gender equality: the new zealand ... â€¢ new zealand scores highly in international gender...
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Gender equality: the New Zealand experience 男女共同参画における ニュージーランドの経験
Dr Judy McGregor EEO Commissioner,
New Zealand Human Rights Commission
This presentation covers: プレゼンテーションの内容
• Milestones in New Zealand’s (NZ) progress towards gender equality,
• Socio-economic and cultural influences on gender equality in NZ,
• Current strategies to improve women’s status.
Major milestones-women’s suffrage 主要なマイルストーン－女性の選挙権
• First nation state to grant women the vote in 1893,
• Women fought for the right to vote led by suffragette, Kate Sheppard,
• Women’s suffrage petition signed by a third of the adult population.
Women’s suffrage 女性の選挙権
• Kate Sheppard’s 1888 Pamphlet- Ten Reasons Why the Women of New Zealand Should Vote,
• “Because it has not yet been proved that the intelligence of women is only equal to that of children”….. “or of lunatics or criminals”.
Milestones- women’s status マイルストーンー女性の地位
• New Zealand has three women in the top four constitutional positions,
• Prime Minister Hon. Helen Clark, the Chief Justice and the Speaker of the House of Representatives,
• NZ has also had consecutive female Prime Ministers (Hon. Jenny Shipley and Hon Helen Clark).
Prime Minister of NZ ニュージーランド首相
Prime Minister Hon Helen Clark
Former NZ PM (1997-1999) 前ニュージーランド首相
Hon Jenny Shipley
Chief Justice of NZ ニュージーランド最高裁判所長官
Rt Hon Dame Sian Elias
Speaker of the House 国会議長
Hon Margaret Wilson
Milestones-global comparison マイルストーン－国際比較
• New Zealand scores highly in international gender equality comparisons,
• For example, New Zealand is 7th out of 115 countries in the Global Gender Gap Report, 2006,
• Measures economic participation and opportunity, political empowerment, education, health and wellbeing.
Global Gender Gap 2006 2006年世界経済フォーラム報告書
N. Zealand 7
Sweden Norway Finland Iceland Germany Philippines N. Zealand Denmark UK Ireland
Gender Gap Index 2006 2006年 ジェンダー・ギャップ指数
Gender progress – double edged sword? 男女共同参画の推進は諸刃の剣か？
• Many New Zealanders think the battle for gender equality has been won,
• But status of high-fliers is not the status of many thousands of New Zealand women,
• Biggest risk to progress is complacency about what still needs to be done.
Female employment 女性の就労
• Women’s labour force participation rate is at a record high- 62.2% (75.7% men),
• Majority of NZ mothers now in full time or part time work,
• Fathers’ work in care-giving increasing but is limited.
What influences gender equality? 男女共同参画に影響を与えるものは？
• New Zealand’s cultural, social and economic norms,
• International law (CEDAW) and domestic legislation,
• Leadership in politics, business, and the community,
• Female NGOs, women’s groups and individual female champions.
New Zealand’s cultural norms ニュージーランドの文化的規範
• Social expectations of women in NZ less rigid than in Japan.
• Consequence of size, history and liberal/progressive politics,
• Acute labour and skills shortages good for women’s labour force participation,
• Equality is a dominant value.
International law 国際的な約定
• NZ has lifted its last reservation to CEDAW (Convention on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women),
• Takes CEDAW seriously and helps smaller Pacific states with reporting,
• August 2007, NZ periodic country report.
Domestic legislation 国内法制
• Equal employment opportunities is compulsory for the public sector, (legislation) but voluntary for the private sector (no legislation),
• Anti-discrimination law covers both sectors,
• Pay equity cases in the courts (see handout).
Gender leadership 男女共同参画におけるリーダーシップ
• Leadership in gender equality taken by the state,
• Government statutory boards have 42% women as directors,
• Top 100 companies listed on the NZ Stock Exchange have only 7.13% women on their boards.
Women’s voice 女性の声
• Major women’s NGOs are influential in New Zealand. ( National Council of Women, Rural Women of New Zealand, the Māori Women’s Welfare League)
• But activists getting older and civil society needs younger female leaders
NZ’s gender equality strategies ニュージーランドの男女共同参画戦略
• Benchmarking- “what gets counted gets done”,
• Census Report makes women’s progress visible,
• Objective data useful in public debate, • Wide media publicity and use by
politicians, policy agencies and women.
2006年 ニュージーランド 女性の社会進出センサス レポート（調査報告書）
Strategies for change 変革への戦略
• Census report produced by the NZ Human Rights Commission,
• The EEO Commissioner monitors access to employment and promotes decent work for all New Zealanders,
• Census report contains strategies for future action by stakeholders.
Employment: women’s status 雇用：女性の地位
15.9% Regular armed forces
16.9% University Profs & Ass. Profs
17.2% Top legal partnerships
19.2% Editors of major newspapers
34.4% National secretaries of trade unions
Governance: Women’s Participation ガバナンス：女性の登用
7.13% Top 100 NZSX
35.43% Crown Companies
41.00% State Sector Statutory Bodies
47.00% New Zealand Labour Force
Politics, health and education: 政治、保健、教育
18.9% Mayors 23.8% Cabinet
26.9% Local Govt Members 32.2% Members of Parliament 42.00% District Health Boards
51.9% School Boards of Trustees
Agenda for Change strategies in Census Report 変革へのアジェンダ / センサスレポートの戦略
• Corporate sector urged to advertise board vacancies to avoid “old boy’s network”,
• NZ universities take action to promote/appoint more senior academic women,
• Individual women attend workshops for local government elections in 2007.
Challenges for NZ’s women ニュージーランド女性の課題
• Census Report benchmarks and suggests action,
• But gender equality progress needs constant attention because it can slip off the political agenda,
• Strong leadership and women as catalysts for change still required in New Zealand.
114 years after women’s suffrage: 女性の選挙権から114年後
• Women’s average hourly earnings are 86.4% of men’s earnings,
• Māori and Pacific women suffer greater wage gaps,
• Too many women are in low wage jobs, • Work/ life balance is a myth for many men
and women, while a reality for others.
• New Zealand is justly proud of its progress for women and its reputation as a world leader,
• We should celebrate success in all our gender equality work,
• But we should never forget that the job in New Zealand and in Japan is far from done.