass (Size : 80mm cube, Weight : ~500g)

Reflective-type optical displacement sensor

Separation to mass ~1mmSensitivity ~ 10-9 m/Hz1/2

6 PSs to monitor mass motion

~47g Aluminum, Surface polishedSmall magnets for position control

Used for test-mass position control

Max current ~100mA

2 TAMs in the frame

SWIMmn Module