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Submitted to:- Dr. Harpreet Kaur gill Submitted by :- Harwinder Kaur, 1375 M.A. Edu. 2 nd sem

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personality and its measurement detail in personality

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  • 1. Submitted to:-Submitted by :-Dr. Harpreet Kaur gillHarwinder Kaur, 1375 M.A. Edu. 2 nd sem

2. SUB-THEME 3. CONTENT S WHAT IS PERSONALITY INTRODUCTION MEANING OF PERSONALITY DEFINITIONS OF PERSONALITY ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERSTICS OF PERSONALITY INTEGRATION OF PERSONALITY TYPES OF PERSONALITY THEORIES OF PERSONALITY MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY TYPES OF MEASUREMENT PERSONALITY TEST OF PERSONALITY CONCLUSION 4. WHAT IS PERSONALITY? Personalityincludes all the special qualities people have that make them different from each other. These include : charm, energy disposition, attitude temperament, cleverness and all feeling and behaviours they exhibit. 5. INTRODUCTION OF PERSONALITY Personalityis the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual 6. MEANING OF PERSONALITY The term personality is derived from the Latin word Persona meaning a Mask. Personality is a patterned body of habits, traits, attitudes and ideas of an individual as these are organized externally into roles and statuses and as they relate internally to motivation, goals and various aspects of selfhood. 7. DEFINITIONS OF PERSONALITY G.W. Allport :- personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment. 8. Woodworths view :Personality is the total quality of individuals behaviour. 9. Aspects of Personality Physical aspect Intellectual aspect Emotional aspect Social aspect Volitional aspect Moral aspect Biological aspect Cognitive aspect 10. Characterstics of personality Self- Consciouness Unique Sociability Adjustability Goal-directed Unity and integrability Consistency Persistance Dynamic and flexible 11. INTEGRATION OF PERSONALITY A person in whom the various aspects of personality i.e., physical, intellectual, emotional, and social are working in a harmonius and effective manner.ie``k AijhI sKsIAq ijs iv`c sKsIAq dy v`K v`K pihlU (srIirk,bOiDk,Bwvwqimk Aqy swmwijk) susMgq Aqy pRBwvswlI FMg nwl kMm kr rhy hn 12. Characteristics of Integration of Personality Balance between mental process Harmonius adjustment to social environment Adequate perception Positive self- concept Ego involvement Adequate inter- personal relations Adequate feelings of security Adequate feeling of self- confidence 13. Intellectually developed and emotionally mature Healthy attitudes and interest Healthy philosophy of life 14. Types of Personality Modern Classification Jungs Cllassification Hippocrates Cllassification Kretschmers Classification Sheldons Classification Sprangers Classification 15. Modern Classification Men of feelingMorgan and Gilliland According Elated (pRsMnic`q) Depressed (audwsIn)Men of action Men of thoughtIrritable (icVicVw) Unstable (AsiQr) Abstract thinking (sUKm icMqk) Idea thinkers (ivcwr icMqk) Thinks thinkers(icMqn leI icMqk) 16. Jungs ClassificationIntroverts (Subjective, Solitude, Idealists, Self-Centered, Better in writing)Extroverts(Objective, Society, realists, Interested in other people, Better in speech, Dominant)Ambiverts (Balanced ) 17. Hippocrates Classification Sanguine AwSwvwdI Melancholic inrwSwvwdI Choleric kRRRoDI Phlegmatic mMd 18. Kretschmers Classification Asthenic SkqIhIx Athletic iKfwrI Pyknic nwty Dysplastic imSrq 19. Sheldons Classification type golwkwr Mesomorphic Awieqwkwr Ectomorphic lMbwkwr Endomorphic 20. Sprangers Classification type isDwNiqk Economic AwriQk Social smwijk Aesthetic klwqimk Political rwjnIiqk Religious Dwrimk Theoretical 21. Theories of Personality Typetheories Traits theories Personality dynamic theories 22. Type Theories Constitution rcnw Physical dimensions srIr dIAW imxqIAW jW bxqr Values mu`l dw isDWq Behaviour ivvhwr dw isDWq Psycho-sexual development mnoilMgI ivkws Nature theory pRikrqI isDWq Self-feeling theory svY-Bwvnw dw isDWq Miscellaneous types Putkl iksmW 23. Trait theories of personality Walter Michael the book Introduction to Personality Trait is a continuous dimension on which individual differences may be arranged quantitatively in terms of the amount of characteristics, the individual has. G. W. Allports R.B. Cattells H.J. Eyesencks 24. Theories of Personality Dynamics Psycho-analytictheory of Freud (1856-1937) Carl Jungs Analytic Psychology Alfred Adlers Individual Psychology (18701937) Ranks Theory of Birth Trauma (1884-1939) Karen Horneys Basic Anxiety Theory Sullivans theory of Inter-personal relations(1892-1949) 25. What does personality assessment achieve ? Testsmust be both reliable and valid Reliability: consistency, same results over period of time Validity: the test measures what it professes to measure Measure of personality varies by theoretical perspective 26. Personality Assessment assists counselor in : Understanding the behavior of a particular Individual Helps counselor comes to a conclusion about a possible future course of action Helps counselor make predictions about a persons unique future behavior 27. Measurement of Personality ijhVI cIj sUKm jW sQUliksy vI rUp ivc hY, ijs dI pirBwSw kIqI jw skdI hY[ivAkiqqv iek sMklp hY,Dwrnw hY,mnu`K dIAW KslqW, ivSySqwvW, XogqwvW, rucIAW, psMdW, vyKx-socx dy FMgW, iBMn-iBMn aukswhtW dy pRiqkrmW, ivvhwrW Awid dw sMgiTq puMj 28. Subjected MethodsObjective MethodProjective Techniques 29. (A) Subjective Method Autobiography method Case History method Biography method 30. Autobiography Autobiographyis the study of the subject narrated or written by himself. It is a faithful record of ones past and present. Psychologists supply the various headings of the story, if needed. The subjects narrates or writes about various aims, ambitions, achivements, attitude, adventures, events, experiences, interests and activities of his life. 31. Case history method In this method, we collect information about hereditary and environmental factors which influence personality development of the individual. It is a sort of physical, intellectual, academic, emotional and social history of the individual. 32. Questionnaire A questionnairecontains a long list of questions designed to collect information from the individual 33. Definition of Questionnaire Goode and Hatt Acc.:- In general the word questionnaire refers to a device for securing answers to questions by using a form which the respondent fills in himself. 34. Barr et al. (1953)Acc.:Questionnaire as a systematic compilation of questions that are administered to a sample of population form which information is desired. 35. Types of Questionnaire Interrogative form pRSn sUck rUp (hW jW nWh) audwhrn:- kI qusI ieMjInIAirMg psMd krdy ho ? Inventory form sUcI rUp (KwlI QwvW) audwhrn :- mYN ----- rucI lYNdw hW [ Check list form cYY`k ilst rUp ( ) audwhrn :- hyTW kuJ ik`iqAW dy nW id`qy hn [ dw inSwn aus ik`qy qy lgwau ijsnMU qusI psMd krdy ho[ 36. Questionnaire Form Open Form Questionnaire Closed Form Questionnaire Pictorial Form Questionnaire 37. Open form Questionnaire It is also known as Free Responses or Unstructured Type Questionnaire. As the name of the form indicates, the respondent is at liberty to express his attitudes, interest, preferences and decisions in his own words because no clues are provided 38. Closed form Questionnaire The closed or structured form requires short and check responses. It may provide for making Yes or No ,or just a check from a list of suggested responses. 39. Construction of Questionnaire Purpose of Questionnaire :- A good questionnaire must serve two major purpose. First- It must translate the objectives of an investigation into specific questions. Secondly The questionnaire must motivate the respondents to communicate the required information 40. Language Information Level of the respondent Social acceptance of responses Leading Questions Sequence of questions The form or type of questions Length of the questionnaire Experts opinion Preliminary tryout of the questionnaire Validation of questionnaire Reliability of questionnaire Administration of a questionnaire Analysing and interpreting questionnaire responses 41. Use of Questionnaire in Guidance Programme Intercsts Behaviour Aptitude Miscellaneous information Data Causes of maladjustment 42. Characterstics of good Questionnaire Significant job Short and Comprehensive Clear objectives Clear directions Well worded No confidential matter Not suggestive Order of queastions Interesting No annoying questions Easy to tabulate and interpret 43. Interview Interviewis a called conversation with a purpose. It is face to face relationship between the interviewer and the interviewee. 44. Definitions of Interview To Macobys view :- Interview is face to face verbal interchange in which one person, the interviewer attempts to elicit information on expression, opinions or beliefs from another person or persons Acc.To Wrightstone and Others :- The Interview is a method for obtaining data by face to face conference with an individual. Acc. 45. Types of Interview Unstructuredinterview :- Unstructured interview aims at assessing the personality of the individual without the aid of any previously decided set questions. This type of interview is very flexible and adaptable. Structured interview :- Inorder to reduce the subjectivity of unstructured interview procedure is structured. Interview is to be conducted according to a prepared set of questions, and areas of inquiry to be covered. 46. Types of Interview Diagnostic interview Administrative interview Employment interview Admission interview Informative interview Research interview Counselling interview 47. Functions of Interview To have a face to face talk with the interviewee and to assist him To collect information from the interview To part information to the interviewee To motivate the interviewee and enable him to take interest in himself To help the interviewee in solving educational, vocationaln and psychological problems 48. Steps of Interview Preparation of the Interview Unfolding the problem Joint working of the problem Closing the Interview Evaluation and Follow up 49. Qualities of good Interviewer Good listener Good Orator Ability to establish rapport Attitude towards interviewee Humorous Emotional maturity Objective attitude No surprise Conversation Personality and philosophy of life 50. Advantages of Interview Flexible Natural Variety of purposes Solution of problems Useful even for illiterates Easy to conduct 51. Limitations of Interview Subjective Time Consuming Needs axperts Artificial situation Digression Difficult to interpret Lacks reliability and validity 52. Objective Methods Methods of observation (1) Controlled observation (2) Uncontrolled observation Situation Tests (1) Real Situation Test (2) Imaginary Situation Test 53. Behavioural TestRating Scale MethodSociometric Method 54. (1) Controled Observation :implies under certain rules and standardised conditions(a)Time Sampling (b) Day Record Teaching (c)Syestematic Record (2) Uncontroled Observation :- 55. Situation tests Real Situation test Imaginary Situation testIn this method, here situations are artificially created in which an individual is expected to perform acts related to the personality traits under testing. For example, to test the honesty of an individual, some situation can be created and his reaction can be evaluated in terms of honesty or dishonesty. 56. Sociometric Method It may be defined as a technique forrevealing and evaluationg the social structure of a group through the measurement of the frequency of acceptance of non-acceptance between the individual who constitute the group. A socio metric test may be devised for innumerable groups situation. There are four concentric circles, acceptability scores. Sociogram is prepared. Hartshoma and May devised measures for some other aspects of behaviour,such as stealing. 57. Rating Scales By rating is meant the qualified judgment or opinionof one person by another. Opinions are usually expressed on a scale of values. In other words, rating is a technique in which we systematise the expression of opinion concerning a particular trait. 58. View of Ruth Strang :- Rating is, in essence, directed observation. 59. View of Garrett :- The rating scale is a device for obtaining judgement of the degree which an individual possessses certain behaviour traits and at ributes not readily detectable by objective tests. 60. Types of Rating Scale Numerical Scale Standard Scales Graphic Scales Rating by Cumulative points Forced choice ratings Percentage of group scale 61. Numerical Scale In the typically numerical scale, a sequence ofdefined numbers is supplied to the rater or to the observer. The rater or the observer assigns to each stimulus, to be rated, an appropirate number in line with these definitions or descriptions. 62. Graphic scale The graphic scale is the most popular and the mostwidely used type of rating scale. In this scale, a straight line is vertically or horizontal, with various cues to help the rater. The line is either segmented in units or it is continuous. If the line is segmented, the number of parts can be varied. 63. Standard scale In standard scales, a set of standards is presented tothe rater. The standards are usually objects of some kind to be rated with pre-established scale values. 64. Rating by Cumulated points The unique and common feature of rating bycumulated points is in the method of scoring. The rating score for an object or individual is the sum or average of the weighted or un weighted points. The check list method & the Guess-who technique belong to this category of rating 65. Forced choice rating In Forced-Choice-Rating method the rater is asked,not to say whether the rate has a certain trait or to say how much of ratee has but to say essentially whether he has more of one trait than another of a pair. 66. Percentage of group scale Here the rater is asked to give the percentage of thegroup that possessess personality trait on which the person is rated. 67. Advantages of Rating Scale Supplement Selection of students Useful for teacher Knowledge of progress of students Knowledge of achievements & progress of students Comparison Motivation Removing weakness Helping in sending report Helpful in administration 68. Limitations of Rating Scales Subjective Difficulty in rating Limited contact Low reliability Lack of willinness Non availability of experts Generosity error Sringency error Halo error Error of central tendency Logical error 69. Defining the trait Defining the scale Straight forward traits Number of traits Different situations Directions Providing some space Use of scale Trained raters Several raters Independent judgment Uniform standard 70. Generosity error : There is humanunwillingness to give up favourable judgement of their fellows. The raters own feeling and sympathy towards a particular ratess compells him to be generous while rating a particular individual Stringency error : some raters have the tendency to rate all the individuals low. 71. Hello error : Hello means a tendency to rate in terms of general impressions about the ratee formed on the basis of some previous experience. Central tendency error : There is a tendency in some rayers to rate all the rates near the mid point of the scale. Logical error : this error occurs when the trait to be rated is misunderstood. 72. Projective Techniques Acc. To Thorpe and Schmuller :- The projective method is a means for describing the individuals pattern of behaviour on the basis of his responses to stimuli. 73. Characteristics of projective Tests Total Personality Different responses Analysis of responses Unstructured situations Freedom to respond Multi- dimensional responses No right or wrong answer Disguised procedure 74. The Rorschach Inkblot Test Use of inkblots to assess personality functioning proposed by Binet in 1916 Rorschach was first person to use them to identify psychological disorders began his investigations around 1911 Psychodiagnostik 1921 died in 1922 at age of 36 75. History of the Test initially unenthusiastic response to book David Levy brought test to US from Europe his student, Samuel J. Beck, wrote a no. of books about the test, & helped popularize it until his death in 1980 others who popularized it were Marguerite Hertz, Bruno Klopfer, Zygmunt Piotrowski & David Rapaport became extremely popular WLU library holds about 20 books on Rorschach there is an annual international conference just on the Rorschach 76. Test Stimuli inkblots formed by dropping ink on piece of paper & folding it Rorschach selected 10 from thousands of inkblots he experimented with: five black & gray; 2 black, grey & red; 3 different colours 77. Administration of Test examiner hands card to subjects & asks what might this be examiner keeps a verbatim record of responses to each card, reaction time & duration of responses, position in which cards are held, spontaneous remarks, emotional expressions each card administered twice free association inquiryduring inquiry, tester attempts to ascertain what in the inkblot made person see what he/she saw 78. What is the Rorschach? The stimuli were generated by dropping ink onto a cardand folding it They are not, however, random: the ten cards in the current test were hand-selected out of thousands that Rorschach generated Ten blots 5 black/white, 2 red/gray (II & III) and 3 color (VIII X) Thought to tap into the deep layers of personality and bring out what is not conscious to the test taker The following are the inkblots 79. Rorschach (cont.) Exners Comprehensive Scoring System 1. Location - W = whole (intellectual potential) - D = subdivisions (common sense) - Dd = details (compulsive tendencies) - DW (confabulated detail) 2. Content (i.e., general class to where response belongs) - people, part of a person, clothing, animal, part of an animal, nature, anatomical 80. 3. Determinants (i.e., specific property of the blot) - F = shape/outline (rational approach) - M = movement (imagination) - C = color (emotional reactions) - Y = shades of grey (depression) 4. Form Quality 5. typical vs. unusual response 6. time 81. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Construct a story about what you see on the following pictureDescribe: - what led up to the scene - what is happening - what the characters in the story might think or feel - how the story will end 82. Thematic Apperception Tests The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): 30 grayscale pictures + one blank for elicitation of stories each contain a dramatic event or critical situation Most subjects see 10-12 cards, over two sessions Based on Murray's (1938) theory of 28 social needs (sex, affiliation, dominance, achievement, attitudes etc.) People would project into their story their needs Attention is paid to the protagonist in each story and his/her environmental stressors Many variations on this 'story-telling' test exist 83. TAT (cont.) Administration: not standardized - Not the same 20 cards Not the same order Seldom 2 sessions Instructions differScoring is Minimal Low Reliability & Validity 84. TAT scoring/interpretation Scoring Congruence with picture stimuli Conformity with directions ConflictPsychometric properties: internal consistency is low; high reliability but diminishes with time, 2 months, r = .80; 10 months r = .50; Inter-rater reliability vary with studies: range .3 to .9 85. Scoring is based on the follwing factors The style of the story: i.e., its length, language, used , originality etc. Theme of the story: common themes like parental domination etc. or uncommon themes. Relation between the end and the plot of story 86. The description of the figuers : who are depicted to be in some authority? Primary and secondary identification : the choice of hero for the story and person second in importance. Handling of authority figures and sex relationships: the assumption is that the subject organises material from his own personal life and projects it by mean of the figures represented in the pictures. In brief, he reveals his personality in the stories he tells. 87. Play Technique Through play, social and abnormal behaviour of the children can be known because the children try to describe their feelings of tension, aggression, fear and frustration to the objects they use as a play material and these feelings and expression through play. Children are given every opportunity to play freely with toys. But the play situations should be planned and controlled in order to make some valid conclusions. 88. Word Association test In this method, the subject is asked to speak out the first word that come to his mind after listening the stimulus word. These words are selected from various areas of conflict, for example, family, school, friends etc. In evaluating word association test, two factors are noted; Contd. 89. (a)(b)Reaction time : i.e. the time between the word spoken by the experimenter and response word spoken by the subject Response word : i.e. which word the subject speaks in response to a word spoken by the examiner. 90. Sentence Completion Test Inthis method, the subject is given some incomplete sentences. In each case the beginning is given. The subject is asked to go through the list quickly and complete each sentenc. Example: (a) I do not like. (b) I love. 91. Personality Inventories Personalityinventories are used to study the attitudes and other characterstics of person.inventories exist in the form of questionnaies. 92. Some personality inventores are Bell AdjustmentInventory : Two forms adults and for the students, 223 items, final has 140 items measure four categories. (1) Health (2) Home (3) Social (4) Emotional adjustment 36 item each,reliability 0.80 to 0.90 Items Do you day dream frequently. 93. Bernreater Personality Inventory consist 125 items, measure, (1) Neuroticism, (2) self- sufficiency (3) Extroversion,(4) Dominancy,(5) lociability, (6) lack of selfconfidence, relibility 0.80 to 0.90 used 9 and 166 also adults. Items Do people ever come to you for advice. Allport and Allport : A-S Reaction study two form men and women. The study men has 33 items, for women 34 items. Situations are presented verbally. 94. Evaluation High reliability, validity inadequate Items are sometimes very ambigous We do not know any norm for ideal adjustment or behaviour They have very low diagnostic value They are useful in the study of group trends in differebtiating between group of adjusted and meladjusted rather than between individuals. 95. Examples of Projectives Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank (RISB)Complete the following sentences to express your real feelings: -I like .. My greatest fear .. This PSY 3090.D instructor is .. 96. RISB (cont.) Designed to screen for emotional maladjustment Info about wishes, desires, likes, dislikes, fears, and locus of control 40 items: easy to administer (group or ind.) Rigorous scoring system: high interrater r Scoring ranges from 0 to 6 Responses are scored as to the degree of conflict expressed, optimism shown, length of responses, omissions Psychometrically sound but less used 97. Draw-a-Person Test - Originally to assess childrens intelligence - Now: a screening procedure for emotional disturbance - Cannot constitute a diagnosis - The administration:Draw a person Draw a person of the opposite sex Draw yourself 98. Draw-a-Person Test Administrator Asks: - Can you please draw a person? - Draw whatever you like in any way you like? Administrator Then Asks: - Draw a person of the opposite sex? 99. Draw-a-Person Test (cont.) Subjective vs. quantitative scoring system Clinician looks for: Sequence of body parts Verbalizations during the drawing process Size & placement of figures on the page Amount of action depicted Systematization in doing the task Number of erasures Shading Gender of picture Over attention to certain body parts 100. Other common projective tests CAT Children Apperception Test (Bellak, 1975) Word Association Test Rapaport et al. (1946, 1968) 60 words: neutral and traumatic scored: popularity, RT, content, test-retest responses Sentence Completion Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank 40 sentences evaluated on 7 point scale by need for therapy to extremely good adjustment House-Tree-Person Test (Buck, 1948) & DrawA-Person (Machover, 1949): Subject is asked to draw Scoring is on absolute size, relative size of elements, omissions 101. Conclusion Personality is no single trait or quality of a person. The entire pattern of behaviour points to his personality. The personality of a person is a mirror of his whole organised behaviour patterns. 102. References Dr. J .S. Walia Prof. S.P. Chaube Dr. Menakshi From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia R.A. Sharma