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  • Gender equality: the New Zealand experience 男女共同参画における ニュージーランドの経験

    Dr Judy McGregor EEO Commissioner,

    New Zealand Human Rights Commission

  • This presentation covers: プレゼンテーションの内容

    • Milestones in New Zealand’s (NZ) progress towards gender equality,

    • Socio-economic and cultural influences on gender equality in NZ,

    • Current strategies to improve women’s status.

  • Major milestones-women’s suffrage 主要なマイルストーン-女性の選挙権

    • First nation state to grant women the vote in 1893,

    • Women fought for the right to vote led by suffragette, Kate Sheppard,

    • Women’s suffrage petition signed by a third of the adult population.

  • Women’s suffrage 女性の選挙権

    • Kate Sheppard’s 1888 Pamphlet- Ten Reasons Why the Women of New Zealand Should Vote,

    • “Because it has not yet been proved that the intelligence of women is only equal to that of children”….. “or of lunatics or criminals”.

  • Milestones- women’s status マイルストーンー女性の地位

    • New Zealand has three women in the top four constitutional positions,

    • Prime Minister Hon. Helen Clark, the Chief Justice and the Speaker of the House of Representatives,

    • NZ has also had consecutive female Prime Ministers (Hon. Jenny Shipley and Hon Helen Clark).

  • Prime Minister of NZ ニュージーランド首相

    Prime Minister Hon Helen Clark

  • Former NZ PM (1997-1999) 前ニュージーランド首相

    Hon Jenny Shipley

  • Chief Justice of NZ ニュージーランド最高裁判所長官

    Rt Hon Dame Sian Elias

  • Speaker of the House 国会議長

    Hon Margaret Wilson

  • Milestones-global comparison マイルストーン-国際比較

    • New Zealand scores highly in international gender equality comparisons,

    • For example, New Zealand is 7th out of 115 countries in the Global Gender Gap Report, 2006,

    • Measures economic participation and opportunity, political empowerment, education, health and wellbeing.

  • Global Gender Gap 2006 2006年世界経済フォーラム報告書

  • Sweden 1

    Norway 2

    Finland 3

    Iceland 4

    Germany 5

    Philippines 6

    N. Zealand 7

    Denmark 8

    UK 9

    Ireland 10












    Sweden Norway Finland Iceland Germany Philippines N. Zealand Denmark UK Ireland

    Gender Gap Index 2006 2006年 ジェンダー・ギャップ指数


  • Gender progress – double edged sword? 男女共同参画の推進は諸刃の剣か?

    • Many New Zealanders think the battle for gender equality has been won,

    • But status of high-fliers is not the status of many thousands of New Zealand women,

    • Biggest risk to progress is complacency about what still needs to be done.

  • Female employment 女性の就労

    • Women’s labour force participation rate is at a record high- 62.2% (75.7% men),

    • Majority of NZ mothers now in full time or part time work,

    • Fathers’ work in care-giving increasing but is limited.

  • What influences gender equality? 男女共同参画に影響を与えるものは?

    • New Zealand’s cultural, social and economic norms,

    • International law (CEDAW) and domestic legislation,

    • Leadership in politics, business, and the community,

    • Female NGOs, women’s groups and individual female champions.

  • New Zealand’s cultural norms ニュージーランドの文化的規範

    • Social expectations of women in NZ less rigid than in Japan.

    • Consequence of size, history and liberal/progressive politics,

    • Acute labour and skills shortages good for women’s labour force participation,

    • Equality is a dominant value.

  • International law 国際的な約定

    • NZ has lifted its last reservation to CEDAW (Convention on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women),

    • Takes CEDAW seriously and helps smaller Pacific states with reporting,

    • August 2007, NZ periodic country report.

  • Domestic legislation 国内法制

    • Equal employment opportunities is compulsory for the public sector, (legislation) but voluntary for the private sector (no legislation),

    • Anti-discrimination law covers both sectors,

    • Pay equity cases in the courts (see handout).

  • Gender leadership 男女共同参画におけるリーダーシップ

    • Leadership in gender equality taken by the state,

    • Government statutory boards have 42% women as directors,

    • Top 100 companies listed on the NZ Stock Exchange have only 7.13% women on their boards.

  • Women’s voice 女性の声

    • Major women’s NGOs are influential in New Zealand. ( National Council of Women, Rural Women of New Zealand, the Māori Women’s Welfare League)

    • But activists getting older and civil society needs younger female leaders

  • NZ’s gender equality strategies ニュージーランドの男女共同参画戦略

    • Benchmarking- “what gets counted gets done”,

    • Census Report makes women’s progress visible,

    • Objective data useful in public debate, • Wide media publicity and use by

    politicians, policy agencies and women.

  • 2006年 ニュージーランド 女性の社会進出センサス レポート(調査報告書)

  • Strategies for change 変革への戦略

    • Census report produced by the NZ Human Rights Commission,

    • The EEO Commissioner monitors access to employment and promotes decent work for all New Zealanders,

    • Census report contains strategies for future action by stakeholders.

  • Employment: women’s status 雇用:女性の地位

    15.9% Regular armed forces

    16.9% University Profs & Ass. Profs

    17.2% Top legal partnerships

    19.2% Editors of major newspapers

    24.2% Judges

    34.4% National secretaries of trade unions

  • Governance: Women’s Participation ガバナンス:女性の登用

    5.29% NZDX

    5.74% NZAX

    7.13% Top 100 NZSX

    35.43% Crown Companies

    41.00% State Sector Statutory Bodies

    47.00% New Zealand Labour Force

  • Politics, health and education: 政治、保健、教育

    18.9% Mayors 23.8% Cabinet

    26.9% Local Govt Members 32.2% Members of Parliament 42.00% District Health Boards

    51.9% School Boards of Trustees

  • Agenda for Change strategies in Census Report 変革へのアジェンダ / センサスレポートの戦略

    • Corporate sector urged to advertise board vacancies to avoid “old boy’s network”,

    • NZ universities take action to promote/appoint more senior academic women,

    • Individual women attend workshops for local government elections in 2007.

  • Challenges for NZ’s women ニュージーランド女性の課題

    • Census Report benchmarks and suggests action,

    • But gender equality progress needs constant attention because it can slip off the political agenda,

    • Strong leadership and women as catalysts for change still required in New Zealand.

  • 114 years after women’s suffrage: 女性の選挙権から114年後

    • Women’s average hourly earnings are 86.4% of men’s earnings,

    • Māori and Pacific women suffer greater wage gaps,

    • Too many women are in low wage jobs, • Work/ life balance is a myth for many men

    and women, while a reality for others.

  • Conclusion まとめ

    • New Zealand is justly proud of its progress for women and its reputation as a world leader,

    • We should celebrate success in all our gender equality work,

    • But we should never forget that the job in New Zealand and in Japan is far from done.


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