gender equality can boost economic growth prof. louka t. katseli, director oecd development centre...
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Gender equality can boost economic growth Prof. Louka T. Katseli, Director OECD Development Centre Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies Istanbul 27-30 June 2007 Slide 2 Presentation Outline Gender equality: Some trends I Why focus on gender equality? II Understanding and measuring gender equality III Policy lessonsIV Slide 3 Gender equality is getting more and more attention Bangladeshi women take part in a protest demanding equal rights in Dhaka. Photo: AFP Slide 4 and a voice Women police officers in India have formed a national forum to fight sexual harassment and discrimination from their male colleagues. Photo: BBC news Slide 5 But women in powerful positions are still an exception Chile: M. Bachelet Finland: T. Halonen Germany: A. Merkel Liberia: E. Johnson Sirleaf Out of 193 heads of state, only 23 are women! Slide 6 Gender equality: Some trends I Why focus on gender equality? II Understanding and measuring gender equality III Conclusions and OutlookIV Slide 7 Gender Equality: Intrinsic and instrumental values One of the Millennium Development Goals A potential driver for economic growth A double dividend for OECD countries increasing work force and improving demographics More sustainable growth in non-OECD countries Slide 8 A new trend in OECD countries: Employment and fertility can go together Source: Babies and Bosses, OECD (2005) Slide 9 In non-OECD countries: Lagging growth due to gender inequality 0 1 2 3 4 Sub-Saharan AfricaSouth Asia Middle East/North Africa (percent) Actual growth rate Projected growth rate Source: Engendering Development (PRR) 2001, in WDR 2000/01, Attacking Poverty. Growth effect of closing the gender gap in schooling. Slide 10 Gender equality: Some trends I Why focus on gender equality? II Understanding and measuring gender equality III Conclusions and OutlookIV Slide 11 Gender equality has many dimensions Traditional Building Blocks of Gender Equality Political Empowerment Educational Attainment Health and Wellbeing Social Institutions Economic Participation and also involves social institutions Slide 12 The OECD Data Base on Gender Social Institutions Variables Family Code Physical Integrity Civil Liberties Ownership Rights GID-DB The OECD Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base and its innovation: Slide 13 Gender inequality in social institutions Women in Africa, the Middle East and South Asia face impediments to gender equality Elevated discrimination in social institutions Moderate discrimination in social institutions High discrimination in social institutions Low discrimination in social institutions Country not included in GID-DB Slide 14 not necessarily associated with per capita income Scale: 0 (minimum) to 1 (maximum) = level of discrimination through social institutions Source: GID Database Slide 15 Gender equality: Some trends I Why focus on gender equality? II Understanding and measuring gender equality III Policy lessonsIV Slide 16 Policy lessons OECD countries: Change mindsets Allow for a better balance between family life and work Specific instruments: taxes, allowances, leave provision etc. Non-OECD countries: Improve data collection and monitor progress Better understand local specificities Ensure effective design and implementation of laws Strengthen the voice of women Communicate benefits of reforms Slide 17 For more information: www.oecd.org/dev/gender