object past participle 構文における動詞havl と ...· the have + object + past participle

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  • 35 (20) 109--..116

    Hav+ Object + Past Participle havl

    The Meaning of the Verb Have and Its Complement in the Have + Object + Past Participle Construction

    Ayumi TSUKIASHI

    The have + object + past participle construction has usually been interpreted either as causative or experiential and in either case the verb have appears to have two distinctive meanings namely the agentive causative meaning in the former and the stative meaning in the latter. Taking into account the meanings of the past participle and the kinds of the event described in the complement we however find that it is the different meanings of the past participles that give the main verb have different meanings. This leads us to assume that have is always the stative verb designating possession and the prototypical meaning of the construction is such that the subject possesses" the event described in the complement in some way. This explanation

    focused on what have means and i ts relation to the elements which follow i t also appl ies to the have + object construction.

    key words: past participle causative agentive experiential complement

    state event

    1 .

    Have + Object(: 0)+ Past Participle(: PP) causative() experiential() 2

    have

    (1) The guard patrol had two men shot. (Quirk et al. 1985: 1207)

    ( 1 ) causative (f 2J) haveagentive causative meaning experiential (f

    2J) have stativemeaning

    109

  • have have

    have (QtPP) have

    have

    PP havl (ordinaryverb) 1 havl

    have 3

    havet Q t PP

    2 . Have t 0

    have

    2 Thomson&

    Martinet(1986) (auxiliaryverb)

    havepossess"

    take"(ameal/food or drink a bath/a lesson etc.)gi ve" (a party)

    entertain"(guests)encounter"(difficulties/trouble)experience" enjoy"

    (2a-d)

    (2)a. We have lunch at one.

    b. They are having a party tomorrow.

    c. Did you have trouble with Customs?

    d. 1 hope you'll have a good holiday. (Thomsonartinet1986: 125)

    (2a-d) have

    have

    have

    have(3a-b) (2ad)(4a-b)

    (3)a. * He is having a black beard. b. ?? Have a black beard.

    (4)a. We are having lunch.

    b. Have a good holiday.

    have

    1 Oexicalverb)

    110

  • Have + Object + Part Participle have

    have

    havl 2

    havea brother

    havelunchresultingstate"

    ongoingprocess" brother

    brother havelunch

    lunch lunch

    (4a)

    (5 )

    (5) * I'm having a brother.

    (6 )

    (6) I'm having a brother soon.

    ( 3 ) (4)

    havea Japanese car

    Havea Japanese car.

    have

    have+ 0 2

    have+ 0 + pp

    haveJrJr

    have 2

    3 . ha ve + 0 + pp havl o+ pp O

    have

    4

    E4 ..

    tzE

  • have

    have

    event

    Ikegami(1989) Ikegami have

    Object

    make get make get

    (

    causee) hav+0 + pp causee

    Ikegami have(7 )

    (7) . .. something 1 ike 'the subject experiences an event described by obj ect + past participle.'"

    Ikegami ppsemanticfocus

    hav have pp have

    O

    have

    Ikegami have

    have+ 0( 7 ) Ikegami

    have

    pp o state

    pp event pp

    pp2 Inoue(1995) statereading

    event reading Ikegami(1989) adjective

    verbalcharacter

    (8) The town was destroyed.

    (9) a. The town was (already) destroyed (when we got there).

    b. The town was destroyed (house by house).

    (Langacker 1982:61)

    ( 8 ) 2 (9a) i()

    (9b) i()

    112

  • Have + Object + Part Participle have

    Langacker(1982 1991)PPPerfectParticiple [PERF1] [PERF2] [PERF3]

    3[PERF1] [PERF2] Inouestatereading[PERF3]eventreading

    (10) a. [PERF 1] [PERF2]: they designate only the final state in the verbal

    process and therefore ~djectival or stative in an obvious sense.

    b. [PERF3]: the passive expressions are 2rocessua1 ---designating all

    the states within a process as it unfolds not just the final state.

    (Langacker 1982: 61)

    PP 2 hav(1 1)havestative(1 2 ) active( dynamic)

    (11) Kelvin's a great planner. He has to have everything done in a great detail

    before he'll embark on anything. (Ikegami 1989: 202)

    (12) The NWAA is already having an independent inquiry carried out by a leading

    firm of consultants. (Ikegami 1989: 200)

    ( 1 1) PP Langackeronlythe final state"

    (1 3 ) PP Langacker(10b)

    (allthe states within

    a process") havl (1 1)(1 2 )

    (1995)

    (1 3)

    ( 1 3)

    Have causative(1 2 ) theNA

    (agent)

    o causative

    113

  • E

    have + 0(1 2 ) ppprocessual lunch

    O

    havelunch

    (1 1) ppfinalstate

    (1 4)

    (14) 1 had my wallet stolen. ()

    (15) a. * Have your wallet stolen. b. * I'm having my wallet stolen.

    have + 0 pp havea brother uncontrollable

    (1 5)

    (16) 1 have two brothers.

    (17) a. * Have two brothers. b. * 1 'm hav ing two brothers.

    final state

    ()

    (18)* 1 had the piano played by her.

    (19)* We had soccer played by those men.

    hav o+ pp Quirket al.(1985:1207) find~ di scovr~ leave pp

    (resulting state)(2 0)

    (20) They found / discovered / left him worn out by travel and exertion.

    114

  • Have + Object + Part Paiciple have

    //

    have have

    4.

    Havl+ 0 + PP causative experiential

    PP have

    2 have+ 0

    Have

    Have O o+ PP

    Have + 0 + PP causee()

    Declerck Renaat. (1991) A Comprehensive Descriptive Grammar of English. Tokyo: Kaitakusya

    Dieterich Thomas G. (1975)Causative Have." CLS 11 165-176. Ikegami Yoshihiko.(1989)HAVE+object+past participle' and GET+object+past

    participle' in the SEU Corpus." J1eaning and Beyond: Ernst Lisi zum 70 Geburtstag ed. by Udo Fries and Martin Heusser 197-213 Gunter Narr: Tubingen.

    .(1990)'HAVE/GET/MAKE/LET + Object + (to-)Infinitive' in the SEU Corpus." [J

    :c!l 181-203.:Inoue Kazuko. (1991) I Havec!l1726-38.

    .(1995)Causative Have and Experiential Have." English Linguistics 12 73-95. Langacker Ronald W.(1982)Space Grammaralysabilityand the English Passive."

    Languag58 22-80.

    .(1991) Foundations of Cognitive Grammar: Volume 2 DescriptivAppl i ca ti on.

    Stanford: Stanford University Press.

    .(1992) IVEJ[J:c!l 333-342.

    :

    115

  • Quirk Randolph Sidney Greenbaum Geoffrey Leech and Jan Svartvik.(1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.

    Thomson A. J.A.V. Martinet.(1986) A Practical English Grammar. 4th Ed. Oxford:

    Oxford University Press.

    Wierzbicka Anna.(1998)The Semantics of English Causative Constructions in a

    Universal-Typological Perspective." ThNew Psychology of Language: Cognitive and

    Functional Approaches to Language Structure. ed. by Michael Tomasello 113-153.

    Marwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

    .(1993)r haveJ[Jdl 9

    .(1995) [J:

    116

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