اتفاقية الأمم المتحدة للخطابات الالكترونية انكليزي

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  • UNITED NATIONS

    United Nations Conventionon the Use of

    Electronic Communicationsin International Contracts

    United Nations publication

    ISBN: 978-92-1-133756-3Sales No. E.07.V.2

    V.06-57452January 20072,800

  • *0657452*Printed in AustriaV.06-57452January 20072,800

    Further information may be obtained from:

    UNCITRAL secretariat, Vienna International Centre,P.O. Box 500, 1400 Vienna, Austria

    Telephone: (+43-1) 26060-4060 Telefax: (+43-1) 26060-5813Internet: http//www.uncitral.org E-mail: uncitral@uncitral.org

    The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)is a subsidiary body of the General Assembly. It plays an important role inimproving the legal framework for international trade by preparing internationallegislative texts for use by States in modernizing the law of international tradeand non-legislative texts for use by commercial parties in negotiatingtransactions. UNCITRAL legislative texts address international sale of goods;international commercial dispute resolution, including both arbitration andconciliation; electronic commerce; insolvency, including cross-border insolvency;international transport of goods; international payments; procurement andinfrastructure development; and security interests. Non-legislative texts includerules for conduct of arbitration and conciliation proceedings; notes on organizingand conducting arbitral proceedings; and legal guides on industrial constructioncontracts and countertrade.

  • United Nations Conventionon the Use of

    Electronic Communicationsin International Contracts

    UNITED NATIONSNew York, 2007

    UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW

  • UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION

    Sales No. E.07.V.2

    ISBN 978-92-1-133756-3

    NOTE

    Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letterscombined with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to aUnited Nations document.

    Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, butacknowledgement is requested, together with a copy of the publicationcontaining the quotation or reprint.

  • iii

    Contents

    Page

    United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communicationsin International Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    Chapter I. Sphere of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    Article 1. Scope of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Article 2. Exclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Article 3. Party autonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    Chapter II. General provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    Article 4. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Article 5. Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Article 6. Location of the parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Article 7. Information requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    Chapter III. Use of electronic communications in international contracts . . 5

    Article 8. Legal recognition of electronic communications . . . . . . . . . 5Article 9. Form requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Article 10. Time and place of dispatch and receipt of electronic

    communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Article 11. Invitations to make offers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Article 12. Use of automated message systems for contract formation 7Article 13. Availability of contract terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Article 14. Error in electronic communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    Chapter IV. Final provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    Article 15. Depositary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Article 16. Signature, ratification, acceptance or approval . . . . . . . . . . 8Article 17. Participation by regional economic integration organizations 8Article 18. Effect in domestic territorial units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Article 19. Declarations on the scope of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Article 20. Communications exchanged under other international

    conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Article 21. Procedure and effects of declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Article 22. Reservations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Article 23. Entry into force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Article 24. Time of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Article 25. Denunciations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

  • iv

    Paragraphs Page

    Explanatory note by the UNCITRAL secretariat on the United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 13

    II. Main features of the Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20 13

    A. Sphere of application (articles 1 and 2) . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 14

    B. Location of the parties and information requirements(articles 6 and 7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9 14

    C. Treatment of contracts (articles 8, 11, 12 and 13) . . . 10-12 15

    D. Form requirements (article 9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14 15

    E. Time and place of dispatch and receipt of electroniccommunications (article 10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-17 16

    F. Relationship to other international instruments(article 20) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-20 17

    III. Summary of preparatory work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-43 17

    IV. Article-by-article remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-324 26

    Preamble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-52 26

    Chapter I. Sphere of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53-89 28

    Article 1. Scope of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53-69 28Article 2. Exclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-83 32Article 3. Party autonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84-89 36

    Chapter II. General provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90-128 38

    Article 4. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90-106 38Article 5. Interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 41Article 6. Location of the parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108-121 42Article 7. Information requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122-128 45

    Chapter III. Use of electronic communications ininternational contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129-250 47

    Article 8. Legal recognition of electroniccommunications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129-132 47

    Article 9. Form requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133-170 48 Article 10. Time and place of dispatch and receipt of

    electronic communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171-196 58Article 11. Invitations to make offers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197-207 65Article 12. Use of automated message systems for

    contracts formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208-215 69Article 13. Availability of contract terms . . . . . . . . . . . 216-223 71Article 14. Error in electronic communications . . . . . . 224-250 73

  • v

    Paragraphs Page

    Chapter IV. Final provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251-324 80

    Article 15. Depositary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251-252 80Article 16. Signature, ratification, acceptance or

    approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253-256 81Article 17. Participation by regional economic

    integration organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257-270 82Article 18. Effect in domestic territorial units . . . . . . . 271-276 86Article 19. Declarations on the scope of application . . 277-286 88Article 20. Communications exchanged under other

    international conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287-303 91Article 21. Procedure and effects of declarations . . . . . 304-310 95Article 22. Reservations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311-317 97Article 23. Entry into force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318-320 98Article 24. Time of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321-324 99

  • 1

    United Nations Convention on theUse of Electronic Communications

    in International Contracts

    The States Parties to this Convention,

    Reaffirming their belief that international trade on the basis of equalityand mutual benefit is an important element in promoting friendly relationsamong States,

    Noting that the increased use of electronic communications improvesthe efficiency of commercial activities, enhances trade connections andallows new access opportunities for previously remote parties and markets,thus playing a fundamental role in promoting trade and economic develop-me