mis project - 沃爾瑪. 報 告 大 綱 ( 一 ) 沃爾瑪簡介 ( 二 )...

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  • Slide 1
  • MIS Project
  • Slide 2
  • ( ) ( ) ( ) SCM ( ) VMI ( ) ( )
  • Slide 3
  • ( )
  • Slide 4
  • 1.1945 2. 3.
  • Slide 5
  • 1.Wal-Mart 1962 (Sam Walton) Wal-Mart 2.1992 1/5 10 3.2003 10000 Fortune
  • Slide 6
  • 2002 2445 11 4395 Fortune 1. 14.2e 26 GDP 2. 21 3. 4. (USD 20e) 1000 694
  • Slide 7
  • 1. ( ) 2. ( 02 95- 99 1/8 ) 3. ) 6%
  • Slide 8
  • 1. 2. 3. 4. (T&P) ( ) ( )
  • Slide 9
  • Fortune 2003
  • Slide 10
  • ( ) Industry Environment Analysis & Strength Wal-Mart
  • Slide 11
  • Wal-Marts (2002) Wal-mart217,799,000,000 Sears41,078,000,000 Target39,888,000,000 Kmart36,151,000,000 Costco34,137,000,000
  • Slide 12
  • Wal-Mart : Wal-Mart Wal-Mart Every Day Low price Quick Response/Efficient Consumer Response Wal-Mart
  • Slide 13
  • Wal-Mart 1.3 80 3.5 90 2.1 1995 1.8 2000 1.3 Wal-Mart K-Mart
  • Slide 14
  • Wal-Mart ( ) Supply Chain Management
  • Slide 15
  • Wal-Marts Supply Chain
  • Slide 16
  • Wal-Marts Supply Chain 1. 2. 3.
  • Slide 17
  • Wal-Marts Supply Chain 1. 2. 3. 4. Wal-Mats SCM
  • Slide 18
  • ( ) VMI
  • Slide 19
  • VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory ) VMI VMI
  • Slide 20
  • VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory) VMI
  • Slide 21
  • VMI 1. 2.
  • Slide 22
  • VMI
  • Slide 23
  • VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory)
  • Slide 24
  • VMI VMI 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. VMI
  • Slide 25
  • VMI -1 VMI VMI VMI VMI VMI VMI Wal-Mart
  • Slide 26
  • VMI -2 VMI VMI VMI VMI
  • Slide 27
  • ( )
  • Slide 28
  • Three basic philosophies for the Wal-Mart IS team 1.Run a centralized IS system for the worldwide operations from Arkansas 2.Common systems & platforms 3.Merchants first and technologists second
  • Slide 29
  • Information System Timeline 1979: Switched to computerized system to track Inventory 1983: Used barcodes on most goods, equipped all stores with checkout scanners 1990: Implemented a collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR) process to bring suppliers and distributors together to build a combined planning calendar 1996: Launched E-commerce website
  • Slide 30
  • EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) Provides standardized electronic forms that allow computer systems to communicate. Helps reduce costs, delays and errors with documents between companies. Organized messaging, fields, and structure for information.
  • Slide 31
  • From EDI to Retail Link Starting in the late 1980s and mid 1990s Wal-Mart made use of EDI so that suppliers could connect with their supply chain as well as interact with other suppliers. This allowed them to the suppliers to instantly connect with Wal-Mart to instantly track the sales of their products. EDI was expensive to maintain in that each supplier had to dial-in to a large bank of modems at relatively slow speeds and software had to be distributed to each individual supplier. EDI
  • Slide 32
  • From EDI to Retail Link Retail Link was developed in the mid 1990s by Wal-Mart to connect suppliers via internet. This system is much more robust than traditional EDI. Provides real-time forecasting tools and what-if analysis. This also provides faster speeds and automatic software updates Much easier for international suppliers to connect Retail Link
  • Slide 33
  • Electronic Auctions Provides different methods for the procurement of goods. Minimizes costs on transactions between buyers and sellers Three different types Reverse Auctions-buyer initiated Forward Auctions-seller initiated Exchange Auctions-operated by a third party
  • Slide 34
  • Wal-Mart s Reverse Auctioning Wal-Mart uses reverse auctioning as its method of procuring goods. It requires all participating companies to go through an extensive background check, and agree to a legally binding contract Furthermore, it requires that all participating companies have a certain level of technology that cooperates with its technology to minimize costs of transactions.
  • Slide 35
  • Wal-Mart and Cross Docking What Wal-Mart has that allows Cross Docking Interlocking support systems over and above traditional ROI criteria Continuous contact among Wal-Mart s distribution centers, suppliers and every point of sale Logistics infrastructure for fast and responsive transportation Supported by its 19 distribution centers and nearly 2000 company owned trucks
  • Slide 36
  • Wal-Mart and Cross Docking By saving this money and stabilizing there shipping system, through Cross Docking, Wal-Mart is able to achieve: Low prices by eliminating frequent promotions Stable prices and predictable sales which in turn reduces stock-outs and excess inventory Lower prices bring in more customers which increases sales per retail square foot
  • Slide 37
  • Wal-Mart and Cross Docking In Wal-Mart s Cross Docking system, good never spend more than 48 hours at one loading dock. Good are in one door, and out the other. Wal-Mart has its own trucking to make this easier and again to minimize costs. Runs 85% of its goods through its warehouse system (Kmart runs at 50%)
  • Slide 38
  • BuyerSeller Goal : Link buyer and Seller Electronically The CPFR Process GENERATE ORDER FRONT END AGREEMENT JOINT BUSINESS PLAN Collaborative Planning CREATE SALES FORECAST IDENTIFY EXCEPTIONS RESOLVE EXCEPTIONS Collaborative Forecasting CREATE ORDER FORECAST IDENTIFY EXCEPTIONS RESOLVE EXCEPTIONS Collaborative Replenishment
  • Slide 39
  • Slide 40
  • Wal-Mart s CPFR Program CPFR has blurred the lines between supplier and customer Suppliers buy into their program because they have to to work with Wal-Mart, but more importantly, because Wal-Mart s Systems provide increased profits for Wal-Mart and their suppliers Wal-Mart teaches their suppliers how to minimize shipping, inventory and other costs by showing them their own model.
  • Slide 41
  • E-Commerce Defined as transactions conducted electronically between businesses via networks. Internet Ethernet Private Networks Includes: Ordering, shipping, payment, planning collaboration and performance agreements. Over $700 million in transactions in 2001
  • Slide 42
  • Customers Suppliers Intranet Extranet Internet EDI Customer Order Application Manufacturer EDI Web Application B2B E-Commerce (Seller) 42
  • Slide 43
  • OrganizationSuppliers Internal Buyers Intranet Extranet Internet EDI Purchase Order Application Web Application EDI Distribution B2B e-Commerce (Buyer) 43
  • Slide 44
  • Benefits of E-Commerce Minimize Costs Inventory Storage Shipping Maximize Efficiency Improve both customer and supplier relations
  • Slide 45
  • Wal-Mart and E-Commerce Wal-Mart is a leader in E-Commerce Uses Supply Chain Management, Automated Order Entry Systems, EDI, Cross Docking and Private Industrial Networks Cost of Goods Sold is 5-10% less than its competitors CPFR program
  • Slide 46
  • ( )
  • Slide 47
  • Wal-Mart ECR QR RSP Cross-docking CRM Cost advantages
  • Slide 48
  • ECR QR EDI POS Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment CPFR VMI CRS
  • Slide 49
  • RSP Retailer- suppler partnerships IS inventory reduction cost impact RSP CRS VMI
  • Slide 50
  • Cross-docking Wal-Mart CRS Cross-docking
  • Slide 51
  • CRM
  • Slide 52
  • Cost advantages International supply chain just-in-time inventory Point of Sale(POS) Retail Link CRS VMI Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR)
  • Slide 53