indian railways irpwm-2004.pdf · the railway board will be glad to consider any comments and...

312
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF RAILWAYS (RAILWAY BOARD) INDIAN RAILWAYS PERMANENT WAY MANUAL Second Reprint 2004 INTERNET VERSION - Embodying all advance correction slips upto number 100 dated 21-06-2006 Hkkjrh; jsy jsy iFk fu;ekoyh Hkkjr ljdkj jsy ea=ky; (jsyos cksMZ ) lR;eso t;rs ds oy ljdkjh mi;ks xgs rq For Official Use Only

Upload: hanhu

Post on 07-Mar-2018

265 views

Category:

Documents


5 download

TRANSCRIPT

Page 1: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

GOVERNMENT OF INDIAMINISTRY OF RAILWAYS

(RAILWAY BOARD)

INDIAN RAILWAYSPERMANENT WAY

MANUAL

Second Reprint 2004

INTERNET VERSION - Embodying all advance correction slips upto number 100 dated 21-06-2006

������� ������ �

��� ����

������ �������� �&���(������ (��)�)

*� �� +���

���� ������ ���� ���For Official Use Only

Page 2: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

F O R E W O R D(to First Edition)

The “Indian Railways Way and Works Manual” incorporating uniform procedure

and practices to be followed on Indian Railways was first published in 1954. With

the introduction of modernization of track structure, Mechanical maintenance of track

and introduction of high speed trains in seventies and thereafter, the provisions in

the manual relating to track needed updating. This has now been done by bringing

out a separate “Indian Railways Permanent Way Manual”. It is hoped that the

procedures and practices envisaged in the manual will help the Permanent Way

men in maintaining the track to better standards, ensuring safety, economy and

eff ic iency.

New Delhi, T. N. RAMACHANDRAN

Dated 17th July 1984 Member/Engineering, Railway Board

Page 3: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PREFACE(to First Edition)

The Indian Railways Way and Works Manual was last published in l967. Since then there have beenconsiderable changes in the Track Standards, Maintenance practices and Track Monitoring. The TrackStandards Committee had, vide Item 678 of the 49th Report, recommended the appointment of an Officer onSpecial Duty by the Railway Board for revising the Way and Works Manual. The Committee also recommendedthat the revised manual should be split into three separate parts, for Permanent Way, Bridges and Works.

Pursuant to the above recommendations of the T.S.C., the following three officers worked in successionas Officers on Special Duty and compiled this part of the manual dealing with Permanent Way :

Shri Y.G.Patwardhan .. Mayl978 - August 1979.

Shri P. O. Thomas .. August 1979 - January 1981.

Shri K. S. Swaminathan .. March 1982 onwards.

The Draft Chapters, as compiled, were then scrutinised by a Select Committee consisting of thefollowing Officers :-

SarvashriY.G.Patwardhan .. Principal, IRIATT, Pune.

N.Gopalan .. Director Standards, Civil, RDSO

Y. P. Anand .. Director, Track, Railway Board.

J.S.Mundrey .. Chief Track Engineer, N. Railway.

N.S.Raghavan .. Chief Track Engineer, S. Railway.

Y. V.Aswathnarayana ..Chief Track Engineer, E. Railway. N.P.Ghose }

Shri K. S. Swaminathan, Officer on Special Duty and CPDE/South Central Railway acted as Memberand Convenor of the Committee.

While revising the Manual, the provisions in the Indian Railway General Rules 1976, Indian RailwaysCode for the Engineering Department, 1982 Edition and the accepted recommendations of the Committee setup for Review of Track Standards for Broad Gauge and Metre Gauge have been taken into account.

The Manual of Instructions on LWR/CWR 1979, the Manual of Instructions on Directed TrackMaintenance, and instruction manual on Measured Shovel Packing have been incorporated as Annexures tothis Manual. The provisions of SWR Manual have been incorporated in the relevant chapters of the Manual asmajor portion of the track in the Indian Railways is on SWR track.

In a volume of this type, it is not possible to provide for every contingency that may arise during thecourse of the working, though every effort has been made to make the instructions comprehensive. The ChiefEngineers of Zonal Railways may therefore supplement, where necessary, the practices and procedurescontained herein with such further instructions/orders, as would suit local circumstances on their Railway.Such instructions must not of course contravene any of the provision in this manual, the codes of the variousdepartments of the Railways, General Rules, or any of the statutory regulations in force.

The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from RailwayAdministrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition may be brought to the notice of the Board.

New Delhi, TIRATH PRAKASHDated 17th July 1984 Director, Civil Engineering Railway Board

Page 4: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

FOREWORD TO FIRST REPRINT TO IRPWM (1986)

A separate “Indian Railways Permanent Way Manual” incorporating procedure and practices to be

followed on Indian Railways after modernisation of the track commenced in the seventies was first

published in 1986. It has been decided to reprint the existing IRPWM updating the same by incorporating

all the Advance Correction Slips issued so far (i.e. Advance Correction Slip Nos. 1 to 27). It is hoped that

this updated manual will help the Permanent Way Men in maintaining the track to prescribed standards.

New Delhi, (V. K. Agnihotri)June 1999 Member Engineering

Railway Board

PREFACE TO FIRST REPRINT TO IRPWM (1986)

A Separate “Indian Railways Permanent Way Manual” was published in 1986 pursuant to the

recommendations of the 49th Track Standards Committee. With the passage of time, certain changes in

Track Standards, maintenance practices, track monitoring, etc. have occurred and Advance Correction Slips

have been issued from time to time. It was decided by the Railway Board to reprint the IRPWM incorporating

all the Advance Correction Slips No. 1 to 27. Further, as a separate LWR Manual (1996) has already been

published, Annexure-M2 of the IRPWM (1986) has been deleted.

Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestions from the Railway

Administrations.

New Delhi, (N. C. Bindlish)June 1999 Additional Member Civil Engineering Railway Board

Page 5: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

FOREWORD TO SECOND REPRINT TO IRPWM (1986)

“Indian Railways Permanent Way Manual” was published in the year

1986, as per the recommendations of the 49th Track Standards

Committee. Thereafter, it was reprinted in the year 1999, incorporating

Advance Correction Slip Nos. 1 to 27.

The present manual was issued in English only. It is now being

issued in diglot form ( Hindi as well as English ) for the first time. This

reprint incorporates Advance Correction Slips upto No. 93.

A Compact Diskett, containing the full content in PDF form has also

been attached to the back cover. This will facilitate the viewing of the

manual on a Personal Computer as well as for taking print, if

considered necessary.

It is hoped, that this updated manual will help the Permanent Way

men, in maintaining the track upto the prescribed standards.

New Delhi (S.P.S. Jain)May, 2004 Member Engineering

Railway Board

Page 6: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CONTENTSCHAPTER I

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/MEN

PART ‘A’ 1 - 3

Duties of Assistant Engineer/Assistant Divisional Engineer

General 101. Essential duties of Assistant Engineer 102. Knowledge of rules and regulations 103. Co-ordination with officials of other departments 104. Inspection by higher officials 105. Inspection by AssistantEngineer 106. Inspection of Permanent Way 107. Execution of Works 108. Measurement of Ballast 109.Action in case of emergencies 110. Accompanying Track Recording/Oscillograph Cars 111. Control overExpenditure 112. Training of probationers 113. Witnessing payments to staff 114. Inspection of office andstores of Inspectors 115. Staff matters 116. Relinquishment of charge 117.

PART ‘B’ 4 - 9

Duties of Permanent Way Inspectors / Section Engineer (P Way)Duties of Permanent Way Inspectors (in overall charge)

General responsibility 118. Knowledge of rules and regulations 119. Co-ordination with works, bridgeand staff of other departments 120. Keeping of materials 121. Accompanying on inspections of higher officials122 Testing of running qualities of track 123. Routine inspection of track 124. Revised Schedule of Inspectionof track 124A. Safety of track 125. Check on Patrolling 126. Execution of works affecting Track 127. Actionin case of emergency 128. Inspection and maintenance of LWR/CWR Track 129. Measurement of Ballast130. Station Yards 131. Witnessing payment to staff 132. Other Establishment matters 133. Correspondenceand records 134, Relinquishment of charge 135.

Duties of Permanent Way Inspectors (not in overall charge)

General responsibilities 136. Knowledge of rules and regulations 137. Co- ordination with Works,Bridge and Staff of other departments 138. Routine Inspection of Track 139. Revised Schedule of Inspection oftrack 139A. Annual maintenance works 140. Check on patrolling 141. Execution of works affecting Track 142.Action in case of emergency 143. Maintenance of LWR/CWR Track 144. Witnessing payments to staff 145.

PART ‘C’ 10 - 10

Duties of Permanent Way Mistries

General responsibilities 146. Knowledge of rules and signals 147. Permanent Way Mistry in-charge ofgangs 148.

PART ‘D’ 11 -14

Duties of Mates, Keymen and GangmenGeneral

Knowledge of rules and signals 149. Safety of the line 150. Equipment at site of work 151. Musters andGang Charts/Diary books 152. Observance of sleeper packing during passage of train 153 Precautions whenview is obstructed. 154. Tidiness of section 155. Safe custody of tools 156. Action when line is unsafe or in theevent of accident 157. Patrolling during abnormal rainfall 158. Commencing work affecting safety of trains159. Weekly inspection of gang length by mate 160. Preventing trespass and theft of Permanent way fittings161. Relief arrangement in emergencies 162. Assistance to Posts and Telegraph staff 163. Assistance inprotection of trains 164. Assistance in placing fog signals 165. Responsibilities of the Mate in LWR track 166.

Duties of KeymanSelection and training of Keyman 167. Keyman’s daily inspection 168(1). Roster duty hours of Keyman 168(2).

Equipment of Keyman 169. Duties of Keyman 170. Keyman’s book 171.

( i )

Page 7: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CHAPTER IITHE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

PART ‘A’ 15 - 29

General Instructions

Responsibility of Engineering officials 201. Classification of lines 202. Systems of track maintenance203. Annual programme of track maintence 204. Maintenance planning 205. Record of gang work 206. Attentionto Inspection Notes 207. Record of work of artisans and other workmen employed 208. Special reports on thecondition of Permanent way 209. Permanent Way Inspector’s section register 210. Permanent way plans anddiagrams 211. Records of materials under trial 212. Strength of gangs 213. Musters 214. Custody of gangtools 215. Section Limit Board 216. Kilometre and gradient posts 217. Telegraph pole number 218. Verificationof land boundaries 219. Trolly refuges 220. Standard dimensions 221. Felling of trees obstructing view 222.Side drains, catch water drains and water-ways 223.

PART ‘B’ 30 - 55

Regular Track Maintenance

Through packing—Conventional maintenance by beater packing 224. Maintenance by Measured shovelpacking (deleted) 225. Track maintenance by machines 226. Systematic overhauling 227. 3-tier system oftrack maintenance 228. Picking up slacks 229. Observance of sleepers under passage traffic 230. Sample ofstandard section off track 231. Checking work of gangs by PWI 232. Lifting of track 233. Lowering of track 234.Distance pieces to platform lines 235. Fouling marks 236. Inspection and maintenance of Points and Crossings237.

PART ‘C’ 56 - 65

Works incidental to regular track maintenance

Deep screening of ballast 238. Side and catch water drains and water-ways 239. Drainage in stationyards 240. Lubrication of rail joints 241. Counteraction and adjustment of creep 242. Buckling of track 243.

PART ‘D’ 66 - 73

Sleepers and Fastenings

Laying of sleepers 244. Wooden sleepers 245. Cast iron sleepers 246. Steel trough sleepers 247.

PART ‘E’ 74 -83

Rails and Fastenings

Standard sections of rails 248. Causes of rail deterioration 249. Rail maintenance to reduce raildeterioration 250. Maintenance of rail joints 251. Inspection of rails in service 252. Action to be taken in thecase of rail fractures/weld failures 253. Stacking of rails 254. Handling of rails 255. Rail closures 256. Railfailures 257 Careful usage of fish-plates 258. Combination fish-plates 259. Fish plate failures 260.

PART ‘F’ 84 - 91

Ballast and Ballast Depots

Type of ballast in use 261. Size of ballast 262. Ballast profiles/Sections/Depths of cushion 263.Assessment of ballast requirements 264. Collection and training out of ballast 265. Depot collection ofballast 266. Along side collections 267. Handing over charge by AEN 268. Unloading ballast along the line269. Surplus ballast along the line 270. Ballasting new formation 271.

( ii )

Page 8: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PART ‘G’ 92 - 97

Track structure on Bridges

Rail and rail joints on Bridges 272. Bridge timbers 273. Use of rail free fastenings in girder bridges274. Provision of guard rails on bridges 275. Provision of walkways 276. Inspection and maintenance oftrack on approaches of bridges 277. Inspection and maintenance of Track on bridge proper 278.

PART ‘H’ 98 - 99

Maintenance of Track in track circuited areas

Precautions to be taken while working. 279. Insulated joints 280. Glued insulated joints 281.

PART ‘J’ 100 - 104

Maintenance in Electrified areas

General instructions 282. Special instructions 283. Maintaining continuity of track 284. Catch sidings285. Additional precautions in A. C. Traction area 286. Fire in Electrified areas 287. Permanent Way Tools 288.Treatment of persons suffering from Electric shock 289. Accident to power lines of outside bodies 290.

PART ‘K’ 105 - 110

Treatment of Formation

Classification of formation 291. Nature of formation problems 292. Site investigations 293. Soilinvestigations and testing 294. Remedial measures suggested 295.

CHAPTER III 111 - 129

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

Classification of renewals 301. Factors governing Permanent Way renewal 302. Planning of Renewals303. Track renewal programme 304. Track standards for renewals 305. Planning for posting of staff and otherfacilities 306. Traffic facilities for renewals 307. Speed restrictions 308. Project Report for track renewal works309 A. Preliminary Works 309 B. Unloading of rails, sleepers and fastenings 310. Methods of carrying outrenewal 311. Relaying with Mechanical equipment 312. Complete relaying Method (Manual) 313. Piecemealmethod of Relaying (Manual) 314. Essential points to be observed during linking 315. Track laying standards316. Renewal of points and crossings 317. Sleepers in yards and running lines 318. Rails in station yards 319.Classification and use of released materials 320. Marking of Permanent Way material 321. Identification ofdifferent qualities of rails in field 322. Works to be attended after completion of relaying 323.

CHAPTER IVCURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

PART ‘A’ 130 - 139

General

Determination of radius 401. The reference rail 402. Gauge on curves 403 Definitions 404. Safe Speedon curves 405. Superelevation, cant deficiency and cant excess 406. Length of transition curve and settingout transitions 407. Running out superelevation 408. Indicators/Boards provided in curves 409. Speed overturn-out curves 410. Permissible speed over curved main line at turn-outs 411. No change of superelevationover turn-outs 412. Curves of contrary flexure 413. Curves of similar flexure 414. Curves with cross overs415. Curves with diamond crossings 416. Extra clearance on curves 417. Compensation for curvature ongradient 418. Vertical curve 419.

( iii )

Page 9: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PART ‘B’ 140 - 153

Realignment of Curve

Running on curves 420. Criteria for realignment of a curve 421. Stringlining operations 422. Realigningcurves on double or multiple lines 423. Cuttings of rails on curves 424. Joints on curves 425. Check rails oncurves 426. Wear on outer rail of curves 427. Measurement of rail wear on sharp curves 428.

CHAPTER VWELDING OF RAILS : LAYING AND MAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDED RAILS,

LONG WELDED RAILS AND CONTINUOUS WELDED RAILS

PART ‘A’ 154 - 154

Welding of rails

General 501. Alumino Thermit Welding of rails 502. Tolerances allowed in the case of Flash butt welds503. Short pre-heat welding process 504.

PART ‘B’ 155 - 159

Short welded rails

Definitions 505. Track structure for SWR 506. Conditions of laying 507. Laying of short welded rails 508.Maintenance of short welded rails 509. Gap survey and adjustment of gap 510. Conversion of SWR intoLWR 511.

PART ‘C’ 160 - 162

Long welded rails/Continous welded rails

Reference to LWR/CWR Manual 512.

CHAPTER VI 163 - 184

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

Introduction 601. Track recording by Mechanical/Electronic equipment 602. Track recording Cars 603.Mechanical Track recording Car 604. Electronic Track recording Car 605. Frequency of Track recording 606.Track categories for various parameters 607. Analysis of track recording Car charts 608. Arrangements forrunning TRC 609. Actual running of TRC 610. Action to be taken on TRC charts 611. Brief explanation ofrecordings 612. Monitoring of riding quality of track 613. Hallade track recorder 614. Oscillograph Car 615.Analysis of Oscillograms and interpretation of results 616. Use of oscillograph car recordings 617. Portableaccelerometers 618.

CHAPTER VIIACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON

PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

PART ‘A’ 185 - 193

Action during accidents including breaches

Observance of Rules 701. Report of accident to Station Master/Railway servant-in-charge of Block hut702. Accidents impairing through traffic 703. Action at site 704. Report to the Chief Engineer 705. Attendanceof Police at site 706. Examination of site and preparation of sketches 707. Recording particulars at site ofaccident 708. Use of recorded data 709. Repairs to damaged track 710. Procurement and arrangement oflabour

( iv )

Page 10: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

711. Diversion 712. Transhipment 713. Funds required during Emergencies 714. Obstructions found on track715. Flooded Causeways/Dips 716. Special precautions when track is submerged 717. Driver’s report ondefects in track 718. Abnormal occurrences attributable to locomotives and other rolling stock 719. Accidentsnot affecting through traffic 720. Records of accidents 721. Accident statements to the Railway Board 722.

PART ‘B’ 194 - 201

Pre-monsoon precautionary measures

General precautions to be taken before monsoon 723. Materials for emergencies 724. Service spansand Rail clusters 725. Railway affecting works (including Railway affecting tanks) 726. Vigilance over Railwayaffecting tanks during heavy rains 727. Weather warnings and action to be taken 728.

CHAPTER VIII 202 - 215

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING ANDFLARE SIGNALS

Work involving danger to train or traffic 801. Carrying out of works, in case of emergency 802. Responsibilityof the Railway servant in-charge of the work 803. Precautions before commencing operations which wouldobstruct the line 804. Categories of Engineering works 805. Works of short duration 806. Works of long duration807. Temporary Engineering Fixed Signals—Location and details 808. Procedure for passing trains at stop-dead restrictions 809. Procedure for Blocking line for Engineering purposes 810. Work at time of poor visibility811. Temporary signals in emergency 812. Periodical Notice of Engineering restrictions 813. Permanent speedrestriction indicators 814. Indicators (General) 815. Detonating signals 816. Care and custody 817. Stock withEngineering staff 818. Use of detonators 819. Testing 820. Life of detonators 821. Disposal of time-barreddetonators 822. Safety range 823. Flare signals—Description 824. Use of flare signals 825. Safeworking ofContractors 826.

CHAPTER IX 216 - 243

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

General location 901. Classification of Level Crossings 902. Categories of Roads 903. Standards fordifferent classes of level crossings 904. Gates and locking arrangements 905. Skew level crossings 906.Normal position of gates 907. Gate lamps and blinders 908. Traffic and Engineering gates 909. Equipment atlevel crossings 910. Siting of gate-lodges 911. Appointment of Gatemen, rosters and medical fitness certificates912. Duties of Gatemen 913. Maintenance of level crossing, examination of gate - equipment and Gateman inrules 914. Level crossing registers 915. Level crossing indicators 916. Visibility requirements for unmannedlevel crossings 917. Provision of speed breakers on the approaches of unmanned level crossings 918. Censusof traffic at level crossings, unmanned/manned 919. Unmanned ‘ C ‘ class level crossings 920. Track structurein level crossings 921. Manning of the unmanned level crossings through Member of Parliament Local AreaDevelopment Scheme (MPLADS) 922. Level Crossings on National Highways/ State Highways and otherimportant roads 923. Provision of new level Crossings/Manning/Demanning/Elimination 924. Criteria forReplacement of existing level crossings (other than those provided on ‘Deposit Terms’) with road Over/UnderBridges on cost sharing basis 925.

CHAPTER X 244 - 252

PATROLLING OF THE RAILWAY LINE

Types of Patrolling 1001. Protection of line in case of Emergency 1002. Commencement and termination1003. Preparation of Patrol Charts 1004. Distribution of Patrol Charts 1005. Patrol Books and SystematicPatrolling 1006. Equipment of patrolman 1007. Selection of Patrolman 1008. Certificate to be submitted byP.W.I. 1009. Duties of Patrolmen 1010. Action when damage is observed 1011. Responsibility of EngineeringOfficials in the matter of Patrolling 1012. Action by A.E.N. and P.W.1. on receipt of information regardingDamage to the Line 1013. Vulnerable locations (Points) 1014.

( v )

Page 11: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CHAPTER XI 253 - 265

THE WORKING OF TROLLIES, MOTOR TROLLIES AND LORRIES

General Instructions 1101. Distinction between Trolly, Motor Trolly and Lorry 1102. Certificate of competency1103. Officials’ permitted to use Trollies, Motor Trollies and Lorries 1104. Responsibility for safe working 1105.Efficient brakes 1106. Attachment to Trains Prohibited 1107. Working on track circuited Sections and Sectionsprovided with treadles 1108. Numbering of Trollies/Motor Tollies/Lorries 1109. Conveyance of Trollies/MotorTrollies/Lorries by trains 1110. Trollies/Motor Trollies/Lorries not in use 1111. Conveyance of non-railway officials1112. Trolly-permits for private sidings 1113. Military officers using trollies in Ordnance depots 1114. Trollyrefuges and observation posts 1115. Equipment for Trolly/Motor Trolly/Lorry 1116. Signals for Trolly/Motor Trolly/Lorry 1117. Working of Trollies 1118. Working of Motor Trollies 1119. Working of Lorries 1120. Working of CycleTrollies and Moped Trollies 1121. Working of Rail Dolleys 1122.

CHAPTER XII 266 - 272

WORKING OF MATERIAL TRAINS AND TRACK MACHINESRules for working 1201. Material Train 1202. Economical working 1203. Restrictions in running 1204.

Brake-vans and Shelter wagons 1205. Ordering of Material trains 1206. Issue of ‘ Fit-to-run ‘ certificate 1207.Official-in-charge of Material train 1208. Equipment 1209. Testing of brake power 1210. Working in BlockSection 1211. Pushing of Material trains 1212. Procedure to be followed while pushing back 1213. Running onGhat Section and descending grade 1214. Passage over points 1215. Speed of material trains 1216. Stablingof a material train 1217. Reporting deficiencies and damages 1218. Warning to workers on material trains1219. Engine Crew’s hours of duty 1220. Loading at Ballast depots 1221. Working trip 1222. Operation ofHoppers 1223. Training out materials and daily reports of working 1224. Charges for material train working1225. Register of Engineering vehicles 1226. Working of Track maintenance machines 1227.

CHAPTER XIII 273 - 284PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING SANCTION AND CARRYING OUT WORKS AFFECTING

SAFETY OF THE RUNNING LINE AND FOR OPENING NEW WORKS

Reference to rules 1301. Works requiring sanction of C.R.S. and notice there for 1302. Application forsanction of works 1303. Documents to accompany application 1304. Submission of Safety Certificate 1305.Deviations from plans approved by C.R.S. 1306. Applications for running of new types of locomotives and/orrolling stock and for increase in speed 1307. Notification to Railway officials when opening works 1308. Worksarising out of accidents including breaches 1309. Opening of new lines 1310.

CHAPTER XIV 285 - 292LAYING AND MAINTENANCE OF CONCRETE SLEEPERS

Types of concrete sleepers 1401. Identification of sleepers at Site 1402. Fittings to be used 1403. Locationswhere concrete sleepers are used 1404. Laying of concrete sleepers 1405. Operations connected with relaying1406. Procedure for manual laying 1407. Maintenance of concrete sleeper Track 1408. Casual renewal ofconcrete sleepers 1409. Corrosion of Steel in concrete sleepers 1410. Maintenance of concrete sleeperfastenings 1411. Action in case of derailment 1412. Laying of fanshaped turnout sleepers 1413.

CHAPTER XV 293 - 295

TRAINING FOR PERMANENT WAY STAFF

Types of Training Courses 1501. Initial/Induction Courses 1502. Promotional courses 1503. RefresherCourses 1504. Special Courses 1505.

CHAPTER XVI 296 - 299

BOOKS OF REFERENCE

Books of reference 1601. Circulation of Technical papers 1602.

( vi )

Page 12: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

( vii )

LIST OF ANNEXURES

Annexure No. Particulars of sketch/Proforma Para reference

2/1 Railway Map of India / BG showing group ‘A’ and ‘B’ routes 202

2/2 Railway Map of India/MG showing group ‘ Q ‘ routes . . 202

2/3 Typical gang chart . . . . . . . . 206

2/4 Track diagram . . . . . . . . 211

2/5 Permanent way diagram of station yard . . . . 211

2/6 Pro forma for inspection of points and crossings . . 237

2/7 Pro forma of creep register . . . . . . . . 242

2/8 Reconditioning of holes in wooden sleepers . . . . 245

2/9 Criteria for declaring rails as defective by Ultrasonic Testing 252 (Deleted)

2/10 Pro forma for reporting rail failures . . . . . . 257

2/11 Ballast profile for LWR Track/BG . . . . . . 263

2/12 Ballast profile for LWR Track/MG . . . . . . 263

2/13 Ballast profile for other than LWR/BG . . . . . . 263

2/14 Ballast profile for other than LWR/MG . . . . . . 263

2/15 Ballast profile for NG . . . . . . . . 263

2/16 Preparation of Bridge Timber 273

2/17 Temporary connection during relaying operations (Electrified areas). 284

2/18 Locations where soil sampling is to be done . . . . 294

2/19 Half yearly Permanent Way report . . . . 209

3/1 Pro forma for justification for complete track renewal . . 304

3/2 Pro forma for loss of weight of released scrap (P. Way components) . . 320(3)(5)

3/3 Pro forma for summary of summary of P. Way material to be released . . 320(3)(8)

4/1 Cant and speed in BG for different Radii . . . . 405

4/2 Cant and speed in MG for different Radii . . . . 405

4/3 Maximum speed and cant in non-transitioned curves with cant on 405

virtual transition.

4/4 Maximum speed and cant in non-transitioned curves without cant. 405

4/5 Proforma of curve register . . . . . . . . 420

5/1 Rail temperature Zone Map . . . . . . . . 505

5/2 Pro forma for Gap Survey and rectification of gaps . . 510

6/1 Sample chart of TRC (Mechanical)/BG . . . . . . 610

6/2 Sample chart of TRC (Electronic)/BG . . . . . . 610

6/3 Sample chart of TRC (Electronic)/MG . . . . . . 610

6/4 Sample Hallade chart . . . . . . . . 614

6/5 Oscillograph car chart/BG . . . . . . . . 615

6/6 Portable accelerometer chart . . . . . . . . 618

7/1 Details to be collected in the case of accidents for preparation of a sketch. 707

Page 13: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

( viii )

LIST OF ANNEXURES– contd...

Annexure No. Particulars of sketch/Pro forma Para reference

7/2 Pro forma showing the Permanent way particulars to be collected in the 708

case of accident.

8/1 Works of short duration – Protection of line in case of stop dead 806

restriction.

8/2 Works of short duration – Protection of line in case of reduced speed. 806

8/3 Location of Engineering indicators for dead stop and non-stop restrictions. 807 & 808

8 / 3 A Position of engineering indicators in case of multi speed restrictions . . 807 & 808

8/4 Details of Engineering indicators for temporary/permanent – restrictions. 807 & 808

8 /5 Competency Certificate 826 (iv)

9/1 Classification and Standard Specification for level crossings 904

9/2 Details of Stop disc and Safety chain to be used in emergencies 905

9/3 Protection diagram in emergencies in the case of level crossing 913

9/4 Pro forma for level crossing register . . . . . . 915

9/5 Details of Whistle Boards on the approaches of level crossings 916

9/6 Speed Breaker Plan . . . . . . 918(2)

9/7 Warning Signs . . . . . . 918(2)

10/1 Specimen patrol chart – Low density line . . . . . . 1004

10/2 Specimen patrol chart – Heavy density line – 2 Beats . . 1004

10/3 Specimen patrol chart – Heavy density line – 3 Beats . . 1004

11/1 Specimen of Indemnity Bond for Trolly use by outsiders . . 1112

11/2 Specimen of Indemnity Bond for siding users . . . . 1113

11/3 Trolly/Lorry notice . . . . . . . . . . 1118 &1120

11/4 Protection of Trolly on line . . . . . . . . 1118

11/5 Protection of Lorry on line . . . . . . . . 1120

12/1 Daily report of Material train working . . . . 1224

13/1 to 13/3 Application for CRS sanction and Annexures . . . . 1304

13/4 Safety certificate in the case of new Locomotive/Rolling Stock. 1307

13/5 Safety certificate while opening works . . . . . . 1305

13/6 Form of telegram to be sent while opening works . . 1309

14/1 Proposed Disposition of Fan shaped Concrete Layout . . . . 1413

16/1 List of Books of Reference . . . . . . . . 1601

M/1 Instruction Manual for Measured Shovel Packing . . (Deleted)

M/2 Manual of Instructions on Long Welded Rails (1979) . . (Deleted)

M/3 Manual of Instructions for Directed Track Maintenance . . (Deleted)

M/4 & M5 Concordance Table (Old) . . . . . . . . (Deleted)

M/6 Concordance Table (New) . . . . . . . . ••

Page 14: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

1

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

CHAPTER I

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAYOFFICIALS/ MEN

PART ‘A’

Duties of Assistant Engineer/AssistantDivisional Engineer

101. General – The Assistant Engineer isgenerally responsible for the maintenance and safetyof all way and works in his charge, for the accuracy,quality and progress of new works and control overall expenditure in relation to budget allotment.

102. Essential Duties of AssistantEngineer– The duties of the Assistant Engineer aredetailed in various chapters of the Indian RailwaysPermanent Way Manual, the Indian Railway WorksManual and the Indian Railway Bridge Manual, themost essential being :

(1) Inspection and maintenance of track andall structures in a satisfactory and safecondition;

(2) Preparation of plans and estimates;execution and measurement of worksincluding track works;

(3) Verification of stores held by stock-holders;

(4) Submission of proposals for inclusion inthe track renewal programme, revenuebudget and the works programme.

103. Knowledge of Rules andRegulations– He shall observe the rules andprocedures laid in the General and Subsidiary Rules,The Indian Railways Permanent Way Manual, TheIndian Railway Works Manual, The Indian RailwayBridge Manual, the Engineering Code and otherdepartmental codes and orders and circulars issuedfrom time to time relating to his duties. He shallensure that all the staff under him are acquaintedwith the relevant rules and working methodsconnected with their duties and that they perform theirallotted duties.

104. Co-ordination with Officials of otherDepartments – The Assistant Engineer shouldco-operate effectively with officers and staff of otherdepartments in matters that warrant co-ordination.

105. Inspection by Higher Officials – (1)When the Assistant Engineer has to accompany aperiodical or special inspection such as that of theTerritorial Heads of Departments, the Chief Engineer,the General Manager, the Commissioner of RailwaySafety or any officer of the Railway Board, he shouldhave with him the undermentioned drawings andregisters for reference as required-

(a) Permanent Way diagrams of the sectionand of station yards.

(b) Index plans and sections.

(c ) The bridge inspection register.

(d) Plans and current files of important worksrecently completed, on hand andproposed.

(e) Progress reports on works, and any otherpapers and plans that are likely to berequired for discussion.

(f) Working time table.

(g) Inspection notes of higher officers andcompliance reports.

(2) All Inspection notes should receive promptattention within a reasonable time.

106. Inspection by Assistant Engineer – TheAssistant Engineer shall conduct inspection in hisjurisdiction as per the Schedules laid down by theAdministration from time to time. He should maintainthe records of the results of his inspection and ensurecompliance of the instructions within a reasonabletime. He should submit to the Divisional Engineercopies of the inspection diagram at the end of everymonth indicating the inspection carried out during themonth.

107. Inspection of Permanent Way – Theimportant inspections to be carried out by theAssistant Engineer are summarised below :

(1) Trolly Inspection – The entire Sub-division,should be inspected by trolley once a month, asmuch inspection as possible being done by pushtrolley. The entire Sub-division, in case of double andmultiple lines shall mean all individual lines. Theinspection by trolley should be intensive, which shouldinclude checking of attendance of gang, gang workand equipment and examination of gang charts/diarybooks with reference to the prescribed schedule oftrack maintenance. During his inspection, he shouldcheck the work done by one or two gangs in eachP.W.I’s jurisdiction and record the results of hisinspection.

Page 15: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

2

(2) Fast Train Inspection – The entire sub-division should be covered by Engine (foot plate) orby last vehicle (Brake-van or Inspection Carriage) ofa fast train once in a month.

(3) Inspection of Level Crossings – Heshould inspect all the manned level crossings oncein six months. He should examine the Gatemen’sknowledge of rules, check the equipment, track, roadapproaches and all other safety aspects.

(4) Checking of curves – The AssistantEngineer shall check at least one curve in eachP. W. I.’s jurisdiction every quarter by verifying itsversine and super-elevation.

(5) Checking of Points and Crossings – Heshall inspect once a year all points and crossings onpassenger lines and 10 percent of the points andcrossings on other lines.

(6) Monsoon Patrolling – When MonsoonPatrolling is introduced he should check the work ofPatrolman at night once in a month, either by Trainor Push Trolley or Motor Trolly.

(7) Track on Bridges – The track on GirderBridges should be inspected as a part of the annualBridge inspection, besides normal track inspections.

(8) Scrutiny of Registers during Inspection– He should scrutinise the registers maintained byP W I, such as Creep register, Curve register, Pointsand Crossing register, SEJ and Buffer rail register,Gap Survey register and Section register during hisregular trolly inspection, to see whether theschedules of inspection are being adhered to by theInspectors, and whether the necessary follow upaction has been taken.

(9) Inspections of L W R / C W R Track –The Assistant Engineer shall inspect the SEJs/Bufferrails provided in the L W R / C W R track once inevery six months. He shall check the creep recordsof L W R / C W R regularly. The duties of the AssistantEngineer with reference to the maintenance of L WR / C W R are detailed in L W R Manual.

108. Execution of Works – (1) General –The Assistant Engineer should ensure that all worksare carried out according to plans and specificationslaid down.

Important works should be set out personallyby the Assistant Engineer.

Every works should be efficiently organized andso programmed that it progresses speedily and iscompleted within the time specified. Periodicalprogress reports on works should be submitted tothe Divisional Engineer on prescribed forms.

(2) Track Renewals – (a) The AssistantEngineer shall examine the track at the kilometrageswhere renewals are required before submittingproposals to the Divisional Engineer for inclusion inthe Preliminary works programme.

(b) Every sanctioned renewal work should beprogrammed in detail and labour organized in anefficient manner. Level and centre line pegs givenby the Inspector should be test-checked by theAssistant Engineer.

109. Measurement of Ballast – In the OpenLine Organisation, the Assistant Engineer may eithermeasure and record the measurements of ballasthimself or carry out 100 per cent check on qualityand quantity, if the measurements are recorded byInspectors.

In the case of construction projects, themeasurements and classification of Ballast will bedone by the Assistant Engineer himself.

110. Action in case of Emergencies – Inthe case of an accident, including a breach, affectingthe running of trains, he should proceed to the siteby the quickest available means. On the way, heshould ascertain the requirements of materials andmen at site and arrange for the same. He shouldalso order for the Accident Relief Equipment asnecessary. He should take all possible measures torestore the traffic quickly.

111. Accompanying Track Recording/Oscillograph Cars – The Assistant Engineershould accompany the Track Recording/Oscillograph Car runs in his jurisdiction and takedown notes regarding the spots needing attention,and issue instructions for rectifying the defects afterthe run.

112. Control over Expenditure– TheAssistant Engineer shall exercise due care in passingrequisitions for materials and tools and in theexecution of new and maintenance works, ensuringin all cases that the expenditure is within the allotmentor provision in the sanctioned estimate.

Page 16: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

3

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

113. Training of Probationers – TheAssistant Engineer should interest himself in allprobationers sent to him for training and see that thetraining is given according to the specifiedprogramme. He should periodically examine thenotes made by them.

114. Witnessing Payment to Staff– TheAssistant Engineer should witness payments toworkmen (labour) under one or more Inspector eachmonth. This should be done without warning.

115. Inspection of Office and Stores ofInspectors (a) - The Assistant Engineer shall carryout an inspection of each Inspector’s Office andStores at least once a year.

When checking stores, he should payparticular attention to the imprest and its distribution,Engineering indicators, protection equipment andimportant items in stores.

(b) The Assistant Engineer shall carry outinspection once in six months of all the small machinesincluding light duty (Chinese type) tampers under thecharge of the Inspectors for proper upkeep and goodrunning condition by PWIs.

116. Staff matters – The Assistant Engineerwill ensure, that :

(1) strict discipline is maintained within theframe work of the rules;

(2) service and leave records aremaintained correctly and up-to-date;

(3) appeals and representations are dealtwith promptly;

(4) selection for the various posts like Matesand Keymen are made in time and theposts promptly filled up;

(5) all the Inspectors and other staff workingunder him receive proper training inmaintenance practices, safety andprotection rules at the appropriate stage.

117. Relinquishment of charge – (a)Instructions on “Transfer-of-charge” are containedin Paras 143 & 144 of the Indian Railway Code forthe Engineering Department.

The Assistant Engineers handing over/takingover should carry out joint inspections of such worksor lengths of track as necessary.

The Assistant Engineer taking over shall testcheck the balance of ballast, rubble-stone, boulders

and bricks in depots and tools and plants as also thealong-side collections of ballast. He shall alsoexamine all registers of the sub-division, dockets ofrules and orders in vogue and important current filesand initial them with the date of inspection

(b) The “Transfer-of-charge” statementshould be prepared in triplicate and signed by boththe Assistant Engineers and two copies sent to theDivisional Engineer who will forward one copy to theChief Engineer.

Errors and discrepancies which are noticedshould be recorded in the statement and the DivisionalEngineer’s special attention invited to them.

Page 17: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

4

PART ‘ B’

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAYINSPECTORS/ SECTION ENGINEER(P.WAY)

Duties of Permanent Way Inspectors(in overall charge )

118. General Responsibility – ThePermanent Way Inspector is generally responsiblefor :

(1) Maintenance and inspection of track ina satisfactory and safe condition fortraffic.

(2) Efficient execution of all works incidentalto track maintenance, including trackrelaying works.

(3) Accountal and periodical verification ofstores and tools in his charge.

(4) Maintenance of land boundaries betweenstations and at unimportant stations asmay be specified by the administration.

119. Knowledge of Rules andRegulations– (1) Every Permanent Way Inspectorshall have in his possession up-to-date copies of thefollowing codes and manuals with all correction slipsup-to-date –

(i) Indian Railways Permanent WayManual, Bridge Manual and WorksManual.

(ii) Indian Railway General and SubsidiaryRules.

(iii) Indian Railway Track Manual.(iv) Indian Railway Code for the Engineering

Department.

(v) Schedule of Dimensions.(vi) Circulars issued by the higher authorities.

(2) He shall be well acquainted with the rules,regulations and procedures concerning his work andduties as enjoined in the above codes and manuals.He shall keep himself in touch with the orders andcirculars issued by higher authorities from time totime and efficiently act upon them.

(3) He shall ensure that all staff workingunder him are well acquainted with the relevant rulesand working methods and efficiently perform theirduties.

120. Co-ordination with Works, Bridgeand Staff of other Departments – ThePermanent Way Inspector should keep close co-ordination with the Works, Bridge, Signalling and

Electrical Staff, when they are required to work jointly.

121. Keeping of Materials – The PermanentWay Inspector shall see to the security of rails, chairs,sleepers and other materials in his charge and ensurethat unused materials are stacked properly clear ofthe line, so as not to interfere with the safe running oftrains.

122. Accompanying on Inspections ofHigher Officials – (1) When the Permanent WayInspector accompanies a periodical or specialinspection by the higher officials he should have withhim the following registers and documents pertainingto his section, other than the codes and manualsmentioned in para 119 :

(a) Working Time Table.

(b) Permanent way diagrams of section andyards.

(c) Section register.

(d) Results of track recording / oscillographruns.

(e) Creep and gap survey register.

(f) Curve register.

(g) Points and crossing register.

(h) SEJ / Buffer rail register.

(j) List of Permanent and Temporary speedrestrictions.

(k) List of works and other details.

(l) Inspection notes of higher officials withcompliance notes.

(2) The Permanent Way Inspector shallarrange to carry the following measuring devices onthese inspections :

(a) Gauge-cum - level.

(b) Flangeway gauge.

(c) Canne-a-boule or wooden mallet.

(d) Fishing cord.

(e) Tape.

(f) Metric scale.

(g) Tapered gauge.

(h) Magnifying glass and mirror.

(j) Versine measuring equipment.

(k) Inspection hammer.

Page 18: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

5

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

123. Testing of Running Qualities ofTrack– (1) The Permanent way Inspector shalldevote sustained attention to Permanent way asregards safety, smooth running, economy andneatness.

(2) He should travel on the foot plate of theEngine of fast trains at least twice in a month, in therear brake-van or the last vehicle once in a monthand take down notes of bad running kilometrages,and get them rectified.

(3) He should accompany the track recording/oscillograph car runs over his section, take downthe kilometrages which are not running well and takeaction to rectify the defects.

(4) He should observe the behaviour of trackunder passing trains to detect inadequate packingduring routine inspections.

124. Routine inspection of Track –(1) Inspection of Gangs-(a) The Permanent

Way Inspector should inspect the entire section bypush trolly at least once in a fortnight or more oftenas necessary.

(b) In sections where no separate inspectionis being carried out by P. W. I. Grade II/ Grade III, theinspection should be carried out by the P. W. I. in-charge every week.

(c) During such inspections the PermanentWay Inspector should –

(i) check the work of gang done earlierand ensure prompt action on itemsrequiring attention;

(ii) arrange to give the programme ofwork to the gang;

(iii) record details of track maintenancework in gang chart and diaries;

(iv) check the attendance of gang;

(v) instruct men in methods ofmaintenance.

(d) Once a fortnight, he should examine thesmall machines including light duty(Chinese type) tampers under his chargeand once in a month he should examinethe gang tools, particularly gauge-cum-level, and arrange for repair andreplacement as necessary.

(e) He should ensure that every man in thegang is aware of safety rules byexamining them periodically.

(2) Level Crossing Inspection – (a) He shouldensure that all the level crossings are opened outonce a year to examine the condition of rails,sleepers and fastenings and defects are rectified.

(b) He shall see that the necessary stopboards,whistle boards, and otherequipments are provided as laid down.

(c) He shall check the equipment with theGateman once in a month.

(d) He shall examine their knowledge ofsafety rules periodically.

(e) He shall arrange to take the census ofall level crossings as per the scheduleslaid down.

(3) Points and Crossing Inspection – ThePermanent Way Inspector in overall charge and hisAssistant should carry out the inspection of pointsand crossings in passenger running lines once inthree months by rotation and on other lines once insix months by rotation.

(4) Curve Inspection – The Permanent WayInspector in overall charge and his Assistant shouldcarry out checks of versines and super-elevation ofeach curve once in six months by rotation, exceptfor Group A & B routes in B.G. where the checkshould be conducted once in every four months.They should take action to correct the curves asnecessary based on the readings recorded.

(5) Inspection Diagram – The Permanent WayInspector will maintain an inspection diagram of allthe inspections carried out during the month as perthe schedules in the pro forma laid down and submitthe same to the Divisional Engineer through AssistantEngineer every month bringing out the reasons forshortfall in adhering to schedules of inspections, ifany.

124 A. Revised Schedule Of InspectionOf Track –

The revised schedule of inspection isapplicable only when PWI’s Section has beenprovided with concrete sleepers and is undermechanised maintenance:-

(1) Push Trolley Inspection - Once in a month

(2) Foot Plate Inspection - Once in a month

Page 19: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

6

(3) Rear vehicle Inspection - Not required

(4) Curve Inspection - Shall be carried out byPWI(not in overallcharge) and CPWI/PWI (in overallcharge) once in sixmonths by rotationincluding for Group A& B routes.

(5) Points & crossings - As stipulated in para124(3).

(6) Foot Inspection - Once in a year maybe introduced to startwith.

(7) OMS/TRC - PWI(not in overallcharge) needaccompany onlyalternate OMS/TRCruns to avoid CPWI/PWI (in overallcharge) & PWI (not inoverall charge) bothaccompanying all theruns.

125. Safety of Track – (1) The PermanentWay Inspector is directly responsible for the safetyof the track. He shall be vigilant to locate faults inthe Permanent Way and promptly remedy them.

The defects which are beyond his powersto remedy should be immediately brought to theAssistant Engineer’s notice by the PermanentWay Inspector and mentioned of the same madein the half-yearly report on the condition ofPermanent Way of the section.

(2) Independent of detailed periodicalinspections, the Permanent Way Inspector, duringhis routine inspections, should watch for any signsof weakness in bridges and structures affecting trackand promptly report any matter demanding theAssistant Engineer’s attention.

(3) Trees in proximity to and liable to foul thetrack during a storm should be felled.

126. Check on Patrolling – He shouldarrange for patrolling of track as laid down, bydeputing suitably selected men from gangs andarrange to supply them with Patrol books andequipment needed. The Permanent Way Inspector

in overall charge will check the night patrolman oncea month by train, and by trolly during monsoon asper the schedules laid down by the administration.

127. Execution of Works affecting Track –(1) Before commencing any work the PermanentWay Inspector in overall charge or his Assistant shallensure that he is in possession of all necessarymaterials and tools. He shall ensure that EngineeringSignals are exhibited at the specified distancesaccording to rules and Flagmen are posted withnecessary equipment.

(2) He should programme the works byorganising the labour in an efficient manner. Heshould maintain detailed accounts of materialsreceived and issued to the work. He should exercisefrequent checks on quality and quantum of work andsubmit progress reports on works periodically as maybe prescribed.

(3) Quality of welding and avoidable fractures -The direct responsibility for quality of AT welding beingdone in the section shall rest on the PWI incharge ofthe section. Responsibility for avoidable fracturestaking place in the section shall also rest with thePWI incharge of the section, except in cases wherethe USFD testing was done and found good upto threemonths before the fractures.

128. Action in case of Emergency – Onreceipt of intimation of the occurrence of an accident(including breaches) affecting any part of track,restricting free passage of trains, the Permanent WayInspector should proceed to site by the quickestavailable means. On the way he should collectinformation regarding the damage, the men andmaterial requirement at site for restoration andarrange for movement of men and materials andthereafter the restoration.

129. Inspection and maintenance of LWR/CWR Track – The duties and responsibilities of thePermanent Way Inspector in overall charge is clearlylaid down in Para 9.1.3 of the L W R Manual.

130. Measurement of Ballast – ThePermanent Way Inspector in overall charge willmeasure the ballast if so directed by the AssistantEngineer and record measurements. He will keepproper records of training out and spreading of ballastin the track.

Page 20: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

7

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

131. Station Yards – The Permanent WayInspector shall ensure cleanliness of station yards.Under- growth should be cleared every year, usuallyin the month of August, before the seed has ripened.At stations where it is proposed to stack engineeringor contractor’s materials, the stacking area shouldbe carefully selected and clearly demarcated. Thematerials should be stacked methodically in a tidymanner.

132. Witnessing Payment to Staff – (1)Payment to both Permanent and Temporary staff,working under the Permanent Way Inspector, will bemade by the Pay Clerk in the presence of thePermanent Way Inspector. If the Permanent WayInspector working in the section is not readilyavailable, the Assistant Engineer may depute anotherInspector to witness the payment.

(2) The Permanent Way Inspector isresponsible for correct identification of the payee andshould satisfy himself that the correct amount is paid.

(3) Payments to Permanent Way gangs should,as far as practicable, be made on the beat of eachgang during working hours.

(4) The witnessing official should certify to thepayment individually or by group, at the same timespecifying, both in words and figures at the foot ofthe muster-sheet, the total amount paid on each date.If any person out of a gang is not present when, thegang is paid on its beat, “Not Paid” should be writtenimmediately against his name. When subsequentlypayment is made, the place (km.) where payment ismade should be entered. Payment made subsequentto the filling in of the certificate should be separatelycertified on the pay sheet.

133. Other Establishment Matters – (1) ThePermanent Way Inspector should ensure that all staff,including Casual labour, are sent for medicalexamination and are fit for the medical standards, asper the relevant instructions in force, beforeappointment or promotion. He will also ensure thatthe staff under him are sent for periodical medicalexamination as laid down in the relevant rules.

(2) He will arrange to maintain the ServiceCards/leave account of all the permanent staffworking under him. In the case of casual labour hewill arrange to issue the necessary Service Card tothem and will maintain the L.T.I. register.

(3) He will ensure that the relevant provisionsof the Payment of Wages Act, Workmen’s

Compensation Act, Hours of EmploymentRegulations etc., as amended from time to time arefollowed and complied with.

(4) He will arrange to carry out the otherEstablishment works, such as issue of passes,preparation of pay bills etc., as may be allotted tohim by the administration.

(5) He will ensure proper training of the menworking under him at the appropriate time.

(6) He will carry out selection of properGatemen and Patrolmen from the existing Gangmenand train them in their duties.

(7) He will arrange for the prompt filling up ofthe vacancies.

134. Correspondence and Records – ThePermanent Way Inspector shall keep hiscorrespondence up-to-date and see that the officerecords, registers and stores ledgers are maintainedsystematically and posted regularly.

135. Relinquishment of Charge – (1) Onrelinquishing charge of a section the Permanent WayInspector shall prepare, in triplicate, the specified“Transfer-of-charge” statement which will brieflycontain the following :

(a) Extent of the section.

(b) Establishment (service and leaverecords).

(c) Works in progress, relaying, scatteredrenewals and other works incidental totrack maintenance.

(d) Kilometrage of banks, cuttings, curves,bridges and structures requiringspecial attention.

(e) Kilometrages where trouble may beexpected during the monsoon.

(f) Certificate of stores-check andcorrectness of stock.

(g) General notes.

(2) The Permanent Way Inspectors handingover and taking over charge should together trollyover the whole section, inspect all the works inprogress, check staff, all tools, plants and materials.

(3) The relieving Inspector will examine allbooks pertaining to rules and orders in vogue and allregisters pertaining to the section to see that theyare kept up-to-date and initial them with date.

Page 21: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

8

(4) The statement referred to in sub-para (1)should be signed by both the Permanent WayInspectors and two copies submitted by the relievingInspector to the Assistant Engineer who will forwardone copy to the Divisional Engineer for record.

Errors and discrepancies which are noticedshould be recorded in the statement and the AssistantEngineer’s special attention invited to them.

Duties of Permanent Way Inspector (not inoverall charge)

136. General Responsibilities – ThePermanent Way Inspector is generally responsiblefor :

(a) Inspection and maintenance of track inhis jurisdiction (sub-section)in a safeand satisfactory condition for traffic,including execution of all worksincidental to track maintenance.

(b) Efficient execution of Special Works,such as Renewals, Directed TrackMaintenance, Curve realignment, anddeep Screening, as per approved plansand specifications.

(c) He should work in the Permanent WayInspector’s office and assist thePermanent Way Inspector in overallcharge as required.

137. Knowledge of Rules andRegulations– Provision of Para 119 will apply inthis case also .

138. Co-ordination with Works, Bridgeand Staff of Other Departments – He shouldkeep close co-ordination with the Works, Bridge,Signalling and Electrical staff, when required to workjointly with them.

139. Routine Inspection of Track –(1) The Permanent Way Inspector should

inspect the entire section in his charge by push trollyat least once a week, He should carry out theinspection of gangs as detailed in Para 124(1) (b)& (c). He will spend as many days in the week aspossible with the gangs. He should cover all thegangs within a month. He should train the PermanentWay Mistry, Mates, Keymen, Gangmen andGatemen in their duties. He should teach them themaintenance practices.

(2) He will carry out inspection of points andcrossings on passenger running lines once in threemonths and other lines once in six months, byrotation along with the Permanent Way Inspector inoverall charge. He will arrange for the rectification ofdefects noticed during the inspection.

(3) He, along with the Permanent WayInspector in overall charge, will arrange to check theversine and super-elevation of all the curves once insix months by rotation, except for Group A &B routeswhere the check should be conducted every fourmonths . He should take action to correct the curvesbased on the readings.

(4) He will arrange to inspect all the Levelcrossings in his jurisdiction once in a month andcheck the equipment. He will examine the Gatemenin rules peoriodically.

139 A. Revised Schedule Of InspectionOf Track-

The revised schedule of inspection isapplicable only when PWI’s Section has beenprovided with concrete sleepers and is undermechanised maintenance –

(1) Push Trolley Inspection - Once in a fortnight(2) Foot Plate Inspection - Once in a month(3) Rear vehicle Inspection - Not required(4) Curve Inspection - Shall be carried out by

PWI (not in overallcharge) and CPWI/PWI (in overallcharge) once in sixmonths by rotationincluding for Group A& B routes.

(5) Points & crossings - As stipulated in para139 (2).

(6) Foot Inspection - Once in six monthsmay be introduced tostart with.

(7) OMS/TRC - PWI (not in overallcharge) needaccompany onlyalternate OMS/TRCruns to avoid CPWI/PWI (in overallcharge) & PWI (not inoverall charge) bothaccompanying all theruns.

Page 22: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

9

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

140. Annual Maintenance Works – He willcarry out maintenance works such as curverealignment, attention to points and crossings,adjustments of creep, etc, as assigned to him byPermanent Way Inspector in overall charge.

141. Check on Patrolling – He will coverhis section once in a fortnight by train and check thenight patrolling. He will also check the night patrollingby trollying in the night as per the schedules laiddown. During inspections, he will check the patrolbooks, the knowledge of rules of Patrolmen, theirequipment, etc.

142. Execution of works affecting Track– The provision of Para 127 will apply.

143. Action in case of Emergency – Provisionof Para 128 will apply.

144. Maintenance of LWR/CWR Track –Duties and the responsibilities of P. W. I. in-chargeof a sub-section with reference to maintenance ofL. W. R. are laid down in L. W. R. Manual.

145. Witnessing Payments to Staff –When Permanent Way Inspector not in overall chargeis deputed to make payments to staff, he will followthe provisions of Para 132 of the Manual.

Page 23: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

10

PART ‘C’

Duties of Permanent Way Mistries

146. General Responsibilities – They arenormally in-charge of items of works which requirea higher level of supervision that can be exercisedby Gang Mate.They will carry out the followingspecific works, or such other works pertaining to trackmaintenance, as may be allotted to them by thePermanent Way Inspector :

(i) Attention to bad spots,

(ii) Directed track maintenance,

(iii) Maintenance LWR track, if he has beenissued with a competencycertificate(responsibilities have beenlisted out in para 9.1.3 of LWR / CWRManual),

(iv) Isolated renewal of sleepers,

(v) Lubrication of rail joints,

(vi) Lorrying out of material, if issued withcompetency certificate. They will beresponsible for ensuring safety for theworks being supervised by them.

147. Knowledge of Rules and Signals –Every Permanent Way Mistry shall have a correctknowledge of hand and detonating signals and shallbe conversant with the following rules :

(i) Protecting line in an emergency andduring work affecting track.

(ii) Method of fixing and safety range ofdetonators.

(iii) Action to be taken when train is noticedto have parted .

(iv) “Safety first” rules .

(v) Action to be taken when sabotage issuspected.

(vi) Patrolling in emergencies .

(vii) Rules for working of a trolly and lorry ifhe is authorised to operate the same .

148. Whenever Permanent Way Mistries arein-charge of gangs /units , they will carry out all theduties and responsibilities assigned to the Mate aslaid down in Part ‘D’ of this Chapter.

Page 24: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

11

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

PART ‘D’

Duties of Mates, Keymen and Gangmen -

General

149. Knowledge of Rules and Signals –(1) Every Mate, Keyman and Gangman shall havethe correct knowledge of hand and detonating signalsand shall be conversant with the following rules :

(a) Protecting the line in an emergency andduring work affecting the track.

(b) Method of fixing and safety range ofdetonators.

(c) Action to be taken when a train is noticedto have parted .

(d) “Safety first” rules

(e) Action to be taken where sabotage issuspected, and patrolling inemergencies.

(2) Every Mate and Keyman shall see that thesignals, supplied to the Gangs are kept in good orderand ready for use and that every man in his Ganghas a correct knowledge of all the signals.

150. Safety of the line – Every Mate shallsee that his length of line is kept safe for the passageof trains. Kilometrages needing urgent attention shallbe picked up without waiting for orders from thePermanent Way Inspectors.

151. Equipment at site of work – (1) EveryMate shall ensure that the following tools andequipments are with him at the site of work :

(a) Level-cum-gauge, square, hemp cord,metre stick, keying and/or spikinghammer, fish-bolt spanner, 2 sets of H.S.flags, 12 detonators, marking chalk andRail thermometer (2 H. S. lamps in thenight)

(b) Sufficient number of shovels orphowrahs, beaters, crow bars, ballastforks or rakes, mortar pans or basketsand wooden mallet.

(2) The Mate shall keep in his charge in thetool box other tools and equipment as may beprescribed.

152. Musters and Gang Charts/DiaryBooks–

(1) The muster and Gang chart /diary shall bein the possession of each Mate. The Gang chartshould be carefully kept in a container provided forthe purpose.

(2) The muster should normally be marked bythe Mate, checked and initialled by the PermanentWay Inspectors.

(3) The Mate shall see that the prescribedsystem of track maintenance is adhered to and thetasks allotted, according to verbal instructions orentries made in his Gang chart / diary, and explainedto him, are efficiently carried out. If capable ofentering details of work done in his Gang diary, theMate should do so.

153. Observance of sleeper packingduring passage of Train – During the passage ofthe first and last trains in working hours, the Mateand his men should stand on the cess, each aboutone rail length apart, and observe the effect on thesleepers. Loose sleepers should then be marked andadequately packed. On double line, the Gangs shallinvariably stand on the cess side and not in betweenthe tracks.

154. Precautions when view isobstructed–

(1) On double and multiple lines on curves, theview is temporarily obstructed due to a train passingover a track other than that on which the Gangmenare working. It is worsened when trains are crossingeach other. The noise of a train passing over onetrack prevents hearing the noise or whistle of anothertrain approaching the work site.

(2) When working at a place from which anapproaching train cannot be seen, at least 600metres away in the case of B G and 400 metres inthe case of M G and N G a Gangman with handsignals should be sent out by the Mate :

(a) On double line in the direction ofapproaching trains,

(b) On a single line in the direction the viewis obstructed (in both directions if viewis obstructed on both sides ).

Page 25: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

12

It will be the duty of such Flagman to warn theMate by means of signals when a train isapproaching. The Mate will be responsible forwarning the Gang in good time to enable them to getclear off the track. It may be deemed expedient, asan additional precaution, to issue portable whistleboards of the type indicated in Para 815 (2) to theMates, who should fix them at least 600 metres onB. G. and 400 metres on M G and N.G, from thework-site, in the direction the view obstructed to lessthan this distance. In the case of M G high speedroutes, the distance may be increased suitably asper the directives of the administration.

155. Tidiness of Section – The Mate shallsee that the whole of his Gang length is kept neatand tidy and that all loose materials are collected andbrought to stations, gangs quarters or gate lodges.

156. Safe Custody of Tools – The Mateshall be responsible for the safe custody of tools usedby him, the Keymen and Gangmen. He should seethat Gangmen on work remove their tools clear ofthe track on the approach of a train. After the day’swork the Mate should secure the tools in the toolbox.In no case should Gangmen be permitted to taketools home. Before they break for mid-day mealsthe Mate should see that the tools are kept awayfrom track.

157. Action when line is unsafe or in theevent of Accident – (1) If a Mate or his keymanconsiders that the line is likely to be rendered unsafe,or that any train is likely to be endangered inconsequence of any defect in the permanent way orworks, or abnormal rain or flood or any otheroccurrence, he shall take immediate steps to securethe safety of trains by using the prescribed signalsto “Proceed with Caution” or to “Stop” as necessitymay require, vide Para 806, and shall, as soon aspossible, report the circumstances to the nearestStation Master and the Permanent Way Inspector.

(2) In the event of an accident, the Mate,Keymen and Gangmen should lookout for brokenfittings of wagons and track components and seethat these are not disturbed until they have been seenand recorded by a responsible official.

158. Patrolling during Abnormal Rainfall –During abnormal rainfall, the Mate should organisepatrolling on the gang-length, whether or notPatrolmen are on duty. In the event of damage being

detected, action should be taken to safeguard trafficby protecting the line in accordance with Para 812.

159. Commencing work Affecting Safetyof trains – No work, which may involve danger totrains, should be under taken by the Mate exceptunder the personal supervision of the PermanentWay Inspector, or a competent Railway servantauthorised by special instructions, unless it is anemergency where the requirements of safetywarrant the commencement of the work. In suchcases the Mate shall ensure that Engineering Signalsare exhibited at the specified distances according torules and Flagmen are posted with necessaryequipment to man them before commencing thework.

160. Weekly Inspection of Gang Lengthby Mate – The Mate shall inspect the whole Ganglength once a week, on which day he will carry outthe keyman’s work and duties and the Keyman willremain in-charge of the Gang.

161. Preventing Trespass and Theft ofP. way Fittings – Every Mate and his men shallendeavour to prevent trespass in Railway limits bypersons or cattle on his length of line and report anyattempts at encroachment or unauthorisedstructures when noticed. He along with Gang, shouldalso attempt to prevent theft of P. way fittings andreport any attempt to steal, to his Permanent WayInspector.

162. Relief arrangement in Emergencies– The Mate shall arrange immediate relief forKeymen, Gatemen, Patrolmen and Watchmenwhen, due to sickness, they are unable to performtheir duties.

163. Assistance to P. and T. Staff – Whereinterruption to the telegraph line has occured throughobviously visible causes, the permanent way staffshould render all possible assitance. The staff must,for example, remove trees or branches of treeswhich, after a storm, are seen to foul the wires. Wherewires are seen to be broken or entangled, theoccurrence should be reported to the nearest StationMaster.

164. Assitance in protection of Trains –The Mate and his men should render assitance toGuards and Drivers of the trains for the protection ofthe trains in the event of an accident between stations,when called upon to do so.

Page 26: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

13

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

165. Assitance in placing Fog Signals –On requisition from the Station Master, the Mate of ayard gang may depute, if available, two Gangmenfor placing of detonators, during time of poor visibility,in the rear of approach signals of the station.

166. Responsibilities of the Mate inL.W.R. Track – The duties and responsibilities ofthe Mate in LWR sections are detailed in L W RManual.

Duties of Keyman

167 Selection and training of keyman -The selection of Gangman to perform the duties of akeyman is to be considered as a step in his trainingas Mate. Keyman trained in laying and maintenanceof LWR/CWR on concrete sleeper and possessingvalid competency certificates issued by Zonal/Divisional Training center should only be posted onLWR/CWR section.

168 (1) Keyman’s daily inspection - Thekeyman shall inspect by foot his entire beat once aday, both the tracks and bridges, and return alongthe opposite rail to that taken on his outward journeyin case of single line. On double line, keyman willcarry out one round of inspection in morning hoursby going along up line and then returning along downline or vice-versa. On the days of Gang holidaysand rest, he shall perform the usual duties and getone day’s rest in the week as per the roster duties inforce. On rest days or during absence or leave orsickness, a senior intelligent gangman should bedeputed in place of the regular keyman.

(2) Roster duty hours of keyman - Theroster duty hours of keyman for winter monthsshould be so adjusted as to ensure one round of trackinspection in early morning to enable detection of anyrail or weld fractures that might have occurred duringthe night or early morning. DEN/Sr.DEN of thesection shall decide and notify the exact timings andthe period of each section.

169 Equipment of keyman - The keymanshall carry with him on his rounds two red flags, andgreen flag, ten detonators, a flangeway gauge ifrequired, for unmanned level crossings, a keying andspiking hammer, a fish bolt spanner, and two fishbolts, spare fittings and a rail closure of 30mm size.For the work of greasing of elastic rail clips whereverapplicable, keyman shall carry a wire brush, emerypaper, a duster and grease.

170 Duties of Keyman -

(1) While walking over his length, he should lookfor defects, such as loose fish bolts, SEJfittings in switches and crossings, fittings ongirder bridges and open top culverts, brokenor burnt sleepers, broken plates or tie bars,attend to them as necessary. If he finds thatfittings are consistently working loose evenafter repeated attention, he should report thematter to the Mate, PWM and PermanentWay Inspector. If the defects are serious, heshould at once inform the Mate of the gangprotecting the line in the meantime, ifnecessary, according to rules.

(2) He shall keep a special watch on the railsand welds marked for observation by theUSFD team.

(3) If he should notice any condition of danger,such as broken rail, broken weld or washaway of ballast, theft of fittings in largenumbers etc., he shall at once protect theline as per rules, take such action as ispossible and report the matter to the Mate,the nearest Station Master and PermanentWay Inspector.

(4) At unmanned level crossings, he shallmaintain the flange ways between the checkand the running rails clear of obstructions.

(5) In track other than with elastic fastenings, thekeyman in addition to his normal round of thewhole beat and inspection and tightening ofloose fittings, should attend one telegraphpost (TP) on one line thoroughly on everyday. This thorough attention should consistof tightening of each bolt and fittings in theseTPs of the beat during that particular day.Missing keys and other missing fittings willbe recouped by him. He shall also ensurecorrect driving of fittings in this stretch.

(6) (a) Where the beat of Keyman consistsof PRC sleepers - The Keyman shouldensure that, in addition to his normal duty ofinspection and tightening of fittings, he shouldalso carry out in a systematic manner fromone end, greasing of the ERC and eyes ofinserts at the rate of 20 sleepers per day.Greasing shall be done as per the procedurelaid down in para 1411 (5) (b) of IRPWM.

Page 27: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

DUTIES OF PERMANENT WAY OFFICIALS/ MEN

14

(b) Where the beat of Keyman consists ofPRC as well as other types of sleepers, SE(P. way) should make roster of keyman onmonhly basis in the proportion of the beat,so that work mentioned in para 170(5) and170(6)(a) are completed in respectivelength. On any particular day however, hewill do duties either as per 170(5) or170(6)(a) only.

(7) Keyman with the assistance of one gangmanwill also carry out rail end examination,lubrication of fish plated joints as per directionof PWI/PWM.

(8) For imposing of caution after stopping thetrain or otherwise wherever required forsafety, Keyman will be provided cyclostyledslips by PWI. Keyman after filling location andspeed will hand over the same to Driver orASM and obtain acknowledgement.

(9) The following are the special duties andresponsibilities of the keyman in LWR/CWRterritories:-(i) Periodical (fortnightly) oiling and

greasing of SEJ, checking andretightening of fastenings at SEJ andother sleepers, if necessary (Para6.2.6 of LWR Manual)

(ii) Replacement of missing fasteningsnot requiring lifting or slewing of trackas per Para 6.2.6 (I) of LWRManual.

(iii) To ensure that all creep anchorswhere provided butt against thesleepers and in case of large scaledisplacement of anchors, he shallreport the matter to Mate/PWM/PWI(Subsection)/PWI (incharge).

(iv) To watch for sun kinks, loose ormissing fastening which may resultin buckling or any damage to LWR/CWR and SEJ. On noticing anybuckling or damage to track, he shalltake necessary action to protect thetrack and report the sameimmediately to PWI (Sub-section)/PWI (incharge), Station Master.However, he will continue to performhis Keyman’s duties of dailyinspection.

(v) To keep a sharp look out in coldmornings, especially during wintersto detect any fractures which mayoccur, in case of rail/weld fracture, heshall take prompt action to protect thetrack and carry out emergencyrepairs to permit the restoration oftraffic promptly and report to PWI(Subsection)/ PWI(Incharge)/nearestStation Master (Para 7.2.2 and7.2.3 LWR Manual).

(10) The Kayman shall promptly report to Mate/PWI any encroachment or unauthorisedstructures as and when they take place inthe Railway land in his beat.

(11) After completing inspection of the beat, theKeyman should assist the Mate in the day’swork being done.

(12) When materials, such as dynamo-belts,engine tools and personal articles ofpassengers, are found on line, the Keymanshould collect them and arrange for handingthem over to the nearest Station Master.

(13) The Keyman will remain incharge of the gangin absence of the Mate once a week. Onthat day, the Mate is required to carry out thework and duties of Keyman.

(14) Whenever directed he will supervise rail dollyworking. However, he must havecompetency certificate for the same.

171 Keyman’s book-(i) Printed keyman’s book should be supplied

to every keyman.(ii) The keyman shall maintain the book upto date

wherein all special work done, missing fittingsand their recoupment with location and dateare to be entered.

(iii) PWI should make a date wise schedule andenclose with the Keyman’s book the Kms/TPs that the Keyman has to attend on eachday of the month to complete the taskrequired to be done as per sub Para 6, 7,9(i) of Para 170 above. PWIs and AENsduring their inspections should check toensure that such Kms have really beenthoroughly attended to and initial against theentries.

(iv) Special locations to be watched by thekeyman should be entered in the book.

(v) The special fittings like joggled fish plates andother material provided in the section whichare vital for safety and for restoration of trafficshould also be mentioned in the book.

---

Page 28: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

15

CHAPTER IICHAPTER IICHAPTER IICHAPTER IICHAPTER IITHE MAINTENANCE OFTHE MAINTENANCE OFTHE MAINTENANCE OFTHE MAINTENANCE OFTHE MAINTENANCE OF

PERMANENT PERMANENT PERMANENT PERMANENT PERMANENT WWWWWAAAAAYYYYYPART ‘A’

General Instructions

201. Responsibility of EngineeringOfficials– The Engineering officials shall devotecareful and continous attention towards the efficientupkeep of the permanent way and the achievementof good and smooth running road.

The running qualities of track should beadjudged by riding as frequently as possible on thelocomotives or in the rear vehicles of fast trains onthe section. Such inspection should be carried outby the Permanent Way Inspectors, the AssistantEngineers, and the Divisional Engineer. Where trackgeometry is recorded at regular intervals theDivisional Engineer, the Assistant Engineer, and thePermanent Way Inspector should accompany suchruns.

The conditions of the track is best judged bytrack recording cars, oscillograph cars, portableaccelerometers, Hallade track recorders, etc. Full useshould be made of the records of such runs. Badspots should immediately be attended to. ThePermanent Way Inspector should strive to achieveexcellence against each of the parameters recordedby these cars, consistent with the maintainability ofthe track.

The reports from drivers regarding oscillationsor lurching of engines should be promptlyinvestigated and track attended at the kilometerageconcerned.

The Assistant Engineers and their DivisionalEngineers should maintain records of the results oftheir inspections either in the form of a notebook or afile and should ensure the compliance of instructionsby the inspectors within a reasonable time. Theserecords should be examined by the Headquartersofficers during their inspections.

202. Classification of Lines –

(1) Broad Gauge – The B G lines have beenclassified into seven groups ‘A’ ‘to’ E on the basis ofthe future maximum permissible speeds as under –

Group ‘A’ – Speeds upto 160 km./hour :

(i) New Delhi to Howrah- Rajdhani Route (via theGrand Chord and Howrah-Burdhwan Chord).

(ii) New Delhi to Bombay Central (Frontier MailRoute).

(iii) New Delhi To Madras Central (Grand TrunkRoute).

(iv) Howrah- Nagpur- Bombay V.T.

Group ‘B’ – Speeds upto 130 k.m./hour:(i) Allahabad-Katni-Jabalpur- Itarsi- Bhusaval.(ii) Kalyan - Pune - Daund - Wadi - Secunderabad-

Kazipet.(iii) Kharagpur- Waltair- Vijayawada.(iv) Wadi-Raichur-Arakkonam-Madras Central.(v) Howrah-Bandel-Barddhaman.(vi) Khanna- Barharwa- Farakka Bridge- Malda

Town.(vii) Sitarampur-Madhupur-Kiul-Patna- Mughal

Sarai.(viii) Kiul- Bhagalpur- Sahibganj- Barharwa.(ix) Delhi- Panipet- Ambala Cantt.- Kalka.(x) Ambala Cantt.- Ludhiana- Pathankot.(xi) Ambala Cantt.- Moradabad- Lucknow-

Pratapgarh- Mughul Sarai(xii) Arakkonam- Jolarpettai- Salem- Erode-

Coimbatore- Ernakulam.(xiii) Vadodara- Ahmedabad.(xiv) Jolarpettai- Bangalore.(xv) Ahmedabad-Ajmer-Jaipur-Bandikui-Rewari

Delhi.(xvi) Malda Town-Barsoi-New Jalpaiguri.(xvii) Chennai beach-Dindigul.(xviii) Bangalore-Dharmavaram-Gooty.(xix) Ghaziabad-Saharanpur.(xx) Chennai Beach-Chennai Egmore 3rd line

Annexure 2/1 shows, Group ‘A’ And ‘B’ RoutesGroup ‘C’ - Suburban Sections of Mumbai, Delhi,Chennai and Kolkatta as listed below:(i) CSTM-Kalyan-Kasara(ii) CSTM-Kalyan-Karjat(iii) CSTM-Kurla-Panvel(iv) CSTM-Ravali-Mahim-Andheri(v) CSTM-Ravali-Kurla(vi) Churchgate-Mumbai Central-Borivali-Virar(vii) Chennai Central-Basin Bridge-Veysarpadi-

Arakonam(viii) Chennai Central-Basin Bridge-

Washermanpet-Chennai beach-Tambaram(ix) Chennai Central-Basin Bridge – Korukkupet-

Tondiarpet –Tiruvottiyar -Gummidipundi(x) Chennai Beach-Thirumayilai(xi) Sealdah-Dumdum-Naihati-Kalyani-

Ranaghat-Krishnanagar(xii) Sealdah-Sonarpur-Baruipur(xiii) Ballygunj-Budge Budge(xiv) Howrah-Dankuni-Saktigarh-Bardhaman(xv) Howrah-Bandel-Saktigarh(xvi) Seoraphuli-Tarakeshwar(xvii) Dumdum-Barasat(xviii) Howrah-Panskura-Kharagpur

Page 29: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

16

Group ‘D’ Spl.- Sections where the traffic densityis very high or likely to grow substantially in futureand the sanctioned speed is 100 km/h at present.The following routes will fall under this category:-(i) Kharagpur-Midnapur-Adra(ii) Barkakana-Barwadih-Garwa Road(iii) Tundla-Yamuna Bridge(iv) Bolangir-Titlagarh(v) Gudur-Renigunta(vi) Anara-Chandil-Kandra-Sini(vii) Anuppur-Shahdol-Katni-Bina(viii) Ahmedabad-Viramgam(ix) Nagda-Ujjain-Maksi-Bhopal(x) Lucknow-Sultanpur-Zaffarabad-Banaras(xi) Delhi-Ghaziabad-Hapur-Moradabad(xii) Lucknow-Kanpur(xiii) Chapra-Hajipur-Barauni(xiv) Raipur – Titlagarh - Vizianagram(xv) Guntakal-Tornagallu-Hospet(xvi) Udhna-Nandurbar-Jalgaon(xvii) Gomoh-Chandrapura(xviii) Garva Road-Chopan(xix) Garva Road-Sone Nagar(xx) Barauni-Katihar(xxi) Sambalpur-Talcher-Nergundi(xxii) Jharsuguda-Bolangir(xxiii) Barabanki-Gonda-Gorakhpur-Chhapra(xxiv) Champa-Gewra Road(xxv) Bilaspur-Anuppur

Group’D’ - Sections where the sanctioned speedis 100km./hr. at present.(i) Salem-Byappanhalli(ii) Guntur-Donakonda-Guntakal(iii) Vikarabad-Parli-Parbhani(iv) Vijayawada-Bhimavaram-Nidadavolu(v) Secunderabad-Dronachalam(vi) Jodhpur-Marwar(vii) Diva-Vasai Road(viii) Pen-Roha(ix) Kumedpur-Katihar Jn(x) Rewari-Hissar(xi) Kalumna-Nagpur (via Itwari)(xii) Kota-Ruthiyai(xiii) Bina-Guna-Ruthiyai

Group‘E’ Spl. - Sections where traffic density isvery high or likely to grow substantially in future andpresent sanctioned speed is less than 100 km/h, thefollowing routes will fall under this category:(i) Panskura-Haldia(ii) Talcher-Rajatgarh-Salegaon-Nergundi(iii) Cuttack-Paradeep(iv) Radhakishorepur-Rajathgarh-Barang(v) Kapilas Road-Salegaon(vi) Radhakishorepur-Machapur(vii) Kirandul-Koraput

(viii) Rajakharshwan-Dongaposi-PadapaharBarajamda-Gua

(ix) Bondamunda-Bimlagarh-Barsuan-Kiriburu(x) Kandra-Gamharria(xi) Marauda-Dallirajhara(xii) Urkura-Sarona(xiii) Bhojudih-Mohuda G-C(xiv) Chandil-Muri-Bokaro-Rajbera(xv) Padapahar-Banspani(xvi) Barajamda-Bolanikhandan(xvii) Muri-Barkakana(xviii) Talgoria-Bokaro City(xix) Andal-Sainthia(xx) Hatia-Muri(xxi) Mohuda-Gomoh(xxii) Koraput - Kottavalasa(xxiii) Koraput-Singapuram Road(xxiv) Sambalpur-Angul(xxv) Anuppur-Bijuri-Boridand(xxvi) Boridand-Bisrampur(xxvii) Durg-Marauda(xxviii)Londa-Vasco(xxix) Dewas-Maksi(xxx) Gandhidham-Bhuj(xxxi) Dornakal-Bhadrachalam Road-Manuguni

and Kerapalli-Singereni Collieries(xxxii) Sanathnagar-Maul Ali (by pass line)

Group’E’ - All other Sections and branch lineswhere the present sanctioned speed shall be lessthan 100 kmph.

(2) The M.G. lines have been classified intothree categories based on the speed potential andtraffic density in the section as under -

(a) ‘Q’ routes.– The ‘Q’ routes consist of theroutes where the maximum permissible speed willbe more than 75 km.p.h. The traffic density isgenerally more than 2.5 G.M.T. the following routeswill fall under category ‘Q’ :-(i) Delhi-Sarairohilla-Rewari-Ratangarh(ii) Rewari-Ringus-Phulera(iii) Ratangarh-Degana(iv) Ajmer-Ratlam-Khandwa(v) Jaipur-Phulera-Ajmer(vi) Bandikui-Agra Fort(vii) Ahmedabad-Bhavnagar(viii) Agra-Mathura-Bhojipura-Lalkuan(ix) Bhojipura-Lucknow(x) Villupuram-Thanjavur-Tiruchchirappalli.(xi) Chennai Beach-Villupuram.(xii) Dindigul-Madurai.

(b) ‘R’ routes – These routes will have a speedpotential of 75 km.p.h. And the traffic density is morethan 1.5 G.M.T. ‘R’ routes are further classified into

Page 30: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

17

three categories as follows depending upon thevolume of traffic carried:-(i) R-1 : when the traffic density is more than 5 G.M.T.(ii) R-2 : when traffic density is between 2.5 to 5 G.M.T..(iii) R-3 : when traffic density is between 1.5 to 2.5

G.M.T.R-1 route:(i) Gandhidham-Palanpur

R-2 route: (i) Secunderabad-Mudkhed (ii) Guntakal-Bellary (iii) Guntakal-Villupuram (iv) Tiruchchirappalli-Manamadurai-

VirudunagarR-3 route: (i) Madurai-Rameswaram (ii) Virudunagar-Tenkasi (iii) Dindigul-Pollachi(iv) Ratangarh-Bikaner

Note : The following two routes also carry a trafficdensity of more than 5 G.M.T :

(i) Katihar-New Bongai Gaon(ii) Gauhati-Tinsukia

These have not been included in R1 routes asthey are slated for conversion.

(c) ‘S’ Routes – These will be the routes wherethe speed potential is less than 75 km.p.h. and thetraffic density is less than 1.5 G.M.T.

Annexure 2/2 shows the ‘Q’ routes.

203. Sytems of Track Maintenance – (1)System to be adopted- The track should bemaintained either by conventional system of track

maintenance or by 3-tier system of trackmaintenance.

(2) Details Of Maintenance Works – (a) In boththe systems, track requires to be overhauledperiodically with the object of restoring it to bestpossible condition, consistent with its maintainability.Periodicity of overhauling depends on several factors,such as type of track structure, its age, volume oftraffic, rate of track deterioration, maximumpermissible speed, system of traction, condition offormation etc. Irrespective of the system of trackmaintenance adopted, it is obligatory to overhaulspecified lengths of gang beat annually. The lengthof the section to be overhauled shall be such thatcomplete overhauling of track will be accomplishedwithin a specific period (normally 3 to 5 years).

(b) Immediately after cessation of monsoon,the run down lengths should be quickly attended to,to restore the section to good shape. After this is doneoverhauling/through packing of track should be takenin hand. After completion of one cycle of systematicthrough maintenance, track should be attended towherever required.

(c) In any system of maintenance it isnecessary to allot certain number of days in a weekfor ‘picking up slacks’ to ensure that whole gang lengthis in safe condition for passage of trains .

204. Annual Programme of TrackMaintenance – The annual programme of regulartrack maintenance and works incidental thereto shallbe based on the programme given as shown below,with such variations to suit local conditions, as maybe specified by the Chief Engineer. This applies toany system of maintenance

Annual Programme for Regular Track Maintenances

Period Work

(a) Attention to run down lengths in the entire gang beat torestore the section to good shape.

1. Post monsoon attention: (b) One cycle of conventional systematic throughFor about six months packing / systematic directed track maintenanceafter end of monsoon from, one end of the gang length to the others including

overhauling of nominated sections as detailed in para 203.2.(c) Normally 4 to 5 days per week should be allotted for works

under item (b) and the remaining days for picking up ofslacks, attention to bridge approaches, level crossings andpoints and crossings over the entire Gang beat. Works suchas lubrication of rail joints, joint gap adjustments as requiredand realignment of curves should be done during this period.

Page 31: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

18

2. Pre monsoon attention for Normally 2 to 4 days in a week should be devotedabout 2 months prior to break to clearing of side and catch water drains, earthwork repairsof monsoon. to cess, clearing water ways and picking up slacks. In the rest

of the days normal systematic maintenance will be carriedout.

3. Attention during monsoon Attention to track as required. This will consistfor about four months primarily of picking up slacks and attention to side and catch

water drains and water ways.

During abnormally heavy rains, patrolling of the line by gangsshould be carried out in addition to regular monsoon patrolling.

Note :- (1) Scattered renewals, creep adjustmentsand earth work repairs should be done as necessary.

(2) For maintenance schedule on LWR/ CWR,special instructions in the LWR/CWR Manualshould in addition be followed.

205. Maintenance Planning – (1) EveryPermanent Way Inspector must prepare aperspective maintenance plan of his section onemonth in advance. The plan should include, apartfrom normal inspection, inspection of point andcrossings, curves and level crossings, realignmentof curves, adjustment of creep, deep screening,casual renewal, renewal of points and crossings,welding of joints, destressing of long welded rails etc.so that optimum utilization of time and labourresources is possible. He should also ensure thatarrangements are made for adequate materials,tools, labour, man power and necessary cautionorders/books, as may be necessary.

(2) For sections nominated for mechanisedmaintenance, annual plan for deployment of varioustrack machines shall be finalised by CTE(MC)/CTEof the Zonal Railway and he shall arrange to deploythe machines accordingly.

206. Record of Gang Work – (1) Each Mateshould be supplied with a gang chart and a gang diary.In the gang chart, details of track maintenance workdone over the gang length, on a day-to-day basisshall be recorded by the Permanent Way Inspepctor,according to extant instructions. The work set to thegang should also be indicated in the gang chart bysuitable notations. A typical gang chart is enclosedas Annexure 2/3. In the gang diary supplied to eachgang, weekly programme of work should be enteredby the Permanent Way Inspector. At the end of theweek, the Inspector should carry out a quantitativeand qualitative assessment of the work done duringthe week after thorough inspection and make suitableobservations in the gang diary. Each gang chart/diaryshould be adequate for recording the work during the

complete year. Temporary gangs employed in workallied to track maintenance, should also be suppliedwith gang diary, wherein the details of the work setand the work carried out will be entered by thePermanent Way Inspector. Details of maintenancework carried out by these gangs should be enteredin the gang chart of respective permanent gang.

(2) Gang charts/diaries should be checked bythe Assistant Engineers and Divisional Engineersduring their inspections. They should record theirobservation in the gang diary.

(3) On withdrawal of gang chart/diary andsupply of fresh ones, the Permanent Way Inspectorshould carefully analyse the work done and take notesof kilometerages that frequently gave trouble duringthe previous year, with a view to formulating suchspecial measures as may be necessary. Action maybe taken to preserve the gang charts for a period ofthree years.

(4) Maintenance attention given to the signalledloop lines and turnouts should be recorded on thechart.

(5) Whenever the gang equipments arechecked by PWIs, the same should be recorded ingang chart against the date on which such inspectionis done. Inspecting officials should initial against thedate on the chart and also make suitable entries ingang diary.

(6) Six months after the end of each year, thegang charts will be collected by the PWIs andmaintained as record. Thus, for the overlappingperiod of six months, the gang will have two gangcharts with them. A six months record will, therefore,always be available with the gang for reference.Normally, this record should be kept for at least fiveyears. When a particular kilometer or section isunder special observation, the record may bemaintained for a longer period at the discretion ofP.Way officials.

Page 32: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

19

207. Attention To Inspection Notes – Noteson inspections carried out by officers whether on foot,by push or motor trolley, on foot plate of thelocomotive or by rear carriage of fast trains, shouldbe sent to the Permanent Way Inspectors concernedfor necessary action. The Permanent Way Inspectorsshould send compliance reports to the concernedofficers within reasonable time.

208. Record of Work of Artisans and OtherWorkmen Employed – Each artisan/workman willbe supplied with a diary in which entries will be madeby the artisan/workman showing his movement bytrain and the details of daily work performed by him.The Permanent Way Inspector will scrutinise thework during his inspection and make suitableobservations in the artisan’s/workman’s diary. At theend of the month these diaries will be sent to theOffice of the Permanent Way Inspector.

209. Half yearly report on the condition ofPermanent Way : (a) The Permanent Way Inspectorshall submit half-yearly Reports on the state of trackin his charge, to the Divisional Engineer through theAssistant Engineer in the format place atAnnexure-2/19.

(b) In this Report the Permanent Way Inspectorshall make candid statement of the defects in thetrack, reasons for defects and proposals for rectifyingthem.

(c) The Assistant Engineer should check thetrack during his trolley inspections and verify theconditions mentioned by the Permanent WayInspector, and also study the proposed remedialactions. Remedial actions as necessary should beordered within his power or referred to the DivisionalEngineer for further orders.

(d) The Divisional Engineer should scrutinizethe half-yearly reports of the Permanent WayInspector and the comments forwarded by theAssistant Engineer, and give his orders thereon tothe permanent Way Inspector through the Assistantengineer. The Assistant Engineer and PermanentWay Inspector should promptly attend to ordersissued by the Divisional Engineer.

(e) Submission of half-year reports does notabsolve the Permanent Way Inspector of this basicresponsibility of maintaining the track in fit conditionfor the load and speed sanctioned for the section.

210. Permanent Way Inspector’s SectionRegister – (1) Each Permanent Way Inspector shallmaintain a Section register containing all importantinformation including a brief history of the section.

Entries shall be brief and categorised under varioussections as indicated below :

(a) Administration –(i) Change in Permanent Way Inspectors,

Permanent Way Mistries and Clerks.(ii) Change in jurisdiction.

(b) Permanent Way –(i) Formation – Sections giving frequent

trouble with brief history and remedialmeasures adopted, if any.

(ii) Track structure, method of maintenance,details of particular locations givingfrequent trouble and remedial measuresadopted if any.

(iii) Details of kilometerages of track laid asshort welded panels, long welded rails,continuous welded rails, etc. incidenceof buckling, maximum and minimum railtemperatures observed, behaviour ofS.E.J. and buffer rails.

(iv) Grades – Regrading done, with briefdetails of lifting or lowering of track.

(v) Curves – Realignment and/ortransitioning of curves.

(vi) Ballast – Kilometerages where there isdeficiency of ballast and details ofrecoupment done. Particulars of deepscreening carried out yearwise.

(vii) Creep Adjustment – Details of Creepadjustment done and action taken toreduce creep - Details of Gap surveycarried out and adjustment done.

(viii) Permanent Way renewals – Majorrenewal carried out as relaying, rerailingand resleepering; large scale renewal oftrack components at a section shouldalso be shown.

(ix) Station yards and sidings – Extension oralteration to sidings, platforms andrenewal of points and crossings.

(x) Rail failures – Brief particulars of all typesof rail failures, including weld failuresshould be noted in the section register,connecting references to the failurereports.

(xi) Rail Testing and Renewals – Records ofrail testing by Ultrasonic Testing Method- Brief details of all rails removed withreasons for removal. This will form thebasis of justification for through railrenewals/ casual renewals.

Page 33: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

20

(xii) Brief particulars of fish-plate failures withdetails of fish plates and reasons forfailure.

(xiii) Lubrication of rail joints : Particulars ofwork done with dates each year.

(xiv) Material under trial : Brief particulars -Connect reference to notes in the‘Materials-under-trial’ register.

(xv) Track recording : summary of the resultsof the various track recording runs

(c) Bridges and Floods –

(i) Yearly record of rainfall showing monthwise distribution

(ii) Important repairs and renewal to bridges,details of extensive repairs to bridges,dismantling and rebuilding bridges,strengthening of girders, renewal ofgirders, extension of bridges and throughrenewal of sleepers, should be shown.Ordinary repairs need not be recorded.

(iii) Damage due to floods : Extent of damagewith particulars of rainfall, arrangementsmade for labour and material, time andlabour spent for restoration andapproximate cost. Cause of damage andnotes of remedial measures

(iv) List of Railway affecting Works with briefhistory.

(v) List of vulnerable locations, wherestationary watchmen are to be posted.

(d) Miscellaneous –

(i) Availability of labour on section for works.

(ii) Encroachment and steps taken toremove them.

(iii) Infringement particulars

(iv) Accidents attributable to Permanent Waywith details

(v) List of reference books available in thesection.

(vi) Any other important informationnecessary.

(2) The entries made in the section registersshall be brought up-to-date from time-to-time andthese shall be scrutinised in the beginning of everyyear by the Assistant Engineer.

211. Permanent Way Plans and Diagrams –(1) The Assistant Engineers shall have in theirpossession complete sets of the following :

(i) The I.R.S. Track manual or I.R.S. typeplans, pertaining to track sections andturnouts extent over their jurisdictions.

(ii) Plans and longitudinal sections of theline, to a scale of 50 meters to 1 cmhorizontal (1/5,000) and 5 meters to 1cm vertical (1/500) and Index Plans andsections to a scale of 0.5 km.S to 1 cmhorizontal (1/50,000) and 10 meters to1 cm vertical (1/1,000) showing thephysical features, alignment, grades,location of bridges and level crossings.

The longitudional section of the lineshall be updated by surveying thelongitudinal profile of the line atleastonce in five years. The necessaryaction for elimination of humps, sagsand uneveness or providing verticalcurves as provided in para 419 ofIRPWM be taken if the survey revealsvariations in grades. Such an actionmay also become necessary as a resultof track works viz. renwal of rail/sleepers, lifting/lowring of track, bridgeworks etc.

(iii) Drawing of bridges, level crossings andprotective works and yard layouts overtheir jurisdiction.

(iv) Working drawings or diagramspertaining to track and components ontheir sections, issued from time-to-time.

(v) The Permanent Way track diagram ofthe railway line showing the type of trackand fittings when laid, type of ballast,type of formation with classification ofsoil (to be carried out as per RDSO’sCircular No : GE-P1-May 2003), blanketthickness, type of formation trouble (ifany) and indication of how the railwayboundary is demarcated. Changepoints in the track diagram shall beindicated correct to the nearest meter(details as in Annexure 2/4).

Page 34: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

21

(vi) The Permanent Way diagrams ofstation yards showing completedimension of running lines, sidings,type of track and turnouts. (Details asper Annexure 2/5).

(2) The Permanent Way Inspectors shall havein their possession complete sets of drawings anddiagrams mentioned in item (i) and (iv) to (vi)pertaining to their jurisdictions ; he shall have in hispossession the land plans pertaining to hisjurisdictions covering those between stations andunimportant station yards.

(3) Plans pertaining to their jurisdictions shallbe maintained up-to-date by the Assistant Engineerand Permanent Way Inspector.

212. Records of Material Under Trial –(1) CTEs of Zonal Railways may order limited

trials of simple items which do not infringe withexisting provisions of standard specification orinstructions laid down in Manuals/codes. Beforeundertaking the trial, complete scheme of trial shouldbe well chalked out including the parameters to beperiodically measured/checked, official to measure/check, periodicity of measurement/checking andproforma in which measurements/ observations tobe recorded. CRS shall also be kept informed aboutsuch trials.

(2) The Zonal Railways should periodicallyinform RDSO about such trials to maximizeadvantage.

(3) Registers - Registers of materials undertrial duly indexed shall be maintained by the AssistantEngineer; sufficient number of pages being allottedfor each item.

(4) Particulars of entries - Particulars regardingeach item should be completed in regard to :

(i) Name of material(ii) Kilometerage where laid(iii) Date of laying(iv) Object of trial(v) Nature and condition of ballast(vi) Nature and type of formation(vii) Track details(viii) Behavior(ix) Any other relevant informationIn the case of items designed for improved

track performance, notes should be made about theextent to which such appliances are producing thedesired results, particulars being quoted, wheneverpossible.

(5) Trial Lengths - Material under trial should,

where practicable be laid near Assistant Engineer’sheadquarters. In the case of sleepers under trial, aspecial kilometer or kilometer should be utilized forthe purpose.

(6) Indication Plates - Materials under trialshould be indicated by plates of suitable dimensionsfixed on the cess at either end of the trial length, thedescription and number of item, date laid andkilometerage, being shown thus :

Reconditioned sleepersNos. 1000, January 1980

Km. 72/0-Km. 72/12(7) Removal of materials under trial - In every

case where sleepers or other materials under trialhave to be removed because of relaying oralterations, the Asst. Engineer concerned shouldreport to the divisional Engineer and ask for disposalinstructions. When material is removed for anyreason, a full note should be made by the AssistantEngineer on its condition after through examination.When materials under trials is removed and re-laidin another Assistant Engineer’s length, the previoushistory of the material shall be copied in the registerof the sub-division where it is now laid.

(8) Submission of Assistant Engineer ’sRegister to Divisional Engineer - The ‘Materials undertrial’ register should be submitted by the AssistantEngineer to the Divisional Engineer as often asrequired. The Divisional Engineer will submit reportson trials carried out to the Chief Engineer, as maybe required.

(9) Permanent Way Inspector’s Records - ThePermanent Way Inspector shall maintain inmanuscript form record of all materials under trialon his length with necessary particulars. Notesshould be made therein a regular intervals. TheAssistant Engineer shall scrutinize the records duringhis inspections.

(10) The Divisional Engineer should takeinterest in the trials in progress in his jurisdiction andensure that the stretch where such material is laid,is maintained to the desired standard.

213. Strength of Gangs – The strength ofeach maintenance gang shall be decided by the ChiefEngineer. A register should be maintained by eachPermanent Way Inspector and in the Office of theDivisional Engineer and Assistant Engineers havingthe sanctioned strengths of gangs, Gatemen,Watchmen, Lookoutmen, Trolleymen and other staff.No deviation from the sanctioned strength of gangsand other staff shall be permitted without the approvalof the Chief Engineer.

Page 35: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

22

214. Musters – (1) The attendance of thePermanent Way staff and artisans and others shallbe checked by the Inspector under whom the staffare employed according to such instructions asissued by the Administration.

(2) No over-writing in the muster sheet shouldbe permitted. Corrections should be attested andinitialled by the Inspector.

(3) Separate musters should be allotted andissued to each batch of workmen such as Gangmen,Gatemen, Trollymen and Artisans. Muster sheetshould be kept by the head of each batch and at thesite of work for checking attendance by the Inspectorconcerned. The muster sheet of trollymen and officestaff should be kept and maintained in the officeconcerned.

(4) For each wage period, the muster sheetshould be collected and fresh ones issued. Beforecommencement of a month, the Assistant Engineershould issue requisite number of blank muster sheetforms to each Inspector for the purpose of recordingthe attendance. Each blank muster sheet beforeissue, must be initialled on the top by AssistantEngineer, as a token of its authenticity.

(5) The leave availed by each employee shouldbe recorded in the leave register debiting this leaveto his account before the musters are dispatched tothe Divisional Engineer’s office.

(6) The Assistant Engineer should check themusters of all the staff on their sub- division and initialthe muster sheet at least once a month during hisinspection.

215. Custody Of Gang Tools – For the safecustody of gang tools, boxes should be provided atappropriate locations with proper lockingarrangements. They may be provided near gangquarters, gate lodges or in stations. The Gangmateshall ensure that all tools are deposited in the toolbox after working hours and kept locked.

Gangmen should not leave any tool unprotectedduring the course of working or during mid-day-break.

216. Section Limit Boards – (1)Boards atjurisdictional limits should be provided thus:

(a) End of Divisions:

BB DIVN. BSL DIVN.D.E.N./BB D.E.N./BSLA.E.N./IGP A.E.N./MMRP.W.I./IGP P.W.I./DVL

(b) End of Sub-Divisions:

A.E.N./TNA A.E.N./KYNP.W.I./KYN P.W.I./VSD

(c) End of Sections:

P.W.I./ TNA PWI/ KYN

(d) End of Gang lengths:

G-3 G-41+1+14 1+1+13

(2) If the gang beat ends in a curve the beatshould be so adjusted that the entire curve lies inone of the beats. Similarly in case of yards gang beatsshould be so adjusted that the yard is maintained asfar as possible by one gang, exception being in thecase of big yards where the yard may have to bemaintained by more than one gang.

(3) Suitable boards should also be providedindicating the state and district boundaries.

(4) When a board has to be located at an exactkilometre, it should be fixed by the side of the kilometrepost.

(5) The boards which may be of scrap iron orR.C.C. should throughout a division be fixed on thecess on the same side of the line. The letters andfigures should be painted black on white background.

217. Kilometre and Gradient Posts – Thesemay preferably be of R.C.C. of suitable dimensionsand fixed at right angles to the track on the cess soas to be distinctly visible. The figures, arrows andletters should be painted in black on a whitebackground.

218. Telegraph Pole Numbers – (1)Kilometrages should be indicated on one line oftelegraph poles either by painting or providing numberplates thereon.

Page 36: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

23

(2) Where single plates are provided, theyshould be fixed at 45 degrees to the track and facealternatively in the up and down directions. Whereone piece angle type plates are provided, they shouldbe fixed so that either face is at 45 degrees to thetrack. Figures should be painted in black on whitebackground.

(3) In deep-cuttings or tunnels, telegraph polenumbers should be repeated at cess-level.

(4) On double line section where one line islocated away from the line along which the telegraphpoles are provided and from where the figures onthe telegraph poles cannot be easily read, additionalrail posts should be provided along the other linewhich should indicate the corresponding telegraphpole numbers.

(5) On electrified sections the kilometrage isindicated on the structure posts. The responsibilityof providing number plates or painting kilometrageon the Electric structure devolves on the ElectricalDepartment.

219. Verification of Land Boundaries: (1)Every Railway Administration is responsible for thedemarcation and periodical verification of theboundaries and the maintenance of proper recordsin connection therewith of all land in the possessionof that Railway (Para 1048 - E).

(2) The Permanent Way Inspector isresponsible for maintaining the railway landboundaries between stations and at unimportantstations. The unimportant stations where the landboundaries are to be maintained by the PermanentWay Inspector should be specified by theadministration.

(3) The Permanent Way Inspector isresponsible for reporting any encroachment that mayoccur as soon as they are noticed, to the AssistantEngineer who will on receipt of such report initiatemeasures to remove the encroachments.

(4) The Permanent Way Inspector shallsubmit, by the prescribed date every year, acertificate to the Assistant Engineer, copy endorsedto the Divisional Engineer for information, in thefollowing form :

I certify that I have inspected the railway landboundaries on my section during the year ending ...…… and that they are in accordance with the land

plans. There have been no encroachments exceptat the following kilometres that have been reportedby me vide reference given against each. I furthercertify that missing boundary stones at thekilometrages shown below have been replaced.

No Date:

..........……………………Permanent Way Inspector

(5) During his inspection the AssistantEngineer shall ensure that railway boundaries aredemarcated correctly and that there are noencroachments. In cases where he cannot prevailon the parties to remove the encroachments, he mustreport the facts with particulars to the DivisionalEngineer who will take up the matter with the LocalAuthorities.

220. Trolly Refuges – (1) Trolly refuges incuttings should be provided as necessary at suitableintervals.

(2) Trolly refuges should be provided on highbanks particularly on approaches of importantbridges.

(3) On double line these should be staggered,alternate trolly refuges being on up and down sidesrespectively. The space between the track shouldbe filled with ballast and levelled up to the rail levelfor easy off-tracking of the trollys opposite to the trollyrefuges.

(4) Maximum distance apart of Trolly refugeson bridges will be as under :–

(i) On bridges with main spans of less than100 metres - 100 metres.

(ii) On bridges with main spans of 100metres or more - A refuge over each pier.

(iii) On ballasted deck Bridges - 50 metres.

(5) In the case of tunnels, the maximumdistance apart of trolly refuges shall not exceed 100metres.

For easy identification of the location of trollyrefuges in tunnels and deep cuttings a distinguishingmark such as a rail post, painted with luminous paintwith a mark ‘R’ may be erected by the side of thetrolly refuge.

Page 37: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

24

221. Standard Dimensions – (1) Infringement:The Permanent Way Inspector should refer any workresulting in infringement of standard dimension to theAssistant Engineer for instructions. Work involvingpermanent infringement should be referred to theRailway Board for sanction through theCommissioner of Railway Safety.

Permanent way staff shall be on the alert toprevent occurrence of :

(i) ‘Slacks’ in platform line causing theplatform heights to exceed the standarddimension.

(ii) Errors in alignment causing the minimumdistance to adjacent structures infringed,for example, platform coping, watercolumns, overbridges, O.H.E. structures.

(iii) Excessive lifting of the track , causingminimum height to overhead structure tobe infringed, for example, underside ofoverbridge, roofs of tunnels, overheadcontact wires.

(2) Verification and preparation of yearlystatements of infringements: Once a year, thestandard dimensions over their sections shall beverified personally by the Permanent Way Inspectoraccording to the profiles shown in the schedule ofdimensions and statements of infringements, if any,submitted to the Assistant Engineer by the end ofMarch. The Assistant Engineer after scrutiny shouldforward these to the Divisional Engineer.

The statement shall briefly indicate againsteach infringement the reasons for its continuancetogether with reference to the sanction of RailwayBoard/ Commissioner of Railway Safety. TheDivisional Engineer after scrutinising the yearlyreturns will issue necessary instructions to theAssistant Engineer. Important items should bereferred to the Chief Engineer.

222. Felling of trees obstructing view –Trees and bushes that interfere or tend to interferewith the view from a train or trolly, of signals or levelcrossings or along the inside of curves, shall be cut.When cut, it should be ensured that they do not foulthe track.

When trees and bushes require to be cut interms of sub-para above, on private lands, actionshould be taken as laid down in Section 15 of theIndian Railways Act reproduced betow :

“15. (1) In either of the following cases, namely:

(a) Where there is danger that a treestanding near a Railway may fall on therailway so as to obstruct traffic, and

(b) When a tree obstructs the view of anyfixed signals, the Railway administrationmay, with the permission of anyMagistrate, fell the tree or deal with it insuch other manner as will, in the opinionof the Railway administration avert thedanger or remove the obstruction, as thecase may be.

(2) In case of emergency the power mentionedin sub-section (1) may be exercised by a railwayadministration without the permission of aMagistrate.

(3) Where a tree felled or otherwise dealt withunder sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) was inexistence before the railway was constructed or thesignal was fixed, any Magistrate may, upon theapplication of the persons interested in the tree,award to those persons such compensation as hethinks reasonable.

(4) Such an award, subject, where made in apresidency town by any Magistrate other than theChief Presidency Magistrate, or where madeelsewhere by any Magistrate other than the DistrictMagistrate, to revision by the Chief PresidencyMagistrate or the District Magistrate, as the casemay be, shall be final.

(5) A Civil Court shall not entertain a suit torecover compensation for any tree felled or otherwisedealt with under this section.”

223. Side drains. Catch water drains andWater-ways – The Permanent Way staff shall keepall side drains and catch water drains clear. Theyshould ensure that the outfalls of these drains andthe water-ways of all Bridges and Culverts are keptfree from obstruction. The spoils from cleaning drainsor cuttings should not be deposited at a place fromwhere it is likely to be washed back into the drains.

Page 38: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

25

RAILWAY MAP OF INDIABROAD GAUGESHOWING GROUP

‘A’ AND ‘B’ ROUTES•

••

• •

••

• • •••

• ••

• • •

• ••

•••

••

••

• ••

• •

• • ••

•••

••

••

PATHANKOT

KALKA

AMBALALUDHIANA

N E WD E L H I

MORADABAD

M A T H U R A

KANPUR

LUCKNOW

MUGHAL

SARI

P AT N

A

K I U L

M A L D AT O W N

JALPAIGURIFARAKA BAR

SOI

B A R H A R W AALLAHABAD

VARANASIG A Y A

SITARAMPUR

K H A N N A

BARDWANH O W R A H

RATLAM

JHANSI

JABPALPURBHOPAL

ITARSI BILASPUR

TATANAGAR

KHARAGPUR

CUTTAKN A G P U R

W A R D H A R A I P U R

AHMEDB

AD

VADODARA

BHUSAVAL

KALYAN

P U N E

MUMBAI

SECUNDERABAD

W A D I

KAZIPET

R A I C H U R

GUNTAKALG O O T Y

C H E N N A IA R K O N A M

DHARMAVARAM

B A N G A -L O R E

JOLARPETTAI

S E L U M

COIMBATORESHORANPUR

ERNAKULAM

C H E N N A IB E A C H

W A L T A R

VIJAYWADA

!

!DINDIGUL

!

LEGEND :

1. GROUP ‘A’

2. GROUP ‘B’ - - - - - -

ANNEXURE - 2/1 PARA 202

SAHARANPUR

G H A Z I A B A D

Page 39: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

26

ANNEXURE-2/2 PARA 202

••

••

•• • •

••

••

• •

••

••

KATHGODAM

BHOJIPURA

LUCKNOW

DELHI

MATHURA

AGRA

REWARI

BANDIKUI

PHULERA

RINGUS

RATANGARH

DENGANA

JODHPUR

RATLAM

KHANDWA

A H M E D A B A D

BHAVNAGAR

MIRAJ

LONDHA

HUBLI

BANGALORECHENNAI BEACH

THANJAVURMADURAI

LEGEND :

1. GROUP ‘Q’ ------

RAILWAY MAP OF INDIAMETRE GAUGE

SHOWING GROUP‘Q’ ROUTES

JAIPUR

↓↓↓↓↓ ↓↓↓↓↓

VILLUPURAM

TIRUCHIRAPALLI ↓↓↓↓↓

A J M E R

!DINDIGUL

Page 40: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

27

ANNEXURE-2/3 PARA 206GANG CHART

DIVISION____________SUB-DIVN._____________PWI_______________

SUB SEC.___________ SECT BET_____________AND__________

M K G TOTAL KILOMETER LOOP No. T/OUT No

ATTENDANCE SIGNALLED LOOP LINES T/OUTS ON RUNNING LINES

KM KM KM KM

1 CHART FOR GANG No

_____________ OVERHAULING WORK SET WORK DONE

2 KILOMETRE

_____________ ORDINARY THROUGH PACKING

WORK SET WORK DONE

3 MATE (NAME)

_____________ PICKING UP SLACKS

WORK SET WORK DONE

4 GANG STRENGTH

_____________ ATTENTION TO PTS. & XING

WORK SET WORK DONE

5 RAILS

_____________ PRETAMPING OPERATION

WORK SET WORK DONE

6 SLEEPERS

_____________ MACHINE TAMPING OPERATION

WORK SET WORK DONE

7 FASTENINGS

_____________ POST TAMPING OPERATION

WORK SET WORK DONE

8 DEPTH OF BALLAST CUSHION BELOW SLEEPER (mm)

_____________ MISC/SQUARING JOINTS

WORK SET WORK DONE

9 DEEP SCREENING

_____________ CLEANING SIDE DRAINS

WORK SET WORK DONE

10 OVER HAULING

_____________ ATTENTION TO CESS REPAIRS

WORK SETWORK DONE

11 DESTRESSING

_____________ PULLING BACK CREEP

WORK SET WORK DONE

12 GAP SURVEY & RECTIFICATION _____________ REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

WORK SET WORK DONE

13 DETAILS OF CURVES/BRIDGES _____________ CASUAL SLEEPER RENEWAL

WORK SET WORK DONE

14 L-XING & SEJ _____________ CASUAL RAIL RENEWAL

WORK SET WORK DONE

OVERHAULING OF L XING

WORK SET WORK DONE

TP

TR

PRT PRT

MT

(MT)

POT

POT

SD

SD

CR

CR

CSR

CRR

(LC)

(LC)

(CSR)

CRR

Page 41: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition
Page 42: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition
Page 43: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

30

PART ‘B’

Regular Track Maintenance

224. Through Packing: ConventionalMaintenance By Beater Packing :– (1) General:Through packing shall consist of the followingoperations in sequence. The length of track openedout on any one day shall not be more than that canbe efficiently tackled before the end of the day:

(a) Opening of the road.

(b) Examination of rails, sleepers andfastenings.

(c) Squaring of sleepers.

(d) Slewing of track to correct alignment.

(e) Gauging.

(f) Packing of sleepers.

(g) Repacking of joint sleepers.

(h) Boxing of ballast section and tidying.

Through packing is best done continuouslyfrom one end of a gang length towards the other.

(2) Each of the above operations should becarried out as detailed below :– (a) Opening of Road:Ballast should be opened out on either side of therail seats to the extent shown hereunder to a depthof 50 mm. below the packing surface withoutdisturbing the cores under the sleepers:

(i) Broad Gauge : End of sleepers to 450mm.inside of the rail seat.

(ii) Metre Gauge : End of sleepers to 350mm.inside of the rail seat.

(iii) Narrow Gauge (762mm.) : End of sleepersto 250mm. inside of the rail seat.

In case of cast iron plate or pot sleepers, theopening out should be to the extent of the plates orpots to enable packing being done conveniently.

The ballast should be drawn by powrahs/shovels outwards and inwards i.e., that portion of theballast on the outside of the rail should be drawnoutwards, the portions between the rails being drawntowards the centre, care however, should be takento see that the ridge between the rails does not projectmore than 50mm. above rail level.

(b) Examination of Rails, Sleepers andFastenings – (i) Rails should be examined, theunderside for corrosion, the ends for cracks, the headfor top and side wear, rail joints for wear on the fishing

planes, fish bolts for tightness. If rails on curves wearat an unusually rapid rate, lubrication of the gaugeface should be done. Rust and dust must be removedfrom the corroded rails by using wire brushes; kinksin rails should be removed by jimcrowing.

(ii) Sleepers should be inspected for theircondition and soundness particularly at the rail seats.In case of wooden sleepers, plate screws, spikesand fang-bolts should be examined for their firm grip.Sleepers should be checked for split and decay.

In case of cast iron sleepers, the condition andfirmness of cotters and keys should be examined.Loose keys should be tightened by providing linersor replaced by appropriate oversized keys. In thecase of wear in the rail seat of CST. 9 plates, suitablepad/saddle plates may be provided. Fastenings andfittings should be examined to ensure that they arein good order, appropriately tightened so that theyfirmly hold the rails. Broken ones should be replacedimmediately.

(c) Squaring of sleepers :– Gauge variationsand kinks inevitably result from sleepers getting outof square.

(i) The spacing of sleepers on the sightingrail should first be checked and correctly chalk-marked. Corresponding marks should then be madeon the other rail using the square at every point. Thecore of sleepers that are out-of-square should thenbe ‘picked’ with the pick ends of beaters, thefastenings loosened and the sleepers levered andsquared to correct position.

(ii) Squaring should be done by planting thecrow bars firmly against the sleeper and pushing it.Under no circumstances should sleepers behammered. Sleepers that are squared should beregauged immediately, the fastenings tightened andrepacked.

(d) Slewing of track to correct alignment: -(i)Heavy slewing will only be required duringrealignment of curves when it will be necessary toloosen the rail, joints and in case of steel sleepersand cast iron sleepers to loosen the fastenings, thepacking cores being broken with the pick-ends ofbeaters. Slewing for normal maintenance will be of asmall order and should be done after opening outthe road, loosening the cores at ends and drawingout sufficient ballast at the ends of the sleepers.

Page 44: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

31

(ii) Slewing of track shall be directed by theMate who on straights should sight the rail from adistance of 30 to 60 metres. On curves, he shouldsight the outer rail. Slewing is best done in themorning unless it is cloudy, as later on, sightingconditions become unfavourable.

When slewing, the crow bars should beplanted well into the ballast at an angle not more than30 degrees from the vertical; otherwise lifting of thetrack may result.

(e) Gauging :– (i) Preservation of gauge is animportant part of track maintenance especiallythrough points and crossings. For good riding, thebasic requirement is uniform gauge over acontinuous stretch of track and such gauge shouldbe allowed to continue so long as it is within thepermissible limits of tightness or slackness.

(ii) Gauging should only be done after ensuringthat sleepers are truly square. Standard keyinghammers shall always be used. Beaters and heavierhammers should not be used, as this causesoverdriving of keys and strained lugs on metalsleepers.

(iii) The track gauge should be held firm withone lug against the base rail, and the other end beingswivelled over the opposite rails. The tightest positionobtained determines the correct point to test thegauge. The gauge should not be forced as thatcauses considerable wear on the gauge lug.

(iv) The track gauge should be adjusted tocorrect gauge on the rail opposite to the base rail.The required slackness on sharp curves should beattained by using liners of the requisite thicknessagainst the lug of the gauge in the case of ordinarytrack iron gauge.

(v) While it is desirable to maintain correctgauge, where due to age and condition of thesleepers, it is not possible to maintain correct gauge,it is good practice to work within the followingtolerances of gauge, provided generally uniformgauge can be maintained over long lengths:

Broad Gauge

a) On straight -6mm to +6mm

b) On curves with radius -6mm to +15mm350 m or more

c) On curves with radius upto +20mmless than 350 m

Note : These tolerances are with respect tonominal gauge of 1676 mm.

Metre Gaugea) On straight -3mm to +6mm

b) On curves with radius

290 m or more -3mm to +15mmc) On curves with radius Upto +20mm

Less then 290 m

Note : These tolerances are with respect tonominal gauge of 1000mm.

Narrow Gauge

a) On straight -3mm to +6mm

b) On curves with radius -3mm to +15mmof more than 175metres

c) On curves with radius Upto +20mmless than 175 metres

Note : The above tolerance are with respectto nominal gauge of 762mm.

(f) Packing of sleepers ( i ) The aim of packingis to have each sleeper firmly and uniformly packedto ensure that the rails are at their correct relativelevels i.e., level on the straight track and to therequired cant on curves and that no sleeper has anyvoid between it and its bed.

(ii) Before packing is commenced, it isnecessary to ensure that the chairs/bearing platesare firmy fixed to the sleepers and the rails arebearing on the chairs/ bearing plates. In case of railsresting directly on sleepers it should be ensured thatthere is no gap between the bottom of the rail andtop of the sleeper.

(iii) The base rail shall be sighted by the Matewith eye along the lower edge of the head of rail andany dip or low joint lifted correctly. The adjacentsleepers should then be packed and the top checked.After two rail lengths have been attended to, the railon the other side should be brought to the correctlevel by checking cross level with the straight edgeand spirit level or gauge-cum level at every rail jointand at every fourth sleeper. The next two rail lengthsshould then be taken up and the process continued.

(iv) No joint or dip should be lifted higher thanthe proper level in the expectation that it will settle tothe correct level. Instead it will settle more undertraffic as a result of being high and cause roughrunning.

Page 45: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

32

(v) Having aligned the track and adjusted the‘top’ the Gangmen should be distributed in batchesof two for packing all sleepers in a systematicmanner, commencing from one end. Four menshould deal with every sleeper successively, two ateach rail seat. The ballast under the sleeper shouldbe packed by the men standing back-to-back andworking their beaters diagonally under the rail seatat the same time to ensure firm packing.

(vi) It is important that men should thoroughly‘break’ the cores with the pick-ends and then use theblunt-ends (head-ones), as otherwise, uniformpacking will not be achieved and elasticity of the road-bed affected. After packing the rail seat the packingshould be continued outwards and inwards to therequisite extent on each side of the rail seat i.e., endof the sleeper to 450 mm. inside on the B.G. and endof sleeper to 350 mm. inside on the M.G. and end ofsleepers to 250 mm. inside on the N.G. (762 mm.).The beaters should not be lifted above the chest level,the strokes being kept as nearly horizontal aspossible. Care must be taken to avoid forcing underthe sleeper any stones so large as to cause unevenbearing and to avoid striking the edges of the sleepersand timbers. All men should aim to work the beaterfrom the same height (chest level) so that thesleepers are uniformly packed. Higher or lower liftingof the beaters results in uneven compactness.

(vii) In case of steel trough and woodensleepers, packing under the rail seat causes theballast to work towards the center. Before finaldressing is done, it should be ensured that no sleeperis centre-bound by working the pick-ends over thecentral range. Centre bound sleepers cause vehiclesto roll from side to side.

(viii) In the case of CST. 9 sleepers it shouldbe ensured that the end pockets or bowls are filledwith ballast and the main packing should be done atcorners. The central flat portion of the plate shouldnot be packed hard but only tamped lightly. On potsleepers the ballast should be punned through theholes provided at the top of the pot and rammed inwith crow-bars.

(ix) Care must also be taken while packing toensure that the work does not result in the sleepersadjoining those being packed, lifted off their bed, thuscreating artificial voids under them.

(x) The packing on the inside and outside atevery rail seat should, before boxing the track, bechecked by the Mate by tapping with a wooden mallet

or a canne-a boule. A hollow sound would indicatedefective packing which should be attended to again.

(xi) As soon as the packing is completed, slightdistortions in alignment and top should be checkedand corrected by the Mate, the sleeper disturbed forthis purpose being finally repacked.

(g) Repacking of joint sleepers: The joint and‘shoulder’ sleepers should be repacked, beforeboxing is done and the cross-levels at joints checked.The rail joint being the weakest portion, firmness ofits support is essential.

(h) Boxing to Ballast section and Tidying – (i)After completing the preceding operations insequence, clean ballast should be worked in withballast forks or rakes. The ballast section should bedressed to the specified dimensions, a templatebeing used for the purpose. Hemp cords 6 mm. dia.of sufficient length should be used for lining the topand bottom edges of the ballast section. Where thequantity of ballast is inadequate, full section of ballastshould be provided near the rail seat, the deficiencybeing reflected along the centre of the track and notunder the rails or in the shoulders.

(ii) The cess should then be tidied up. Whereearth ridging is existing at the edge of the bank, thisshould be removed. Cess should be maintained tothe correct depth below rail level according to theballast-section and formation profile. Too high a cessaffects drainage; too low a cess results in ballast-spread and wastage.

225. Maintenance By Measured ShovelPacking – Deleted.

226. Track Maintenance by Machines – (1)General - Mechanical maintenance of track involvinguse of “on track machines” should be planned, onlong continuous lengths.

(2) Pre-requisites to introduction of mechanicalmaintenance – (a) A minimum depth of 150 mm. ofclean ballast is recommended for the properfunctioning of the tie tampers. Adequate ballast shouldbe available in the shoulders and cribs.

(b) For this purpose, planning and executionof deep screening of ballast where required, as wellas running out of ballast, should be done well inadvance.

(c) These machines require line occupationand availability of blocks for their working. It is

Page 46: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

33

desirable for these machines to be given a singleblock of at least 4 hours per day or two separateblocks of 2½ hours each, for better working. It isnecessary to have longer blocks, so that the netavailable time for working on the line is as high aspossible. On the double line section, temporary singleline working may be introduced whenever possible.Diversion of some trains along alternative routes mayalso be resorted to, wherever possible. An idealsituation would be to provide for time allowance forworking the machines in the working time table. Theblock time should be interpolated in the master chartfor passenger and goods trains that is prepared withevery change in time table. It is as much theresponsibility of the Operating Department as thatof the Engineering Department to ensure provisionof adequate time for economical working ofmachines. For this purpose it is desirable to frame aprogramme of working the machines in consultationwith the Operating Department.

(d) Sanction of the Commissioner of RailwaySafety is to be taken before introducing any new typeof ‘on - track’ machine on a section.

(3) Pre-tamping attention – To achieve goodresults the P.W.I. should carry out the followingpreparatory work before taking up the tamping:

(a) Ballasting where there is shortage ofballast.

(b) Heaping up of ballast in the tampingzone, to ensure effective packing.

(c) Making up of low cess.

(d) Cleaning of pumping joints andproviding additional clean ballast, wherenecessary.

(e) Attending to Hogged joints beforetamping.

(f) Tightening of all fittings and fasteningslike fish bolts and keys, splitting ofcotters, and replacement of worn outfittings.

(g) Renewing broken and damagedsleepers.

(h) Squaring of sleepers and spacingadjustment; regauging to be done asnecessary.

(i) Adjusting creep and expansion gap inrails.

(j) Examination of rails for cracks etc.

(k) Realigning of curves which are badlyout of alignment.

(l) Clearing of ballast on sleepers to makethem visible to the operator.

(m) All obstructions such as signal rods,cables, pipes, level crossing checkrails, etc., likely to be damaged by thetampers should be clearly marked andmade known to the tamping operatorbefore he starts work. Tight overheadclearance should also be brought to hisnotice; the beginning and end oftransitions should be marked. Superelevation should be marked on everysecond sleeper so that it can guide theoperator for levelling up correctly.

(4) Attention during Tamping: – The followingpoints should be observed by the machine operatorand the Permanent Way Inspector :

(a) The tamping depth i.e. gap between the topedge of the tamping blade and the bottom edge ofthe sleeper in closed position of the tamping toolshould be adjusted depending on the type of sleepers.This is particularly important in the case of steeltrough sleeper because of its shape. Care shouldbe taken to ensure that tamping tools are insertedcentrally between the sleepers into the ballast toavoid any damage to the sleepers.

(b) The tamping (squeezing ) Pressure shouldbe adjusted according to the track structure, as perthe recommendations of the manufacturer.

(c) The number of insertions of tamping tools,per sleeper tamped, varies with the type of sleeper -

(i) CST-9 sleepers and steel troughsleepers require tamping twice beforepassing on to the next sleeper.

(ii) Wooden Sleepers - Normally oneinsertion upto 20 mm. Lift and twoinsertions for lifts above 20 mm maysuffice. One additional insertion for jointsleepers will be required.

(iii) Concrete Sleepers-Generally oneinsertion is adequate. Two insertionsmay be necessary if the lift is above 30mm.

Page 47: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

34

(d) While Tamping CST-9 and Steel TroughSleepers, it should be checked that the keys areproperly driven and they are tight.

(e) The shoulders should be compacted alongwith tamping, where separate provision for shouldercompaction is available.

(f) A run-off ramp of 1 in 1000 should be givenbefore closing the day’s work.

(5) Post Tamping Attention – The PermanentWay Inspector shall pay attention to the followingpoints :

(a) As some of the rigid fastenings mightget loose, tightening of fittings shouldbe done immediately after tamping.

(b) Any broken fitting should be replaced.

(c) It is preferable to check gauge and dogauging, wherever necessary, aftertamping.

(d) Proper quality check of work done bytamping machine is important.Immediately after the tamping work,the track should be checked, inrespect of cross levels andalignment, and action taken asconsidered necessary.

(e) The ballast should be dressed neatlyand proper consolidation of ballastbetween the sleepers should bedone.

(6) General Notes on Working by Machines.:

(a) As far as possible machines shouldbe worked in pairs in the same blocksection to make effective use ofblock.

(b) Where shoulder and crib compactingequipment is available with tietamping machine, the same shouldinvariably be used.

(c) Only trained and experiencedpersons should be deputed to manthe machines.

(d) While stabling the machine, it shouldbe ensured that all the locking devicesare properly secured and theswitches are put ‘off’.

(e) Before putting the machine intocommission all the devices should bechecked and made sure that they are

in proper working order.

(f) The machine should never be run ata speed higher than that permitted/sanctioned by the Commissioner ofRailway Safety.

(g) While passing trains, on adjacenttrack(s) on double / multiple lines, itshould be ensured that no part of thetamping machine is fouling the othertrack.

(h) The prescribed schedules ofpreventive maintenance should beadhered to. Suitable maintenanceorganisation should be created in theRailways as necessary. Sufficientspares should be arranged. Anassessment of requirement ofspares, based on the experienceshould be made.

227. Systematic Overhauling – (1) Sequenceof operations- Overhauling as described briefly inpara 203 (2) should consist of the followingoperations in sequence :–

(a) Shallow screening and making up ofballast.

(b) All items attended to, while doingthrough packing as detailed in Para224 (1).

(c) Making up the cess.

(2) Shallow Screening and making up of Ballast–

(a) For good drainage periodical screening ofballast is essential.

(b) In the case of manual maintenance, the cribballast between sleepers is opened out to a depth of50 to 75 mm. below the bottom of sleepers, slopingfrom the centre towards sleeper end. For machinemaintained section, the crib ballast in the shouldersshould be opened out to a depth of 75 to 100mm.below the bottom of sleepers, sloping from the centretowards sleeper end. The ballast in the shouldersopposite to the crib as well as the sleepers is removedto the full depth. A slope is given at the bottom slopingaway from the sleeper end. The ballast is thenscreened and put back. Care should be taken to seethat the packing under the sleepers is not disturbedand the muck removed is not allowed to raise thecess above the correct level.

Page 48: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

35

(c) Two contiguous spaces between sleepersshould not be worked at the same time.

(d) Screening should be progressed in alternatepanels of one rail length. In no circumstances shouldseveral rail lengths of track be stripped of ballast.

(e) Where drains across the track exist, theyshould be cleaned and filled with boulders or ballastto prevent packing from working out and formingslacks.

(f) After screening, full ballast section shouldbe provided, extra ballast being run out previouslyfor the purpose. Work should be commenced aftermaking sure that the ballast will not be seriouslydeficient. Deficiency, if any, should be shown in thecentral portion of sleeper and this also should bemade up soon.

(3) Through packing of track – The detailedoperations are described in Para 224. Throughpacking may be done either by conventional beaterpacking, or by using machines.

(4) Making up of Cess – Cess when highshould be cut alongwith overhauling and when lowshould be made up. A template should be used forthis purpose.

(5) General – Overhauling should be completedbefore the end of March. In the case of L.W.R.territory, the provisions in L.W.R. Manual should befollowed.

(6) Screening in Welded area – In the case ofS.W.R. area screening may be carried out at railtemperatures and conditions as detailed in Para 509.

228. 3-tier system of track maintenance :–

(1) 3-tier System of track maintenance shall beadopted on sections nominated for mechanisedmaintenance. This shall consist of the following 3tiers of track maintenance:

(i) On-track machines (OMU)(ii) Mobile Maintenance Units (MMU)(iii) Sectional Gangs

(2) Large track machines for trackmaintenance include Tie-tamping machines for plaintrack and points and crossings, shoulder ballastcleaning machines, ballast cleaning machines, ballastregulating machines and dynamic track stabilizers.These machines shall be used as per the variousinstructions issued in Indian Railways Track

Machines Manual. These machines shall bedeployed to carry out the following jobs:

(a) Systematic tamping of plain track aswell as Points & Crossings;

(b) Intermediate tamping of plain track aswell as Points & crossings;

(c) Shoulder ballast cleaning;

(d) Ballast profiling/redistribution;

(e) Track stabilization;

(f) Periodical deep screening.

(3) Mobile Maintenance Units–

(a) The mobile maintenance units (MMU)shall consist of two groups:

(i) MMU-I : One for each PWI's section.

(ii) MMU-II: One for each sub-division

(b) The functions of MMU shall be asbelow:

MMU-I - (Rail-cum-Road Vehicle based)one with each PWI incharge with ajurisdiction of 40-50 Kms double lineor 90-100 Kms single line:

(i) Need based spot tamping;

(ii) In-Situ rail welding

(iii) Casual Renewal and repairs exceptplanned renewals

(iv) Overhauling of Level Xings

(v) Replacement of glued joints

(vi) Rail cutting/drilling and chamfering

(vii) Permanent repairs to fractures

(viii) Creep or gap adjustments involvinguse of machines

(ix) Destressing of LWR/CWR

(x) Loading/Unloading of materials

(xi) Any other functions assigned.

MMU-II - (Road Vehicle Based ) one witheach sub division

(i) Reconditioning of Turnouts

(ii) Minor repairs to the equipments ofMMU

(c) The MMU shall be equipped with thefollowing equipments. These equipments shall beused according to the working instructions, as andwhen issued.

Page 49: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

36

List of equipments for MMU-I:

(A) Communication Equipment

1. Walkie Talkie 4 sets2. Portable field telephones 4 sets

(B) Rail Cutting/Drilling Equipment

3. Disc Cutter 1

4. Rail Cutting Machine 1

5. Rail Drilling Machine 1

6. Chamfering kit 1

(C) Rail Welding Equipment

7. Rail Welding Equipment 2 sets

8. Weld Trimmer 1 set

9. Rail Profile Grinder forwelded joints 1 set

(D) Spot Tamping with Lifting Lining10. Off Track Hand Held

Tamper with Generators 1 set11. Lifting Jack-hydraulic/

mechanical 4 sets12. Lifting-cum-Slewing

Device 2 sets

(E) Destressing Equipment

13. Rail Tensors- Hydraulic/mechanical 2 sets

14. Rollers, wooden mallets 1com-plete setforDestre-ssing 3Km LWR

(F) Inspection Gadgets15. Inspection Kit 1 No.16. Gauge cum Level 1 No.17. Rail Thermometer 1 No.18. Vernier Calipers 1 No.19. Micrometer 1 No.

(G) Material Handling Equipment20. Rail Dolly 6 No.21. Mono Rail Wheel Borrow 2 No.

(H) Safety and Protection Equipments22. Warning System23. Red Banner Flag24. Red Hand Signal Flag25. Green Hand Signals Flag26. Detonators

(I) Gas Cutting Equipments withAccessories: 1 set.

List of Equipments for MMU-II:

(A) Points and Crossing ReconditioningEquipment :

1. Welding Generator 1 set

2. Arc Welding Equipment 1 set

3. Hand Held Rail Grinder 2 sets

(B) For Minor Repairs to Equipments:4. Spanner of sizes 2 sets5. Turfer 26. Files of Sorts 2 sets7. Bench Drill 28. Vice Bench 29. Bench Grinder 2

(4) Sectional Gangs:The sectional gangs, under 3-tiersystem of track maintenance shallperform the following functions:

(a) Patrolling of track:(i) Keyman's daily patrol(ii) Hot/cold weather patrolling(iii) Monsoon Patrolling

(b) Watching vulnerable locations(c) Attention of emergencies viz. temporary

repairs of fractures.(d) Need-based attention to bridges,

turnouts, SEJs and approaches oflevel crossings.

(e) Greasing of ERCs, lubrication ofjoints, casual changing of rubber padsand other fittings

(f) Minor cess repairs(g) Cleaning of drains and boxing of ballast(h) Attention to loops(i) Creep and gap adjustment not involving

use of machines(j) Cleaning of crib ballast for effective cross

drainage(k) Pre & post tamping attention(l) Assistance to MMU & OMU as required(m) Any other functions assigned.

Page 50: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

37

229. Picking up Slacks – Slacks usually occuron stretches of yielding formation on high banks andcuttings, on approaches of bridges, on badly alignedcurves, where ballast is poor in quality or quantity orwhere drainage is defective. Attention to slacks shouldbe need based, need for the same being determinedby inspections and results of track recording. Pickingup slacks shall be done where the alignment is kinkyor top level is uneven and the track has to be restoredto normal condition quickly. The quantum of workturned out by a gang during the day will depend onthe extent of slacks. In all cases sighting is done, thedefects assessed and marks made on sleepers tobe dealt with in chalk. The marked sleepers shouldthen be dealt with as in through packing care beingtaken to see that the packing of adjacent sleepersdoes not get disturbed. In case a large percentageof sleepers needs attention in a rail length, the entirerail length should be attended to. The marking ofdefects shall be as indicated below :

Defects Symbol Place of indication

Cross levels C-2 On the sleeper insidegauge face.

Loose packing H or P On the sleeper outsidethe gauge face

Gauge O ± On the sleeper insidethe gauge face

Unevenness → ← On the rail web on ↓ gauge face side

Alignment → On the foot of railinside the gauge face

It is imperative that when joints are picked up,at least three sleepers on either side of the joints arepacked. Picking up slacks may be done, byconventional method or by off-track tampers. In thecase of a low joint, the fish plates should be slightlyloosened and the joint tapped, so that the rail endsare, rendered free and are capable of being lifted.After the joint is thoroughly packed the fish platesshould be tightened again.

230. Observance of Sleepers underpassage of traffic – During the passage of the firstand last trains within working hours, the Mate andGangmen at the work site should stand on the cesseach about one rail-length apart on either side of theportion of track they are attending to, whether through

packing or picking up slacks and observe themovement of sleepers under load.

Immediately after the passing of train, loosesleepers should be marked, packed uniformly andthe packing tested. In respect of other trains, the Mateand the Gangmen should observe the sleepers nearwhere they are working and take similar action. Firmand uniform packing is the primary need for goodtrack maintenance.

231. Sample of standard section of track– At or near the commencement of each gang lengthbetween stations a sample of three rail lengths oftrack should be maintained to accord with allstandards laid down –

(a) Formation of standard width and levelbelow rail.

(b) Clean ballast of correct size, quantity andcross section.

(c) Correct alignment, level and gauge.

(d) Sleepers and fastenings in goodcondition.

The object of the sample track is to indicatethe standard to which the track should be maintainedthroughout the gang length.

232. Checking work of Gangs byPermanent Way Inspectors – (1) Examinationof Gang’s Work– The work done by a gang either onthe previous day or during the interval when thePermanent Way Inspector is next with the gangshould be examined for alignment, surfacing andboxing throughout. The Permanent Way Inspectorshould inspect rails and sleepers and their fasteningsand check cross levels, gauge, squareness ofsleepers, packing, joint maintenance, profile of ballastand depths of cess below rail level. The Mate’sMuster Sheet should be checked and initialled.Instructions to the Mates should be recorded in thegang diaries.

(2) Examination of tools and equipment - (a)The Permanent Way Inspector should examineevery month and replace, when necessary, worn outtools and equipment.

(b) He should check the accuracy of the spiritlevel/gauge and straight edge every month, the resultof this examination being entered in the Mate’s diarybook.

Page 51: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

38

(c) Each gang should have the followingminimum equipment:

(i) Level-cum-gauge.(ii) One set of hand signal flags, red and

green (2 hand signal lampsat night).

(iii) 12 detonators.(iv) Steel scale 30cm. long.(v) Straight edge 1 metre long.(vi) Square.(vii) Hump chord.(viii) Keying and spiking hammer.(ix) Marking chalk.(x) Rail thermometer.(xi) Sufficient No. of shovels, Phowrahs,

beaters, crow-bars, Ballast-forks orrakes, mortar pans or baskets.

(xii) Wooden mallet or Canne-a-Boule.(xiii) Feeler gauge.(3) Instructions and Tuition – The permanent

Way Inspector should ensure that every man in eachgang is aware of the following rules in which the menshould be examined periodically and on appointment,promotion or transfer :–

(a) Protecting the lines in an emergencyor during work affecting the running oftrains.

(b) Method of fixing and safety range ofdetonators.

(c) Showing of signals with or without handsignal flags during day and with handsignal lamps during night.

(d) Action to be taken when a train isnoticed to have parted.

(e) ‘Safety first’ rules.(f) Patrolling of the line during heavy rains

/storms and hot weather on LWRlengths.The Permanent Way Inspectorshould instruct the men in the properuse of tools and upkeep of the road.The instructions should not be of acasual nature; they should bedemonstrative.

233. Lifting Of Track – (1) Lifting of track willbecome necessary during regrading and forelimination of minor sags, which develop throughimproper maintenance or yielding soil, to keep a goodtop.

(2) Correct level pegs should be fixed atsuitable intervals, before lifting is commenced.

(3) Heavy lifting should always be carried outunder suitable speed restriction and under theprotection of corresponding engineering signals.Lifting should not exceed 75 mm. at a time so as toallow proper consolidation. The easement gradientfor the passage of trains should not be steeper than25 mm. in one rail length of 13 metres. The operationshould be repeated until the required level is attainedwhen the track should be finally ballasted, throughpacked and boxed, the cess being made up to properlevel.

(4) Lifting should commence from the downhill end carried out in the direction of rising grade incase of single line. It should proceed in the oppositedirection to traffic, in case of double line, care beingtaken not to exceed the easement grade.

(5) While lifting track under bridges andoverhead structures and in tunnels it should beensured that there is no infringement of standarddimensions.

(6) In case of curves, it is usual to set the innerrail to the correct level and grade and to raise theouter rail to give the required superelevation, carebeing taken to see that the cant gradient is within thepermissible limit.

234. Lowering of Track – (1) Lowering of thetrack should not be resorted to except where it cannot be avoided and if resorted to, it should be doneunder suitable speed restriction and under theprotection of Engineering signals.

(2) When lowering is to be done, trenchesshould be made across the track at every 30 M. tothe final level in order to give a continuous indication,while the work is in progress. The ballast should beremoved sufficiently far away from the track toprevent it getting mixed up with excavated material.

(3) The procedure is to clear the spacesbetween the sleepers, then slightly lift the track, breakthe packing beneath and level it into the spacebetween sleepers. This material is then removed andthe operation repeated until the final level is reached.The road should then be ballasted, through packedand boxed, the cess being cut down to proper level.

Page 52: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

39

(4) Lowering as in the case of lifting, should berestricted to a maximum of 75 mm. at a time and thegrade for passage of trains should not exceed 25mm. in a rail length of 13 M. As opposed to lifting,lowering should be carried out in the direction of thefalling grade.

(5) Work of lifting or lowering of track shouldbe carried out in the presence of Permanent WayInspector.

235. Distance Pieces to Platform Lines –Tracks adjacent to platforms should be provided, with‘distance pieces’ made of unserviceable timber fixedat intervals of about 30 M. one end of each such piecebutting against the near rail and the other against theface of the platform wall or any other suitablearrangement to obviate the possibility of infringementof the horizontal distance from centre of track to faceof platform coping.

236. Fouling Marks – (1) Fouling marksshould be distinctly visible and difficult to remove.

(2) These should be fixed at the point at whichthe spacing between the tracks, begin to reduce toless than the minimum as laid down in the scheduleof dimensions.

(3) The fouling marks should consist of a stone/cement concrete block about 1500 mm. in length,250 mm. wide and 125 mm. thick, with the top edgerounded off and the top surface white-washed or ofunserviciable rail pieces embedded in concretesupport & painted white. These should be laid levelwith the top line of the ballast section.

The number of wagons which can beaccommodated in a siding or a loop should bemarked on each fouling mark.

237. Inspection and Maintenance of Pointsand Crossings – (1) Maintenance - General-(a)Points and crossings should be laid without the 1in 20 cant.

(b) Where large number of Points andCrossings are being maintained within aspecific area such as marshalling yards,large lay-outs of sidings, terminal stationsetc., regular cycle of maintenance coveringall Points and Crossings should beorganised.

(c) Cess should be low enough to permitefficient drainage and adequate depth ofballast cushion should be provided.

(d) Correct spacing of sleepers should beensured according to the standard lay outdrawings.

(e) There should be no junction fish plates atstock rail joints or at the heel of crossings.At least one rail on either side of the Pointsand Crossings should have the samesection as the Points and Crossingsassembly rail section.

(f) Use of spherical washers at appropriateplaces in a Points and Crossings assemblyis very important. A spherical washer is usedto obtain flush fit of the head of the nut of thebolt with the web of the rail, in the switchand crossing assembly. The use ofspherical washer is necessary where theshank of the bolt is not at right angles to theaxis of the rail. Spherical washers are usedon skew side. In I.R.S. turnouts with straightswitches, these should be provided on theleft hand side invariably in the switchassembly.

(g) The gauge and cross level measurementsshall be done at the nominated stations asindicated in the proforma. The trackgeometry at the turnout should not be inferiorto that applicable to the route. However,gauge just ahead of actual toe of switch shallbe as follows:

(i) All BG turnouts of 1:12 BG 60 kg with 10125mm O.R. curved switches (on wooden,steel or PSC sleepers), 1:12 BG 52 Kg with10125 mm O.R. curved switches on PSCsleepers and all thick web switches (52 kg/60 kg) on wooden/PSC sleepers i.e. allturnouts with switches having switch entryangle < 00°20’00" = Nominal gauge.

(ii) All other turnouts excluding those (i)above i.e. turnouts with switches havingswitch entry angle >00°20’00"=Nominal gauge + 6mm.

h) The clearance, at the toe, heel of switch, atcheck rail and wing rail must be maintainedwithin the tolerances prescribed in theschedule of dimensions.

i) Packing under the sleepers must not beloose/defective especially under thecrossing and the switch.

Page 53: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

40

(j) The chairs and fastenings and all otherfittings must be properly secured.

(k) The Points and Crossings assembly, shouldbe in good condition and alignment with therest of the track without kinks.

(l) Adequate creep anchors should be providedto arrest creep. Box anchoring of at leastone rail length ahead of stock rail isrecommended. Creep posts should beerected at all interlocked facing pointsopposite the toe of the switch and creepshould not be allowed to exceed permissiblelimits. In case of PSC sleeper layout withelastic fastening, creep anchors need notbe provided. In case excessive creep isobserved at such layouts, the condition ofelastic fastenings may be examined andsuitable action be taken.

(m) It is desirable to weld stock and lead jointson the Points and Crossings assembly.

(2) Maintenance of Switches –(a) In case of straight switches, correct

amount of bend should be given to thestock rail on the turnout side at thetheoretical toe of switch, to avoid badalignment and kink.

(b) The condition of stock & tongue railsshould be carefully examined. Badlyworn and damaged stock and tonguerails should be replaced by serviceableones. A tongue rail may be classified asworn/damaged when -It is chipped/cracked over small lengthsaggregating to 200 mm. within a distanceof 1000 mm. from its toe (i) chippedlength will be the portion where tonguerail has worn out for a depth of more than10 mm over a continuous length of 10mm.(ii) it has developed knife edged tip(thickness of top edge being less than 2mm) over a length of more than 100 mmany where upto a distance of 1000 mmfrom its toe.(iii) it is badly twisted or bent and doesnot house properly against the stock railcausing a gap of 5mm or more at thetoe, the limit described in the I.R.S.E.M.The tongue rail can, however, be reusedafter reconditioning of the broken/worn/damaged tip by welding.

(iv)Tongue rail should be replaced/reconditioned when vertical/lateral wearexceeds the values laid down. The wearshall be measured at a point with 13 mmhead width and at the point where tongueand stock rails are at same level. Thislocation is indicated in table at Annexure2/6/1.Vertical Wear – 8mm for 60 kg

– 5mm for 52 kg and 90R– 3mm for 75R and 60R

Lateral Wear – 8mm for 60 kg– 6mm for 52 kg and 90R– 5mm for 75 R and 60R

(v) Wear on stock rail shall not exceedthe limits laid down in para -302 ofIRPWM. However, proper housing oftongue rails is to be ensured.Burred stock rail likely to obstruct the lockbar, should be replaced, if necessary.

(c) Rail Gauge ties, rodding etc., hinderproper packing and ordinary beatersbecome ineffective. Yard gangstherefore, should use tamping bars atsuch locations.

(d) To check the housing of the tongue railand also the throw of the switch, all non -interlocked points should be operated byhand lever and other points from thesignal frame, when traffic permits doingso. If the tongue rail is found to be nothousing properly against the stock rail,the defect must be rectified by thePermanent Way Staff in case of non-interlocked points and jointly with signaland telecommunication staff, in case ofinterlocked or partially interlocked points.

(e) Tongue rail should bear evenly on all theslide chairs. This will be ensured whenall the sleepers are packed properly.

(f) When the tongue rail is in closed position,it must bear evenly against distancestuds or blocks.

(g) All bolts on switches should be kept tight.

Page 54: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

41

limits:

Built up/welded crossing - 6mm

CMS crossings - 8mm

Note :

(i) In case of CMS crossings, followingdimensions should be deducted (toaccount for slope in casting of wingrails to 1:20 cant) from the observedwear measurements to find out theactual wear.

for 52 kg section : 2.0mm.

for 60 kg section : 2.5mm.

(ii) In case of welded heat treatedcrossings, the dimensions to bededucted from the observed wear forfinding out actual wear is as shownon the relevant layout drawing.

(f) In the case of steel trough sleepers usedin crossings, use of wooden blocksadded to the contour of the underside ofsleepers, strengthens the support andhelps in better maintenance. However,for sleepers strengthened by providingsteel ribs on their underside, use ofwooden block is not required.

(4) Maintenance of lead portion and turn incurve–

(a) The leads and radii of turnout should becorrect according to the section of therail and the angle of crossing used.

(b) Initially, the lead curve correctnessshould be ensured by measuring offsetsfrom the gauge face of the straight track.During maintenance, stations at 3.0 Mintervals should be marked and theversines checked and track attended asnecessary.

(c) The versines of turn in curves on loopsshould be recorded at stations at 3.0 Mintervals on 6.0m chord length during theinspection of points and crossings tocheck the sharpness of the curve andrectified as necessary. The turn-in curveshould also be checked for condition ofsleepers and fastenings.

(h) Slight wide gauge at the toe of switchover and above the required widening tohouse the tip of the tongue rail, may beadjusted by providing suitable steelpacking between the web of the stockrail and the lug of the slide chair whereverfeasible.

(i) Stretcher bars connected to the pull rodshall be maintained jointly by thePermanent Way Staff and the SignaxllingStaff. All other stretcher bars shall bemaintained by the Permanent WayInspector. Stretcher bars insulated fortrack circuit purposes shall not beinterfered with unless signal staff arepresent.

(j) Wear on switches can be reduced bylubrication of the gauge face of tonguerail.

(k) On wooden sleeper layout assembly, theslide chairs should be fixed to timbersby plate screws; Round spikes shouldnot be used for this purpose.

(3) Maintenance of Crossings –

(a) If any damage to the nose of crossing isnoticed, its cause must be traced, whichmay be due to tight gauge or due toexcessive clearance at the check rail.

(b) If wing rails or check rails are badly wornlaterally, it could be due to wide gauge atthe crossing. Gauge can be maintainedproperly by the provision of a gauge tieplate under the nose of crossing, onlayout of wooden sleepers.

(c) In obtuse crossings, the distancebetween the throat and the nose mustbe maintained correctly.

(d) In diamond crossings, obtuse crossingsshould be laid square to each other withrespect to the centre line of the acutecrossings.

(e) Maximum permissible vertical wear onwing rails or nose of crossing shall be10mm. However, on Rajdhani/Shatabdiroutes, as a good maintenance practice,crossing and the wing rails should beplanned for reconditioning/resurfacing bywelding on reaching the following wear

Page 55: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

42

(d) The variation in versines on two successivestations in lead curve and turn in curveportions should not be more than 4mm. andversine at each station should also not bebeyond ± 3mm. from its designed value

(5) Schedule of Inspections of Points andCrossings –

(a) Permanent Way Inspector’s Inspection -The Permanent Way Inspector-in-charge ofthe Section and his Assistant shouldcarryout thorough inspection of points andcrossings in passenger running lines oncein 3 months and other lines once in sixmonths by rotation.

(b) Assistant Engineer’s Inspection - TheAssistant Engineer should inspect once ayear all points and crossings thoroughly onpassenger running lines and 10 per cent ofthe points and crossings on other lines.

(c) Divisional Engineer’s Inspection - TheDivisional Engineer should inspect at hisdiscretion a certain number of points andcrossings particularly in running lines andthose recommended for renewals.

(d) Proforma for points and crossingsinspection is appended as Annexure 2/6.

(6) Cleaning and Lubrication of Points - At allinterlocked and partially interlocked stations, theSignal Staff will be responsible for the periodicalcleaning and lubrication of slide chairs of all pointsinterlocked with signals or provided with locks. ThePermanent Way Inspectors shall be responsible forthe cleaning and lubrication of slide chairs of all handoperated points on their sections.

(7) Alterations of Points – The position ofpoints and crossings should not be altered nor shouldany be removed without the written authority of theDivisional Engineer. The sanction of theCommissioner of Railway Safety is necessary in thecase of alterations/insertion/removal of points andcrossings in existing running lines.

(8) Gauge and Super-elevation in Turnouts –(a) It is a good practice to maintain uniform gaugeover turn outs.

(b) If gauge of track adjoining the points andcrossings is maintained wider/tighter than the gaugeon the points and crossings, the guage on theadjoining track must be brought to same gauge asin the points and crossings and run out at the rate of1 mm in 3 M to the requisite extent.

(c) Super-elevation on turnouts with curve ofsimilar or contrary flexture should be provided inaccordance with Paras 413 and 414.

(9) Interlocked Points – Before interlockingwork is taken in hand, the Permanent Way Inspectorshould :

(a) Bring the rails to correct level andalignment.

(b) Fully pack and ballast the points to beinterlocked.

(c) Provide creep indicators if required.(d) Mark places where the rods and wires

have to cross the lines.(e) To avoid future adjustments of gear, see

that the Permanent Way at points, is laidto correct gauge so that switches, fittingsand locks may be correctly put together.

(f) Clear formation and bring it to the correctlevel and section where rods and wireshave to be run.

(g) Make the road at level crossings, if anyto correct level and section to allowcasing pipes for wires to be put in theirfinal position.

(h) Provide and fix special timbers as maybe required.

(i) Provide sufficient anchors of anapproved type ahead of switches.

(j) Fit gauge ties correctly to all switches.

As interlocked points should be disturbed aslittle as possible, it is of the utmost importance thatthese instructions should be rigidly adhered to.

In the case of interlocked points, the SignalInspector will be responsible for keeping in workingorder, the interlocking parts and apparatus. As theslewing of the track at points is likely to throw themout of adjustment, such work should not beundertaken except in the presence of the Signal staff.

On the advice of track defects from SignalInspectors, Permanent Way Inspector shouldpromptly attend to them.

Page 56: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

43

(10) Date of Laying Points and Crossings –The month and year of laying a new or second handpoints and crossings should be painted in white blockletters on the webs of switches about 500mm. fromthe heel joint and the webs of crossings about500mm. from the joint connected to the lead rails.

When second hand points and crossings aresubsequently laid at another site, the dates previouslymarked should not be obliterated; an indication of thetotal life will then be available. In the case ofreconditioning of switches and crossings the date ofreconditioning should also be painted.

Page 57: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

44

Annexure-2/6 PARA 237(5)

PROFORMA FOR INSPECTION OF POINTS AND CROSSINGS

Station __________________________________________________________

Point No. ________________________________________________________

Location _________________________________________________________

Type of rail _______________________________________________________

Date of laying _____________________________________________________

Date of laying reconditioned crossing : _________________________________

1st 2nd 3rd 4th

Date of laying reconditioned switch :

LH : 1st 2nd 3rd 4th

RH: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th

Type of sleeper/assembly ___________________________________________

Angle of crossing __________________________________________________

Nominal gauge of turnout ____________________________________________

Left hand or right hand ______________________________________________

Laid on straight or on curve of radius ___________________________________

Similar/contrary flexure _____________________________________________

———————————————————————————————————————————————Particulars Details Action Details Action

of Insp- taken of Insp- takenection with date ection with date

and sign and sign———————————————————————————————————————————————

1 2 3 4 5———————————————————————————————————————————————

I. General -

1. Condition of sleepers:

2. Condition of ballast anddrainage.

———————————————————————————————————————————————

Page 58: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

45

——————————————————————————————————————————————Particulars Details Action Details Action

of Insp- taken of Insp- takenection with date ection with date

and Sign. and Sign.———————————————————————————————————————————————

1 2 3 4 5——————————————————————————————————————————————— 3. Availability of:

a) Ballast in shouldersand cribs.

b) Clean ballast cushion

II. Switch assembly andlead portion

4. Condition of tongue rails:a) Whether chipped or

cracked over 200 mmlength within 1000 mmfrom ATS.LH:RH:

b) Whether twisted or bent.LH :RH:(causing gap of 5mm ormore at toe)(For joint check withsignal staff)

c) Whether knife edgeLH:RH:

d) Vertical wear

Right Hand

i) At point with 13 mm head width (as per Annexure 2/6/1)

ii) At point where tongue rail and stock rail level is same (as per Annexure 2/6/1)

Left Hand

i) At point with 13 mm head width (as per Annexure 2/6/1)

———————————————————————————————————————————————

Page 59: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

46

———————————————————————————————————————————————Particulars Details Action Details Action

of Insp- taken of Insp- takenection with date ection with date

And Sign. and Sign.———————————————————————————————————————————————

1 2 3 4 5———————————————————————————————————————————————

ii) At point where tongue rail and stock rail level is same (as per Annexure 2/6/1)

e) Lateral wear -(to be measured at 13 mmto 15 mm below top ofstock rail) (as per Ann.2/6/1)

Right Hand

i) At point with 13 mm head width (as per Annexure 2/6/1)

ii) At point where tongue rail and stock rail level is same (as per Annexure 2/6/1)

Left Hand

i) At point with 13 mm head width (as per Annexure 2/6/1)

ii) At point where tongue rail and stock rail level is same (as per Annexure 2/6/1)

Vertical and lateral wear may be measured starting at point ‘Q’ (13 mm head width) and at a point where the tongue and stock rails are at same level ( as per Annexure 2/6/1)

5. Condition of stock rail.a) Right hand :i) Vertical wearii) Lateral wear(to be measured at 13 mm to15mm below of stock rail)(as per Annexure 2/6/1)

Page 60: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

47

———————————————————————————————————————————————Particulars Details Action Details Action

of Insp- taken of Insp- takenection with date ection with date

& Sig. & Sign.———————————————————————————————————————————————

1 2 3 4 5———————————————————————————————————————————————

b) Left hand :i) Vertical wearii) Lateral wear(to be measured at 13 mm to15 mm below of stock rail)(as per Annexure 2/6/1)

6. Condition of fittings of switches

7. Gauge and cross level in switch and lead portion.

a) At 450mm ahead of toeof switch.

b) At ATS between the twostock rails:

c) At 150 mm behind toe ofswitch (only gauge) :i) For straight road:ii) For turnout:

d) At heel of switch.i) For straight road:ii) For turnout:

e) At 3m interval in leadportion (see note on next page)

Station Set for Set for main line turnout————————————————— Gauge: X- | Gauge: X- : level | : level————————————————— 0. ATS Heel ATS Heel

1.

2.

3.

4.

Page 61: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

48

———————————————————————————————————————————————Particulars Details Action Details Action

of Insp- taken of Insp- takenection with date ection with date

& Sign. & Sign.———————————————————————————————————————————————

1 2 3 4 5———————————————————————————————————————————————

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10

11.

12.

Note: The gauge and crosslevel in lead portion should berecorded at the stations whereversine measurements arebeing recorded as per col.12(a) or Col.12(b)

8. Divergence at heel block

a) Right handb) Left hand

9. Throw of switch

a) Right handb) Left hand

10. Creep at toe of switch

11. Packing conditions under the switch assembly.

12. Versine in switch and lead portion.

a) Versines of curved stockrail and lead rails uptoend of lead curve (see noteon next page):Station Versines in mm

0. (Heel/ATS)

Page 62: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

49

———————————————————————————————————————————————Particulars Details Action Details Action

of Insp- taken of Insp- takenection with date ection with date

& Sign. & Sign.———————————————————————————————————————————————

1 2 3 4 5———————————————————————————————————————————————

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10

11.

12.

b. Versines of curved tonguerail and lead rails upto endof lead curve (see notesbelow):Station Versines in mm

0. (Heel/ATS)1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10

11.

12.

Note: Versines to be recordedat 3 m interval on 6m chordlength commencing from heelof switch for straight switch &from ATS for curved switches.

Page 63: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

50

———————————————————————————————————————————————Particulars Details Action Details Action

of Insp- taken of Insp- takenection with date ection with date

& Sign. & Sign.———————————————————————————————————————————————

1 2 3 4 5———————————————————————————————————————————————

13. Housing of stock andtongue rails :

LH:RH:

14. Seating of tongue railson slide chairs :

LH:RH:

15. Straightness of straightstock rail :(measured on 10m chord)

16. Straightness of straighttongue rail :(measured on 10m chord)

17. Distance between gaugefaces of stock rails atJOH:

18. Distance between web toweb of tongue rails atrespective stretcher barlocations:a) Leading stretcher barb) Ist following

stretcher barc) IInd following

stretcher bar

19. Gap between top edge ofstretcher bar and bottomof rail foot at :a) Leading stretcher barb) Ist following

stretcher bar

Page 64: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

51

——————————————————————————————————————————————Particulars Details Action Details Action

of Insp- taken of Insp- takenection with date ection with date

& Sign. & Sign.———————————————————————————————————————————————

1 2 3 4 5

c) IInd followingstretcher bar

20. Clearance at JOH:i) When set for main linea) On Open tongue rail sideb) On Closed tongue rail side

ii) When set for turnout sidea) On Open tongue rail sideb) On Closed tongue rail side

Note: To be recorded only if spring setting device has been provided at or near JOH.

III. Crossing Assembly

21. Condition of crossinga) Sign of propogation of

crack (if any) in crossingassembly:

b) Burring on top surface atnose:

22. Type of crossing

23. Wear of crossing A. Built-up/Heat-treated

welded crossing (wearto be measured withstraight edge at 100 mmfrom ANC):

i) On left wing rail:ii) On nose:iii) On right wing rail

B. CMS crossing(wear to be measured withstraight edge):

Page 65: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

52

———————————————————————————————————————————Particulars Details Action Details Action

of Insp- taken of Insp- takenection with date ection with date

& Sign. & Sign.———————————————————————————————————————————————

1 2 3 4 5——————————————————————————————————————————————

i) On left wing rail:(opposite ANC)

ii) On nose:(At 100 mm from ANC)

Actual wear for 52 kg section: measured wear -2.0mm

Actual wear for 60 kg sectionmeasured wear - 2.5 mm

iii) On right wing rail:(Opposite ANC)

C. Heat-treated welded crossing i) Weld texture on top surface: ii) Whether any flow of metal

is there in weld portion: iii) Any indication of

separation of weld metalfrom parent metal.

24. Clearance of wing railopposite nose of crossingand upto 450 mm towardsheel end.a) Rightb) Left

25. Gauge and cross level atcrossings:a) 1m ahead of ANC

i) On straight roadii) On turnout

b) 150 mm behind ANCi) On straight roadii) On turnout

c) 1m behind ANCi) On straight roadii) On turnout

Page 66: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

53

——————————————————————————————————————————————Particulars Details Action Details Action

of Insp- taken of Insp- takenection with date ection with date

& Sign. & Sign.———————————————————————————————————————————————

1 2 3 4 5——————————————————————————————————————————————

26. Condition of check railfitting eg.bearingplates, keys, blocks, boltsand elastic fastenings:

27. Clearance of check rails:a) Opposite ANC:Left:Right:b) At following locations

with respect to centreof check rails.i) 500 mm ahead towardstoe of crossing:Left:Right:

ii) 500 mm behind heelof crossingLeft :Right:

c) At the flared endtowards heel:Left:Right:

d) At the flared endtowards toe:Left:Right:

IV Turn in curve: 28. Versines to be measured

at 3m interval on 6m chord.(From heel end of crossingto end of turn in curve)Station Versines in mm

0.

1.

2.

Page 67: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

54

——————————————————————————————————————————————Particulars Details Action Details Action

of Insp- taken of Insp- takenection with date ection with date

& Sign. & Sign.———————————————————————————————————————————————

1 2 3 4 5———————————————————————————————————————————————

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

29. Super elevation

30. Ballast:Availability of :i) 150 mm additional ballast

shoulder width on out sideof turn in curve.

ii) Clean ballast cushion.

V. General

31. Any other specialfeature /defects.

32. Signature of the inspecting offical with date———————————————————————————————————————————————NOTE : (1) Necessary additional entries may be made against relevant columns of switch, crossing and

lead assemblies in case of diamond crossing, diamond single slip/double slips.

(2)Locations where the gauge and cross levels are to be checked should be painted on the webof the rail.

Page 68: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

55

Annexure-2/6/1

PARTICULARS OF TONGUE RAILS SHOWING LOCATION AND HEAD THICKNESS AT LEVELPOINT OF STOCK AND TONGUE RAIL

———————————————————————————————————————————————S. Description of Drg. No. of Location of Location Location of HeadNo. switches of tongue 13 mm head of JOH level point thickness

rails from ATS from of stock & of tongueATS tongue rail at

rail from levelATS point

mm mm mm mm———————————————————————————————————————————————

1. 6400 mm c/s on w/s TA-20197/1 464 3005 1503 31.6BG 52 kg TA-20197

2. 6400mm c/s on s/s TA-20197/1 464 3005 1503 31.6BG 52kg TA-20836

3. 6400mm c/s on PSC RT-4866/2 476.5 3023 1512 31.6BG 52kg RT-4866

4. 6400mm c/s on PSC RT-4966/1 476.5 3229 2348 48.25BG 60 kg RT-4966

5. 7135 mm c/s on w/s RT-3011/1 1046 3900 2836 50.54BG 60 kg RT-3011

6. 7730 mm c/s on w/s TA-20172/1 814 4669 2335 30.50BG 52 kg TA-20172

7. 7730 mm c/s on s/s TA-20832/1 814 4669 2335 30.50BG 52 kg TA-20832

8. 10125mm c/s on w/s RT-2581/1 1682 5840 4247 43.40BG 60 kg RT-2581

9. 10125 mm c/s on PSC RT-4325/1 1682 5836 4244 43.40BG 60 kg RT-4219

10. 10125mm c/s on PSC RT-4733/1 1682 5540 4029 40.34BG 52kg RT-4733

———————————————————————————————————————————————

Page 69: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

56

Part CWorks Incidental to Regular Track

Maintenance

238. Deep Screening of Ballast-

(1) General – (a) It is essential that track iswell drained for which screening of ballast should becarried out periodically as described in Para 238(2).Due to presence of bad formation, ballast attrition,excessive rain fall and dropping of ashes and ore,ballast gets choked up and track drainage isimpaired. In such situations, it becomes necessaryto screen the entire ballast right up to the formationlevel /sub-ballast level. Further through screeningrestores the resiliency and elasticity of the ballastbed, resulting in improved running quality of track.Such screening is called “Deep screening”, asdistinguished from the shallow screening, which isdone, during overhauling.

(b) Deep screening should be carried out inthe following situations by providing full ballastcushion :

(1) Prior to complete track renewal.(2) Prior to through sleeper renewal.(3) Where the caking of ballast has

resulted in unsatisfactory riding.(4) Before converting existing track, fish

plated or SWR into LWR or CWR; orbefore introduction of machinemaintenance, unless the ballast wasscreened in recent past.

(5) The entire track must be deep screenedatleast once in ten years.

(c) The need for intermediate screeningbetween track renewals may be decided by the ChiefEngineer depending on the local conditions.

(d) At the time of deep screening, standardballast section should be provided invariably.

(e) In case of the bad formation, formationtreatment should be carried out along with the deepscreening.

(f) The work of deep screening should becarried out continuously from one end of the sectionto the other.

(2) Procedure for systematic Deep screening(not applicable to LWR Sections) – (a) Survey :Before deep screening of a section is undertaken, itis necessary to survey the section. This will consistof the following operations :

(i) A longitudinal section of the track should betaken indicating the rail levels at every 30 meters, asalso at changes of the grades, obligatory points likeculverts, bridges, over line structures, tunnels, levelcrossings, Signal gantries, ash pits, and points andcrossings etc.

(ii) In station yards, on run through lines, crosssections at every 50 meters should be taken andplotted including platform levels, rail levels andclearance to underside of overline structures.

(iii) On the basis of longitudinal and crosssections, the final levels will be decided by theDivisional Engineer, keeping in view -

The depth of ballast cushion to be provided;

The relative implications of lifting or loweringof track;

The possibility of eliminating humps, sags, andunevenness in the existing longitudinal section.

It is not necessarily the intention that the originallongitudinal section of the line should be restored .

(b) Preparation of Estimates – The estimatefor the work of deep screening and full ballastingshould also include provision of survey mentioned insub para 2(a) of this para.

(c) Preliminary works. - (i) Additional ballastrequired, should be unloaded/spread out opposite tothe place where it is required. When ballast iscollected along the track, care should be taken tosee that the new ballast is not mixed with theunscreened ballast .

(ii) Cess should be brought up to correct levelin relation to the final rail level.

(iii) Pegs should be provided at intervals of 30metres to indicate the final rail levels.

(iv) Slewing of curves should be done inadvance.

(v) Sleeper renewal as necessary should becarried out in advance.

(d) Screening operations - General – (i) Thework would be done under the supervision of an officialnot lower in rank than the Permanent Way InspectorGrade III.

(ii) The daily output should be pre-determined,depending on the time allowance, availability oflabour, extent of ballasting/screening to be done etc.

Page 70: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

57

(iii) Taking the length to be deep screened daily,planning of speed restriction should be done andnecessary notice should be issued to all concernedand speed restriction boards put up.

(iv) It will be desirable to proceed with the workof deep screening in the direction opposite to that ofthe traffic on double line.

(e) Detailed procedure – A day’s length will bedeep screened as per the procedure detailed below:

Stage I The ballast should be removedfrom space ‘A’ and ‘B’ on eitherside of the sleeper ‘1’ down tofinal formation level and woodenblocks provided to support therail for passing trains.

Stage II The ballast is removed fromunder sleeper ‘1’ down to finalformation level/sub-ballastlevel.

Stage III The ballast should then bescreened and placed backunder sleeper ‘1’ which shouldthen be packed.

Stage IV The wooden blocks from space‘A’ should then be removed.

Stage V The ballast from space ‘C’ downto formation level should beremoved and after screening,be placed in space ‘A’ uptobottom of sleeper .The balancemay be taken outside the trackand screened .The rail in space‘C’ should be supported withwooden blocks.

Stage VI The ballast should be removedfrom under sleeper ‘2’ down toformation level.

Stage VII Screened ballast should beprovided under sleeper ‘2’ andsleeper well packed.

Stage VIII The ballast from space ‘D’ downto formation level should beremoved and after screening,be placed in space ‘B’ uptobottom of sleeper; the balancemay be taken outside the track

and screened. The woodenblocks should be removed fromspace ‘B’ and placed to supportthe rail in space ‘D’.

Stage IX The ballast from under sleeper‘3’ should be removed and soon till the whole rail length isprovided with screened ballastupto level of the bottom ofsleepers.

Final Stage The track should be lifted toprovide additional cushionwhere required. The trackshould be packed in the finalposition and then boxed.

Sequence of the operations is shown in thesketch on next page:

(f) The following points may be kept in view whiledoing the work – (i) No unscreened length should beleft between screened lengths of the track at thesame time.

(ii) It should be ensured, that when ballast isbeing removed from any sleeper, invariably, there areat least four fully supported sleepers between it andthe next sleeper worked upon.

(iii) Lifting should be limited to 50 mm. at a time.

(iv) It should be ensured that packing, crosslevels and grade run off are satisfactory before closingthe day’s work.

(v) The work should be done under a speedrestriction of 20 km.p.h.

(vi) The speed should be gradually raised asin Para (g) below which will vary depending on thetype of maintenance in the section.

(g) Schedule for working and speed restrictionto be observed, in deep screening works.-

Page 71: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

58

12

34

12

34

Page 72: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

59

TABLE IPROPOSED SCHEDULES FOR DEEP SCREENING

(MANUAL PACKING)

Details of Work Day of Speed restrictions and their length

Work Broad Gauge Metre Gauge

Deep screening and initial packing … … 1

First through packing … … … … … 2 20 km.p.h. 20 km.p.h.

Second through packing … … … … 3

4

5

6

Picking up slacks as required … … 7 45 km.p.h. 30 km.p.h.

8

9

Third through packing … … … … … 10

11

12

13

14

Picking up slacks as required … … 15 75 km.p.h. 60 km.p.h.

16

17

18

19

Fourth through packing ..... … … … 20

21 Normal Normalonwards Sectional speed sectional speed

{

{

(i) With Manual Packing – The details of the work to be carried out in stages on various days, after thestarting of the screening operation and the speed restriction recommended to be imposed are shown in Table1. According to the above schedule normal Sectional speed can be resorted on the 21st day.

Page 73: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

60

(ii) With Machine Packing – The details of work to be carried out in stages on various days after the startof the screening operations and the speed restriction recommended to be imposed are indicated in the schematicrepresentation in Table II. Accoding to this schedule, normal sectional speed can be resumed on the tenth day.

TABLE II

PROPOSED SCHEDULE FOR DEEP SCREENING (MACHINE PACKING /B.G.)

Details of work Day of Speed restrictions and theirwork lengths

Deep screening with initial packing …. 1

First machine packing … … …. .. 2 20 km.p.h.

3

Picking up slacks as required … … 45 45 km.p.h.

Second machine packing … … … … … 6

Picking up slacks as required …. 7

8

Third machine packing … …. … … … … 9 75 km.p.h.

10

onwards Normal sectional speed

The period mentioned in the schedules shown above is the minimum and can be suitably increased tosuit local condition of the track consolidation.

{{

239. Side and Catch water drains andWaterways – (1) For efficient drainage of cuttings,side and catch water drains of suitable type and sizeshould be provided. The bottom of side drains shouldbe at least 30 cm. below the formation level.

(2) Adequate openings to take the full flow ofside drains should be provided under level crossingswhere they exist in or at the end of the cuttings.

(3) In cutting of black cotton soil and similarsoils, catch water drain should be provided sufficientlyaway from the top of the cutting to avoid any dangerof a breach occurring between the drain and thecutting itself. The excavated spoil should be used toform a ‘bund’ between the drain and the top of thecutting.

(4) Ballast walls, where provided in cuttings,should be regularly inspected. The efficientmaintenance of ballast walls includes regularcleaning of weep holes, the provision of weep holeswhere none exist and rebuilding where necessary.

(5) The Permanent Way Staff shall carry outcleaning of side and catch water drains, clearing ofobstructions from outfalls and cleaning water-waysof bridges and culverts methodically and completethe work before the monsoon sets in. The spoil fromcleaning drains or cuttings should not be depositedat a place from where it is likely to be washed backinto the drains.

(6) In the Municipal areas, where the outfall ofRailway drains is in the municipal drains, close co-ordination should be maintained with the municipalauthorities to ensure free flow from Railway drains.

240. Drainage in Station Yards – (1) Thenetwork of cross and longitudinal drains in yardswhether earthen or masonry, should be so plannedthat storm water is led away in least possible time.The system of surface drains of water columnscarriage-watering and carriage washing hydrantsshould be efficiently maintained.

Page 74: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

61

241. Lubrication of Rail Joints – (1) Thepurpose of lubricating rail joints is not only to facilitateexpansion of rails but also to retard wear on thefishing planes of the rail and the fish plate. Reducedwear on the fishing planes is one of the preventivesof the low joints.

(2) The lubricant to be used should be specifiedby the Chief Engineer. A stiff paste of plumbago(Graphite) and kerosene oil, made in the proportionof 3 Kg. of plumbago to 2 Kg. of kerosene oil may beused. Black oil or reclaimed oil may be used for fishbolts and nuts. Alternatives to the above may beused, with the specific approval of Chief Engineer.

(3) All rail joints should normally be lubricatedonce a year on a programmed basis during the coldweather months after the monsoon, from Octoberto February. Lubrication should not be carried out inextremes of weather both hot and cold. In yards thisperiod may be extended to 2 years with the approvalof the Chief Engineer.

(4) Creep in excess of 150 mm. should beadjusted before the work of lubrication of rail joints isundertaken.

(5) The lubrication of rail joints should normallybe carried out by gangs working under the directsupervision of at least a qualified Permanent WayMistry. The work should be carried out under cautionorders arranged to be issued daily by the PermanentWay Inspector and under protection of engineeringsignals, as per Para 806(2). In this case theprocedure to be followed for lubrication of rail jointswill be as follows :

(i) The nuts are unscrewed and the fish boltsand fish-plates are removed.

(ii) The fishing surfaces of the fish-plates andrail are then cleaned with a wire brush.

(iii) The rail ends are inspected for cracks,and the fishing surfaces of rails and fish-plates arechecked for wear. A magnifying glass and a mirrorshould be used for detecting cracks in rail ends andfish-plates.

(iv) The fishing surfaces of the rails andfish-plates are then lubricated.

(v) The fish bolts are then put back in reverseposition and tightened using a standard fish boltspanner, the inner two bolts being tightened first.

(vi) While tightening overstraining of bolts shallbe avoided.

(vii) Spare fish-plates and bolts should beavailable for replacement of cracked ones.

(6) Alternatively, the work of lubrication may becarried out by the Keymen of the gang, assisted byone or more men on such sections as may bespecified by the Divisional Engineer. In such casesthe Keymen shall exhibit a red signal flag at the siteof the work and act as lookout man also. Normallynot more than one joint should be opened at a timeunder this procedure.

In this case the lubrication of rail joints andreversing of fish bolts should be carried out as follows:

(i) The nuts are unscrewed and the fish-plateon the nut-side is then removed leaving the other fishplate and bolts in position.

(ii) The fishing surfaces of the fish-plate andthe rails are cleaned with a wire brush. The rails endsare examined for cracks and fishing planes of railsand fish-plates for wear, a mirror and a magnifyingglass should be used to detect cracks. Suchconditions shall be brought to the notice of PermanentWay Mate/Mistry for necessary action. The fish-plates are lubricated and put back in position.

(iii) The fish bolts are taken out one at a time,and then put back, after oiling.

(iv) The other fish-plate and fishing surface ofthe rail is treated similarly.

(v) The nuts are replaced and tightened to theextent possible with the standard fish bolt spannerwithout overstraining the bolts.

(vi) Two joints opposite each other orconsecutive joints shall not be opened out at the sametime. It should be particularly noted that at no timeduring the operation there is less than one fish-plate and three fish bolts without nuts connecting thetwo rails. The men should sit facing the direction oftrain while doing the work.

(vii) Both fish-plates should be fixed and atleast one fish bolt and nut on either side of each jointshould be tightened when a train is approaching thesite of Work.

(viii) Spare fish-plates and bolts should becarried for renewal of cracked ones.

(7) The Chief Engineer may issue subsidiaryinstructions as necessary.

Page 75: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

62

(8) The lengths over which the rail joints arelubricated together with dates shall be recorded inthe gang chart of the section and in the PermanentWay Inspector’s section register. In the month ofApril, Permanent Way Inspectors should submit tothe Assistant Engineers certificates of lubrication ofrail joints giving reasons for any exception. Copiesof these certificates should be forwarded with theAssistant Engineer’s comments to the DivisionalEngineer for scrutiny and record.

(9) During all works such as relaying, railrenewals and renewals of turnouts, etc. rail jointsshould be lubricated. The importance of going overand re-tightening the bolts after the fish-plates havetaken a bearing under traffic should be impressedon the staff.

(10) Insulated fish-plates should not begreased.

242. Counteraction and Adjustment ofcreep – (1) General.-Rails have a tendency to movegradually in the direction of the dominant traffic. It isbelieved to be caused by the ‘ ironing out ’ of yieldingtrack by the moving load, augmented by brakingloads, and by the impact of the wheels on therunning-on ends of the rails, particularly at timeswhen they are in a state of expansion or contraction.Among the troubles caused by ‘ creep ’ are -

(a) Sleepers getting out of square.(b) Distortion of gauge.(c) Loosening of joints.(d) Shearing and breaking of spikes, bolts andfish-plates.(e) Buckling in extreme cases.

(2) Causes for creep in Track – The followingare some of the avoidable causes to which creep isattributed :

(a) Inadequate toe loads of the rail to sleeperfastening and rails not secured properly tosleeper.

(b) Inadequate ballast resistance to themovement of sleepers due to poor orinsufficient ballast or other causes.

(c) Inefficient or badly maintained rail joints.

(d) Rails too light for the traffic they carry.

(e) Improper expansion gaps.

(f) Decaying sleepers, uneven spacing ofsleepers.

(g) Lack of proper drainage.

(h) Yielding formation resulting in unevencross levels.

(i) Loose/uneven packing.

(j) Rail seat wear in metal sleeper road.

(3) Precautions to reduce creep – (a) Forreducing creep, it must be ensured that the rails areheld firmly to the sleepers and adequate ballastresistance is available. All spikes, screws and keysshould be driven home, the sleepers properly packedand crib and shoulder ballast should be compacted.Rail anchors should be provided wherevernecessary.

(b) With steel trough and cast iron platesleepers and in the case of sleepers where elasticfastenings and other fastenings with adequate toeload are used, no trouble is normally experienced.Careful watch should be kept for a series of jammedjoints. Not more than six jammed joints continuouslyshould be permitted in the case of single rails . Incase of SWR not more than two consecutivejammed joints should be permitted at railtemperatures lower than “tm” in the case of Zone Iand II and “tm-5” in the case of Zone III and IV. Ongirder bridges adjustment may be necessary atregular intervals. Anti-creep devices should beprovided on the approaches of girder bridges foradequate length.

(c) : The PSC sleepers with elastic fasteningsare considered as creep resistant and therefore noother creep anchors are required. In case, excessivecreep is observed on PSC sleeper road, the conditionof elastic fastenings, sleepers and adequacy ofballast resistance should be examined. Action forreplacement/renewal of fittings, sleepers andproviding adequate ballast resistance etc. should betaken as necessary.

(4) Creep Register – Creep registers shouldbe maintained in the pro forma given inAnnexure 2/7. Entries should be complete asregards kilometerage, section and length of rail,sleeper density, type and number of anchors per raillength used. Periodical readings of creep should berecorded in the prescribed pro forma . Separate pageshould be allotted for each km. Frequency ofrecording of creep should be specified by theDivisional Engineer taking into consideration the rateof creep. The Assistant Engineer should test checkthe register frequently, particularly sections which areprone to creep.

Page 76: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

63

(e) The machine is next attached to the railahead of it, keys, spikes and fish bolts loosened forthat rail and those beyond it. These rails are thenpulled until only the normal expansion gap is leftopposite the machine. The operation leaves someof the gaps wide and it is then necessary to fix themachines further ahead in order to close them uptonormal by pulling against expansion liners.

(f) When the value of total gap existing is morethan the standard expansion gap required for thetemperature at the time of adjustment multiplied bythe number of joints, it is necessary to provide closurerails. When closure rails are put in, a speed restrictionof 30 km/h should be imposed,which should beremoved, when closure rail is changed.

(g) During adjustment of creep, the sleeperspacing should be adjusted, if necessary, specialattention being given to the joint and shoulder sleeperspacing.

(8) Provision of Anchors to arrest Creep -Toarrest excessive creep on wooden sleepered road,not provided with anti-creep fastenings, adequatenumber of anchors of approved design should beprovided; no anchors being provided at the jointsleepers. Both rail seats of the sleepers should beanchored on the same side. In addition to sufficientdirectional anchors being provided, back up anchorsmay be provided if considered necessary.

(9) Prevention of creep on metal sleeper road–Creep on cast iron plate sleepers should becounteracted as follows :

(a) On C.I. plate sleepers all keys should bedriven in the direction of traffic on the double line andalternately in the opposite direction on single line.

(b) On steel trough road normally keys aredriven as indicated in S.S.I. sheet 3 of 4 of IndianRailway Standard Track Manual. However, whereheavy creep is experienced on double line, all thefour keys may be driven in the direction of the creep(generally in the direction of traffic). On single linekeys may be driven in the opposite direction onalternate sleepers.

(5) Creep indication Posts – Creep indicationposts square to the track should be erected on eitherside of the track on the cess at intervals of aboutone km. These may be un serviceable rail posts withchisel mark square to the joints . The top of the postshould be about 25 mm. above the rail level and theamount of creep one way or the other measured witha fishing cord stretched over the chisel marks.

(6) Permissible amount of creep – Creep inexcess of 150 mm. shall not be permitted.

(7) Adjustment of creep – Adjustments of creepshould be carried out in the following manner :

(a) Careful measurement of expansion gaps,as existing, should be done and appropriate lengthwhich can be dealt with in one operation should bechosen. The total amount of gap in the length shouldbe equal to the standard expansion gap required forthe temperature at the time , multiplied by the numberof joints in the length.

(b)Work should start at the running-on end ofthe length, commonly just beyond the points andcrossings or level crossings. The work of creepadjustments should be carried out under theprotection of Engineering signals by the PermanentWay Inspector as envisaged in Para 806(2). Beforepulling back is commenced the keys are knockedout and fish-plates removed or eased. Correctexpansion liners should be used and the rails shouldbe pulled back with bars. If the fish-plates areremoved, the bars can pull against a tommy barthrust through a bolt hole. Next, the rail is keyed up,the bolts of joints correctly tightened up, and theexpansion liner moved to the next joint, whereuponthe process is repeated.

(c) It is a good practice to adjust creep beforethe commencement of summer. It is desirable topull back the rails during the cool hours of the day.

(d) Mechanical and hydraulic devices areavailable for adjustment of creep. Such a device canbe set with the wide joints behind it and the tight jointsahead of it. Expansion liners are put in all the widejoints, all keys, spikes and fish bolts are loosened.

The adjuster then closes up the rails behind itby pushing, leaving a gap of some centimetresbetween the rail ends opposite the machine. Thecorrected rails are then fastened up.

Page 77: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

64

243. Buckling of Track – (1) General -Buckling of track occurs when high compressiveforces are created in the rails associated withinadequacy of lateral resistance in the track at theplace. A special watch should be kept on the junctionof two stretches of track, one liable to creep and theother held against creep, such as when track laid onwooden sleepers with inadequate anchors andscanty ballast or track laid on metal sleepers withloose keys butts against track laid on new sleeperswith tight fastenings or track anchored and ballastedas with welded track. As one side of such a junctionpoint is held firmly against creep, the movement ofrails due to creep from the other side is resistedresulting in heavy compressive force being exertedwhich will tend to buckle the track. Jammed rail jointsat such junctions are therefore an indication of thetrack being subjected to undue strain.

(2) Conditions which Induce Buckling –

(a) The following conditions create highcompressive forces in the rail :

(i) Inadequate expansion gaps,

(ii) Failure to counteract creep in time.

(iii) Non-lubrication of rail joints,

(iv) Failure to remove rail closuresfrom track.

(b) The lateral resistance gets impaired due toinadequacy of ballast and due to carrying out ofoperations such as deep screening, lifting of trackand slewing of track, without adequate precautions.

(3) Precautions against Buckling – It shouldbe seen that -

(a) Operations which impair the lateralresistance of track are not carried out when railtemperatures are high.

(b) The greasing of fish-plates is done beforethe hot weather sets in.

(c) The joint gap survey is done in the case ofS.W.R. and adjusted before the hot weather (SeePara 510). Similarly in case of single rail panel, jointgaps should be adjusted wherever necessary.

(d) Adequate precautions are taken to reducecreep as detailed in Para 242 (3).

(e) Overtightening of fish bolts is avoided - butthey should be reasonably tight.

(f) Particular attention is also paid to stretchesof track, one liable to creep and the other held againstcreep (refer para above). Jammed joints at suchjunctions call for remedial measures. Extra shoulderballast should be provided at such places.

(4) Action on buckling of track - If a bucklingdoes occur or appears imminent, the track shouldbe protected immediately with hand signal flags anddetonators as per the protection rules laid down. Thebuckled rails shall preferably be cut adequately apartnot less than 6.5 metres. The track shall then beslewed to the correct alignment and cut rails of therequired length shall be inserted to close the gapsmaking due provision for welding of joints on bothrails. The cut rails shall then be connected by use ofspecial fish plates and screw clamps and the lineopened to traffic with speed restriction. It may notbe possible to do any more until the temperaturedrops when the joints must be adjusted. Particularcare must be taken to see that the factors whichcontributed to the buckling i.e. jammed joints, seizedfish plates or shortage of ballast receive appropriateattention without delay.

Page 78: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

65

Annexure-2/7 Para 242(4)

PR

OF

OR

MA

OF

CR

EE

P R

EG

IST

ER

DA

TE

OF

RE

CO

RD

ING

L. H

. RA

IL

PO

SIT

IVE (+

)C

RE

EP

IN m

m.

01&01&*82

01&03&*82

01&05&*82

01&07&*82

R. H

. RA

IL

0!

117

mm

.!

!

! !

!

137

mm

.

145

mm

.150

mm

.0

8 mm

.

100

mm

.!

!

! !

!

125

mm

.

140

mm

.

145

mm

.

!

12

mm

.

SE

CT

ION

UP

DO

WN

LIN

E

PA

RT

ICU

LAR

S O

F R

AIL

& F

ITT

INE

GS

DE

TAIL

S O

F A

NC

HO

RS

PR

OV

IDE

D

NE

GA

TIV

E ¼&½

PO

SIT

IVE (

+)

CR

EE

P IN

mm

.

NE

GA

TIV

E ¼&½

RE

MA

RD

ING

DA

TE O

F P

ULL

ING

BA

CK

AD

JUS

TME

NT

DA

TE O

F

RE

CO

RD

ING

DA

TE O

F P

ULL

ING

BA

CK

AD

JUS

TME

NT

RE

MA

RK

S

200m

m. 150m

m. 100m

m. 50m

m.

ZER

O &50m

m. &100m

m. &150m

m. &200m

m.

200

mm

. 150

mm

. 100

mm

. 50

mm

.

ZERO &50

mm

. &100

mm

. &150

mm

. &200

mm

.

KIL

OM

ET

RE

DE

TAIL

S O

F S

LEE

PE

R &

FIT

TIN

GS

AN

Y S

PE

CIL

S S

PE

CIA

L F

EA

TU

RE

10&05&*82

PU

LL

ED

B

AC

K

TO

Z

ER

O

CR

EE

P

EX

TR

A

TW

O

AN

CH

OR

S

PE

R R

AL

PR

OV

IDE

D

Page 79: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

66

Part ‘D’

Sleepers and Fastenings

244. Laying of Sleepers – (1) General - Sleepers shall be laid and maintained square to the rails onstraights and radially on curves. Rail joints should be suspended.

(2) Sleeper Spacing –(a) The sleeper spacing on straights and curves shall be in accordance with approved plans. The sleeper

spacing should be marked on the outer rail in case of curved track. Closer spacing should be provided at thejoint sleepers of fish-plated joints and between the joint sleeper and shoulder sleeper.

(b) The following standard spacing should be adopted on fish-plated track :

Centre to centre spacing (maximum)

Spacing Wooden Sleepers Metal Sleepers

B.G. M.G. B.G. M.G.

1. Between joint sleepers 30 cm. 25 cm. 38 cm. 33 cm.

2. Between joint sleepers and first 61 cm. 58 cm. 61 cm. 58 cm.shoulder sleeper.

3. Between first shoulder sleeper Spacing to be of a value between 2 and 4.and second shoulder sleeper.

4. Between intermediate sleeper... To be equal and in whole number of cm.

(c) In the case of LWR on B.G. and M.G. thesleeper spacing shall be maintained at 65cm, as perpara 5.4.2 of L.W.R. Manual.

(d) In the case of SWR, the sleeper spacingfor M+4 and M+7 densities will be as shown on thenext page.

(e) Where concrete sleepers are required tobe laid in unavoidable circumstances as SWR thesleeper spacings should be the same as for woodensleepers. The joint and first shoulder sleepers in suchcases should be wooden.

(f) In B.G. where SWR is expected to beconverted into LWR within a year or two, 62 Nos. ofsleepers shall be used per panel of 3x13m. lengthas shown on next page.

(g) Where SWR is to be converted into LWRsoon after its being laid, sleeper spacing asprescribed for LWR in the LWR Manual should beadopted.

(h) The sleeper spacings under welded jointsof all types with or without holes in rails shall be thesame as the intermediate sleeper spacings.

(3) Sleeper Density – The sleeper density isthe number of sleepers used per rail length and isdescribed as M+1, M+2 etc., where M is the lengthof Standard Single rail in metres. In the case of LWRand CWR this is expressed as the number ofsleepers per km. of track. The sleeper density isfixed duly taking into consideration the maximumpermissible speed and the traffic density of thesection.

Page 80: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

67

B.G. 3 x13 m RAIL M.G. 3x12 m RAIL

Type of Type Type of Type

Sleeper n S sleeper at of X Y Z Sleeper n S sleeper at of X Y Z

Density (mm) FP 300 MT Weld (mm) (mm) (mm) Density (mm) FP 300 MT Weld (mm) (mm) (mm)

F.B./ 150 643 750 F.B./ 120 600 708Wooden G.P. Wooden G.P.

A.T. 150 645 780 A.T. 120 600 740M + 4 46 780 M + 4 43 770

F.B./ 190 620 733 F.B./ 160 580 688Metal G.P. Metal G.P.

A.T. 190 625 760 A.T. 160 600 700

F.B./ 150 573 610 F.B./ 120 603 620Wooden G.P. Wooden G.P.

A.T. 150 595 620 A.T. 120 615 640M + 7 55 660 M + 7 52 640

F.B./ 190 563 580 F.B./ 160 573 610Metal G.P. Metal G.P.

A.T. 190 575 600 A.T. 160 595 620

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

650

650

57 x 650 mm.

57 x 650 mm.

300

639 639 639 639

400400 400400 300

BEFORE CONVERSION INTO LWR (TOTAL 62 SLEEPERS)

AFTER CONVERSION INTO LWR (TOTAL 60 SLEEPERS)2) SLEEPERS SPACING SHOWN ARE FROM CENTRE

SLEEPER SPACINGS FOR SWR EXPECTED TO BE CONVERTEDINTO LWR WITHIN A YEAR OR TWO YEARS.

SLEEPER SPACINGS FOR SWRs FOR (M+4) & (M+7) DENSITIES

XX Y YZ Z X

X

X

X

n X s

WELDFISHPLATED JOINT

MINIMUM SLEEPER SPACING AT ANY LOCATION EXCEPT ATFISHPLATED JOINT 560 mm

NOTE : FOLLOWING ASSUMPTIONS HAVE BEEN MADE WHILE CALCULATING SLEEPER SPACINGS.

i) SLEEPERS SPACINGS SHOWN ARE FROM CENTRE TO CENTRE OF SLEEPERS.

ii) TOTAL REDUCTION IN LENGTH AT EACH FLASH- BUTT OR GAS-PRESSURE WELDED JOINT 20 mm.

iii) LENGTH OF B.G. FREE RAILS 13000 mm.

LEGEND :

O A.T. WELDED JOINT

X WELDED JOINT

= FISH PLATED JOINT

Page 81: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

68

(4) Minimum Sleeper Density –

(a) Broad Gauge - The minimum sleeper density for all future track renewals (complete track renewalsand through sleeper renewals) is recommended and given as below.

(b) Metre Gauge :– In the case of M.G. Track renewals, the sleeper densities are recommended forthe various M.G. routes as given on below.

SLEEPER DENSITY FOR MG.

Route .. .. Q R1 R2 R3 S

Sleeper density .. .. M+7 M+7 M+7 M+4 M+3

Note :- (i) Higher sleeper density may be provided with the approval of the Chief Engineer(ii) For LWR/CWR minimum sleeper density shall be 1540 sleeper/km.(iii) In case of SWR, the minimum sleeper density in the case of B.G. and M.G. is fixed as M+4.

Routes

Traffic Density in GMT A B C D-Spl D E-Spl E

More than 20 1660 1660 1660 1660 1660 1660 1660

10-20 1660 1660 1660 1660 1540 1660 1540

Under 10 1660 1540 1540 1540 1540 1540 1540

Loop lines 1340 1340 1340 1340 1340 1340 1340

Pvt. siding 1340 1340 1340 1340 1340 1340 1340

NOTE : Number of sleepers per km.

(i) For routes identified for running 22.1 t axle load wagons, Sleeper density of 1660 nos/km should be

(5) Respacing of sleepers :

(a) When respacing wooden sleepers dogspikes/rail screws should be loosened, just enoughto permit sleepers being shifted.

(b) When respacing cast iron or steel troughsleepers, the keys should be removed and thepacking core broken before shifting the sleepers.

245. Wooden Sleepers – (1) Classificationof Wooden Sleepers - All wooden sleepers shall beclassified into two categories viz. ‘U’ (untreated) and‘T’ (treated). Category ‘U’ (untreated) shall compriseof all sleepers from natural durable species only. Therest shall be classified as ‘T’ (treated) category.

(2) Inspection and Renewals- The average lifeof wooden sleepers varies with the species of timber.In the interest of both safety and economy, it isessential that wooden sleepers more than 5 yearsold are thoroughly inspected every year accordingto the following procedure :

(a) The Permanent Way Inspector shouldcarefully examine the track and bridge sleepersduring annual through packing/overhauling. Thoserequiring renewals during the year should be paintedwith two white lines (Category I) and sleepersrequiring reconditioning with one white line (CategoryII) at the end. Details of these telegraph-post/O.H.E.mast-wise should then be intimated to the AssistantEngineer. The Permanent Way Inspector willmaintain a Sleeper replacement/reconditioningregister in the following proforma :

Page 82: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

69

(b) The Assistant Engineer should then testcheck the requirement given by the Permanent WayInspector at site and examine about 50 sleepers perKm. particularly at places where the sleepers aremore than 5 years old, and where the percentage ofdeteriorating sleepers is reported to be 20 per centor more. The requirements together with theAssistant Engineer’s observations should then besubmitted to the Divisional Engineer.

(c) The Divisional Engineer should personallycheck these sections where abnormal increase inthe number of deteriorating sleepers is reported toensure that serviceable sleepers are not condemnedprematurely.

(d) (i) Generally a sleeper is classified asunserviceable if even after reconditioning it cannotperform the essential function of holding the gauge,providing a satisfactory rail seat, permitting sleeperfastenings being maintained in a tight condition, andretaining packing.

(ii) It is advisable to carry out through sleeperrenewal, before the percentage of unserviceablesleeper reaches a level, when imposition of speedrestriction may become necessary. On branch lines,however, only casual renewals may be resorted to.

(e) While doing casual/scattered renewals,priority should be given in replacing unserviceablejoint sleepers and unserviceable consecutivesleepers. Through sleeper renewals should becarried out in continuous stretches and releasedsleepers after reconditioning should be used forscattered renewals. New sleepers should not beused in sidings. If the percentage of unserviceablesleepers becomes high, speed restrictions may haveto be imposed.

(3) Stacking of Wooden Sleepers – (i) ‘U’category sleepers should be stacked in accordancewith one of the methods shown in the sketch belowin lots of 100s and covered with at least 150mm.

O.H.E. Mast/ No. of sleepers No. of sleepers No. of sleepersKm. Telegraph Post marked replaced reconditioned and

From To Category reusedI II

thickness of earth as a protective measure. Theground should be dressed to a flat slope and clearedof grass and undergrowth.

(ii) Treated wooden sleepers, released secondhand and scrap wooden sleepers awaiting disposalshould be stacked in horizontal layers without anygap, each stack being covered with 150mm. layerof earth.

(iii) A fire zone of about 10m. in width shouldbe left around each group of 25 stacks and kept clearof grass and other combustible materials.

(4) Preparation of Sleepers – (a) End Binding -To protect the inner untreated portion of sleepers frombeing exposed to attack by insects/fungi due toshatter and splitting of sleepers in track, a systematicpractice of end binding all new reconditioned sleepersshould be adopted. This should be done for ‘T’category sleepers in the treatment plants, beforetreatment and for ‘U’ category sleepers, in theDivisional Track reconditioning depots. For effectiveend binding both ends of the sleepers shall be heldin a press so as to close all the cracks and splitsnear the ends and end binding should be done usingwire, hoop iron or clips. In reconditioning depots, itmay be preferable to deploy end strapping machinesfor end binding.

150 mm. 150 mm.

RAILS OROLD SLEEPERS

METHOD 1 METHOD 5

50 mm GAPIN CASE OF'U' CATEGORYAND NO GAPIN CASE OF'T' CATEGORY

EARTHEARTH

METHOD 1 METHOD 2

Page 83: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

70

(b) Adzing of Sleepers – (i) When woodensleepers are used without bearing plates, the railseats should be adzed to a slope of 1 to 20, planedfor the section of the rail with the correct template. Itis desirable to accommodate the rail foot in a recess3 to 5mm. deep in the adzed portion of the sleeper torestrict the lateral forces being transmitted to thespike and to protect the sleeper from getting spikekilled. The operation of adzing and recess cuttingshould be carried out preferably in the trackconditioning depot, where the adzed rail seat maybe treated with coal tar/creosote.

(ii) For treated sleepers adzing and recesscutting should be done before treatment.

(iii) Sleepers should not be adzed in the caseof points and crossings.

(iv) When bearing plate or chairs are used itshould be ensured that the seat is adzed or planedto ensure even bearing and that the two bearingareas are truly in the same horizontal plane.

(c) Auguring of Sleepers – (i) Spike holesshould be bored right through the sleeper verticallywhere bearing plates are used and at right angles tothe rail seat where the rail rests directly on the sleeper.The size of augur for boring should be as givenbelow :

(ii) During the process of boring, the tips ofaugurs should frequently be dipped in oil to facilitatework. When sleepers are being bored outside thetrack, correct templates should be used. When beingbored or rebored while in the track, the auguringshould be done correctly with the gauge held inposition. The holes after being bored should be givena coating of coal tar or creosote.

(iii) For ‘T’ category sleepers boring should bedone before treatment.

(iv) When extracting dog spikes, the fulcrumon which the crow bar works should be raised sothat the spikes can be withdrawn vertically withoutenlarging the dog spike hole.

(v) Plate/Rail screws should always bescrewed by box spanners and not driven byhammers.

(5) Use of Bearing Plates :– (a) Bearing platesshould be provided invariably on ‘T’ categorysleepers.

(b) They should be compulsorily used in thefollowing locations :

(i) All sleepers on girder bridges.

(ii) All sleepers of turn outs.

(iii) All timbers of ash pits and examinationpits.

(iv) All joint sleepers.

(v) On sharp curves of radius less than600m. on B.G. and M.G.

(c) Bearing plates should receive two coats ofblack oil prior to their being fixed to the sleepers.

(6) Screws/Spikes at Rail Seat – (a) Thenumber of spikes/screws per rail seat should beas given below :–

(i) All joint sleepers,bridge timbers,turn out sleepers and ashpit timbers Four

Diameter of Augur in mm.

For 22mm. dia. rail/Name of some For 20mm dia. plate screws Drg. No.

common species screws Drg. No. RDSO/ RDSO/T. 10673 toT. 10677 to 10679 10676

Sleepers having C. S. I. Chir, Fir, Deodar, 16 18values upto 63 (925) Hollock, Hingori.

Sayal, Nahor, Sal,Sleepers having C. S. I. Jutili, Kindal, Poon, 18 20values above 63 (925) Gurjan, Hollong,

Kokko

Page 84: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

71

(ii) Intermediate sleepers Threeon curves on other ( Two outsidethan branch lines and One inside)

(iii) Intermediate sleepers Two ( Oneon curves on branch inside andlines and on straights One outside).

(b) Where A.C. bearing plates are used onintermediate sleepers for arresting creep the numberof screws/spikes per plate should be four for B.G.and three for M.G.

(c) (i) When two screws/spikes are used, theouter ones should be in line on one side and the innerones on the other side of the centre line of thesleeper.

(ii) Screws/Dog spikes should be dipped incoal tar before use. If it is necessary to draw and re-drive spikes or to drive spikes in holes other thanthose freshly bored, such spike holes should firstbe carefully plugged with tightly fitting tarred woodenplugs and rebored before spikes are driven.

(iii) Additional screws/spikes may be providedat the discretion of Chief Engineer wherevernecessary.

(7) Reconditioning of Wooden Sleepers – (a)Reconditioning of all released wooden sleepersbefore their reuse should be carried out in acentralised depot. To arrest deterioration in track,systematic practice of reconditioning ‘in-situ’, thespike killed sleepers, otherwise in good condition,should be resorted to.

(b) Procedure for Plugging Spike killedSleepers ‘in-situ’ - Sleepers without bearing plate canbe reconditioned without removing the sleepers fromtrack. The sequence of operations should be asunder:

(i) The fastenings viz. spikes, screws etc. areremoved and the sleeper shall be cleaned of all dust.

(ii) The existing holes should be rebored so asto ensure that the existing holes are adequatelyscrapped all round.

(iii) The rebored and cleaned spike holes shallbe plugged using tapered octogonal plugs of size ofslightly bigger than the holes. These plugs are madefrom scrap hard wood sleepers in a centralizeddepot.

(iv) Before driving the plugs, the plugs aredipped in a mixture of creosote and coal tar. Theplug should be driven right upto the bottom of theholes.

(v) After plugging, a new hole would be boredat some distance in line with the old holes, parallel tothe centre line of the track. Then sleeper fasteningsare re-inserted in new holes. (Annexure 2/8).

(c) Procedure for reconditioning of releasedwooden sleepers in Permanent Way Depots -

In the case of sleepers with bearing plates,repairs to spike killed holes which would involveremoval of the sleeper from the track for the purposeof plugging the existing holes, readzing of the rail seatand boring holes in new position are best carried outin a centralised depot. When reconditioning ofsleepers is done in a depot, the following works arealso carried out:-

(i) End binding;(ii) Readzing of rail seat;(iii) Spraying with coal tar or creosote.

(d) Conversion of B.G. into M.G./N.G.Sleepers– Broad Gauge wooden sleepers which areclassified as unserviceable and removed from trackas such, can be conveniently converted toserviceable Metre Gauge or Narrow Gauge sleeperswhenever their condition permits of suchconversions.

Another method is to crop the two ends of thedamaged/split sleeper, salvage the middle length touse them for making two block sleepers held togetherby second hand tie bars, with two long bolts holdingtie bars in each block.

The aim should be to obtain maximum life outof sleepers before classifying them as unserviceable.With tamping methods of track maintenance andproper ballast cushion associated with propertreatment of sleepers, the service life of sleepers canbe enhanced appreciably.

(8) Dating – When wooden sleepers are laid,the year of laying should be cut or branded on eachsleeper at the centre or one end omitting the first twodigits of the century. Thus ‘83’ will indicate that thesleeper was laid in the year ‘1983’. All dates shall bein one direction, which in the case of double line shallbe the direction of traffic and in the case of singleline, in the direction of increasing kilometrage.

In the case of ‘U’ category of sleepers thedating will be done at the time of laying and in thecase of ‘T’ category sleepers, the dating will be donein the treatment plant before treatment.

Page 85: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

72

(9) Important Points to be borne in mind in aWooden Sleepered Track – (a) Intermixing of ‘U’category and ‘T’ category sleepers should beavoided.

(b) No holes should normally be drilled in thetreated sleeper in the field, nor adzing/planing done.But if new holes are to be drilled or adzing/planing tobe done unavoidably, the holes/surface should betreated with hot creosote.

(c) To avoid damage to the sleeper by beaterpacking, M.S.P. should be introduced.

(d) ‘U’ category sleeper shall be laid with sapwood on top and heart wood below. ‘T’ categorysleepers should be laid with heart wood on top andsap wood below.

246. Cast Iron Sleepers – (1) General - (a)CST.9 type cast iron sleepers are widely used inIndian Railways. However, these are notrecommended for use in high speed routes in B.G..

(b) The usual defects noticed in CST.9sleepers are detailed below-

(i) Cracks at rail seats or fracture.(ii) Wear of lug and rail seat so that the sleeper

no longer grips the rail firmly and the keys work loose,resulting in creep.

(iii) Tie bars weakened by corrosion, brokenor damaged by falling brake gears, wagon parts etc..

(iv)Corrosion of tie bars inside the cast ironplate resulting in removal and adjustment becomingdifficult.

(c) Cast Iron Sleepers should be consideredfor replacement when they are cracked or there isexcessive wear at the rail seat making remedialmeasures ineffective. Such sleepers may be usedin unimportant lines or scrapped .

(2) Precautions during maintenance – (i)Imperfect packing is the cause of majority ofbreakages of cast iron plates or pots . Care shouldbe taken to see that the plate is packed evenly, sothat it may not tilt either inward or outward. Tiltingwould disturb the gauge and will not give properbearing. Defective plates should not be boxed withballast unless replaced.

(ii) Cast iron plates tend to corrode in channelsthrough which the tie bars pass. To prevent tie barsfrom being corroded into a solid mass, periodicallyalternate tie bars should be drawn out of thesleepers, treated with coal tar between the cotterslots and replaced

The Divisional Engineer will specify the intervalat which the above action is to be taken. Action oncein 5 to 7 years should suffice.

(iii) When owing to wear the keys on CST. 9sleepers exceed the limit of key driving, the keysshould be used with appropriate size of liners orreplaced by oversized keys.

(iv) When driving keys, no hammer which isheavier than the standard keying hammer(1.8 kg.)should be used. Beaters should not be used fordriving keys.

(v) While fixing cotters for CST.9 plates, it shallbe ensured that the tapered side of the cotter is incontact with the sloped face of the CST.9 plate andthe cotters are split sufficiently so that they remaintight.

(vi) When there is wear on the rail seat ,padplates (saddle plates) of suitable thickness shouldbe tried for arresting the creep.

247. Steel Trough Sleepers – (1) General- (a) Steel sleepers are liable to corrode and thereforethey should not be used near coastal and other areas,vulnerable to corrosion. They should not be used nearashpits and platform lines where trains stop.

(b) The usual defects noted in the steelsleepers are detailed below –

(i) Rusted and corroded metal

(ii) Cracks at the rail seat or near the lugs.

(iii) Elongation of holes.

Steel sleepers that are over 20 years old shouldbe inspected in detail for defects every year in thesame way as wooden sleepers.

(2) Precautions during maintenance –(a)Corroded or damaged sleepers should not beboxed with ballast until replaced.

(b)In steel trough sleepers with loose jaws andtwo way keys, the holes in the sleepers get elongateddue to wear. Half-moon tapered washers should beused, to make up for the wear on the holes.Indiscriminate driving of keys should be avoided.Standard keying hammers (1.8kg.) should be used.

(3) Reconditioning of steel sleepers – Old steel,trough sleepers having worn out rail seats can bereconditioned by strengthening the rail seats withM. S. pads altering them suitably for use with ‘elasticrail clip’ fastening. S.T. sleepers worn at rail seats orwith elongated holes can also be reconditioned bywelding a pad plate and drilling new holes.

Page 86: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

73

ANNEXURE-2/8 PARA 245 (7)

LENGTH TO SUIT

SLEEPER THICKNESS

MINIMUMa: 25 mm.

b: 40 mm.

a

a

b

b

OLDPLUGGED UP HOLE

MIN. 25 mm.

MIN. 25 mm.

NEW HOLES

Page 87: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

74

PART ‘E’

Rails and Fastenings

248. Standard Sections of Rails – (1)General – Rail sections are normally selected to suitthe standard of loading and the speeds. The other

Routes

Traffic density A B C D Spl. D E Spl. Ein G. M. T.

More than 20 60 kg 60 kg 60 kg 60 kg 60 kg 60 kg 60 kg

10 - 20 60 kg 60 kg 60 kg 60 kg 52/90 60 kg 52/90

5 - 10 60 kg 52/90 52/90 52/90 52/90 52/90 52/90

Under 5 52/90 52/90 52/90 52/90 52/90 or 52/90 *52/90or 60 kg 60 kg or 60 kg (SH) or

(SH) (SH) (SH) 60 kg (SH)

Loop line 52 kg IRS-T-12 second quality rails or 52 kg (SH)

Pvt Siding For sidings with operating speed more Track structute specified for ‘D’ route.than 80 kmph and upto 100 kmph

For sidings with operating speed more Track structute specified for ‘E’ route.than 50 kmph and upto 80 kmph

Where BOX‘N’ or 22.1 Tonnne axle 52 kg IRS-T-12 Second quality railswagon ply or operating speeds on or 52 kg (SH).sidings exceed 30 and are goinguptr 50 kmph.

For other sidings with operating speed 52 kg IRS-T-12 third quality rails also calledupto 30 kmph ‘Industrial use rails’ or 52 kg (SH).

Note : 52/90 represents 52 kg/90 UTS rail section.

(i) Existing 90-R rails may be allowed to remain for speeds not exceeding 110 kmph.

(ii) On routes identified for running of 22.1 Tonne axle load wagons, 60-kg rails shall be used on all routes.

(iii) Head hardened rails should be used on (a) Local lines where dedicated EMU stock is running. (b)Ghat section with gradients steeper than 1 in 150 and / or curves sharper than 2 degree, (c) Locationswhere due to grades, curves, traffic density and type of stock, the rate of wear of rails is such as tonecessitate rail renewal, on wear considerations, at a frequency of 10 years or so. (d) Routes wherepredominantly captive rolling stock is moving in close circuit movement, particularly with heavy mineraltraffic. (e) The HH rails should be laid on continuous & long stretches.

(iv) *Second hand 52 kg rails may be used on case-to-case basis, with the prior approval of RailwayBoard; depending upon quality of released rails available.

important factor which must govern the choice of arail section is the traffic carried so that adequateservice life could be obtained.

(2) Recommended Rail Section - (a) BroadGauge – The following minimum rail sections arerecommended based on the speeds obtainable andthe traffic condition :

Page 88: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

75

(b) Metre gauge – The following rail sections are recommended on M .G. routes:-

Route Rail Section recommended‘Q’ and ‘R1’ .. .. .. .. 52 Kg (SH)/90 R (New)*

‘R2’ and ‘R3’ .. .. .. .. 52 Kg (SH)/90 R (SH)

‘S’ .. .. .. .. 52 Kg (SH)/90 R (SH)/75R (SH)* 90R (New) to be only used with specific approval of railway Board, in case no suitable 52-Kg (SH)rails are available for use on MG during renewal.

(c) Narrow gauge (762 mm.) – Suitable new or second hand rails 50 lbs. and above.

249. Causes of Rail Deterioration – Theprincipal factors causing rail deterioration are detailedbelow :

(1) Corrosion and rusting – Corrosion is causednot so much by the dampness as by acid gasesdissolved in the film of moisture which frequentlycoats the rails. Corrosion is generally heavy in thefollowing locations :

(a) Platform lines where trains makeprolonged halts.

(b) Sidings where saline or corrosivegoods are dealt with .

(c) Where the rails are affected by thedropping of engine ashes, such as atash pits.

(d) Near water columns due to insufficientdrainage.

(e) Tunnels and damp cuttings.

(f) Areas near the sea coast.

(g) Industrial belts.

Corrosion is generally noticed on the web andfoot of the rail.

(2) Wear on Rail Table – Normally this is of avery small order. The amount of wear increases withheavy traffic density as in suburban section, thoughnot proportionately.

(3) Flattening of rail table — This mostly occurson the inner rail of a curve by high contact stressescombined with horizontal forces. The verticalpressure may be due to heavy axle load, largeunsprung mass or under equilibrium speed on cantedtrack. The horizontal forces are associated with slowrunning on canted track, which condition producesslipping of wheel sets. Spreading of rail table is anindication of overloading on one rail and suchtendency can be reduced by providing appropriatecant.

(4) Wear on Gauge Face – The outer rail of acurve has to withstand heavy pressure from thewheels which results in the running edge becomingworn or ‘side-cut’. Wear on gauge face is speciallypronounced in case of suburban sections wheremultiple unit coaches are provided with laterallyunsprung traction motors.

(5) Hogging of rail end – A hogged rail is onewith its end or ends bent in vertical direction. Ahogged rail end in the track is ascertained by unfishingthe joints, removing the fastenings and thenmeasuring the extent of hog at the rail end by placinga 1 metre long straight edge over the rail table,centrally over the joint as shown in the sketch below–

(6) Battering of rail ends – Rail end batteroccurs where the joint gaps are excessive. It iscaused by the impact of wheels on end of a railparticularly if the fish-plates do not fit snugly. Railend batter is measured as the difference in heightsof the rail at its end and at a point 30 cm. away fromthe rail end as shown in the sketch as shown below.

Page 89: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

76

(7) Wheel burns – Wheel slipping occursusually on adverse gradients or while starting onrising grades when considerable heat is generatedand top of the rail is torn off in patches, causingdepressions known as wheel burns, from whichcracks may develop. This also occurs when trainbrakes are applied suddenly and wheels lock andslide. Wheel burns cause the wheels to hammer therails and lead to difficulties in keeping the sleeperspacked firmly and fastenings tight. Such rail shouldbe kept under observation and changed, in caserepair by welding is not feasible. The incidents ofwheel burns is predominant where the mode oftraction is electric or diesel-electric.

(8) Corrugation – In certain locations, rail tabledevelops ridges and hollows called corrugation andwhen vehicles pass over these rails, a roaring soundensues. Such rails are called “roaring rails”.

In such locations, excessive vibrations arecaused, due to which fastenings and packing tendto get loose, track needing frequent attention at theseplaces.

250. Rail Maintenance to reduce RailDeterioration – (1) Efficient maintenance of railsresults in increased service life of rails. The followingprecautions/maintenance practices if observed ,willeffectively reduce rail deterioration.

(2) Prevention of corrosion (Anti-corrosivemeasures)– (a) Anti-corrosive paintings –

(i) Anti-corrosive painting of rails should becarried out in locations which are prone to corrosion.

(ii) While carrying out renewals in these areas,anti-corrosive treatment should be given before therails are laid in the track. The rust is removed andscales are loosened by wire brushing/scraping.Thereafter rails are painted with –

One coat of Red oxide zinc chromate primerto IS:2074.

Two coats of Bituminous emulsion to IRS-P-30-1996 to a dry film thickness of 350 microns (eachcoat to a minimum thickness of 175 microns).

(iii) In the case of rails that are already laid intrack and subject to corrosion the rails should begiven the treatment in the track itself. The rust andscales are first removed by wire brushes andthereafter painted with-

One coat of Red oxide zinc chromate primerto IS:2074.

Two coats of Bituminous emulsion to IRS-P-30-1996 to a dry film thickness of 350 microns(each coat to a minimum thickness of 175 microns).

(b) Rail flanges/web should be kept free of theashes particularly near the ash pits in wateringstations.

(c) Periodical cleaning of rubbish should be gotdone in goods shed siding lines.

(d) Water column should be avoided on therun through lines as far as possible. Where howeverwater columns are necessary to be retained, properdrainage of water column should be ensured.

(3) Reducing side wear on rails-(Gauge faceof outer rails) – (a)On sharp curves where thetendency to wear on the outer rail is noticeable,lubricators should be installed or hand lubrication ofgauge face should be done, care being taken not toapply the lubricant on the top of the table.

(b) Increased life can be obtained by turningthe rails when side wear reaches the permissiblelimit. At the time of turning, matching of rail ends onthe gauge face should be ensured. Spot renewalsshould not be carried out with new rails particularly,if the heads of the existing rails are worn badly. Theseshould be spot renewed with matching sections ofserviceable rails.

(4) Repairs to wheel burns – This could becarried out at site by in situ welding.

251. Maintenance Of Rail Joints –(1)Special care is needed for maintenance of fish-plated joints to get better rail life as well as improvedrunning.

(2) The efficient maintenance of joint dependson :

(a) Efficiency of fastenings.

(b) The efficiency of packing and correctspacing of sleepers.

(c) The provision and maintenance ofcorrect expansion gaps.

(d) The proper lubrication and fishing of thejoints.

(e) The correct maintenance of gauge andcross levels and proper packing.

(f) Efficient drainage.

Page 90: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

77

(3) Defects in rail joints – Some of the majordefects, noticed at the rail joints and the preventivemeasures suggested to rectify or minimise thedeficiencies /defects noticed are detailed below –

(a) Slack sleepers – Maintenance of joints byMeasured Shovel Packing in case of flat bottomedsleepers improves the condition of the joints. In thecase of conventional maintenance by beater packingit should be ensured that the sleepers do not get tilted.

(b) Loose Fish-Plates – Fish bolts must be kepttight, but not so tight as to prevent expansion orcontraction of rails, by using standard spanners.

(c) Wear of Fish-Plates and Rails at fishingsurfaces – When wear takes place on the fishingplanes of rails and fish-plates, the joint dips down.The wear is generally greatest at the centre of thetop of the fish-plates and least at the ends.

Two types of devices are used forcompensating the wear of the fishing planes :

(i) Repressed fish-plates.

(ii) Tapered shims.

(i) Repressed Fish-Plates – The repressed fish-plates are those which are hot forged so as to forma bulge in the middle part of the fish-plate conformingto the wear most prevalent.

(ii) Tapered shims – Tapered shims are piecesof steel, shaped to fit the usual pattern of wearbetween the top fishing surfaces. They are made invarying thicknesses, each size being designated bythe wear in mm. between the fishing surfacesmultiplied by 10. Thickness of shim is varied in stepsof 0.5 mm. from 1.5 mm. to 3.8 mm. Length of theshims should be determined on the basis of actualwear pattern of different sections of rails. Shims aretapered in thickness from one to the other to conformto the wear. The sketch shown as below indicatesthe type of tapered shim, which is commonly used :

(d) Battering of Rail ends – Battering can beavoided by packing the joint sleepers firmly and bymaintaining correct expansion gaps. Battering of railends can be repaired by in situ welding. It can alsobe improved by end cropping.

(e) Hogged Rail Joints – De-hogging can bedone by de-hogging machines. De-hogging of railends can be done by Measured Shovel packing. Inthis method the joint sleepers are normally packedto a specified height above the normal, taking intoconsideration the dip at the joint and voids below thesleepers, leaving the shoulder sleepers withoutpacking. After allowing traffic for about two days, theshoulder sleepers are packed without lifting them.De-hogging is effected by traffic passing over thejoints. Use of repressed fish-plates helps inimproving the hogged joints. Hogging can also beeliminated by cropping the rail ends.

(f) Broken Fish-plates – Broken or cracked fish-plates must be replaced with new or reconditionedfish-plates.

(g) Cracked or Broken Rail ends – The fishbolt and bond holes at rail ends weaken the rails.When maintenance is poor, rail end fractures occur,the fracture almost always starting as a fine crackfrom the fish bolt or bond holes. During lubrication ofrail joints, opportunity should be taken to observethe rail ends carefully for any fine cracks. If cracksare noticed rails should be replaced. Chamfering ofbolt holes and bond holes should be done. Ultrasonictesting of rails helps in detecting the cracks whichare difficult to detect by visual examination.

(h) Pumping of Joints – Immediately after themonsoon, the ballast at such joints should beremoved. Sand blanketting should be provided onthe top layer of the formation which will preventupward rise of clay slurry. On top of this blanketclean and adequate ballast should be put. Crossdrains should be provided between first and secondshoulder sleepers. Geotextiles can also beadvantageously used.

(4) Other important points regarding jointmaintenance – (a) Gap survey should be undertakenperiodically and gap adjusted, as detailed in Para 510.

(b) Use of wooden sleepers at fish-platedjoints, on a metal sleepered road, is desirable.

(c) Ordinary fish-plated track could beconverted into three rail panel, wherever all otherconditions for SWR are satisfied.

e

L

E

E = MAX. THICKNESS.e = MIN. THICKNESS.L = LENGTH OF SHIM

Page 91: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

78

(5) Chamfering of bolt holes in rails-

(a) General : (i) Chamfering of bolt holes workhardens the periphery of holes and thereby delaysthe formation of star cracks. The chamfering of holetakes 5 minutes per hole. Each drilled hole shall bechamfered.

(ii) Existing bolt holes in fracture prone zonesshould be chamfered if not elongated. In case ofelongated holes, the chamfering bit will not be incontact with the full edge of the bolt holes and therewill be uneven hardening of the metal resulting instress concentration in weaker-zones. Therefore,such portion of rail should be removed; holes shouldbe drilled and chamfered.

(b) Equipment for chamfering of boltholes: Work hardening of bolt holes should be donewith chamfering kit of approved make. Thechamfering kit consists of the following: Equipment (as per Fig.1)

Qty.

(i) High tensile bolt M-20 1 No.

(ii) High tensile nut for M-20 bolt 1 No.

(iii) Sets of 2 H.S.S. chamfering bits 1 set

(iv) 19mm sq. drive sockets size 32mm 8 Nos.

(v) Set of 2 packing pieces (sleeves) 1 set

(vi) T-400 torque-wrench with built-inrachet Mechanism 1.25m length 1 No.

(c) (i) Chamfering of bolt holes in the weldedrail panels should be done before despatch in theFlash Butt Welding Plants, if situation so warrants.

(ii) When rails in track are end-cropped, newbolt holes should be chamfered at site.

(iii) Bolt holes in new rails received directly fromsteel plant should be chamfered before rails are laidin track.

(d) Procedure for chamfering of boltholes: (i) The nut of high tensile steel bolt is removedand one packing piece is inserted in the shankfollowed by one side of the H.S.S. chamfering bit.

(ii) The high tensile steel bolt is inserted with 2pieces in the rail hole.

(iii) On the other face of the rail hole, the secondhalf of the HSS chamfering bit is inserted over theshank followed by the second packing piece.

(iv) The nut on the high tensile steel bolt isreplaced.

(v) Pre-set torque-wrench on nut at torquevalue of 52 Kg-m equivalent to an axial force of 12.5tonnes, is applied. The nut is tightened with the torquewrench. As soon as the preset torque is attained,the torque wrench will automatically trip indicatingcomplete tightening to preset torque value.

(vi) The nut by reversing the torque wrench isunscrewed and HTS bolt is removed. The processis repeated on other rail holes.

(e) Chamfering of each hole should be doneunder the supervision of Mate/Keyman.

252. Inspection of Rails In Service –(1) General – Rails should be inspected for flawsspecially, when the rails show signs of fatigue andthe rail wear is excessive. The detection of rail flawsis done either by visual examination of the rail or byultrasonic rail flaw detection.

(2) Visual examination of Rails – Most of therail flaws develop at the rail ends. Rail ends shouldbe examined for cracks during the lubrication of railjoints by cleaning the surface of the rail by wirebrushes and using a magnifying glass. A smallmirror is of assistance in examining the undersideof rails. Such an inspection on the important griderbridges and their approaches should be done twicea year.

Fig.1

20 Ø HTS BOLT

SLEEVE CHAMFERING

TOOL

SLEEVE CHAMFERING TOOL

WEB OF RAIL

Page 92: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

79

(3) “Ultrasonic testing of rails is specializedactivity and the inspectors carrying out theultrasonic testing of rails shall be trained byRDSO, in the technique of USFD testing. Eachzonal railway shall create adequate number of ex-cadre posts of inspectors to ensure that entiretrack length in their jurisdiction is ultrasonicaliytested at the laid down periodicity.

Detailed instructions for ultrasonic testing ofrails and welds are contained in the Manual forUltrasonic Testing of Rails and Welds,August, 1998, which along with its correctionslips may be referred to as Annexure to thisManual, It is very important that instructionscontained therein are carefully studied by thePermanent Way Officials connected with thelaying and maintenance of track”.

(4) USFD Testing of Service Rails:- No railuntested by USFD shall be laid in the track whetherfor new lines or layouts or renewals or for repairworks or even temporarily such as service rails forPQRS work. For repairs and casual renewals, alocation-wise imprest of tested rails of various lengths(13m, 9m, 6m) shall be prescribed for each PWI bySr.DEN/DEN.

253. Action to be taken in the case ofRail fractures/Weld failures – (1) It is ofparamount importance that whenever a fracture of arail/welded joint is noticed, immediate action is takento restore the track, if necessary with restrictedspeed, with the least possible delay.

(2) The Mate/Keyman/Gangman, as soon ashe notices the rail fracture/weld failure should firstprotect the track, while the repairs are being carriedout. He should also send information to the P.W.I.and the Station Master of the nearest station.

(3) If the fracture is with a gap of less than 30mm. in the case of fish-plated/SWR track, thefractured portion should be supported on woodenblock or by shifting the nearest sleepers on bothsides. In the case of LWR the fractured rail shouldalso be clamped.

(4) When the fracture gap is more than 30 mm.,a closure of appropriate length should be used witha clamp and further action taken as in sub-para(3) above.

(5) In cases where a small portion or piece ofrail has come off or in the case of multiple fracture,the rail has to be changed.

(6) In the case of weld failure, joggled fish-platesand clamps should be used.

(7) After doing the emergency repairs the trainsmay be passed at 20 km.p.h. by a Mate/Keyman,until the Permanent Way Official replaces the rail andrestores full speed.

(8) If there is a spate of rail fractures, additionalKeyman’s patrol should be introduced in the earlyhours of the morning.

254. Stacking of Rails – In stacking rails,care shall be taken that -

(a) The ground is level;(b) Free rails are supported at least at four

points, evenly in their length; and(c) Each stack of the rail should be of the same

section and class.

255. Handling of Rails – (1) Anycarelessness in loading, unloading, handling andlaying is liable to cause damage which will not onlycontribute towards bad running but also result inirrepairable damage to, or incipient failures of rails.During loading and unloading, ramps of un-serviceable rails should be made and the rails slidover them, intermediate supports being given toprevent excessive sagging.

(2) When conveyed in bolster -wagons, therails should be loaded to obtain equal over hang ateach end beyond the bolsters and securely chained.

(3) Carrying rails, on the head or shouldersshould be avoided. For handling rails, slings or tongsshould be used. When hauled into position, prior tolinking or otherwise, rails should be so spread as torest evenly along their entire length or on supportsclosely spaced. Flat footed rails should lie on the foot.Those that are found with kinks should bestraightened.

(4) When housing rails into metal sleepers orchairs, the sleepers should be properly aligned andlevelled. Forced insertion of rails with hammer blowsshould be avoided.

(5) During yard surveys, curve adjustmentsand realigning operations, chisel or punch markingof rails should be avoided.

256. Rail Closures – The followinginstructions regarding use of rail closures should beobserved :

Page 93: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

80

1) (a) Permanent closure in running linesshould not be less than 5.5 metre in length. However,for locations such as 500 metre length on both sideapproaches of tunnels, tunnel proper, major andimportant bridges including bridge proper, deepcuttings and high embankments, the stipulations ofpara 1 (b) below shall apply.

(b) Permanent closure in running lines, onlocations specified in para 1 (a) above, should notbe less than 11 metre in length, between twoadjoining fish plates.

The closure rails existing in track which areless than 11 metre, should be welded at least at onejoint on either side to make the minimum rail lengthof 11 metre between two adjoining fish plated joints.Till such time this welding is done and the length ofat least 11 metre is achieved, speed restriction of 30kmph shall be imposed.

(2) The use of closures should be limited andreduced to the minimum possible.

(3) Closures should not be located near eachother in the same portion of track nor in proximity to-

(a) Junctions of different types of rails and/orsleepers.

(b) Bridges, level crossings, ash pits, and pointsand crossings

(4) Closures should be obtained by hacksawcutting and not by gas cutting.

(5) It is better not to use closures opposite toeach other but stagger the same.

257. Rail Failures – (1) Definition of a Railfailure– A rail is said to have failed if it has fracturedin track or it is considered necessary to remove itfrom track on account of defects other than thosedue to accidental damages due to buckling, kinking,derailments, abnormal wheel burns etc.

(2) Action to be taken in case of Rail failures–When a rail fails in track, action as detailed in items(i), (ii) and (iii) below is to be taken -

(i) Entry in the Permanent Way Inspector’ssection register as detailed in sub para (3) below.

(ii) Preparation of a detailed report of the failurein cases where applicable as laid down in sub-para(4) as mentioned below.

(iii) Detailed metallurgical investigation incases, where applicable, as per sub-paras (4) &(5)

(3) Register of Rail failures – All the cases ofrail failures have to be entered in the section registerby the Permanent Way Inspector as laid down inPara 210. For this purpose all failures whether inrunning lines, points and crossing rails etc. andirrespective of type and age of the rails, have to beentered in the section register. This recod is intendedto serve as a basic record which should be availablein the office of the Permanent Way Inspectors andwill serve to furnish data, if required subsequentlyfor any statistical analysis or for framing outproposals for track renewal works. Care shouldtherefore be taken by the Permanent Way Inspectorsfor filling up all the details as per Para 210. TheAssistant Engineer concerned shall call for the P.W. I.’s register once every year and initial the samein token of his perusal.

(4) Reports of Rail failures – In addition to therecord maintained in the section register, as detailedabove, a report has to be prepared as per Annexure2/10 in all cases of rail failures occurring in trackwith the exception of the cases noted below -

(a) Rail failures occurring in non running lines.(b) Non standard and obsolete rails.(c) Rails removed due to casual renewals on

account of accidental damages to the rails such aswheel burns and scabbings, buckling, kinking,derailments, abnormal slipping of loco wheels,excessive wear, loss of section by corrosion,battering, elongation of holes.

(d) Machined rails such as mitred joints, switchexpansion joints, switches and crossings.

For this purpose, the Permanent WayInspector will prepare a ‘Rail failure’ Report inquadruplicate as per pro forma at Annexure 2/10and shall forward 3 copies to the Assistant Engineer,who will transmit all the copies with his remarks tothe Divisional Engineer, for onward transmission ofone copy each to the Chief Engineer and Director (M&C)/RDSO/Lucknow-11. In case of failuresrequiring metallurgical investigation, the report shouldbe prepared in quaintuplicate, the extra copy beingsent to the Chemist and Metallurgist of the ZonalRailway along with the samples as detailed in thesub-para (6) below. Efforts should be made byDivisional Engineer so that the report reaches theDirector (M&C)/RDSO within a month of the railfailure. The Director (M&C) will arrange to carry outannual numerical analysis of rail failures from thereports received from the Permanent WayInspectors and the Chemist and Metallurgist andpublish reports with suggestions for reducing failures.

Page 94: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

81

Sketches illustrating the fractures will beprepared and submitted with the failure reports oneach case, care being taken that the running face ofthe rail is indicated thereon.

It is particularly essential to record the type offailure in the failure reports against item No. 5.3as per R.D.S.O. monograph “ Rail Failures -Description, Classification and Reporting”. Inmost cases, it is possible to determine the cause ofthe failure by visual examination/ultrasonic detectionwithout the need for metallurgical investigation.However, in cases mentioned in sub-para (5)below, it is obligatory to take up full metallurgicalexamination by the Chemist and Metallurgist of theRailway concerned with a view to ascertaining theexact cause of failure. In such cases the rail failurereport should be made out in the prescribed pro formainserting the most probable code of failure againstitem No. 5.3 and indicating whether the samplehas been sent to the Chemist and Metallurgist formetallurgical investigation.

For the cases of rail failures detected visually,a short piece of rail approximately 2 m. long has tobe sent to the Zonal Railway Chemist andMetallurgist by the Permanent Way Inspector direct,along with a copy of the rail failure report only forsuch cases which come under the category listedbelow. In other cases, i.e. , those detected byultrasonic flaw detectors, the rail pieces have to besent for metallurgical test only from those rails whichare removed from track based on the criteria forrenewal of rails and falling in the category listed below.The test pieces for metallurgical examination are tobe sent only for rail failures which occur within 10years of primary renewals and for which detailedreports are to be prepared. To sum up, beforesending the test pieces to the Chemist andMetallurgist, it should be ensured that -

(i) The rail failure is within 10 years of primaryrenewals;

(ii) The rails have been removed from trackas a result of visual or ultrasonic detection; and

(iii) The failures fall only in categories listedbelow:

(iv) The rails where rail/weld failure is a primafacie cause of the train accident should be sent toRDSO.

In cases of failures of imported rails occurringwithin guarantee period, stipulation of sub para (6)

(5) Type of rail failures for which metallurgicalinvestigation is required -

(a) 100/200 - Transverse breakage withapparentorigin (suddenbreakage)

(b) 1212/2212 - Head, surface, shallowsurface defect(line).

(c) 1321/2321 - Web horizontal crack at topfillet radius.

(d) 1322/2322 - Web horizontal crack atbottom fillet radius.

(e) 1323/2323 - Web horizontal crack not atfillet radius.

(f) 238 - Web diagonal cracks not at ahole.

(g) 253 - Foot , vertical, longitudinalcrack in foot half-moon break.

(h) 1511/2511 - Foot transverse break at railseat.

(i) 1512/2512 - Foot transverse break not atrail seat.

(j) 111/211 - Internal flaw in head,transverse breakage.

(k) 112/212 - Internal flaw in head, horizontalcrack.

(l) 113/213 - Internal flaw in head, verticallongitudinal split.

(m) 133/233 - Web, vertical longitudinalsplitting

(n) 139/239 - Web, lap.(o) 153/253 - Foot, vertical longitudinal split.

(6) Failure of imported rails within theGuarantee period - In all cases of failure of importedrails, occurring within the guarantee period,irrespective of the type of fracture/flaw a 2 m. piececontaining the fracture/ flaw detected visually or byultrasonic flaw detector, should be sent to theChemist and Metallurgist together with a rail failurereport for metallurgical investigation.

(7) Procedure for sending samples formetallurgical investigation— In case of fractured rail,both the pieces containing fractured faces should besent to the Chemist and Metallurgist for investigation.To avoid damage in transit, the fractured faces shallbe protected with mineral jelly and suitably coveredwith hessain cloth. Cracked rails may also besuitably protected at the crack location to avoiddamage in transit. Pieces having internal defects maybe dispatched as such.

Page 95: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

82

The Chemist and Metallurgist of the Railwaywill carry out metallurgical investigation, as required,and forward one copy of the report each to the ChiefEngineer of the Railway and the Director (M&C)/R.D.S.O.

In case of failures of imported rails within theguarantee period, attributable to manufacturingdefects as revealed my metallurgical investigation,the Chief Engineer should immediately lodge aprovisional claim with the manufacturer pendingDirector (M&C)’s confirmation of the findingssubmitted by the Chemist and Metallurgist of theRailway. The Director ( M&C )/ R.D.S.O. willscrutinise the report submitted by the Chemist andMetallurgist and if he agrees with the findings assubmitted, inform the Chief Engineer accordingly.Where the Director (M&C)/ RDSO feels the needfor carrying out further investigation before giving hisverdict, he will call for the sample from the Chemistand Metallurgist of the Railway and carry outconfirmatory tests, as necessary and intimate thefindings to the Chief Engineer. On the basis ofDirector (M&C)’s advice, the Chief Engineer will thenfinalise the claim with the manufacturer.

In case of failures of rails other than imported,the Director(M&C)/RDSO will call for samples fromthe Chemist and Metallurgist, for confirmatory test,where necessary. Based on the trend indicated bythe numerical analysis of the rail failures for the periodunder review, the Director(M&C) will bring to thenotice of the indigenous manufacturers andD.G.S. & D. any predominance of failures attributableto manufacturing defects, to enable corrective actionbeing taken.

258. Careful usage of Fish-Plates – (1)The hammering of the fish-plates should be strictlyforbidden. For removing a fish-plate which has seizedto the rails, the fish-plate may be tamped gently, bya hammer by interposing a wooden piece.

(2) Over tightening of fish-plates shall beavoided. Fish bolt spanner of standard length680 mm to 760 mm on B.G. and 530 mm to 610 mmon M.G. and N.G. (762 mm) shall be used.Alternatively mechanical torque wrenches withpredetermined torque should be used. Whentightening bolts the two central bolts should betightened first.

259. Combination Fish-Plates – Rails atjoints should butt against each other and fishboltstightened. A set of four combination fishplates is tobe used at joints of two different rail sections.The 4 fishplates are different from each other andare marked I.R., OR., I.L. or O.L. apart from theirpart numbers. On either side of combinationfishplates, full length of rail should be used.Combination rails prepared by welding two railsections as per standard drawings should, preferablybe used in place of combination fish-plates.

260. Fish-plates failures – (a) A fish-plateis said to have failed if it fractures or cracks in servicein track for reasons other than service wear and tear,accidents, or excessive wheel grazing noticed on it,and it becomes necessary to remove it from track.

(b) All cases of failure of fish-plates shall beentered by the Permanent Way Inspector in thesection register allotting separate pages for thesame.

(c) Renewal of worn fish-plates should beconsidered when condition has reached a stagewhere remedial measures like use of tapered shimsare ineffective.

Page 96: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

83

.........................................RAILWAY

ANNEXURE-2/10 Para 257 (4)

Pro forma for Reporting Rail Failures

Broken/Cracked/Defective rail removed on ..................................................day of 19..........

1.0 General Information

1.1. Division.

1.2. Section (name of line or branch).

1.3. Between Stations ..........................................................and..................................................

1.4. Kilometrage.

1.5. Line.

1.5.1. Up/Down/Single.

1.5.2. B.G./M.G./N.G.

1.6. Alignment.

1.6.1. Straight/Curve(indicate degree of curvatures).

1.6.2. Inner/Outer in case of curve.

2.0. Charateristics of Traffic and Traction.

2.1. Traffic density in G. T. K. M./annum.

2.2. Total traffic carried in G. M. T. before failure (for realeased rails, also add previous trafficcarried).

2.3. Maximum axle load with type of vehicle on section.

2.4. Maximum permissible speed.

3.0. Characteristics of Rail.

3.1. Rail Section .........................kg./m.

3.2. Rolled marking ...................................

3.3. Total number of years in service..................

3.4. Cast No.

4.0 Characteristics of Track.

4.1. If fracture occured at or within 100mm. of weld, indicate date of welding.

4.2. Position of fracture.

4.3. Type of sleepers and density.

4.4. Depth of ballast.

5.0. Particulars of defect or fracture.

5.1. Detected–Visually/By flaw detector.

5.2. Remarks, if any.................................................

5.3. Classification of failure in code........................

.................................. ....................................... ............................Signature of Permanent Way Signature of Asst. Engineer Signature of Divi. Engineer

Inspector

Page 97: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

84

PART - ‘F’

Ballast and Ballast Depots

261. Type of ballast in use - Stone ballastshall be used on all lines including points andcrossings.

262. Size of the Ballast – The gauge of stoneballast shall be as follows:

As per specifications issued from timeto time.

263. Ballast Profiles/Sections/Depths ofCushion – (1) Ballast Profiles/Sections to beadopted - The following ballast profiles shall beprovided for the various groups of track in B.G., M.G.,and N.G. :–

LWR/CWR other than LWR/CWR

B.G. .. Annexure 2/11 ... Annexure 2/13M.G. .. Annexure 2/12 ... Annexure 2/14N.G. .. ... ... Annexure 2/15

In the case of conversion to CWR/LWR in bothB.G. and M.G., the ballast profiles should be madeup as per the Manual.The approximate quantity ofballast required per metre run of track for each ofthese standard ballast sections has been workedout and shown in the sketch itself.

(2) Minimum depths of Ballast Cushion – (a)The recommended minimum depth of the ballastbelow the bottom of the sleepers at the rail seatshould be as under –

Groups Recommended depthB.G. Group ‘A’ 300 mm

B.G. Groups ‘B’ and ‘C ‘ 250 mm

B.G. Group ‘D’ 200 mm

B.G. Group ‘E’ 150 mm

M.G. ‘Q’ routes 250mm (300 mmwhen speed is

100 kmph)

‘R1’ routes 250 mm

‘R2’ and ‘R3’ routes 200 mm

‘S’ routes 150 mm

Narrow gauge 150 mm

Note:- (i). In case of SWR the recommendeddepth is 200mm.

(ii) Whenever primary renewals are carried outeven on ‘E’ routes, the minimum depth of ballast of200mm shall be provided.

(iii) Minimum depth of ballast under the rail seatof the sleepers shall be 150mm except under PRCsleepers where it shall be 250mm.

(iv) Wherever 22.1 t Axle load rolling stock isnominated to run the minimum depth of ballast shallbe 350mm.

(b) Increase in ballast cushion to make up therecommended depth will be carried out duringcomplete track renewal, through sleeper renewal orprogrammed deep screening.

(3) On wooden sleepered road, for a distanceof 50 m. outside of stop signals and at every placewhere steam engines are likely to stop, it is a goodpractice to cover the central portion of the sleeperswith ballast to reduce the risk of fire.

(4) At locations where there is a change in thetype of sleepers, special precaution should be takenand six rail lengths on either side of the junctionshould be fully boxed. Similar action should be takenfor bridge and level crossing approaches.

264. Assessment of Ballast Requirements–(1) The requirement of ballast shall be assessedseparately for

(a) making good the deficiencies as existing in track,

(b) making good deficiencies arising out ofoverhauling, through packing and deep screening,

(c) for providing adequate cushions in the case ofmechanical tamping,

(d) For providing extra cushion while converting intoLWR

(2) The ballast required for maintenancepurposes shall be estimated by assessing thequantity approximately if necessary by a survey, overa rail length in every 1 km. Care should be takenthat the cores under the sleepers are not disturbed.

(3) In case of deep screening, assessment ofballast required for recoupment and providingstandard section should be made by deep screeningthe ballast section to the full depth in a rail length fortwo to three sleepers at every 1/2 to 1 km. In thiscase screening is done under the sleepers as well.

Page 98: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

85

(4) In new line construction, ballastrequirements will be assessed as per the profile (tobe adopted) given in para 263 (1)

(5) The quantities assessed vide sub-para in(2), (3) and (4) above will be the net quantities ofballast required to recoup the deficiencies or toprovide required profile / sections. The above netquantities may be enhanced suitably (say 8%) toarrive at gross quantities of ballast for the purposeof procurement action in case measurements areproposed to be taken in stacks or in wagons atoriginating station.

265. Collection and Training out of Ballast–The collection of ballast can either be done- (a) byresorting to alongside collection, or (b) by collectingat depots and training them out in ballast trains.

The mode of collection will have to be decidedtaking into account proximity of quarry, availability ofgood stone ballast, service roads along side the linefor carrying of ballast,availability of ballast trains, theturn round of ballast trains and availability of blockfor unloading.

266. Depot collection of ballast – (1) Registerof ballast collection and training out - The Inspector-in-charge of the depot shall maintain a registershowing all transactions in respect of stoneballast,moorum and sand ballast. If the depot dealswith boulders also, the same should also find a placein a register.

(2) Loading from the Depot - At all depots thefollowing instructions should be followed :

(a) The space along the sides of the Railwaysiding, meant for stacking, should be divided intoconvenient number of zones and demarcated.

(b) For each depot, a depot diagram shall bemaintained, which should indicate the site details ofall the measured stacks.

(c) Each stack in each zone should be seriallynumbered.

(d) The operations of collecting and training outmaterials should not be carried out at the same timein any one zone.

(e) The ground on which the stacks are madeshould be selected and levelled.

(f) Where practicable, no stack should be lessthan one metre in height.

(g) Measurements should be taken of completestacks. The measured stacks should be identifiedsuitably by lime sprinkling or any other method.

(h)Before training out of Ballast or othermaterial is undertaken on contract, a copy of eachof the depot diagram should be kept with thepermanent Way Inspector, the Ballast Train Guardand the Contractor, the original being with theAssistant Engineer. As each stack is lifted, thisshould be recorded on the depot diagram whichshould always be kept up-to-date. Challans shouldbe prepared after loading the ballast into wagons.

(3) Quantity trained out – When settlingaccounts for training out ballast, checks should bemade by comparing the quantities as per stackmeasurements recorded in the measurement books,with those deduced from wagon measurements asrecorded in the ballast train reports, due allowancebeing given for sinkage as per rules.

Should the wagon measurements differ fromthe recorded measurements by more than 5 percent,the matter should be investigated immediately andreported to the Divisional Engineer. In special casesdirect measurement of ballast in wagons may beresorted to with the approval of the Chief Engineer.

267. Along side Collections (CessCollections) – In the case of along side collectionsthe Inspector-in-charge should maintain separateregister showing the measurement of stacks as wellas its disposition(Between km. to km.). The stacksshould be serially numbered between the successiveposts. Any entry should be made in the registerwhenever the stacks are removed and ballast putinto the track. Record should show the place wherethe removed ballast has been used with the date ofremoval.

268. Handing over charge by AssistantEngineer – During transfer of charge of a subdivision, the Assistant Engineer taking over, shouldsatisfy himself by test checking some of the stacksat each depot and along the cess to the effect thatthe quantities of materials shown in the registers arecorrect. He should certify that this has been done byinitialling each entry so checked.

Page 99: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

86

269. Unloading Ballast along the line –When unloading ballast along the line care shall betaken that the heaps at the sides and the centre areclear of prescribed running dimensions.

Ballast shall not be unloaded upon signal wiresor point rods. Care should be taken to ensure thatno stone is left inadvertently between the stock railand tongue rail.

270. Surplus Ballast along the line – Allsurplus ballast left along side the line should becollected and stacked in regular heaps and not leftscattered on the slopes to be overgrown by grassand lost.

271. Ballasting New Formation – Banksshould be preferably compacted in which caseballasting can be done straightaway. If compactionis not done initially, the ballast punctures the formationand ballast pockets are formed which give rise toproblems in maintaining correct track geometry. Onbanks where track has to be laid before properconsolidation, it is desirable to use coarse sand ormoorum for packing and boxing. Quarry grit andstone chips can be used if available. Ash, cinder,slag and fine and medium sand should not be used.After consolidation, the road should be opened to thebottom of the sleeper, all surplus material removed,the track raised to final level on stone ballast andpacked.

Page 100: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

87

AN

NE

XU

RE

- 2/

11 P

ara

263

300

Gegua

Gfo

epyTrepeel

SA

B*

CD

*E

F1

FH

tsallaBfo

ytitnauQ

nirete

mrep

skrame

R

thgiartS

kcarTdevru

CkcarT

tsallaB

enotS

naelC

miumini

Meh

T.1repeelsfo

mottobeht

wolebnoihsuc

.m

m052–

A,.e.isdeeps

niesaercni

erehw

setuorro

F.2003–

A.h.p.m

K031

nahtero

meb

otera

fo.m

m051

htiw

gnola.m

m002

ro.m

m.tsallab-bus

dedivorpebllahs

sllawfra

wdelbatiu

S.3rof

yrassecenfi,sgnittucfoesac

ni.tsallab

gniniater.ylno

sevrucfoedis

retuon

O*.4deriuqer

erehw

denediw

ebya

msse

C.5dna

snoitidnoclacolno

gnidneped.sevrucfo

edistuo.

mm

niera

snoisnemidll

A.6.tsalla

B-buS

051revo

002¶.7

mm

6761

nedooW

" "

052003 ¶

053" "

005" "

072,2" "

024,2" "

001,6" "

094,5" "

045095046

M286.1

3

287.1"

289.1"

M646.1

3

358.1"

060.2"

leetS

hguorT003

053" "

005" "

082,2" "

034,2" "

001,6" "

094,5" "

055006056

M267.1

3

269.1"

261.2"

M728.1

3

530.2"

242.2"

CR

P" "

052003 ¶

053" "

005" "

063,2" "

015,2" "

001,6" "

094,5" "

036086037

M459.1

3 "851.2

"263.2

230.2M

3

"342.2

"554.2

kcolB

2" "

052003 ¶

053" "

005" "

063,2" "

015,2" "

001,6" "

094,5" "

036086037

011.2M

3 "413.2

"815.2

391.2M

3

"504.2

"616.2

6,85

0

6,85

0

6,85

0

6,85

0

6,25

0

6,25

0

6,25

0

6,25

0

Page 101: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

88

AN

NE

XU

RE

- 2/

12 P

ara

263

GG

auge

Type

of

Sle

eper

AB

C*

DE

*F

F1

H

Qua

ntity

of B

alla

stpe

r m

eter

inR

emar

ks

Str

aigh

t

Trac

k M

3

1. T

he M

inim

uim

Cle

an S

tone

Bal

last

cus

hion

bel

ow th

e bo

ttom

of s

leep

er

i. e

., A

250

mm

.2.

For

rou

tes

whe

re in

crea

se in

spe

eds

ar

e to

be

mor

e th

an 1

00 K

m.p

.h. A

30

mm

. or

200

mm

. alo

ng w

ith 1

50 m

m.

s

ub-b

alla

st.

3. S

uita

ble

dwar

f wal

ls s

hall

be p

rovi

de

in c

ase

of c

uttin

gs, i

f nec

essa

ry fo

r

ret

aini

ng b

alla

st.

4. *

On

oute

r si

de o

f cur

ves

only

.5.

Ces

s m

ay b

e w

iden

ed w

here

req

uire

d

epen

ding

on

loca

l con

ditio

ns a

nd

out

side

of c

urve

s.6.

All

dim

ensi

ons

are

in m

m.

1000

mm

.

Woo

den

" "

250

300

350 " "

500 " "

1,76

0" "

1,93

0" "

5,85

0" "

5,25

0" "

510

560

610

1.17

91.

331

1.48

2

1.28

41.

407

1.56

7

Ste

elTr

ough

250

300

350 " "

500 " "

1,79

0" "

1,94

0" "

5,85

0" "

5,25

0" "

520

570

620

1.29

01.

443

1.60

0

1.35

31.

514

1.67

4

CS

T-9

" "

250

300

350 " "

500 " "

1,73

0" "

1,88

0" "

5,85

0" "

5,25

0" "

510

560

610

1.23

51.

385

1.53

5

1.29

51.

453

1.60

9

PR

C" "

250

300

350 " "

500 " "

1,94

0" "

2,10

0" "

5,85

0" "

5,25

0" "

590

640

690

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

Trac

k M

3

Cur

ved

7.

200

over

150

Sub

-Bal

last

.

¶¶ ¶¶

Page 102: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

89

No

te :

(1)

In th

e ca

se o

f ord

inar

y fis

h-pl

ated

trac

k : *

To

bein

crea

sed

on th

e ou

tsid

e of

cur

ves

to 4

00 m

m.

in th

e ca

se o

f cur

ves

shar

per t

han

600

M. r

adiu

s.

(2)

In s

hort

wel

ded

pane

l Tr

ack

* To

be

incr

ease

dto

400

mm

. on

outs

ide

of a

ll cu

rves

, fla

tter

than

875m

rad

ius

and

to 4

50m

m.

In t

he c

ase

ofcu

rves

sha

rper

than

875

m. r

adiu

s.

(3)

*To

be in

crea

sed

to 5

50 m

m. o

n th

e ou

tsid

e of

turn

in c

urve

s of

turn

-out

s in

pas

seng

er y

ards

.

(4)

In th

e ca

se o

f S. W

. R. t

rack

, the

min

imum

dep

thof

cus

hion

sha

ll be

200

mm

.

AN

NE

XU

RE

2/1

3 –

Par

a 26

3

6850

RECOMMENDED DEPTHS OF BALLAST AND

BALLAST REQUIREMENTS

FISH-PLATED TRACK

Quantity of Ballast Required/Metre

Recommended

On Straight and

Curves of

Group

Depth of Ballast

Curves of Radius

Radius Sharper

Cushion

Flatter than 600 M

than 600 M

Y

A300 mm.

1.588 M3

1.634 M3

B & C

250 mm.

1.375 M3

1.416 M3

D200 mm

1.167 M3

1.202 M3

E150 mm.

0.964 M3

0.996 M3

Page 103: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

90

No

te :

(1)

In t

he

ca

se o

f fi

sh-p

late

d t

rack

: *

To

be

incr

ease

d on

the

outs

ide

of c

urve

s to

400

mm

.in

the

case

of c

urve

s sh

arpe

r tha

n 60

0 M

. rad

ius.

(2)

In s

hort

wel

ded

pane

l : *

To

be in

crea

sed

to 3

30m

m. i

n th

e ca

se o

f all

curv

es fl

atte

r tha

n 60

0 M

.ra

dius

, an

d to

380

mm

. in

the

cas

e of

cur

ves

shar

per

than

600

M. r

adiu

s.

(3)

*To

be in

crea

sed

to 5

50 m

m. o

n th

e ou

tsid

e of

turn

in c

urve

s of

turn

-out

s in

pas

seng

er y

ards

.

(4)

In th

e ca

se o

f S. W

. R. t

rack

, the

min

imum

dep

thof

cus

hion

sha

ll be

200

mm

.

ANNEXURE 2/14 – Para 263

RE

CO

MM

EN

DE

D D

EP

TH

S O

F B

AL

LA

ST

AN

DB

AL

LA

ST

RE

QU

IRE

ME

NT

SF

ISH

-PL

AT

ED

TR

AC

K

5850

Rou

tes

Rec

om-

men

ded

Dep

th o

fB

alla

stC

ushi

on

Qua

ntity

of B

alla

st r

equi

red

per

Met

re o

n

On

Str

aigh

t and

Cur

ves

of R

adiu

sF

latte

r th

an 6

00 M

.

Cur

ves

of R

adiu

s S

harp

erth

an 6

00 M

.

Q R

oute

s 10

0 K

m. p

. h.

.

.

. .

Q R

oute

s of

less

than

100

Km

. p. h

. .

.R

-1 R

oute

s

. .

. .

.

.R

-2 R

oute

s w

here

LW

R is

con

tem

plat

edR

-2 R

oute

s w

here

LW

R is

not

Con

tem

plat

ed.

R-3

Rou

tes

. .

. .

.

.S

Rou

tes

. .

.

.

. .

.

.

300

mm

.25

0 m

m.

250

mm

.25

0 m

m.

200

mm

.20

0 m

m.

150

mm

.

1.07

0 M

3

0.96

5 M

3

0.96

5 M

3

0.96

5 M

3

0.81

7 M

3

0.81

7 M

3

0.67

3 M

3

1.14

5 M

3

1.03

3 M

3

1.03

3 M

3

1.03

3 M

3

0.90

5 M

3

0.90

5 M

3

0.72

5 M

3

Y

Page 104: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

91

No

te :

(1)

*To

be i

ncre

ased

on

the

outs

ide

of c

urve

s, t

o30

0 m

m. i

n th

e ca

se o

f cur

ves

shar

per t

han

300

M.

radi

us.

(2)

* To

be

incr

ease

to 4

50 m

m in

the

case

of t

urn

in c

urve

s of

turn

-out

s in

pas

seng

er y

ards

.

Rec

omm

ende

d D

epth

of

Bal

last

Cus

hion

Qua

ntity

of B

alla

st r

equi

red

per

Met

re o

fTr

ack

On

Str

aigh

tC

urve

s of

Tra

ckS

harp

er th

an 3

00 m

Rad

ius.

150

mm

..

..

0.54

3 M

30.

584

M3

AN

NE

XU

RE

2/1

5 –

Par

a 26

3

Page 105: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

92

PART – ‘G’

Track Structure on Bridges

272. Rail and rail joints on Bridges – (1)Longitudinal Profile of Rails – In standard plategirders no camber is provided. Open web girders ofspan 30.5 m. and above are provided with camber.Track on these bridges are laid correctly followingthe camber of the girder. While retimbering is doneit should be ensured that the longitudinal level of railsfollows the camber of girders.

(2) Rail Cant – On Bridges the rail should belaid with an inward cant of 1 in 20 by continuing thesame cant as on the approaches.

(3) Rail joints over the Bridge – In the case ofsmall bridge openings less than 6.1 m. rail jointsshould be avoided. For other spans, the preferredposition of the rail joint is at 1/3 the span from eitherend.

(4) SWR on Bridges – SWR may be continuedover girder bridges with unballasted decks upto 13.3m. opening if the length of SWR is symmetrical tothe centre line of bridge and upto 6.1 m. opening ifthe length of SWR is unsymmetrical to the centreline of the bridge. No fish-plated joint should belocated on the girder or within six metres from eitherabutment. In all such cases rail free fastenings, suchas rail screws, dog spikes or rail free clips shall beused, so that relative movement between rail andsleepers may take place.

(5) LWR/CWR on Bridges – In the case oflaying LWR/CWR, provisions of LWR Manual shouldbe followed.

(a) In the case of girder bridges (unballasteddeck) LWR can be continued over bridges where

overall length is not more than 20 m. In case ofbridges where the overall length is between 20 and43 m., LWR can be continued on B.G., in case thetrack is laid with 52 kgs. and 90-R rails under certainconditions as laid down in LWR/ Manual.

(b) LWR with rail free fastenings can beprovided from pier to pier with S.E.Js. on each pierover the free end in the case of rollers on one sideand rockers on other side. Box anchoring for a fewsleepers should be done at the fixed end. In case ofroller bearings on both sides, the central portion ofthe welded rails shall be box anchored on a fewsleepers.

(c) LWR can be continued over a girder bridgewith the provision of S.E.J. at the far end of theapproach of the bridge using rail free fastenings overgirder bridge. The length of the girder bridge will berestricted as per the table given in LWR Manual.

(6) Precautions for arresting Creep – Track ongirder bridges with un-ballasted deck is always laidwith rail free fastenings in all cases. Track on girderbridges laid with standard single rails and fish-platedjoints be isolated from the SWR if existing, onapproaches on either side by providing at least twowell anchored Standard rail lengths. Similarly thetrack on the girder bridges not laid with LWR/CWRshall be isolated from LWR/CWR by a minimumlength of 36 metres of well anchored SWR on eitherside.

273. Bridge Timbers – (1) Minimumrequirements of depth, length and spacing-Provisions in the Schedule of dimensions, indicatingthe minimum length of sleeper, minimum depth ofsleeper and the maximum clear distance betweenthe sleepers for the three gauges are summarisedbelow (nearest to 5 mm) :

Clear distance Depth of sleepersGauge between consecutive (exclusive of notching) Length of sleepers

sleepers not to exceed not less than

Outside to outside of girderB.G. 510 mm 150 mm flanges plus 305 mm. but not

less than 2440 mm.

Outside to outside of girderM.G. 305 mm 125 mm flanges plus 305 mm. but not

less than 1675 mm.

Outside to outside of girderN.G. 125 mm 125 mm flanges plus 305 mm. but not

less than 1525 mm

Page 106: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

93

in the case of double line shall be in the direction oftraffic and in the case of single line, in the directionof increasing kilometrage.

(d) Cambering :– Provision of para 272(1)shall apply. Preferably sleepers of standardthickness should be used. Where pad plates arenecessary, it should be ensured that their width shallcover the full sleeper seat and hook bolts shall alsopass through the pad plate.

(5) Use of Packing Plates :– Packing platesare used to make up for the difference in levels onthe top boom of the girder due to cover plates, etc.These plates should be of mild steel, as thick as thecover plates, and of sufficient width to take the hookbolts. In case cover plates exist only for part width ofthe girder, the sleepers are to be notched to the sameshape.

(6) Preparation of Timber before laying :–(a)The position of sleepers should be marked on topflange of the girder.

(b)Sleepers are numbered serially on everysleeper span-wise.

(3) Clear distance between joint sleepers :–The clear distance between joint sleepers should notexceed 200 mm. both for B.G. and M.G.

(4) Treatment, end-binding and dating :–(a)Treatment:- Bridge sleepers should initially receivea coating of boiling coal tar before their use.Underside of the sleepers resting on girders shouldreceive two coats. To each litre of coal tar 50 gms. ofquick lime should be added. In case, this treatmenthas not been given in a depot, the P.W.I. should paintthe sleepers with coal tar before insertion. Retarringof sleepers after insertion may be done once in fiveto seven years, as found necessary.

(b) End-Binding :– To prevent splitting at theends, the sleeeper ends, after being pressed, shouldbe bound firmly with wire or hoop iron, or clamped.End bolts may be provided only when the sleeperssupplied are severely split.

(c) Dating and Branding :– The year of layingsleepers should be cut or branded on each sleeperat the centre or at the end omitting the first two digitsof the year. All dates shall be in one direction which

Note : The details are for timbers directly resting on logitudinal girders.

(2) Size of Bridge Timber to be used for different Spans( B.G. and M.G.)

(a) A table showing the minimum thickness of timber for various girder spacings for B.G. and M.G. isgiven below (applies to sleepers of sal wood or similar timber with a permissible fibre stress of 140 kg./cm2 forsleeper width of 250 mm. in B.G. and 200 mm in M.G.) :

B.G. M.G.

Centre to Centre of Depth of sleeper Centre to Centre of Depth of sleeperGirder excluding notching girder excluding notching

Up to 1,850 150 mm. Up to 1,250 150 mm.Up to 2,000 180 mm. Up to 1,650 200 mm.Up to 2,300 240 mm. Up to 2,000 240 mm.

(b) A table showing the size of bridge timber required for the standard spans that are now being adoptedis appended below for guidance :–

B.G. M.G.

Spans in R.D.S.O. Drawing Size of sleeper R.D.S.O. Drawing Size of sleeperMeters No. b x d No. b x d

Up to 12.2 BA-11073 250 x 150mm. BA-11023 200 x 150 mm.

Up to 18.3 BA-11074 250 x 150 mm. BA-11024 200 x 200 mm.

Up to 24.4 BA- 11075 250 x 180 mm. BA-11025 200 x 200 mm.

Up to 30.5 BA -11076 250 x 240 mm. BA-11026 200 x 240 mm.

Page 107: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

94

(c) For accuracy and increased output it isdesirable to prepare a stand by bracing two piecesof R.S.Js. about 600 mm. long. The distance betweenthe centres of flanges of R.S.Js. should be the sameas that of the centres of the girders on the bridge.

(d) Annexure 2/16 describes the details ofthe method of notching to be carried out in the sleeper.The sleeper should be kept as shown in Fig. 1 andchecked for rocking. Rocking should be eliminatedby planing the seats of the sleepers.

(e) The position of sleeper seats should bemarked on both faces of the sleepers. The sleepershould now be placed with level(non-rocking) surfaceon the R.S.J stand. The required depth of sleepershould be marked along with the length of the sleeperseat, as shown in Fig. 2.

(f) A notch should be made up to the depthmarked as shown in Fig. 3.

(g) The notched surface should be tested witha template. The two notched bearing surfaces willbe in one plane when the template sits evenly anddoes not rock, as shown in Fig. 4.

(h) The holes for the hook bolts should bedrilled from the notched side to ensure full grip ofthe bolts.

(i) The new cut surface of the sleeper shouldbe coal tarred.

(7) Laying of Sleepers :– (a) Creep should beadjusted before taking up the work of re-sleepering.Rails and old sleepers should be removed under lineblock.

(b) The contact surface of steel work betweenthe sleepers and girders(top of flange under sleeperseat) should be painted after thorough scraping.

(c) Sleepers are then placed in position andwith a light mallet the sleeper is hammeredsufficiently for the rivet head to mark their positionon the notch surface, when pad plates are notprovided.

(d) The gauging or grooving is done on thesemarks to house the rivet heads.

(e) The sleepers should be prepared 3 mm.thicker than required and finally levels adjusted bystretching a string over the rail seats from one endof the girder to the other. A levelling instrument maybe used, if necessary, to fix levels. Standard mildsteel canted bearing plates with 4 rail screws should

be fixed in position after tightening the hook bolts.Care should be taken to ensure that the rails on thebridge are in alignment with the approach track.

(8) Fixing up of Hook bolts – (a) there are twotypes of hook bolts (22 mm.dia) one with straight lipsuitable for securing sleepers to plate girders andother with sloping lip for securing sleepers to R.S.Js.In both types the hook is an integral part of the bolt.

A 75x75x6 mm. mild steel square washer isused along with each hook bolt to prevent the nutfrom cutting into the sleeper.

(b) Two hook bolts are used for each sleeper.These hook bolts must be on the outside of the girderand not on the inside. The diameter of the holeaugured should not be more than the diameter ofthe hook bolt. On the top end of each hook bolt therewill be an arrow mark chiselled indicating the directionof the hook of the bolt. The arrow grooved on the topend of the bolt should be perpendicular(square) tothe rail and pointed towards it when the hook holdsthe girder flange. This enables the maintenance staffto see from above and ensure that the lips of thehooks are in proper position.

274. Use of Rail Free Fastening in GirderBridges – Rail free fastenings such as canted mildsteel bearing plates with four rail screws may be usedon wooden sleepers. No anti-creep bearing platesshould be used. If channel sleepers are used, suitablydesigned canted bearing plates with rubber pads andrail free clip and bolt type of fastening should be used.

275. Provision of Guard Rails on Bridges –(1) Location- Guard rail should be provided

on all girder bridges (including prestressed Concretegirder bridges without deck slab) whether major orminor. Guard rails should also be provided on allmajor and important ballasted bridges and also onsuch other minor bridges where derailment maycause serious damages.

On all flat top, arch and prestressed concretegirder bridges with deck slab, where guard rails arenot provided the whole width of the bridge betweenthe parapet walls shall be filled with ballast upto thetop of sleeper level.

Page 108: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

95

(2) Design of Guard rails – The typical arrangement of a guard rail, with the important dimensions forB.G., M. G.and N.G. are shown in the sketch and table as shown below –

PARTICULARS SKETCH B.G. M.G. N.G.No .REF.

CLEARANCE BETWEENGUARD RAIL AND RUNNING “a” 250+50 mm 200+25 mm 150+25 mmRAIL

LENGTH OF GUARD RAILOUTSIDE BALLAST WALL ANDMAINTAINED TO L1 1825 mm 1825 mm 1825 mmCLEARANCES MENTIONED INITEM-1

LENGTH OF GUARD RAILS TOBE BENT SO AS TO BE L2 4875 mm 3655 mm 3200 mmBROUGHT TOGETHER AT THEMIDDLE OF THE TRACK.

aGA

UG

E

GA

UG

E

L2

L1

GUARD RAIL

RUNNING RAIL

RUNNING RAIL

FACE OF THEBALLAST WALL

FACE OF THEBALLAST WALL

The top table of the guard rail should not belower than that of the running rail, by more than 25mm. In the case of bridges on curves with cantedtrack the difference should be measured withreference to a straight line connecting the runningtables of inner and outer rails.

(3) Fixing of Guard rails- The ends of guardrails should be bent vertically and buried and a blockof timber fixed at the end to prevent entanglement ofhanging loose couplings. To ensure that guard railsare effective, they should be spiked downsystematically to every sleeper with two spikestowards the centre of the track and one spike on theopposite site. Notching of the rail foot for spikes fixingthe guard rails should be done on every alternatesleeper. Sleepers should be tied at both ends by MS

Flats/tie bars fixed through holding down bolts.

The fixing of guard rail on concrete sleepersshall be done as shown in drawing No. RDSO/T-4088 to 4097 by proper tightening of rail screws.Provision of MS flats/tie bars for tying PRC sleeperstogether at ends is not required.

(4) Splaying of Guard rails- In the case ofthrough girder bridges on double lines, the guard railsshould be splayed on both ends on both lines. In thecase of bridges other than through bridges on doublelines, the splaying need be done only on the facingdirection of the particular line. However, the non-splayed end should be bent downwards after it isstopped at the end of the abutment and wooden blockprovided.

Page 109: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

96

276. Provision of walkways – Over allgirder bridges, footways (walkways) should beprovided in the centre of track over sleepers to helpthe Engineering staff for inspection.

277. Inspection and maintenance ofTrack on Approaches of Bridges :– (a) For allBridges- (1) On the bridge approaches, sleepers witharrangement for fixing guard rails should be providedfor provision of guard rails as per Para 275 above.

(2) Full complement of track fittings at bridgeapproaches up to 100 metres should be provided tomaintain required track geometry and effort shouldbe made to immediately recoup deficiency noticed,if any.

(3) Rail level of track in approaches of bridgesshould be maintained, as per provision of IRPWMunder respective Para and dips in rail levelimmediately after abutments should be avoided. Thealignment and super elevation in case of curvedtrack should also be maintained as per provisionsof IRPWM under respective Para.

(4) Rail joints should be avoided within threemetres of a bridge abutment.

(5) In case of LWR track, full ballast sectionas specified in LWR Manual should be provided upto 100 metres from the abutment.

(6) Switch expansion joints should be providedat the bridge approaches in LWR/CWR track as perprovisions of LWR manual.

(b) For important and major bridges - Inaddition to Para (a) above, following should also beprovided.

(1) In case of CST-9 or wooden sleeper track,concrete/steel trough sleepers with elastic fasteningsshould be provided up to 100m/upto full breathinglength wherever LWR is provided in approach ofbridge.

(2) On the bridge approaches, for a length ofabut 100 metres, width of cess should be 90 cmclear of full ballast section to maintain ballast profile.For maintaining ballast section, suitable ballastretaining arrangement should also be provided.

278. Inspection and Maintenance ofTrack on Bridge proper – (1) Condition of track:– It should be ascertained whether it is central onthe rail bearers and the main girders and in good lineand level.

Departure from line is caused by incorrectseating of girders, shifting of girders laterally orlengthwise, incorrect seating of sleepers on girdersor rails on sleepers, varying gauge or creep.

Departure from level is caused by errors in levelof bed blocks or careless sleepering. The adequacyof clearances of running rails over ballast walls orballast girders at the abutments and condition oftimbers and fastening on the run off and skew spansshould be inspected.

(2) Sleepers - The condition of sleepers andfastenings should be checked. The spacing ofsleepers should not exceed the limits laid down inparas 273(1) and 273(3). Squareness of sleepersshall be ensured. Sleepers requiring renewals shouldbe marked with paint, and renewals carried out. Endbolts should be provided on sleepers which havedeveloped end splits.

(3) Hook Bolts – Hook bolts should be checkedfor their firm grip. Position of arrows on top of thebolts should be at right angles to the rails pointingtowards the rail. Hook bolts should be oiledperiodically to prevent rusting.

(4) Creep and joint gaps should be checkedand rails pulled back wherever necessary. Railfastenings should be tight. Defective rails should bereplaced. Where switch expansion joints areprovided on the girder bridge, it should be ensuredthat free movement of the switch is not hindered.

(5) Guard rails – Adequacy of guard railarrangements should be checked. Correct distancebetween the running rail and guard rail should bemaintained as per the prescribed dimensions.

(6) Camber packing where provided should bein sound condition.

(7) On girder bridges adequacy of path waysfor inspection should be checked.

(8) Sand bins which are provided for puttingout fires should be filled with dry and loose sand.

Page 110: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

97

ANNEXTURE-2/16 PARA 273(6)

21

Page 111: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

98

track circuits. Hence more care has to be exercisedin maintenance of insulated joints.

(2) Laying and Maintenance :– (a) Insulatedjoints wherever provided shall be maintained assquare joints. Where staggering cannot be avoided,the distance between staggered joints should notexceed the minimum wheel base of the vehicles.

(b) Rail ends of the insulated joints shall besquare and true. All rough edges and burrs shouldbe removed from bolt holes. Battered ends must beput right and the gap between the rails should beequal to the thickness of the end post.

(c) Fish bolts at the joints must be kept tightand the sleepers well packed in the vicinity of thejoints.

(d) Rail ends shall be kept free from brake dust,dirt sand, rust, other foreign materials etc. All roughedges and burrs at the rail ends must be removed.

(e) The heads of dog spikes/screws shouldnot be allowed to touch the fish-plates.

(f) Keys of anti-creep bearing plates onadjacent sleepers to the insulated joints should notbe allowed to touch each other, as they may causeshort circuiting.

(g) Particular care should be taken to ensurethat the spikes/screws do not protrude below thesleepers.

(h) To avoid crushing of end posts of insulatedjoints, creep should be effectively arrested. At leastone rail length on either side of the insulated jointshould be provided with anti-creep devices.

(j) Rail screws should preferably be used inplace of dog spikes at insulated joints.

281. Glued insulated joints – (1) General- (a) Glued insulated joints have been developedusing resin adhesives. These joints consist of web-fitting fish-plates glued to the rails with a high polymeradhesive and bolted with high tensile steel bolts. Theinsulation is provided by special type of insulatingside channels, bushes and end posts made of fiberglass cloth rovings.

(b) In all future works of Track circuiting Gluedinsulated joints which have better insulation qualitiesshould preferably be provided in place of standardinsulated joints.

PART – ‘H’Maintenance of Track in Track Circuited

Area

279. Precautions to be taken whileworking in Track Circuited Areas –

(1) The Permanent Way Inspector shouldinstruct the staff not to place across or touching tworails in the track, any tool or metal object which maycause short circuiting.

(2) All gauges, levels, trollys and lorries usedon the track circuited length should be insulated.

(3) Steel or C.I. pipes used for carrying water/gas under the track should be run sufficiently belowthe rails to prevent any short circuiting.

(4) While carrying out track maintenance, careshould be taken to see that no damage of trackcircuit fittings like rail bonding wires, lead wires torails, boot leg, jumper wires etc., takes place.

(5) Use of steel tapes should be avoided intrack circuited section.

(6) Pulling back of rails should be done in trackcircuited areas in the presence of S&T staff, wheresignaling connections are involved.

(7) Proper drainage should be ensured so asto avoid flooding of track, during rains, particularly inyards, where watering of coaches is done and inwater columns and ash pits. It would be desirable toprovide washable concrete aprons on platform linesat originating stations, in track circuited areas.

(8) Ballast must be kept clean throughout thetrack circuited section and care should be taken tosee that the ballast is kept clear of the rails and railfastenings. The clearance from the foot of the railshould not be less than 50mm. During every packingthis point should be taken note of.

280. Insulated joints – (1) Description:– Track circuited sections are ‘insulated’ electricallyfrom the track on either side by insulated joints. Thestandard insulated joint in normal use, is made outof ordinary fish-plates duly planed on the fishingplanes for accommodating channel type insulationbetween rails and fish-plates with ferrules/ bushesover the fish bolts and end posts between the railends.

Failure of insulated joints results in failure of

Page 112: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

99

(c) The instructions for Fabrication, installationand Maintenance of Glued insulated rail joints asgiven in the `Manual for Glued Insulated Railjoints, 1998' issued by RDSO, should be strictlyfollowed.

(2) Maintenance of Glued Insulated Joints:

(a) The joint normally does not need anyspecial maintenance other than that required fornormal track.

(b) The ballast used in track in the vicinity ofglued insulated joints shall be clean to ensure efficientpacking and drainage. Care should be taken to seethat the ballast is clear of rails and rail fastenings.The clearance from underside of the rail must not beless than 50mm.

(c) As in the case of standard insulated joints,the metal burrs at the end of the rails shall be removedwell in time to avoid short circuiting, withoutdamaging end posts.

(d) In the glued joints, normally no relativemovement occurs between rails and fish-plates. Incase, failure of joints occur by separation of rail, fish-plate surfaces, with consequent relative movement,the damaged glued joint shall be replaced.

(e) It shall be ensured that live cinders whichcan cause damage to glued insulated joints areremoved from the vicinity of joints. At locations proneto such droppings, provision of protective boxes ofasbestos or other material of suitable design maybe thought of.

Page 113: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

100

PART – ‘J’Maintenance in Electrified Areas

282. General Instructions to staff – (1)General Knowledge of Engineering Staff- (a) Everyengineering official working in electrical traction areashall be in possession of a copy of rules framed forthe purpose of the operation of the Traction PowerDistribution system pertaining to EngineeringDepartment and ensure that staff working under himare also acquainted with the rules. He will ensurethat rules pertaining to carrying out engineering worksare strictly observed.

(b) All electrical equipment, every power lineor cable shall be regarded as being ‘live’ at all times.No work shall be commenced adjacent to anyelectrical equipment except on authority issued inwriting by a competent official of the ElectricalDepartment to the effect that the equipment has beenmade dead and earthed.

(2) Defects in a Overhead Equipment:–Defects or break-downs in the overhead equipmentincluding track and structure bonds noticed by theEngineering staff shall be reported immediately tothe Traction Power Controller. When defects in theoverhead equipment that are likely to cause damageto pantographs or trains, are noticed and it is notpossible to convey information to Station Mastersor signalmen to enable them to issue caution orders,the line shall be protected by the staff noticing suchdefects according to General Rule 3.62.

(3) Traction Bonds – In electrified areas thereturn current fully or partially flows through the rail.To ensure a reliable electrical circuit continuity andalso to ensure proper earthing in case of leakage ofcurrent, various types of traction bonds as describedbelow are provided at suitable places and maintainedby the Electrical Traction Department.—

(a) Longitudinal Rail Bonds – In the case ofD.C. traction system, practically the whole returncurrent flows through the rail. Therefore, two flexiblecopper bonds offering minimum resistance to theflow of current are provided at each rail joint underthe fish-plates. Two solid lugs at the two ends of thecopper bonds are inserted in holes drilled at the tworail ends between the fish bolt holes and are pressedby using a bend press to rivet them firmly to the rail.On points and crossings and at junction fish-plateswhere continuity bonds of the above type can not beprovided due to space constraint, continuity of return

current path is achieved by using mild steel strapsor G.I. wire ropes.

Absence of such bonds may cause unsafeworking condition and in extreme cases maydamage the rail ends.

(b) Cross Bonds (D.C.) :– Cross bonds areprovided between adjacent tracks at regular intervalsto reduce resistance of the current to the minimum.Such cross bonds are also known as transversebonds.

(c) Structure Bonds :– All structures supportingoverhead equipment either in A.C or D.C. trackcircuited areas are connected to the running rails forensuring good earthing. Failure of insulator or leakageof current switches off the supply from the sub-stationso that men coming in contact with supportingstructure etc. do not get electric shock. Removal ortampering of such bonds can, therefore, result inunsafe conditions. Since the structures are groutedin concrete, they are likely to become charged incase such bonds are kept disconnected. Similarlyother steel structures such as foot-over bridges,sheds, etc., in the vicinity of O.H.E. lines are alsoconnected to rails through similar structure bonds.

283. Special Instructions To StaffWorking In Traction Area -

(1) Need for Precautions – Precautions arerequired to be taken on account of following :—

(a) Proximity of a Live Conductor – The risk ofdirect contact with live O.H.E. is ever present whileworking in electrified sections such as for painting ofsteel work of through spans of bridges and platformcover.

(b) Build up of potential due to return currentin rails. - The return current in the rails may cause apotential difference –

(i) Between rail and the surrounding massof earth.

(ii) Between two ends of a fractured rail.

(iii) Between the two rails at an insulated joint.

(iv) Between earth and any other metallicmass.

(2) The following precautions should, therefore,be taken while working in traction areas :–

(a) No work shall be done within a distanceof two metres from the live parts of the O.H.E. withouta ‘permit-to-work’.

Page 114: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

101

(b) For work adjacent to overhead equipmentthe Engineering Inspector shall apply to the properauthority sufficiently in advance for sanctioning thetraffic and power block required.

The Traction Power Controller through TractionForeman will arrange to isolate and earth the sectionconcerned on the date and at the time specified inconsultation with the Traffic Controller. He shall thenissue ‘permit-to-work’ to the Engineering Inspector.

On completion of the work the ‘Permit-to-work’ should be cancelled and Traction PowerController advised, who will then arrange to removethe earth and restore power supply.

(c) "No part of the tree shall be nearer than 4mts from the nearest live conductor. Any tree orbranches likely to fall on the live conductor shouldbe cut or trimmed periodically to maintain the safetyclearances. The responsibility for wholesale cuttingof the trees, i.e. cutting of tree trunks, will rest withthe Engineering Department. In the electrifiedterritories, however, the cutting of the trees shall bedone by the Engineering Department in the presenceof authorized TRD staff to ensure safety andsatisfactory completion of the work. The day to daytrimming of the tree branches, wherever required, tomaintain the 4 m safety clearances from OHE shallbe done by the authorized TRD staff andSupervisors.

In case of dispute, the decision whether to cutor trim a tree, shall be taken through a joint inspec-tion of Engineering and Electrical officials.

The modalities to be adopted for cutting / trim-ming of the trees i.e. contractually or departmentally,may be decided by the respective departmentsbased on local conditions. Accountal and disposalof trees cut wholesale will be done by the Engg.Deptt. While the disposal of the trimmed treebranches will be the responsibility of the TRD De-partment. The expenditure for cutting / trimming oftrees to maintain safe clearance for OHE, shall bedebited to revenue grant of TRD Department."

(d) No fallen wire or wires shall be touchedunless power is switched off and the wire or wiressuitably earthed. In case the wires drop at a levelcrossing, the Gatekeeper shall immediately makearrangements to stop all road traffic.

(e) Work on Station roofs and Signal Gantries.-Staff working on station roofs and signal gantries andsimilar structures adjacent to Live Overhead

Equipment shall not use any measuring tapes, toolsand materials when there is a possibility of their beingdropped or carried by wind on to the live overheadequipment.

(f) Earth work – For excavation work adjacentto tracks, the following action is taken :–

(i) In D. C. traction areas, intimation should begiven in writing sufficiently in advance to theconcerned Traction Distribution Officer to enable himto depute the Traction staff to be present in order toprevent possible damage to the traction undergroundfeeder cables witch are always located near therunning lines.

(ii) In A. C. traction areas, intimation should begiven to the concerned officers of the ElectricalGeneral services and also S.&T. Department, sinceall the S. & T. and Electrical lines are cabled onaccount of Electrical Induction.

In all A. C. and D. C. traction areas, cablemarkers showing location of cables are provided bythe Traction Department. In addition, the cables areprotected by tiles and bricks, and during excavationif workmen come across such tiles or bricks in anarranged manner, they should at once report thematter to the higher officials. Any further excavationshould be carried out only in the presence of theauthorised staff of Electrical Traction and or S. & T.Department as the case may be.

(g) Alteration to Tracks – The relativealignments of the centreline of the track with respectto the alignment of the contact wire must bemaintained within the specified tolerances. Thisapplies to both horizontal and vertical clearances.Slewing or lifting of track must not be done outsidethe agreed maintenance limits, unless the positionof the contact wire is altered at the same time.Adjustment of cant has a magnified effect of thehorizontal displacement of the centreline of the trackwith respect to the alignment of the contact wire.

Horizontal clearances to structures within thelimits laid down in the Schedule of Dimensions mustbe maintained. For Slewing or alterations to trackinvolving adjustment of contact wire (outside theagreed maintenance limits) sufficient notice shouldbe given to the traction staff so that they arrange toadjust the overhead equipment.

Page 115: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

102

(h) Alterations to Track bonding :– All bondsremoved by the staff of the Engineering Departmentshall be replaced by the staff of the EngineeringDepartment and all such removals and replacementsshall be reported to the Assistant Electrical Engineer,Traction Distribution in-charge, concerned withoutdelay.

(j) Working of Cranes :– No crane shall beworked except on the authorised ‘permit-to-work’.In every case of working a crane, arrangementshould be made for the presence of authorisedoverhead equipment staff to ensure that all safetyprecautions are taken.

(k) Inspection of Tunnels :– For inspection ofroofs and sides of a tunnel, the overhead equipmentshall be rendered ‘dead’. Special insulated apparatusshould be used if sounding the unlined portions tolocate loose rock in the roof and sides, is required tobe carried out, when the overhead equipment is ‘live’.

(l) As far as possible closed wagons shall beused for material trains. In case open or hopperwagons are used, loading and unloading of suchwagons in electrified tracks shall be done under thesupervision of an Engineering Official not below therank of a Permanent Way Mistry, who shallpersonally ensure that no tool or any part of body ofthe workers comes within the ‘danger zone’ i.e., within2m. of O.H.E.

(m) Steel tapes or metallic tapes with wovenmetal reinforcement should not be used in electrifiedtracks. Linen tapes are safer and, therefore, shouldbe used eventhough they are not accurate.

(n) The top foundation blocks in electrifiedstructures should be kept clear of all materials.

284. Maintaining continuity of track – (1)During maintenance or renewal of track, continuityof the rails serving electrified tracks shall invariablybe maintained. For bridging gaps which may becaused during removal of fish-plates or rails,temporary metallic jumpers of approved design shallbe provided as under. The necessary jumper will beprovided by the Electrical Department on requisition.

(2) In case of rail fracture, the two ends of thefractured rail shall be first temporarily connected bya temporary metallic jumper of approved design (asshown in the sketch below). In all cases ofdiscontinuity of rails, the two parts of the rail shallnot be touched with bare hands; Gloves of approvedquality shall be used.

(3) In the case of track renewals temporaryconnection shall be made as shown in annexure2/17.

(4) In the case of defective or broken rail bond,a temporary connections shall be made as shownin sub-para [2] above.

(5) Before fish-plates are loosened or removedtemporary connection shall be made in as in sub-para [3] above.

TEMPORARY JUMPERING OF RAILSIN CASE OF RAIL FRACTURES

150 mNAKED COPPER WIRE4 mm. DIA.

Page 116: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

103

285. Catch Sidings – Normally all catchsidings except those which are sanded shall be keptalive. On sanded catch siding, the rails shall be keptclear of sand for a length of 21.5 metres, beyond thesection insulators in the overhead lines and theswitches controlling the sanded catch sidings shallbe kept in the neutral position. If an electric engine orsingle or multiple unit train runs into the sanded lengthof a catch siding, it may possibly be insulated fromearth except through the buffers or couplings ifconnected to other vehicles, therefore these sidingsshall not be made alive when an electric engine orsingle or multiple unit train or any vehicle coupledthereto are standing in the sanded tracks until all staffhave been moved away from positions where theyare likely to make contact between the permanentway formation and any part of the locomotive or singleor multiple unit train or coupled vehicles. No personshall attempt to enter, or leave or in any other waymake contact between the permanent way formationand the electric engine or single or multiple unit trainor any vehicles coupled thereto while the overheadequipment of the sanded length of siding is alive.

286. Additional precautions in A. C.Traction area – The following additional precautionsare required to be taken in A. C. traction areas:-

(1) Build-up of potential due to induction inmetallic bodies situated close to O.H.E. – It isimportant to note that dangerous voltages may beinduced in metallic masses such as fencing posts inthe vicinity of traction conductors. To avoid possibilityof shock due to such voltages, the metallic structuresare bonded together and earthed.

(2) Unloading of rails – When unloading railsalong tracks, care shall be taken to ensure that railsdo not touch each other to form a continuous metallicmass of length greater than 300 metres.

(3) Permanent way staff are advised to keepclear of the tracks and avoid contact with the railswhen an electrically hauled train is within 250 m.

287. Fire in electrified areas – ThePermanent Way Officials noticing a fire likely to resultin loss of life or cause damage to property shall takeall possible steps to prevent it from spreading and toextinguish it. In case the fire is on adjacent to anyelectrified equipment, the Permanent Way Officialshall make no attempt to extinguish the fire but shallreport the occurrence of fire to the nearest StationMaster by most expeditious means.

288. Permanent way Tools – PermanentWay tools (insulated and uninsulated) along withgloves shall be used in manner as approved by theChief Engineer of the railway.

289. Treatment of persons suffering fromElectric shock – When persons receive electricshock, practically in every case they can be revivedwith prompt application of First-Aid.

Method of Resuscitation.- The method ofresuscitation resorted to should be that known asartificial respiration.

Continuity of Treatment – The efforts to restorebreathing must be continued regularly and withperseverance, and must not be discontinued until aDoctor has taken charge of the case.

290. Accident to power lines of outsidebodies– The Engineering Inspector shall be inpossession of the name and address of the officer-in-charge of each power line across Railway land toenable an immediate report of any defect or accidentappertaining thereto being made, under advice to theAssistant Engineer/Divisional Engineer.

Page 117: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

104

T.C.

T.C.

T.C.

T.C.

T.C.

T.C.

T.C.

T.C.

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

1) REMOVING OF ONE RAIL(BOTH THE RAILS INSULATED FOR TRACK CIRCUITING)

2) REMOVING BOTH THE RAILS, SIMULTANEOUSLYOF ONE LINE

(BOTH THE RAILS INSULATED FOR TRACK CIRCUITING)

INSULATED JOINT

TRACK CIRCUITED RAIL

NON TRACK CIRCUITED RAIL

3) REMOVING OF ONE RAIL(ONE RAIL ONLY INSULATED FOR TRACK CIRCUITING)

4) REMOVING BOTH THE RAILS SIMULTANEOUSLYOF ONE LINE

(ALTERNATIVE TO NO. 2 ABOVE)

TC TEMPORARY CONNECTIONS.

NOTE:IN ADDITION, PROVISION OF INDIAN RAILWAY PERMANENT WAYMANUAL ARE TO BE STRICTLY FOLLOWED IN CONNECTION WITHTRACK CIRCUITED LINES.

FIGURE - A

ANNEXTURE-2/17 PARA 284

Page 118: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

105

PART – ‘K’

Treatment of Formation

291. Classification of FormationRequiring Treatment – Formation requiringtreatment shall be categorised as under-

(a) Very bad - Where either speed restrictionsare imposed on this account or number of normalattentions to track in a year is more than 12.

(b) Bad - Where the number of normalattentions to track is between 6 to 12 in a year.

292. Nature of Formation Problems – In suchstretches, the track levels get disturbed frequentlycausing problems in track maintenance. Theseproblems are attributable to –

(a) Excessive or uneven settlement ofbanks.

(b) Slope and the failure of soil leading toslips, heaving beyond the toe, creep orbulging of slopes.

(c) Ballast penetration and mud pumping ofpoor subgrade material.

(d) Swelling and shrinkage of expansivesoils in fills such as black cotton soil.

293. Site Investigations – The followingdata should be collected for determining the type oftreatment to the formation :–

(a) History of the affected section –

• Period when constructed;

• Method of construction;

• Date of opening to traffic;

• Subsoil bank settlements;

• Slips if any; and

• Speed restrictions on formation account.

(b) Site details –

• Bank heights;

• Depth of cutting;

• Nature of existing slopes(Turfed or not,with or without berms);

• Drainage conditions;

• Stagnation of water;

• Condition and proximity of borrow pits;• Signs of movement and bulging in the

slopes;• Ground water level and its position

during rains.

(c) Number of attentions to track – Theparticulars of the number of attentions to track shouldbe obtained from gang charts for the last five years,to get an idea about track maintainability. Man-daysutilised for maintenance per Km should also becollected vis-à-vis men required for normalmaintenance.

(d) Ballast penetration profiles – These profilesshould be obtained at regular intervals of onetelegraph post/O.H.E. mast, to indicate the extent ofballast penetration and condition of ballast (loose,caked, mixed with cinder/sand moorum etc.)

(e) Exact nature of present troubles – The exactnature of the present trouble should be identifiedwhether it is due to –

• Bulging of ballast between cribs or at thecess;

• Mud pumping;• Slope movement;• Slope failure; etc.

294. Soil investigations and testing – (1)Soil investigation – (a) Undisturbed soil samplesshould generally be collected at every telegraph post/O.H.E. mast. Undisturbed soil samples in 100mm.sampling tubes should be collected from the followingplaces as necessary :–

(i) From the formation below the depthupto which the ballast has penetrated.

(ii) From inside the bank along theprobable circle through which the sliphas occurred, where the bank hasbeen found to be structurally unstable.

(iii) From various depths below theground level at the toe of the bank,where base failures/settlements haveoccurred.

(iv) From two sections in the slippedportion and one section at the toeadjoining the site where slip has notoccurred in the past (Annexure 2/18).

(b) Two cross sections of the bank in both thesections should also be taken by means of preciselevelling.

Page 119: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

106

(c) In addition to this, disturbed soil samplesshould also be collected at regular intervals of atelegraph post/O.H.E. mast, to determine the indexproperties of the formation soil.

(2) Soil Testing – Selected undisturbed/disturbed soil samples should be tested at the soilMechanics Laboratory, to determine the followingproperties :–

(a) Index properties viz., grain size analysisand Atterrberg limits(i.e., L.L.,P.L.,S.L.).

(b) Natural moisture content and natural drydensity.

(c) Optimum moisture content and optimumdry density.

(d) Shear property.

(e) Differential free swell.

For banks which are structurally weak/unstable, the shear property of the soil sample isvery important and sufficient number of samplesmust be tested so as to get an accurate idea of theshear strength of the bank soil and soil strata belowground level.

For banks where settlement has occurred,consolidation test should also be carried out.

Page 120: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

107

SLIPPEDBANK

ADJOININGSTABLEBANK

TWO SECTIONS INSLIPPED BANK

ONE SECTION INUN SLIPPED BANK

PLAN SHOWING LOCATIONS OF SOIL SAMPLING(NOT TO SCALE)

NOTES:-

1. DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF FAILURE, BORES ARE TO BE MADE AT THE TOP OF EMBANKMENT, MID SLOPE OF EMBANKMENT AND NEAR TOE AS SHOWN ABOVE.2. SOIL SAMPLES TO BE COLLECTED UP TO THE DEPTH AS INDICATED ABOVE AT INTERVALS OF 1.5 TO 3 METRES.3. ONE SET OF BORES ARE REQUIRED FROM ADJOINING STABLE BANK FOR COMPARISON OF SOIL BEHAVIOR.

BORE HOLE

ORIGINAL BANK SLOPE 2:1

BORE HOLE

BORE HOLE

SLIPPED PORTION

G. L.

SLIPPED BANK

SOIL

FORMATION SOIL

FORMATION LEVELOF TRACK

SOIL SAMPLES TO BE COLLECTEDUPTO 3 METRES DEPTHBELOW FAILURE PLANE OR TO ADEPTH EQUAL TO THE HEIGHTOF FILL, WHICHEVER IS GREATER

FAILURE PLANE

CL

ANNEXURE 2/18 PARA 294

CROSS SECTION SHOWING SAMPLINGLOCATIONS ON SLIPS OF BANKS

ANNEXTURE-2/18 PARA 294

Page 121: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

108

HALF-YEARLY PERMANENT WAY REPORT

Report for the half-year ending31st March }.....regarding the section of track under Permanent Way Inspector30th September }

Name...........................................................Section............................

Hd.Qrs......................................................Km.....................to Km...........

Item Particulars AEN’s DEN’s Details to beNo. of item remarks remarks entered under

column Problemareas by PWI

PWI’s remarks

1. Track

2. Points andcrossings

3. Bridges &approaches

4. Levelcrossings

5. Fencing andBoundary Post

Problemareas

Assistancerequired

MajorImportantworkdone inlast6months

Rails fastenings,sleepers, ballast,formation anddrainage

Details of turnoutsrequiring frequentattention

Details of bridgeshaving problem ofcreep, condition ofsleepers andfittings

Details of levelcrossings havingroad surface andapproach roadrequiringattention, slope ofapproachroad,visibility,overdueoverhauling

ANNEXTURE-2/19 PARA 209

Page 122: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

109

6. Imprest(Store/Cash)

7. Man power

8. Infrastructure

9. Vulnerablelocations

10. EngineeringMaterial in ARTs

11. Small trackmachines

12. Functioning ofReconditioningworkshop forturnouts and SEJs

13. Periodic MedicalExamination/Refresher of safetycategory staff

14. Encroachment onRly. Land betweenstations

15. Items to whichspecial attention isdirected in theinterest of the safety of the travellingpublic

16. Material under trial

Complete or not, anydelay in supply/recoupment

Adequate or not,absence for sickness,seasonal absence, lowoutput due to overage/higher average age,man days lost due tospecial features ( suchas patrolling etc.)vacancies.

Availability of trafficblock, working ofmaterials trains/ballasttrains, machines formaintenance andrenewal works (theirworkings and shortfallsin schedule andproblems, if any)

Details of staff overduefor Periodic MedicalExamination/Refresher

Reference to be madeto previous items andwhere the supply ofstores is involved,requisition numbersshould be quoted

Progress andperformance

ANNEXTURE-2/19 PARA 209 (Contd.)

Page 123: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

THE MAINTENANCE OF PERMANENT WAY

110

295. Remedial measures suggested – Based on the site investigations and soil testing, the relevantremedial measures should be formulated.

Some of the remedial measures suggested for the formation troubles generally encountered are listedbelow :

(a) Track level variations due to —

(i) Inadequate drainage due to high cess, dirtyballast

(ii) Weakening of soil at formation top on contactwith rain water resulting in mud pumping.

(iii) Strength failure below ballast causing heavingof cess or between sleepers.

(iv) Seasonal variation in moisture in formation topin expansive soils causing alternate heaving,shrinkage of formation.

(v) Gradual subsidence of the bank core underlive loads due to inadequate initial compaction/consolidation of embankment.

(vi) Gradual consolidation of earth belowembankment.

(vii) Creep of formation soil.

(vii) Coal ash pockets due to treatment of previousslips.

(b) Instability of Bank/Cutting slopes due to –

(i) Inadequate side slopes causing bank slipsafter prolonged rains.

(ii) Consolidation/settlements of sub-soil causingbank slips.

(iii) Hydro-static pressure built up under live loadsin ballast pockets containing water causingbank slips.

(iv) Creep of soil.

(v) Swelling of over consolidated clay side slopesin cuttings causing loss of shear strength andslipping.

(vi) Erosion of banks

Suggested treatment (any one or in conjunction)

Improve side drainage by lowering the cess andscreening of ballast.

(i) Cationic bituminous emulsion below ballast.

(ii) Provision of moorum/sand blanket of 20-30cm. depth below ballast.

(iii) Laying of geotextiles.

(i) Provision of 30-60 cm. deep blanket belowballast.

(ii) Provision of Sub-ballast.

(i) Treatment with lime slurry pressure injection.

(ii) Moorum blanket 30-45 cm. with moorum lining.

(i) Cement grouting of ballast pockets if ballastpockets are permeable.

(ii) Sand or boulder drains.

(i) Lime piling in sub-soil.

(ii) Sand drains in sub-soil.

Easing of side slopes.

(i) Sand drains below deepest level of coal ash.

(ii) Cement pressure grouting.

Treatment

Flattening slopes and provision of berms,improvement in drainage.

Provision of sand drains to expedite consolidation.

(i) Draining out of ballast pockets by sand orboulder drains.

(ii) Cement sand pressure grouting of ballastpockets.

Reducing stresses by provision of side bermsor flattening the slopes.

Flattening side slopes.

Provision of turfing, mats, etc.

R.D.S.O.’s help, wherever necessary, may be taken for formulating the remedial measures.

Page 124: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

111

CHAPTER IIICHAPTER IIICHAPTER IIICHAPTER IIICHAPTER IIIPERMANENT PERMANENT PERMANENT PERMANENT PERMANENT WWWWWAAAAAY RENEWY RENEWY RENEWY RENEWY RENEWALSALSALSALSALS

301. Classification of Renewals – (1) All track renewals can be classified generally into one ofthe following categories :

(1) Complete Track Renewal (Primary) abbreviated as C.T.R.(P)(2) Complete Track Renewal (Secondary) abbreviated as C.T.R.(S)(3) Through Rail Renewal (Primary) abbreviated as T.R.R.(P)(4) Through Rail Renewal (Secondary) abbreviated as T.R.R. (S)(5) Through Sleeper Renewal (Primary) abbreviated as T.S.R. (P)(6) Through Sleeper Renewal (Secondary) abbreviated as T.S.R. (S)(7) Casual Renewals.(8) Through Turn-out renewal (TTR)(9) Through Fitting renewal (TFR)(10) Through Weld renewal (TWR)(11) Through Bridge timber renewal (TBTR)(12) Scattered renewal

(2) Primary renewals are those where onlynew materials are used and secondary renewals arethose where released serviceable materials areused.

(3) Scattered Renewal- In this case,unserviceable rails, sleepers and fastenings arereplaced by identical sections of serviceable andnearly the same vintage track components. Theseare carried out in isolated locations and not more than10 rails and/or 250 sleepers in a gang beat in a year.Such renewals are a part of normal maintenanceoperations.

(4) Casual Renewal- In this case, unserviceablerails, sleepers and fastenings are replaced byidentical sections of serviceable and nearly the samevintage or new track components. These are carriedout in isolated locations of continuous but smallstretches. Such renewals are not a part of normalmaintenance operations and cannot be coveredunder scattered renewals.

302. Factors Governing PermanentWay Renewal

(1) Criteria for Rail Renewal - The followingare to be considered in connection with the criteriaof rail renewals :-

• Incidence of rail fractures/failures.• Wear on rails.• Maintainability of track to prescribed

standards.

• Expected service life in terms of Grossmillion tonnes carried.

• Plan based renewals.

(a) Incidence of Rail Fractures/Failures - Aspate of rail fractures on a particular sections having5 withdrawls of rails per 10 km. in a year due tofracture and/or rail flaws detected ultrasonically fallingin the category of IMR & REM will have priority whiledeciding rail renewals. In case the rail failures at fish-plated/welded joints are pre-dominant, end croppingwith or without welding could be considered.

(b) Wear on Rails – (i) Limiting Loss ofSection– The limiting loss in rail section, as a criterionfor recommending rail renewals shall be as under:

Gauge Rail Section Loss insection

inpercentage

B.G. .. .. 52 kg./metre .. 6

90 R .. .. 5

M.G. .. .. 75 R .. .. 4.2

60 R .. .. 3.25

Rail wear may be determined by actualweighment, taking rail profiles at ends after unfishingjoints and taking rail profiles with special profilemeasuring gadgets.

Page 125: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

112

(ii) Wear due to corrosion – Corrosion beyond 1.5 mm in the web and foot may be taken as the criterionfor wear due to corrosion. Existence of the localised corrosion such as corrosion pits, specially on the undersideof the foot, acting as stress raisers from the origin of fatigue cracks and would necessitate renewals.

(iii) Vertical Wear – When the reduction of the depth of the rail head reaches a point beyond which thereis a risk of wheel flanges grazing the fish-plates, such rails should be renewed. The limits of vertical wear atwhich renewals are to be planned are given as below.

Vertical wear is to be measured at the centre of the rail either by measuring the height of the worn out railby callipers or by plotting the profile. In the first case, the wear is the difference between the height of the newrail and the height of the worn out rails.

(iv) Lateral Wear – Limits of lateral wear from relaying considerations are as under :

Vertical wear

eguaG liaRnoitceS

lacitreVraeW

.....G.B

.....G.M

ertem/.gK06 ....ertem/.gK25....R09

....R57....R06

.mm00.31.mm00.8.mm00.5

.mm05.4mm00.3

A typical profile showing the measure of vertical wear of the rail is given below :

Section Gauge Category of track Lateral wear

B.G. .. Group ‘A’ & ‘B’ Routes .. 8 mm.

Curves .. .. Group ‘C’ & ‘D’ Routes .. 10 mm.

M.G. .. Group ‘Q’ & ‘R’ Routes .. 9 mm.

B.G. .. Group ‘A’ & ‘B’ Routes .. 6 mm.

Straight .. .. Group ‘C’ & ‘D’ Routes .. 8 mm.

M.G. .. ‘Q’ Routes .. .. 6 mm.

‘R’ Routes .. .. 8 mm.

Page 126: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

113

A typical profile of the worn rail showing the measurement of lateral wear is shown as below.

Lateral wear is to be measured at 13 to 15 mm. below the rail top table. Worn rail profile should berecorded and superimposed over new rail profile to find out the lateral wear.

(c) Maintainability of track to prescribed standards –( i ) There may be cases, where renewals may be necessary on the following considerations viz.,

(1) Poor running quality of track in spite of extra maintenance labour engaged for maintaining the same,

(2) Disproportionate cost of maintaining the portion of track in safe condition.

(ii) The condition of rails with regard to hogging/battering,scabbing and wheel burns and other conditionssuch as excessive corrugation of rail as can be ascertained by visual inspections, which affects the runningquality of track, and make the track maintenance difficult and uneconomical, should be taken into accountwhile proposing renewals.

(iii) Renewals of rail due to hogged and battered rails ends should be considered only if other remedieshave not been found to be effective.

(d) Renewals on consideration of service life in terms of total G.M.T. of traffic carried – The rail shall beplanned for through renewal after it has carried the minimum total traffic as shown below –

(e) - The service life in terms of total GMTof traffic carried for considering through railrenewal on the bridge proper and in approaches(upto 100 m on either side) for all the importantbrides and such of the major bridges whereheight of bank is in excess of 4.0 m, all tunnelsand their approaches (upto 100 m on either side)shall be half of the GMT specified in para 302(1) (d) above.

The released P.way material shall be dealtwith in accordance with para 320 of lRPWM.

(f) Plan based Renewals – Renewals to pre-determined plan with the objective of modernisingthe track structure on selected routes in the quickestpossible time may be planned even if it involvespremature renewals.

Gauge Rail Section Total G.M.T. carried Total GMT carried forfor T.12 Med. Manganese rails 90 UTS rails

B.G. .. .. 60 Kg/ m .. 550 800

52 Kg/ m .. 350 525

90 R .. .. 250 375

M.G. .. .. 75 R .. .. 150 -

60 R .. .. 125 -

WEAR MEASURED ATA POINT 13 TO 15 mm.BELOW RAIL TABLE

NEW PROFILE

WORN PROFILE

LATERAL WEAR (L)

LATERAL WEAR

Page 127: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

114

(2) Secondary Rail Renewals – (a) In thecase of Secondary Renewals, if the condition of railis satisfactory, it is a good practice to crop the railends and weld them into SWR and use them in lesserimportant lines. The rails should be ultrasonicallytested before use.

(b) Building up of chipped rail ends by weldingwill also improve the service life.

(c) The rails released from primary relaying andnot fit for use in secondary relayings shouldbe used in sidings.

(3) Criteria for Renewal of Sleepers – Generallya sleeper is serviceable if it can hold gauge, providesatisfactory rail seat and permit rail fastenings beingmaintained in tight condition, and retain the packingunderneath the sleepers. Such sleepers that are notlikely to fulfil the above functions even afterreconditioning should be renewed. Where re-sleepering only is justified this should be carried outin continuous stretches, the released serviceablesleepers being utilised for casual renewalselsewhere. The conditions indicative for the need forrenewal of sleepers are given in para 245(2) in caseof wooden sleepers, and in paras246(1) and247(1) in the case of cast iron and steel troughsleepers respectively.

On girder bridges when several sleepers aredefective, renewals should be carried out for the fullspan, the released serviceable sleepers being usedfor casual renewals on the other spans. Before re-using the sleepers, they should be reconditioned.

303. Planning of Renewals – Renewalsmay be planned in as long and continuous lengthsas practicable, within the available resources withpriorities to meet the projected traffic. Short isolatedstretches of 10 kms. and less, not due for renewalon condition basis may be programmed along withthe adjoining lengths, if these stretches do notconfirm to the required standards. Priority in planningrenewals should be given to busy and important lines.

Track renewal programmes shall be framedby the Chief Engineer of each Railway taking intoconsideration the proposals submitted by theDivisional Engineers.

304. Track Renewal Programme –

(1) Initiation of Proposals – Track renewal

proposals are submitted to the Divisional Engineerby the Assistant Engineer on condition basis and alsoon the basis of various inspections carried out duringthe year. The Divisional Engineer shall personallycheck the details submitted by the AssistantEngineers at site and compile and initiate the trackrenewal programme indicating the priorities. Thejustification for track works shall be prepared on thebasis of factually correct data and submitted inproforma given at Annexure 3/1. It shall include anabstract estimate of the cost of work and detailednarrative justification covering technical and financialaspects. The Divisional Engineer should personallysatisfy himself about the reasonableness of theproposal and certify that the justification furnished isfactually correct. The Assistant Engineer should keepa close watch on the condition of all track on theirsub-divisions so that every length which after carefuland judicious examination requires renewal, isincluded in the proposals, bearing in mind that theprogramme is prepared a year in advance and asmuch as two years may elapse before renewals arecarried out. The proposals should reach the ChiefEngineer’s Office by end of March.

(2)Verification of proposals by the Track Cellin the Chief Engineer’s Office – Important itemsrelating to complete track renewal, through sleeperrenewal or through rail renewal shall be test checkedby the nominated administrative officer of theHeadquarters who will –

(a) Co-ordinate the proposals received fromthe divisions;

(b) Frame programmes for renewal taking intoaccount the sections planned for renewal;

(c) Decide priority for the works;

(d) Satisfy himself that the renewal isunavoidable in the case of track renewal proposalswhich are justified primarily on condition basis butare premature as far as quantum of traffic carried(G.M.T.) is concerned and;

(e) Finalise the track renewal programme andsubmit the same to the Chief Track Engineer/ChiefEngineer for his approval. On receipt of RailwayBoard’s sanction to the track renewal programme,arrangements will be made by the Headquarters forsupply of track materials to the Divisions and for co-ordinated execution and control over the works.

Page 128: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

115

305. Track Standards for Renewals –(1) Rails – The recommended section of rail

to be adopted for track renewals shall be inaccordance with para 248(2).

(2) Sleepers and Fastenings – Therecommended types of sleepers and fastenings tobe adopted for track renewals should be as givenbelow.

(i) All primary renewals in future shall be car-ried out with 60-kg PRC sleepers.

(ii) PRC or ST sleepers may be used on looplines and private sidings.

(iii) ST sleepers used on loop lines and privatesidings may be with elastic or rigid fastenings.

(iv) All renewals on Metre Gauge shall be withconcrete, steel and CST-9 sleepers (new or secondhand).

(3) Sleeper Density and Sleeper Spacing –Sleeper density for various groups on Broad Gaugeand Metre Gauge will be in accordance with para244(4).

The spacing of sleepers for Broad Gauge andMetre Gauge shall be in accordance with theprovisions in para 244(2)

As far as possible in metal sleepered road,wooden sleepers should be provided at joints.

(4) Ballast Section – The ballast section to beadopted should confirm to the standards laid downin para 263.

306. Planning for posting of staff andother facilities – (1) Special Permanent WayInspectors with clerical staff at the executive andoffice levels as provided in the estimates shall beposted in good time. Provision of gazetted staff maybe made in the estimate in the case of large scalepermanent way renewals according to the yardsticks laid down.

(2) The Permanent Way Inspector in-chargeof track renewal will take over the maintenance ofsuitable lenghts of the section to be relaid a few daysin advance of the actual commencement of the work.He will be responsible for its maintenance till thesection is handed over to the maintenancePermanent Way Inspector after completion of thework.

(3) Experienced labour shall be recruited forrelaying works which should be so programmed thatgangs move from one work to the next. Watchmanfor materials at site and at depots should be appointed.Watchman should be drawn from the permanentgangs and resultant vacancies filled by casual labour.

(4) The Special Permanent Way Inspector shallmake all arrangements for the training out ofmaterials, selection of camp sites, housing of labourwith requisite amenities such as water supply,drainage etc. A fully equipped First Aid Box shouldbe kept at the site of work. Labour camp should beso located that men are not required to walk a longdistance to reach the site of work.

307. Traffic facilities for Renewals – (1)In the case of big relaying works, additional sidingsas necessary should be provided at the depots forreceipt and dispatch of materials.

(2) Arrangements for special rakes formovement of rails and sleepers should be made bythe Divisional Engineer in consultation with theOperating Department. Where necessary, separatepower and crew should be arranged. Provision ofEngineering time allowance in the working time tableshould be arranged with the Traffic Department.

(3) Traffic blocks may be necessary dependingon the method of relaying adopted. In such casesthe Divisional Engineer must give adequate noticeto the Operating Department before framing of thetime table for the period during which the trackrenewal work will be carried out. Such information isuseful to the Operating Department in framing thetime table and making the required time available byregulating certain trains, as necessary. In case ofany difficulty, the Divisional Engineer should refer thematter to the Chief Engineer, who will arrange for therequired blocks in consultation with the ChiefOperating Superintendent. A minimum block of 2 to3 hours duration is necessary where renewal worksare carried out manually. In the case of mechanicalrelaying, a minimum block of 4 hours is desirable.

(4) When work is being carried out betweentrains in a location from where the Inspectors-in-charge cannot readily communicate with the StationMaster at either side of the block section, a fieldtelephone, on controlled sections may be installed,in order to permit of every suitable interval betweentrains being utilised.

Page 129: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

116

(5) The Divisional Engineers, in consultationwith the Operating Department Officers, shouldmanage to carry out permanent way renewals withthe minimum obstruction and detention to traffic.

Whenever possible, the followingarrangements should be made in consultation withthe Operating Department :

(a) On double line, the traffic of both lines maybe worked over the unaffected line under the “Singleline-working” regulations.

(b) If there are triple or more lines, two linesmay be worked as the up line and the down linerespectively, subject to compliance with single lineworking regulations in respect of the line over which

trains run in a direction contrary to the normal usageof that line.

(6) Arrangements should be made for –(a) Notification by the Operating Department,

authorising Engineering Department to undertake thework.

(b) Imposition of blocks and protection bytemporary Engineering fixed signals.

(c) Issue of caution orders to Drivers by StationMasters on daily advice of actual kilometragesreceived from the Inspector-in-charge of the work.

308. Speed Restrictions – The speedrestrictions to be imposed during various sequencesof work are given in Table I and II which are as shownbelow :

Table 1Broad and Metre Gauge - Manual Packing

Speed in Km. p. h.

Day Sequence of events B.G. M.G.1st Opening, relaying and initial packing 20 20

2nd 1st through packing 20 20

3rd 2nd through packing 20 20

4th to 9th Picking up of slacks as required 45 (after second 30 (after

through packing) second packing)

10th 3rd through packing 45 30

11th to 19th Picking up of slacks as required 75 (after third 60 (after third

through packing) packing)

20th 4th and final through packing 75 60

21st ..... Normal sectional Normal

speed. sectional speed.

Table IIBroad Gauge - Machine Packing

Day Sequence of events Speed in Km. p.h.

1st .. Opening, relaying and packing .. .. .. .. 20

2nd .. 1st tamping .. .. .. .. .. 20

3rd to 5th Attention to track as required .. .. .. ... 45 (after completion of1st tamping)

6th .. 2nd tamping .. .. .. .. .. 45

7th to 8th Attention to track as required .. .. .. .. 75 (after completion of2nd tamping)

9th .. 3rd tamping .....

10th .. .... Normal sectionalspeed.

Note : The work of Track renewals on double line should normally proceed in the direction opposite to Traffic.

Page 130: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

117

309 A. Project report for track renewalworks : Systematic and meticulous planning forvarious items of execution of track works is essentialfor achieving quality, economy and timely completionof works. For every sanctioned track work e.g. CTR,TSR, TRR, deep screening, bridge timber renewal,etc. a detailed project report should be prepared. Thereport should inter alia, cover the following aspects:

(i) Details of Work - Pink book detail, scope ofwork, locational details, cost and estimate particularsetc.

(ii) Existing track structure - Inventory ofexisting track structure including the rails, sleepers,fittings, ballast quantity/deficiency in track, type,width of formation and other details should be takenas prescribed in P.Way diagram, details of levelcrossings, bridges, electrical fittings, curves, heightof bank/cuttings, yards, sidings, etc.

(iii) Classification of track materials - Duringinventory of the existing track structure by foot byfoot survey, identification, classification and colourmaking of existing track materials as second handand scrap would be done as provided in Para 320of IRPWM. The classification should be approvedby the competent authority. Action plan for stacking/storage and disposal of the released materials shouldbe clearly indicated. Inventory of existing trackmaterials would normally be prepared jointly by thePWI of the section and the PWI (Spl) for the renewal.

(iv) Proposed track structure - The proposedP.Way diagram of the affected length should beprepared in the same format as done for the existingtrack structure and incorporated in the project report.

(v) Existing/proposed gradient profile - Thelevels of existing track should be taken at every 20metres and a gradient diagram prepared.Introduction of vertical curves should be criticallyexamined and the proposed profile of track shownin red line indicating the proposed grades. Loweringof track should be avoided. Precise lift of track atgirder bridges should be worked out and a separatescheme developed for lifting of girders on each ofthe affected bridges. Similarly, the magnitude of liftingat level crossing should be worked out and indicatedin the report. Care should be exercised to keep theroad surface in one level on level crossings spanningto across multiple tracks. This may require regradingof adjacent lines too.

(vi) Realignment of curves - All curves should

be measured afresh and slews worked out forrealignment wherever necessary, keeping theobligatory points in view.

(vii) Method of execution - The work shouldbe executed "bottom upwards" i.e. sequence ofexecution of works will be in the following order -

Formation Ballast Sleepers Rails

viii) Formation:

(a) Repair and widening of cess: Theproject report should indicate therequirement of and plan for wideningof formation in both banks andcuttings wherever necessary.Provision of proper drains in cuttingsshould also be planned.

(b) Formation treatment: Areas needingformation rehabilitation should beidentified and a study for possiblesolutions and method of execution ofthe rehabilitation scheme should formpart of the project report.

(ix) Ballast - The requirement indicatingbifurcation of cess supply and depot supply and thesource and means of each should be spelt out clearly.Mode of providing ballast cushion i.e. deep screeningor raising should be identified along with sketches ofcross sections present and proposed. Sleeperrenewal would normally not be started unlessadequate arrangements for supply of ballast havebeen made.

(x) Transportation of P. Way materials - Themode of transportation for various track componentsand unloading of rails and sleepers in particular, atthe work sites should be indicated in the projectreport.

(xi) Welding -The complete details of weldingrequirements, the arrangements need to be madefor its execution whether departmentally or throughcontract should be clearly indicated in the report.

(xii) Renewal of turnouts, bridge timbers, etc -The project report should cover the complete detailsof turnouts, bridge timbers, level crossings, etc.where renewal is to be carried out. Whether turnoutsare to be laid manually or by mechanized means,should be clearly brought out indicating thearrangements made. The report should also includethe mode and agency for overhauling and relayingand making up of road surface at the level crossings.

Page 131: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

118

(xiii) Use of machines - The requirement ofmachines for renewal (if machanised renewal isplanned) deep screening ( if mechanized deepscreening is planned) and tamping/stabilizing and theduration for which the machines are required shouldbe indicated. The machines that would be deployedshould be identified and staff nominated. The planningfor repair of machines at the works site, supply offuel and other consumables should be planned. Therequirement of additional lines in the existing yardsfor making base depot and arrangements made forthe same should be indicated in the report.

(xiv) Contracts - The contracts that arerequired to be entered into for various activities ofworks and the activities, which are to be donedepartmentally, should be spelt out. The planning fordeployment of staff/supervisors for execution atvarious activities should be indicated.

(xv) Material Planning - The materialrequirement should indicate the materials to bearranged by the headquarters and by the Divisions.Against each material, the proper nomenclature anddrawing number should be indicated. Rails nos. andsizes (including lead rails, check rails etc.), sleepers(including specials), rails and sleeper fastenings,switches and crossings, level crossing and bridgesleepers and fittings, etc. should be fully covered.The consignee particulars and the destination, themode of transport should also be indicated.

(xvi) Manpower Planning - The requirement ofmanpower including the officers, supervisors, artisanand other staff should be worked out with minutedetails. The arrangements made for camping of theseofficials and mobilization should be reflected in thereport.

(xvii) LWR/CWR plans - For welding of railsinto LWR/CWR, the LWR plan should be gotapproved by the competent authority in advance.Such plan should form part of the project reports.

(xviii) Requirement of speed restrictions, trafficblocks and other material train - Planning forexecution of track renewal works should be suchthat the time loss on account of speed restriction isminimal and is within the permissible limits. The reportshould indicate requirement of speed restrictions andtraffic blocks together with duration. The corridor forblocks is required to be planned in consultation withthe Operating Department and accordingly reflected

in the report after obtaining the approval of DRM.Arrangements made for various types of wagons fortransportation of ballast, sleepers, etc. together withrequirement of locomotives should be indicated inthe report in consultation with Sr. DOM and with theapproval of DRM.

(xix) Monitoring mechanism - The list of allactivities involved and the time estimation for eachactivity should be worked out. These activities shouldbe sequenced and co-related in logical manner andnetwork diagram prepared using CPM method. Thecritical activities should thus be identified. Theseshould form part of the project report.

(xx) The detailed project report covering thevarious points as mentioned above should beprepared as soon as the approval of Board to includethe works in FWP is conveyed to the Railways.These reports should be submitted to headquartersfor scrutiny and approval.

309 B. Preliminary Works – (1) Ballastrequired for making good possible deficiency incushion due to deep screening should be unloadedon both sides of the track opposite to the place whereit is actually required. It should be pulled back on thecess so as not to permit its admixture with un-screened ballast. Where complete track renewal orthrough sleeper renewal is planned, deep screeningof ballast should also be planned and executed. Theprogress of deep screening should match with theprogress of renewals and should precede completetrack renewal or through sleeper renewal by a coupleof days. In the case of LWR track, the additionalrequirement of ballast for the extra profile should alsobe ensured.

(2) Treatment of bad formation should becarried out in advance of the relaying.

(3) Centre line and level pegs made out ofscrap tie bars as also the pegs for realignment ofcurves should be fixed before hand. Wherenecessary, curves should be realigned andtransitioned. Longer transitions should be providedto cater for future increase in speed whereverpossible. In case heavy slewing is necessary forproviding longer transitions, centre line pegsindicating revised alignments should be fixed and newtrack laid accordingly. The formation should besuitably widened.

Page 132: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

119

(4) On sections where creep is noticeable,joints should be squared and gaps rectified for shortlength at the point of commencement.

(5) Where wooden sleepers are used, adzing,auguring, end binding etc. should be done sufficientlyin advance of the daily requirements. In the case ofCST. 9 sleepers and two block concrete sleepers,tie bars should be given a coat of coal tar beforelaying. The underside of bearing plates should betreated with black oil before re-use. A few extra bolts,nuts, keys, spikes, rail screws, etc. should bearranged.

(6) As a preliminary measure the PermanentWay Inspector should actually mark out the positionof the new rail joints with a tape. The lengths markedout should be the length of the new rail together withone expansion space. On a curve the rail lengthsshould be set out along each rail, starting from a pointon the straight where the sites of the two joints havebeen set out opposite one another by means ofsquare. The square should be used at each joint onthe curve to determine the amount by which the innerrails gaining over the outer rail. As soon as the leadof the inner rail is equal to half the distance betweenfish bolt holes, a length shall be sawn off the end ofthe rail equal to the full distance and a new fish bolthole drilled. The length of cut rails varies accordingto the degree of each curve, and should bedetermined before hand; a cut rail will be requiredafter every two or three or four full length railsdepending on the curvature.

(7) Sufficient track gauges, gauge-cum-levels,spanners, keying and spiking hammers, augurs,crow bars, tommy bars, claw bars, grip gauges,cotter splitters, beaters, ballast rakes, wire claws,forks, wire brushes, ballast screens, mortar pansscreening baskets, shovels, powrahs, railthermometers, expansion liners, slotted fish-plates,rail closures, combination fish-plates, wooden blocksand wedges and all tools and equipment necessaryfor efficient execution of work including that for railcutting and rail drilling and mechanical tampers whereused, should be arranged by the Permanent WayInspector, in advance. Before starting and during thecourse of work, the track gauges and the gauge-cum-levels should be checked periodically for theiraccuracy.

(8) Labour should be properly organized andsuitably distributed to ensure maximum efficiency.

(9) Before carrying out track renewal work inelectrified areas sufficient notice should be given tothe Electrical Traction Distribution Department so thatthey can arrange for adjustment of overhead wiresto conform to the new alignment and level. They willalso arrange for bonding the new track. In trackcircuited sections and in yards where change in yardlayout is contemplated notice should be given to theSignalling Department for getting assistance inexecuting joint works. Advance Notice as laid downby the respective railway should be given to theOperating Department of the actual commencementof work by the Permanent Way Inspector, for sendingadvice to all concerned. The safety of traffic is ofparamount consideration.

310. Unloading of Rails, Sleepers andFastenings – (1) It should be ensured that materialsare unloaded fairly opposite to the position where theyare to be laid. Care should be taken to avoid unloadingof materials in excess of the actual requirement, soas to avoid double handling.

(2) Utmost care should be exercised inunloading rails. Ramps made of unserviceable railsshould be used for unloading. Short welded panelsas well as rail panels for laying welded rails may beunloaded by “end-off-loading” method, whereverpossible.

(3) The unloaded panels should be carefullystacked on a level base, care being taken to preventformation of kinks. Flat footed rails, as a rule shouldrest on the foot. Any carelessness in unloading andstacking is liable to cause irreparable damage,resulting in bad running. While carrying rails theyshould be supported at several places by rail tongsor rail slings. Carrying of rails and heavy articles onthe head or shoulder should be avoided. Kinked railsmust be jim-crowed and straightened. Punch markson rails or marking by chisel should be prohibited asthese cause incipient failures.

(4) New rails should be unloaded on one sideof the track preferably on the cess leaving the otherside free for stacking released rails. Care should betaken not to unload rails and C.I. sleepers one overthe other, as this practice causes bending of railsand breakage of C.I. sleepers.

(5) New rails and sleepers for the next day’swork should be hauled from the place of unloadingto opposite to the place, where they are to be laid.

Page 133: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

120

(6) Material new or old, lying along side thetrack is always a potential source of danger andefforts should be made to keep the quantity down aslow as possible,

311. Methods of carrying out renewal –Complete track renewal is carried out by any one ofthe following methods :–

(1) With mechanical equipment.

(2) Complete dismantling of old track andrelaying with new track(manual).

(3) Piecemeal method in which resleepering andrerailing are carried out separately.

Detailed instructions shall be issued by theAssistant Engineer regarding the method of relayingwhich depends on the site conditions.

312. Relaying with mechanicalequipment– This method should be adopted whilecarrying out track renewals with concrete sleepers,as the manual handling of concrete sleepers isdifficult and may cause damage to the sleepers. Itcan be used with advantage for carrying out relayingswith other types of sleepers also.

The preliminary (preparatory) work prior torelaying at site, the actual relaying process at siteand the post relaying operations are described indetail in Paras 1405 and 1406.

313. Complete Relaying Method(Manual) –

(1) Preparatory Work before Block Period –

(a) Track should be deep screened one or twodays in advance of the relaying as described in Para238. The ballast section should be made up, uptobottom of sleeper to facilitate relaying. The balancequantity of screened ballast should be stacked onthe section for use after relaying.

(b) work is carried out under block protection

(c) A speed restriction of 20 Km. p.h. is imposedat the site of work, Temporary fixed Engineeringsignals are erected at appropriate places.

( d) Fish bolts are oiled and eased one day inadvance of the actual block day.

(e) A couple of hours before the actualoperation of the block, the outer fish bolts of eachjoint and fastenings of alternate sleepers areremoved.

(2) Work during the Block Period –

(a) Dismantling of old track – Immediately afterthe commencement of the block, the remaining fishbolts and fastenings are removed. To prevent loss,care should be taken to screw the nuts of releasedfish bolts on to those bolts immediately after theyare removed from fish-plates. The old track isdismantled and released materials are removed onone side of the line opposite to where the newmaterials have been unloaded, due care being taken,not to disturb the centre line and level pegs. Ballastin the sleeper bed is then levelled.

(b) Linking New Track – (i) New sleepers arespread out to correct spacing with the help of tapes/spacing rods on which the sleeper spacing ismarked. The new rails are then linked over thesleepers,using correct expansion liners, givingcorrect expansion gaps.

(ii) Only two bolts per joint are put and tightenedlightly. The rails are then straightened up and roughlyaligned and the sleepers adjusted to the correctspacing as per making on the new rails. They keysand spikes are then fixed to the rails. It is essentialthat the base rail is aligned first and fixed in positionbefore the other rail is linked to correct gauge.

(iii) Having reached the predetermined lengthof track in the above manner, rail closures should beinserted to connect the new track with the old track.Combination fish-plates should be used wherenecessary. The track is then lifted and packed. Thetraffic block is cleared and the traffic passed at arestricted speed of 20 Km. p. h., after ensuring thatall sleepers are supported by initial packing.

(iv) While renewals are being carried out,advantage may be taken of the block period forloading new materials as also for picking up thereleased materials.

(3) Work during Post Block Period. (a) Duringthis period new track is attended by different packingparties-at suitable intervals.

These parties generally attend to the track inall respects paying special attention to –

(i) Squaring of sleepers

(ii) Tightening of fittings,

(iii) Gauging,

Page 134: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

121

(iv) Splitting of cotters,

(v) Packing the sleepers,

(vi) Correcting cross levels,

(vii) Providing correct superelevation andproviding curve boards and pillars foreach curve,

(Viii) Aligning and surfacing,

(ix) Boxing and providing full ballast section,

(x) Making up cess to correct depth, and

(xi) Clearing of side drains.

(b) The speed restriction should be relaxedprogressively after attending to the track, as per theschedules laid down in Para 308. The track willalways require attention for some time and additionallabour should be provided to help the sectional gangs.Arrangements should be made to train out releasedmaterials.

314. Piecemeal method of Relaying(Manual) – (1) General–In this method ThroughSleeper Renewals (T.S.R.) is carried out first.Through Rail Renewal (T.R.R.) is carried out afterthe track gets consolidated by three rounds of throughpacking and also on account of passage of trains.This method can be carried out when the section ofthe new rail is the same as the existing rail or where90-R rails are renewed by 52 kg. rails in B. G.

(2) Preparatory Work before Relaying – (a) Theexact position of rail joints after allowing for oneexpansion gap each is marked accurately with steeltape on the base rail.

(b) Position of new sleepers is then markedon the base rail with white paint and transferred tothe opposite rail by means of T-square.

(c) A speed restriction of 20 Km.p.h. is imposedand temporary Engineering restriction boards arefixed at appropriate places.

(3) Work during Block Period – (a) Deepscreening is carried out under speed restriction.While carrying out the deep screening work, renewalof sleepers is also carried out simultaneously. Thework is a so programmed that at the end of a day’swork both deep screening and re-sleepering iscompleted in a continuous stretch without leavingany gap.

(b) At the end of the day’s work, the track islifted and packed to the final level and suitable rampshould be provided to meet with the levels of theexisting track.

(c) After three rounds of through packing,through rail renewal is carried out under suitable shortblock.

(d) The final round of through packing isundertaken and the speed relaxed to normal inaccordance with the time scheduled described inPara 308.

Note – If adequate blocks are available forcarrying out the work of deep screening, both thedeep screening and sleeper renewal works arecarried out in a continuous stretch. If, however, thework is carried out under speed restriction, asdescribed above, every fifth sleeper is renewedleaving at least four sleeper space between intact.

(4) Post Relaying Works – During this period,special attention is given to the following items :–

(a) Attending to the alignment, surfacing, gauging,packing cross-levels and tightening of fittings.

(b) Boxing and providing full ballast section.

(c) Making up cess to the required depth.

(d) Providing curve boards over each curve,providing correct super-elevation on curves.

(e) Cleaning of side drains,

(f) Removal of all released materials andclearing the site.

315. Essential Points to be observedduring Linking – (1) Laying of Rails –

(a) Correct expansion gap should be providedaccording to the temperature at the time of laying, inaccordance with the existing instructions ascontained in Para 508 in the case of SWR. In thecase of free rails (single rails) the recommendedinitial laying gap for 12/13 M. rail length for varioustemperature ranges is as follows :

erutarepmetliaRegnar

laitinidednemmoceR.M31/21rofpaggniyal

htgnelliar

01ot0 0 C52ot01 0 C04ot52 0 C55ot04 0 C07ot55 0 C07evobA 0 C

mm01mm8mm6mm4mm2oreZ

Page 135: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

122

The liners shall be made of steel and so shapedthat the wheels of a train can pass over them. Eachliner must have stamped on it the correspondingexpansion space in millimeters. Details of a suitablepattern is given below.

SKETCH SHOWING A LINER

The expansion liners should be kept in positionat the joints for at least six rail lengths at a time andthe rails butting against expansion pieces.

(b) Fishing surfaces of rail and fish-platesshould be greased before putting the fish-plates inposition.

(c) Bent rails shall on no account be put intothe road. These should be straightened with a jimcrow, before laying.

(d) The rails used at Level Crossings andStation Yards should be given a coat of coal tar beforelaying.

(e) Rails should be laid with a cant of 1 in 20towards the centre of the track.

(f) The shortest length of rails to be used intrack shall not be less than 5.5 M. except as atemporary measure, when cut pieces can be used,with suitable speed restrictions. Short rails shouldbe laid in yards except where required forapproaches of Bridges and Level Crossing.

(g) Rails of the same length should be used inpairs.

(2) Rail Joints – (a) Rail joints shall be laidsquare to track. Provisions of Paras 424 and 425will apply while laying track on curves.

(b) Provision of rail joints in Level Crossingsand approaches will be governed by provision inPara 921.

(c) Provision of rail joints on Bridges andapproaches will be governed by provisions in Paras272 and 277.

HOLE 10 mm.

5mm.

65 mm.

25 m

m.

(3) Spacing of Sleepers – Para 244(2) laysdown the standard spacings to be adopted in thecase of fishplated track, SWR and LWR.

(4) Gauge on Straights and Curves – Thestandards laid down for gauge as in Para 403 maybe followed while relaying is carried out.

(5) Provisions of Creep Posts – Provision inPara 242(5) may be followed.

316. Track Laying standards – (1) Utmostcare should be taken during linking to ensure goodquality of work, which on no account should beallowed to suffer.

(2) As a good practice, the laying standards oftrack geometry measured in floating condition (asshown on the next page) during primary renewalsfor Broad Gauge and Metre Gauge should beachieved (Track laid with new materials). The trackgeometry will be recorded three months after thespeed is raised to normal – (see on page 122)

317. Renewal of Points and Crossing -(1) It may become necessary to replace points andcrossings due to the following reasons :–

(a) Wear on the switches and crossings: Thelimits of wear have been specified in Para 237.

(b) Sleeper renewal when the sleepers are notable to hold the gauge and maintain cross levels.

(c) When the rail section on either side ischanged to a higher section in through running lines.

(2) Any modification in the layout of passengerlines should be carried out with the sanction of theCommissioner of Railway Safety.

(3) The following aspects should be consideredwhile relaying points and crossings in station yards:–

(a) When points and crossings are renewed,particular care should be taken to effectimprovements in the lay out.

(b) The renewal should as a rule be carriedout with standard rail sections, in accordance withthe standard drawings and not with obsolescentsections. Non-standard crossing in main line, loopsand sidings should be replaced with standardcrossings.

(c) All turn-outs negotiated by passenger trainsshould be 1 in 12 or a flatter turn out; where adequatespace is not available, 1 in 8-1/2 turn-outs with curvedswitches may be used.

Page 136: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

123

(d) 1 in 8-1/2 symmetrical split turn-outsshould generally be used for snag dead- ends;special crossings 1 in 8-1/2 for snag dead endsmay be used in Broad Gauge.

(e) Track at either end of the turn-out shouldbe adequately anchored. At least one rail length oneither side of the turn-out should have the samesection of rail as the turn-out.

(f) The following aspects should beconsidered while relaying points and crossings instation yards:–

Stock rail on turnout side of straight switchesor curved switches having switch entry angle ofmore than 0°20’00'’ (all turnouts excluding thosementioned at clause 237-1 (g-i) should be bent attheoretical toe of switch to such an extent that afterthe switch assembly is laid in track, the guagemeasured between two stock rails just ahead ofactual toe of switch is equal to nominal gauge +6mm.

(g) Centre line pegs must be fixed for the newassembly, particular care being taken to fixaccurately the inter-section point of the turn-out trackand the main line track, from which measurementsare taken to fix other points.

(h) Joints on the SRJ and lead rail should bewelded.

(i) In case of LWR/CWR territory, three normalrail lengths shall be provided between stock rail joint(SRJ) and SEJ as well as between crossing and SEJ.These normal rail lengths shall be provided with elasticrail clips/anchors to arrest creep as laid down inmanual of instructions or LWR 96.

(j) Gauge tie Plates – New gauge tie plates inreplacement of the unserviceable ones should befitted jointly by the Permanent Way Inspector and theSignal Inspector. The Permanent Way Inspector willbe responsible for the correct gauging of the switchesand the Signal Inspector for the correct fixing of theinterlocking apparatus.

(k) Stretcher Bars – Standard Stretcher barsshould be so fitted that the “throw” of the switch is asspecified in the Schedule of Dimensions and theclearance between its top edge and the bottom of thestock rail shall be atleast 1.5 mm, but nor more than3.0mm. The Permanent Way Inspector shall beresponsible for the correct fixing of the leading andthe following stretcher bars. These should be fixedwith the tongue rails opened to half the throw on boththe sides. The signal inspector shall be responsiblefor the correct fixing of the split stretcher bar blades,wherever these are required to be fixed.

(a) Gauge .. .. sleeper to sleeper variation .. + 2 mm.

(b) Expansion gap .. Over average gap worked out + 2mm.by recording 20 successive gaps

(c) Joints .. .. Low joints not permittedHigh joints not more than . . + 2mmSquareness of joints on straight + 10mm

(d) Spacing of sleepers .. . With respect to theoretical spacing + 20mm

(e) Cross level .. .. To be recorded on every 4th sleeper. + 3mm

(f) Alignment .. .. On straight on 10M. Chord.. + 2mm

On curves of Radius more than600 M. On 20 M. Chord.

Variation over theoretical versines: 5 mm

On curves of Radius less than600 M. On 20 M. Chord.

Variation over theoretical versines:-. 10 mm

(g) Longitudinal level .. Variation in longitudinal level with . 50 mmreference to approved longitudinal sections.

Page 137: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

124

(l) Switches – Before stretcher bars areconnected, each tongue rail should be examined tosee that it lies properly housed against the stock railfor the full length of the planing of the switch withoutany pressure being applied to keep it in position. If atongue rail does not fit properly against the stock rail,it should be carefully jim-crowed.

In case of interlocked points close co-ordination should be maintained by the PermanentWay Inspector with the Signal Inspector and in caseof electrified sections with the Electrical Inspectorand work should be carried out jointly.

(4) Actual procedure of carrying out renewals–(a) Before renewing points and crossings, the ballastin the layout should be deep screened. After deepscreening the ballast should be laid only upto thebottom of the sleepers and extra quantity of ballastkept ready by the side of the layout for fully ballastingthe layout, after renewal. Equipment for rail cuttingand rail drilling should be kept ready at site.

(b) Renewals can be carried out by any of thefollowing methods :

(i) Building up at the site – In this method allthe Permanent Way materials for the turn-out arebrought to the site and the turn-out assembled at sitein its correct position after dismantling the old turn-out. This method is followed in the case of laying outnew yards.

(ii) Pre-assembling and slewing in at site – Thelayout is assembled by the side of the existing layout.The ground on which the turn-out is to be assembledis leveled first. If necessary room is not available,additional space is created by doing extra earth workor by constructing a working platform with the oldrails and sleepers. The assembly is usually built ona rail grid, the top surface of which is greasedbeforehand to facilitate easy slewing. During the blockperiod the existing layout is dismantled and removedand the pre-assembled layout is slewed in its correctposition, aligned and packed.

(iii) Pre-assembling in depots – In this methodthe layout is assembled in a central depot on aspecially built platform for this purpose. Afterassembling the layout the corresponding partsshould be suitably numbered indicating the matchingrail ends of the various components when the layoutis split into components. The layout is thendismantled and the component parts kept in propersequence according to their relative position. The old

layout is dismantled and the new layout laid in itsposition. In this method the workmanship achievedis of a high standard and therefore it should bepreferred to other methods.

318. Sleepers in Yards and RunningLines –

(1) Sleeper Density –

(a) Passenger loops, other running lines andbusy lines in the yards should have a sleeper densityof M + 4.

(b) Other yard lines should have a sleeperdensity of M + 2.

(c) For symmetrical splits where speeds onthe main and loop lines will be the same, the sleeperdensity to be adopted on the loop line shall be thesame as that on the main line.

(2) Types of Sleepers –

(a) At large stations the use of steel sleepersshould be avoided in running lines as far as possibleas at these locations, sleepers are prone tocorrosion.

(b) On lines proposed to be track circuited,concrete or wooden sleepers should be used.

(c) On other lines, as far as possible, R.C. twinblock sleepers should preferably be used. CST. 9sleepers may be used as an alternative. At least inimportant stations CST. 9 sleepers may be used inpreference to wooden sleepers which are liable tobe damaged by fire droppings.

319. Rails In Station Yards – (1) Renewalsin Passenger Loops should normally be carried outwith new or second hand serviceable rails of the samesection as laid between stations, except in terminalyards where all trains stop and loops where speedis to be restricted to 50 Km.p.h. in which case secondquality rails of the same section may be used.

(2) While carrying out through rail renewalsor complete track renewal in yards, short weldedpanels of 3 rail length may be used.

(3) LWR may be provided in yards in terms ofand subject to conditions laid down in L.W.R. Manual.

Page 138: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

125

320. Classification and use of releasedmaterial- (1) (a) After a section of track has beenrenewed, the released material shall be carefullysorted out so that greatest possible use may bemade of them. They should then be classified bythe Sr.Section Engineer (P.Way). Tools and plant leftover should also be classified and action taken ontheir disposal.

(b) The rails should be graded according to theirweight and condition into groups suitable for re-usein running lines, non-running lines and for conversioninto posts or structural members for variouspurposes or for sale as scrap. Where rail-ends areworn or hogged, the feasibility of “Cropping” the endsshould be considered if the condition of the rail isotherwise satisfactory.

(c) The sleepers should be sorted into variousgrades suitable for re-use in the track or asunserviceable material not fit for use in track works.The possibility of converting unserviceable BroadGauge wooden sleepers to Metre Gauge or NarrowGauge (762 mm.) should be considered before theirclassification as scrap. The unserviceable woodensleepers may be used for temporary road-ways andother sundry purposes.

(d) Fish-plates, fish bolts, keys and dog-spikesshould be sorted into those suitable for re-use andthe rest as scrap.

(e) If the switches and crossings themselvesare too badly worn to be re-used, the small fittingssuch as stretcher bars, switch anchors, stud-boltsand blocks can generally be used. Crossings shouldbe reconditioned by welding, if the wear is not toosevere, as also the switches.

(f) The timbers should be carefully inspectedto decide the best use that can be made of them. Ifthey are not too severely worn, the holes can be filledwith a suitable compound or plugged and the timbersre-used in less important positions. It often happensthat long timber is not decayed throughout its lengthand it is frequently possible to cut short lengths. Ifcut lengths so obtained are not long enough for re-use, two such pieces may be spliced and boltedtogether to form a composite sleeper for use inimportant sidings, interlaced with through sleepers.

(2) Basis for Classification – For the purposeof classification, Permanent Way materials shouldbe divided into three classes depending upon thesection and condition as detailed below –

(a) Class I material is that which is new and ofstandard section. New items of obsolescent sectionswhich are interchangeable with standard materialsand are purchased from time to time to preventwastage of other serviceable material, should bebrought on to the stock account as Class I material.These items should be included in the price lists forthe miscellaneous and common items.

No other material of an obsolescent section isto be treated as Class I, even though it may neverhave been put in the road.

(b) Class II material includes all new materialof obsolescent sections other than those includedunder Class I and all standard and obsolete materialreleased from the road and fit for further use on track.

Class II released rails should be classified andsub-divided as under –

Class II (a) rails fit for use in running lines.

Class II (b) rails fit for use in non-running lines.

(c) Class III materials shall include all materialsthat has become unserviceable. This is either metalscrap or unserviceable timber. This class will includeall rails which are neither Class I nor Class II.

Class III sleepers, wooden or steel should befurther sub-divided as follows :–

(i) Wooden sleepers – Class III-A not fit for usein track but fit for walling of enclosures or for paving.

Class III-B not fit for use in track but fit forscantling or manufacturing keys or plugs.

Class III-C fit for fire-wood only.

(ii) Steel sleepers – Class III-A unserviceable,suitable for reconditioning or conversion to smallergauge. Class III-B unserviceable scrap.

(d)Valuation of released material – The valueof Class I, II and III materials should be fixed inconsultation with the Financial Adviser and ChiefAccounts Officer and shown in the price list for D. I.class materials.

(3) Accountal of released P.Way materials:

(1) The quantity of released materials fromevery work included for track renewal/gaugeconversion will be based on yardsticks for loss ofweight to be fixed on the basis of data collected duringfoot by foot survey. If there is more than one workon the same route, near to each other and undersimilar ground conditions, only one set of yardstickswould suffice.

Page 139: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

126

(2) List of materials likely to be released willbe prepared indicating the quantum of suchmaterials separately as second hand (SH) and scrapfollowing the instructions given in Para 320(2)above.

(3) While second hand materials will beindicated only in length/nos. in case of scrapmaterials, the accountal will be as follows:

(i) Rails - in length, then converted to weight.

(ii) Sleepers - Nos. separately as whole andin parts and then converted to weight.

(iii) Fittings & fastenings - by weight.

(4) During foot by foot survey, actualobservations will be recorded jointly by PWI and ISA/Stock Verifier giving the percentage loss of weightover the new component for each and every materiallikely to be declared as `SCRAP'. This can be doneby actual weighment of few representative samples.

(5) The yardsticks will then be approved bythe Sr.DEN/DEN personally based on the report dulytest checked by AEN or DEN. These will specifythe maximum percentage loss of weight for differentcomponents under different ground conditions as performat given in the Annexure-3/2.

(6) The conversion to weight in case of eachof the items for purpose of accountal will then bedone by the Section Engineer (P.Way) on the basisof the specified percentage loss of weight over thenew components. In case, however, some abnormalvariation of weight is observed after the materialshave been released and the percentage loss is morethan that specified for that category, specificjustification will have to be recorded for the same bythe Senior Section Engineer (P.Way) and all suchcases would have to be certified by DEN/Sr.DENafter actual sample checking at site.

(7) In case however, the actual loss afterrelease is seen to be lower than the yardstick theaccountal will be done on the basis of the actual.

(8) After actual releases of materials, theSection Engineer (P.Way) will take the releases onbooks on the basis of summary sheet as perAnnexure-3/3.

(9) The sectional AEN will carry out testchecks to the extent of 20% of each item and makeentries to this effect in the summary sheet. The

sectional DEN/Sr.DEN will also carry out randomchecks to ensure that the category and weight ofreleases are correct to the maximum possible extent.

(10) The periodical returns for track renewals/gauge conversions are to be submitted at the laiddown periodicity as per rules and the existingprocedure for checking should be streamlined toensure that the returns are looked into detail in theAEN's office in nos. as also their conversion in weight.The returns will be specifically checked with regardto the correctness of input/output materials havingbeen prepared on the basis of instructions given inpara-2 above.

(11) As an internal check by the department,one of the works accountants in the division withengineering department or with constructiondepartment should be made responsible to carry outmethodical checks of all MAS accounts of trackrenewals/gauge conversion works.

(12) In cases where the track work is to bedone by contractor, the list of released materials shallbe jointly prepared on the basis of a field survey tobe conducted by the Sr.Sec. Engineer (P.Way) andcontractors representative after the work has beenawarded but before the dismantling work is allowedto commence. The contractor shall be bound to handover the materials according to the said agreed listand should be responsible for any shortages.

321. Marking of Permanent Way Material –All Permanent Way material should be distinguishedas follows or as otherwise directed :

(1) Class I - No marks.

(2) (a) For rails-

(i) Class II (a) Second hand rail fit to be relaidin running lines-Ends to be painted with a daub ofwhite.

(ii) Class II (b) Second hand rail fit for use innon-running lines-Ends to be painted with a daub ofyellow.

(iii) Unserviceable rails not fit for use – Endsto be painted with a daub of red.

(b) For other track materials like sleepers etc.–

(i) Class II i.e., Second hand fit for use in trackworks to be painted with a daub of white.

Page 140: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

(ii) Unserviceable material not fit for use - Endsto be painted with a daub of red.

It should be ensured by the Assistant Engineerand Permanent Way Inspector that the materials ofeach class including fittings, are separately stackedfor convenience of accounting and despatch andindication plates erected there at.

322. Identification of different qualitiesof rails in the Field –

(1) First Quality Rails (T-12) – IndianRailways specification IRS – T – 12/96 givesthe detailed specification of Flat Bottom Rails 60 kg.and 52 kg. of grade 880 MPa, 1000 MPa and 1080MPa. 52 kg./m and 60 kg./m rails shall be classifiedas Class ‘A’ and Class ‘B’ rails based on tolerance inEnd Straightness. The rails shall have rolled on it,the rail section, the Grade of steel, identificationmarks of the manufacturer, month and last two digitsof the year of the manufacture, process of steelmaking and direction of rolling of rail.

(2) Second Quality Rails – These are rails withrelaxation in sectional tolerance as provided inAmendment to IRS – T – 12/96 but other wiseconforming to T – 12/96 in all other respects. Theidentification of such rails will be one hole of 6 mmdia, champhered at both ends, drilled at the centerlength of the rail and at the middle of the web. Theserails shall be used only on loop lines / sidings withspeed restriction of 50 kmph. These rails shall bepainted with orange colour on both sides of the webfor a distance of 1 metre from each end, for easyidentification.

(3) Third Quality Rails – In addition to abovetwo qualities, third quality rails supplied by SteelPlants are arising, particularly during the inspectionof rails while producing first quality rails as per IRS –T – 12 specification. There is no deviation in chemicalcomposition or echanical property in ‘Industrial Use’rails from that of IRS-T-12. The deviations exist onlyin tolerance in surface defects, dimensions andstraightness. These can be used in industrial sidingswhere speeds are limited to 30 km p. h in B. G. and25 km.p.h. in M.G.

The identification of such rails will be one holeof 12m dia., champhered at both ends, drilled at the

center length of the rail and at the middle of the web.a marking “I.U.” in 18 mm, size shall be stamped onboth end faces of rail. The third quality rail shall bepainted with white paint on end face of the flangeand on both sides of flange for a distance of 500 mm,from each end for identification.

323. Works to be attended aftercompletion of relaying – (1) Classification andloading of released materials – Materials as andwhen removed during the progress of relaying shouldbe collected and classified and despatched to thedestination. No released material should be left lyingabout at the site of the renewals. A relaying workshall not be considered complete until all releasedmaterials are removed from site and necessarycredit afforded.

(2) Temporary strengthening of gangs – Afterthe relaying is completed it would be necessary tostrengthen the regular maintenance gangstemporarily to maintain it to the required standard forthe maximum permissible speed on the section.

(3) Description Boards–Boards displayinginformation in regard to track materials laid for specialor experimental purposes should be erected at eachend of the length over which the trial is beingconducted & maintained only for so long as thematerials remain under trial.

(4) Dating of wooden sleepers – The date oflaying should be cut out or branded on each woodensleeper in accordance with Para 245(8).

(5) Revision of Permanent Way Diagrams –As soon as the re-railing /or the re-sleepering workis completed, the Permanent Way diagrams & thestation yard diagrams and the index section thatembody the detailed particulars of the track in regardto the year of laying, section of rail, type of sleepers,fish plates & fittings should be amended up-to-datein the Divisional Engineer’s office and the head-quarters advised. Copies of amended diagramsshould be issued by the Divisional Engineer to theAssistant Engineer & Permanent Works inspectorconcerned for record in their offices.

(6) Closing of the Accounts – The account forrelaying works should be closed within 3 months ofcompletion of the work & completion reportsubmitted.

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

127

Page 141: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ANNEXURE-3/1 PARA 304(1)

JUSTIFICATION FOR COMPLETE TRACK RENEWAL

DIVISION—————— SECTION——————— FROM Km. —————— TO Km.—————

1. RAILWAY —————————-

2. TOTAL SERVICE TRAFFIC CARRIED SO FAR (G. M. T.) —————————————-

3. PRESENT ANNUAL TRAFFIC DENSITY (G. M. T.) : Single line ——————————————————

4. PRESENT NATURE OF TRAFFIC:- ...(1) AVERAGE NO. OF TRAINS PER DAY——————

(2) MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPEED ————————

(3) HEAVIEST LOCOMOTIVE IN USE: Type......Axle load........

(5)PRESENT TRACK STRUCTURE: RAILS ————— SLEEPERS ————— DENSITY —————-

OBSERVATION

Sl. No Items Km. from the beginning of the Designation of theproposed renewal (excluding official recording

loops &sidings in yards) observations

0-1 1-2 3-4 5-61. Rails—

(a)Type (b)Age (c ) % wear of rails (d) Corrosion in mm. (also give

condition regarding pitting etc.) (e) Rail failures (During last 5 years) (i) Rail ends (Nos.) (ii) Manufacturing (Nos.)(f) Rail ends (i) hogged % / KM. (ii) battered % / KM(g) Scabbed rails % / KM(h) Other defects (Corrugation etc.)

2. Sleepers (a)Type (b) Age (c ) Condition (d) Unserviceable (%)

3. Ballast Cushion (cm.)4. Formation

(i) Soil (ii)Condition (iii)Treatment proposed if any

5. Casual Renewals (during last 3 yrs.) (i) Rails (nos.) (ii) Sleepers (nos.)

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

128

Page 142: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

129

ANNEXURE-3/2 PARA 320(3)(5)

LOSS OF WEIGHT OF RELEASED SCRAP (P.WAY COMPONENTS)

DESCRIPTION OF WORK:FOOT BY FOOT SURVEY CARRIED OUT BY: _________ Railway

_________Division

DATE :

S.No. Description of Material Weight of New Max. % loss of Weight of Remarksitem weight on released

release item

(1) Rails

(2) SLEEPERS :

(a) Steel

(b) CST-9

(c) Wooden

(3) FISH PLATE

(4) TIE BAR

(5) OTHER FITTINGS

(a) Bearing Plates

(b) ACP

(c) ERC

(d) Two way key, other fittings

ANNEXURE-3/3 PARA 320(3)(8)

SUMMARY OF P.WAY MATERIAL TO BE RELEASED.

NAME OF WORK___________________________________________________________

DIVISION____________________SECTION________________PWI__________________

DEN/SR.DEN______________________________________________________________

PERIOD OF EXECUTION OF WORK FROM (date)____________ to (Date)____________

Km Category Name of List of material to be released Remarks for Sign. of Test Remarksof section material abnormality PWI check

if any by AEN

Service If scrapable orscrap No/ Rate WT.

Length (WT.)

PERMANENT WAY RENEWALS

Page 143: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

130

CHAPTER IVCHAPTER IVCHAPTER IVCHAPTER IVCHAPTER IVCURVED TRACK ANDCURVED TRACK ANDCURVED TRACK ANDCURVED TRACK ANDCURVED TRACK AND

REALIGNMENT OF CURVESREALIGNMENT OF CURVESREALIGNMENT OF CURVESREALIGNMENT OF CURVESREALIGNMENT OF CURVESPART ‘A’GENERAL

401. Determination of Radius – (1) Theradius of a curve is determined by measuring theversine on a chord of known length, from theequation,

R = 125 C2 where R = Radius in metres;

VC = Chord length in

metres; and

V = Versine in millimetres.

(2) Curves can be designated by the radius inmetres or by its degree. The angle subtended at thecenter by a chord of 30.5 metres, is the degree ofthe curve.

A 10 curve is thus of

360 x 30.5 =1750

metres radius; a 20 curve has a radius of

1750 = 875 metres and so on.

Curves shall be described invariably by theradius in metres.

(3) For measuring versines of a curve, 20metres overlapping chords should normally be usedwith stations at 10 metres intervals. For checkingthe radii of turn-out and turn-in curves overlappingcurve of 6 metres should be used and the versinemeasuring stations should be located at every 1.5metres. (The turn-out curve can also be checked byoff-sets from the straight with the versine measuringstations 1.5 metres apart.)

(4) The versine is obtained by stretching afishing/nylon chord or wire taut between the end ofchord length decided upon, and the measuringdistance between the cord/wire and gauge face ofthe rail at the middle point of the chord. Care shouldbe taken that the cord or wire is applied to the side ofthe head of the rail at the gauge point.

2 π

RAIL LEVEL AND THE GAUGE

402. The Reference Rail –

The level of inner rail of any curve is taken asreference level. Superelevation is provided by raisingthe outer rail. For reverse curves, however,stipulation as laid down in Para 408(3) shall apply.

403. Gauge On Curves – The gauge oncurve shall be to the following standards : –

(1) On new lines and on lines where completerenewal or through sleeper renewal is carried out,the track should be laid to the following standards –

(2) Gauge on the wooden sleepered roadhowever, need not be disturbed, if it is likely to causespike killing of sleepers. Uniformity of the gaugeshould be stressed in all cases to get better trackriding quality.

(3) These limits are not applicable to curveslaid with different gauge widening by railways as trialmeasure in consultation with RDSO.

Note : For narrow Gauge sections for whichspecial schedules have been prescribed by theZonal Railways, provisions in those schedulesshould be observed.

2

Radius in metres Gauge

a) Broad Gague (1676 mm.)

i) Straight including curves of -5mm. to +3mm.radius upto 350m. and more

ii) For curves of radius less Upto +10mm.than 350m.

b) Metre Gague (1000mm.)

i) On straight including curves with -2mm. to +3mm.radius 290m. and more

ii) On curves with radius less Upto +10mm.than 290m.

c) Narrow Gague (762mm.)

i) Straight including curve with -3mm. to +3mm.radius upto 400m.

ii) For curves with radius less Upto +10mm.than 400m. and upto 100m.

iii) Curves with radius less Upto +15mm.than 100m.

Page 144: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

131

TRANSITIONS, SAFE SPEED ANDSUPERELEVATION ON CURVES404. Definitions – (1) Cant or superelevation

is the amount by which one rail is raised above theother rail. It is positive when the outer rail on a curvedtrack is raised above inner rail and is negative whenthe inner rail on a curved track is raised above theouter rail.

(2) Equilibrium speed is the speed at whichthe centrifugal force developed during the movementof the vehicle on a curved track is exactly balancedby the cant provided.

(3) Cant deficiency – Cant deficiency occurswhen a train travels around a curve at a speed higherthan the equilibrium speed. It is the differencebetween the theoretical cant required for such higherspeed and actual cant provided.

(4) Cant excess – Cant excess occurs whena train travels around a curve at a speed lower thanthe equilibrium speed. It is the difference betweenthe actual cant and the theoretical cant required forsuch a lower speed.

(5) Maximum permissible speed of the curve–It is the highest speed which may be permitted on acurve taking into consideration the radius of thecurvature, actual cant, cant deficiency, cant excessand the length of transition. When the maximumpermissible speed on a curve is less than themaximum sectional speed of the section of a line,permanent speed restriction becomes necessary.

(6) Cant gradient and cant deficiency gradientindicate the amount by which cant or deficiency ofcant is increased or reduced in a given length oftransition e.g., 1 in 1000 means that cant or deficiencyof cant of 1mm. is gained or lost in every 1000mm.of transition length.

(7) Rate of change of cant or rate of change ofcant deficiency is the rate at which cant or cantdeficiency is increased or reduced per second, atthe maximum permissible speed of the vehiclepassing over the transition curve, e.g., 35 mm. persecond means that a vehicle when traveling at amaximum speed permitted will experience a changein cant or deficiency of cant of 35mm. in each secondof travel over the transition.

(8) Transition curve is an easement curve, inwhich the change of radius is progressive throughoutits length and is usually provided in a shape of a

cubic parabola at each end of the circular curve. Itaffords a gradual increase of curvature from zero atthe tangent point to the specified radius of circulararc and permits a gradual increase of superelevation, so that the full superelevation is attainedsimultaneously with the curvature of the circular arc.

405. Safe Speed On Curves – (1) Fullytransitioned curves – The maximum permissiblespeed for transitioned curves should be determinedfrom the following formulae –

(a) BROAD GAUGE –

V = 0.27 √√√√√ R (Ca + Cd)

(This is on the assumption that the centre tocentre distance between railheads is 1750 mm.)

(b) METRE GAUGE –

V = 0.347 √√√√√ R (Ca + Cd)

(This is on the assumption that the centre to centredistance between railheads is 1057 mm.)

(c) NARROW GAUGE (762 mm.) –

V = 3.65√ (R-6) subject to maximum of 50 km.p. h.

V = speed in km. p. h.

R = radius in metres.

Ca = Actual cant in mm.

Cd = permissible cant deficiency in mm.

Graphs showing (i) maximum permissiblespeed for transitioned curves of different radii andequilibrium cant are appended in Annexures 4/1and 4/2 for B G and M G respectively.

(2) (a) Non transitioned curves with cant onvirtual transition –

The determination of the maximumpermissible speed on curves without transitioninvolves the concept of the virtual transition. Thechange in the motion of a vehicle from straight tocurve conditions takes place over the distancebetween the bogie centres, commencing on thestraight at half the distance before the tangent pointand terminating on the curve at the same half distancebeyond the tangent point. Normally, the length ofvirtual transition is taken as 14.6 meter on B G, 13.7meter on M G and 10.3 meter on N G The cant orsuperelevation is gained over the virtual transition.

Page 145: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

132

The cant gradient in any case should not besteeper than 1 in 360 ( 2.8 mm. per metre) on B.G.and 1 in 720 (1 .4 mm. per metre ) on M. G. andN. G.

Graph showing the safe speeds over the non-transitioned curves in case of virtual transition, bothfor B. G. and M. G. is appended as Annexure 4/3.

(b) Non-transitioned curves with no cantprovided –

In case of non-transitioned curves where nocant is provided, the safe speed over the curve canbe worked out from the graph appended asAnnexure 4/4.

(3) For curves laid with inadequate length oftransition, the safe permissible speed should beworked out on the basis of actual cant/cant deficiency,which can be provided taking into consideration thelimiting values of cant/cant deficiency gradient andthe rate of change of cant and cant deficiency.

(4) The speed as determined above shall notexceed the maximum permissible speed of thesection.

406. Superelevation, Cant deficiencyand Cant excess – (1) Superelevation/cant

(a)The equilibrium superelevation/cantnecessary for any speed is calculated from theformula

GV2

C = _________127R

Where C is cant / superelevation in mm. G isthe gauge of track + width of rail head in mm.R is the radius of the curve in metres.

(b) The equilibrium speed for determination ofcant to be provided shall be decided by the ChiefEngineer, after taking into consideration themaximum speeds which can be actually attained byfast and slow trains, the proximity of permanentspeed restriction in the route, junctions, stoppingplaces, gradients which may reduce the speeds ofgoods trains, without appreciably affecting the speedof fast trains and their relative importance. For thispurpose the entire section may be divided into acertain number of sub sections with a nominatedequilibrium speed for each sub section, fixed on thebasis of speeds which can be actually attained byfast or slow trains over the sub section, so that theneed for imposing any speed restrictions for limiting

the cant excess for slow trains and cant deficiencyfor fast trains is avoided. On sections where all trainsrun at about the same maximum permissible speedslike suburban section, it will be preferable to providecant for that speed.

(c) The amount of superelevation to be actuallyprovided will be calculated by the formula given insub-para (a) for the equilibrium speed determinedon the basis of sub-para (b) above.

(d) Maximum cant on curved track shall be asunder –

(1)(i) Broad Gauge – Group ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’routes-165 mm.

Note :– Maximum cant of 185 mm. may beassumed for the purpose of locating all permanentstructures etc., by the side of the curves on newconstructions and doubling on group ‘A’ routes havingpotential for increasing the speed in future. Thetransition length should also be provided on the basisof 185 mm. cant for the purpose of planning andlayout of the curve.

(ii) Broad gauge – Group ‘D’ and ‘E’ routes-140mm.

(iii) Metre Gauge – 90 mm. ( can be increased to100 mm. with special permission of ChiefEngineer)

(iv) Narrow Gauge (762 mm.) – 65 mm. (can beincreased to 75 mm. with special permissionof Chief Engineer)

For Narrow gauge sections for which specialschedules are prescribed by the Zonal Railwaysprovisions in these schedules should be observed.

(e) Cant for each curve should be specifiedand indicated on web of the inside face of the innerrail to the nearest 5 mm.

In every case, the superelevation to beprovided should be specified when the line isoriginally laid and thereafter altered only with the priorapproval of the Chief Engineer.

(2) Cant Deficiency – Maximum value of cantdeficiency –

(a) For speeds in excess of 100 ................. 100 mm.km.p.h. on Groups ‘A’ and ‘B’routes for nominated rollingstocks and routes withpermission of the Chief Engineer.

Page 146: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

133

(b) For Broad Gauge routes notcovered by above ...............................75 mm.

(c) Metre Gauge ......................................50 mm.

(d) Narrow Gauge (762 mm.) ..................40mm.

For Narrow Gauge sections for which specialschedules are prescribed by the Zonal Railways,provisions in those schedules should be observed.

(3) Cant Excess-Maximum values of cantexcess –

On Broad Gauge cant excess should not beallowed to exceed 75 mm. and on Metre Gauge 65mm. for all types of rolling stock. The cant excessshould be worked out taking into consideration thebooked speed of goods trains on a particular section.In the case of a section carrying predominantlygoods traffic, the cant excess should be preferablykept low to minimize wear on inner rail.

407. Length Of Transition Curve AndSetting Out Transitions –

(1) The desirable length of transition ‘L’ shallbe maximum of the following three values –

(a) L= 0.008 Ca X Vm

(b) L= 0.008 Cd X Vm

(c) L= 0.72 Ca

Where : L = the length of transition in metres.

Vm = maximum permissible speed in km.p.h.

Cd = cant deficiency in millimetres.

Ca

= actual superelevation on curve inmillimetres.

The formula (a) and (b) are based on rate ofchange of cant and of cant deficiency of 35 mm. persecond. The formula ( c ) is based on the maximumcant gradient of 1 in 720 or 1.4 mm. per metre.

(2) For the purpose of designing future layoutsof curve, future higher speeds (such as 160 km./h.for Group ‘A’ routes and 130 km./h. for Group ‘B’routes) may be taken into account for calculatingthe length of transitions.

(3) In exceptional cases where room is notavailable for providing sufficiently long transitions inaccordance with the above, the length may bereduced to a minimum of 2/3 of the desirable lengthas worked out on the basis of formula (a ) and (b)above or 0.36 Ca (in metres ) whichever is greater.This is based on the assumption that a rate of changeof cant/cant deficiency will not exceed 55 mm. per

second and the maximum cant gradient will belimited to 2.8 mm. per metre or 1 in 360. Thisrelaxation shall apply to Broad Gauge only. ForNarrow Gauge and Metre Gauge sections, cantgradient should not be steeper than 1 in 720. ForMetre Gauge the rate of change of cant/cantdeficiency should not exceed 35 mm./ second.

(4) At locations where length of transition curveis restricted, and therefore, may be inadequate topermit the same maximum speed as calculated forthe circular curve, it will be necessary to select alower cant and/or a lower cant deficiency which willreduce the maximum speed on the circular curvebut will increase the maximum speed on the transitioncurve. In such cases, the cant should be so selectedas to permit the highest speed on the curve as awhole.

An example is illustrated withcalculations below –

A curve of 600 metres radius has a limitedtransition of 40 metres length. Calculation ofmaximum permissible speed and superelevation isas follows :–

Speed on transition = Speed on circular curve curve.

Rate of change of cant X L X 3.6 =0.27√√√√√ R (Ca + Cd)Ca

Best values of speed are obtained when Ca = Cd.

(3.6 is a factor used for converting ‘M’ /Sec. to km./hr.)

Adopting the same units and the maximumvalue of rate of change of cant of 55 mm. per secondfor Broad Gauge –

55 x 40 x 3.6 = 0.27√√√√√ (600 x 2Ca) Ca

Solving Ca = 89.50 or 90 mm.

Limiting the value of Cd to 75 mm.

Maximum speed ....= 0.27√ R (Ca + Cd)

= 0.27 √√√√√ 600 (90 + 75)

= 84.95 say 85 km.p.h.90 1

Cant gradient = _________ = ______40000 444

which is within the permissible limits.

The rate of change of cant at 85 km.p.h. worksout to 53.12 mm. / second which is also within thepermissible limits.

Page 147: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

134

(5) Laying transition – (a) A transition curve islaid out as a cubic parabola and to accommodatethis, the main circular arc is moved inwards by anamount called the “Shift”.

“Shift” is calculated from the formula :

L2

S = 4.2 ______R

Where S = shift in centimetres.

L & R being in metres.

(b) The off-set in centimetres from the straightto any point on the transition curve is calculated fromthe formula –

X3

Y = 16.7_____ LR

Where Y = off-set from the straight in centimetres.

X = distance from the commencement of thecurve in metres, and L & R length oftransition and radius of curverespectively in metres.

( c) The arrangement of a transition curve isshown in the figure below –

The original circular curve TC is tangential tothe straight at T. The curve is shifted to ZY and TZ isthe amount of shift. The transition curve MNP bisectsthe shift TZ at N. A typical example of working outmaximum permissible speed on a curve, calculatingthe length of transition and detailed calculation oflaying the transition are given in sub-para(6).

(6) Example – A 600 metres radius curve isintroduced between straight portions of a BroadGauge Railway line intersecting to form a totaldeviation of 70 degrees. The speed for determiningthe equilibrium cant is fixed at 80 km.p.h. and themaximum sectional speed is 110 km.p.h. Calculatethe equilibrium cant, the maximum permissiblespeed, length of transition and the off-set for settingout the transition curve. The maximum permissiblecant and cant deficiency are 165 mm. and 100 mm.respectively.

Solution –GV2 1750 X 802

Equilibrium cant = _____ = _________ .= 146.98 mm.127 R 127 X 600

Cant for maximum = 1750 X 1102 = 277.88 mm.sectional speed

127 X 600

Cant deficiencyfor maximum = 277.88 — 146.98 = 130.90 mm.sectional speed

which is more than the permitted cantdeficiency of 100 mm. With 100 mm. C

d, actual cant

= 277.88 - 100 = 177.88 mm. But actual cant is to belimited to 165 mm.

Cant excess : Cant for a speed of 50 km.p.h. whichis the booked speed of a goods train (assumed).

1750 X 502

= ___________ = 57.41 mm127 X 600

∴ Cant excess = 165 — 57.41 = 107.59 mm. whichis in excess of 75 mm. permitted value.

Provide actual cant = 57.41+ 75 =132.41, say 130mm.

_________Maximum permissible speed Vm = 0.27 √R(Ca+Cd)

______________= 0.27 √ 600(130+100)

= 100.3 or 100 kmph

Length of transition -(a) L = 0.008 X Ca X Vm = 0.008 X 130 X 100 = 104 M.

(b) L = 0.008 X Cd X V

m = 0.008 X 100 X 100 = 80 M

(c) L = 0.72 Ca = 0.72 X 130 = 93.6 M.

The maximum value obtained is 104 M.

Provide 100 M. length of transition. Cantgradient will be 130 mm. in 100 M. which is equal to1 in 769. At 100 km.p.h. maximum speed, the rate ofchange of cant works out to be 36 mm. per second.

L2

Shift = 4.2 X ______ (see figure on the nextpage)

R

1002

= 4.2 X _________ = 70 cm.600

CF = 600 + 0.7 = 600.70 M.

FA = 600.7 tan 350 = 420.61 M.

M

R

T O

PY CV

N

Z

Page 148: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

135

L 100OF = ______ = ________ = 50 M.

2 2

OA = 420.61 + 50 = 470.61 M.

The point ‘0’ can be fixed by measuring thisdistance back from the apex.

The deviation angle for each transition isL 100

tan-1 _____ = tan-1 _____ = 4.760

2R 1200

The deviation angle for = 700 – (2 X 4.76) = 60.480

the circular curve

600 X 60.48 X πLength of circular = ______________ = 633.34 M.arc 180

Off-sets are required at every 20 m. intervalon the transition.

16.7 x X3

Y = _______________LR

Y = 0

16.7 X 203

Y1 = ________________ = 2.22 cms.100 X 600

16.7 X 403

Y2 = ________________ = 17.8 cms.100 X 600

16.7 X 603

Y3 = ________________ = 60.1 cms.100 X 600

16.7 X 803

Y4 = ________________ = 142.5 cms.100 X 600

16.7 X 1003

Y5 = ________________ = 278.3 cms.100 X 600

(7) When realigning old curves, transitioncurves on approaches should invariably be provided.It should should be ensured that there is no changeof grade over the transition.

(8) Compound curves – In case of a compoundcurve which is formed by two circular curves ofdifferent radii but curving in the same direction,common transition curve may be provided betweenthe circular curves. Assuming that such compoundcurve is to be traversed at uniform speed, the lengthof the transition connecting the two circular curvescan be obtained from –

(i) L = 0.008 (Ca1-Ca2) x Vm

(ii) L = 0.008 (Cd1

-Cd2

) x Vm whichever is

greater, where Ca1

and Cd1

are cant and cantdeficiency for curve No.1 in mm. ,C

a2 and C

d2 are

cant and cant deficiency for curve No.2 in mm., L islength of transition in metres., V

m is the maximum

permissible speed in km.p.h.

Cant gradient should be within the permissiblelimits as stated in Para 407(1).

Common transition may be provided when thelength of common transition as worked out above ismore than the length of virtual transition as specifiedin Para 406 (1) (b).

(9) Reverse Curves – (a) In case of a reversecurve which is formed by two circular curves whichcurve in opposite directions, common transitioncurve may be provided between circular curves. Thetotal length of common transition, i.e., from circularcurve to circular curve, may be obtained from –

(i) L=0.008 (Ca1

+ Ca2

) X Vm

or

(ii) L = 0.008 (Cd1 + Cd2 ) X Vm whichever isgreater, where Ca1 and Cd1 are cant and cant -deficiency of curve No. 1 in mm., Ca2 and Cd2 arecant and cant deficiency of curve No. 2 in mm..

L = is the transition in metres.

Vm = maximum permissible speed in km.p.h.

Cant gradient should be within the permissiblelimits as stated in Parsa 407 (1).

C O1

700

P1

PBD

F TO N A

Page 149: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

136

(b) For high speeds, in group ‘A’ and ‘B’ routes,a straight with a minimum length of 50 M. shall bekept between two transitions of reverse curves. Inthe case of M. G. high speed routes the distance tobe kept will be 30 metres. On groups ‘A’ and ‘B’ routeson B. G., straights less than 50 metres betweenreverse curves and on M. G. high speed routes,straights less than 30 metres should be eliminatedby suitably extending the transition lengths. In doingso, it should be ensured that the rate of change ofcant and versine along the two transitions soextended is kept the same. Whenever such straightsbetween reverse curves can neither be eliminatednor the straight length increased to over 50 metresin B. G. and 30 metres in M. G. speed in excess of130 km.p.h. in B. G. and 100 km.p.h. in M.G.shouldnot be permitted.

408. Running out Superelevation – (1) Ontransitioned curves, cant should be run up or run outon the transition, not on the straight or on the circularcurve, increasing or decreasing uniformly throughoutits length.

(2) On non-transitioned curves, cant shouldbe run up or run out on the ‘virtual transition’.

(3) Longitudinal profile of transition on thereverse curve may be in one of the following twoalternatives :

In case no. 1, the level of one of the rails ismaintained and the super elevation is run out onthe other rail by lowering it over half the transitionlength and raising it to the required amount of cantover the remaining half portion of the transition.

In case no. 2, the level of the centre line of thetrack is maintained the same throughout, and thecant is provided by raising one rail by half the amountof cant and lowering the other rail by the equalamount. Cant is run out or gained over the length ofthe transition by raising and lowering both the railsby equal amount symmetrically, with respect to thelevel of the centre line track.

In case of no.1, the level of the centre of thetrack gets disturbed whereas in case of No. 2, it ismaintained the same throughout.

(4) Special cases of superelevation run outmay be approved by the Chief Engineer.

409. Indicators/Boards provided incurves– (1) Curve Board – Each approach of acurve should be provided with a curve board at thetangent point fixed on the outside of the curve. ThisBoard should indicate the radius of the curve, thelength of the curve, length of transition in metres andthe maximum cant provided on the circular portionof curve in millimetres.

(2) Rail Posts Indicating Tangent Points – Onthe inside of the curve, rail posts should be erectedon each approach of the curve, to indicate thepositions of the begining and end of transition curves.These rail posts may be painted in red and whitecolours respectively. In the case of non transitioned

curve, similar rail post should be erected on thetangent track and on the circular curve over whichthe cant is run out, indicating the begining and end ofthe virtual transition.

CASE : I

CASE : II

VERSINE OR CANT DIAGRAM

RAIL 1

RAIL 2

CENTRE LINE OFTHE TRACK

LONGITUDINAL

PROFILE

Page 150: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

137

(3) Indication of cant on track – Superelevationor cant should be indicated by painting its value onthe inside face of the web of the inner rail of the curveand at every versine station, begining with zero atthe commencement of the transition curve. The valueof cant should be indicated on the circular curve atits begining and at the end. In the case of long circularcurve the cant value should be indicated atintermediate stations at a distant not exceeding 250metres.

(4) Cant boards – Cant boards supplied to thegangs should be graduated in steps of 5 mm. Themaximum height of these should be 165 mm. forB. G., 100 mm. for M. G. and 75 mm. for N. G.(762mm.)

(5) When curves are realigned, therepositioning of the curve boards and posts andrepainting of values of superelevation at intermediatepoints should be done, as required.

410. Speed over Turn-out Curves – (1)Provision in general rules-Relevant Para 4.10of General Rules,1976 Edition is reproducedbelow-

(i) The speed of trains over non-interlockedfacing points shall not exceeed 15 kilometres perhour in any circumstances and the speed over turn-out and cross overs shall not exceed 15 kilometresper hour, unless otherwise prescribed by approvedspecial instruction, which may permit a higher speed.

(ii) Subject to provision of sub-rules (i) a trainmay run over interlocked facing points at such speedas may be permitted by the standard of interlocking.

(2) Turn-outs on running lines with passengertraffic – Turn-outs in running lines over whichpassenger trains are received or despatched shouldbe laid with crossing, not sharper than 1 in 12 forstraight switch. However, 1 in 8-1/2 turn-out withcurved switches may be laid in exceptionalcircumstances, where due to limitation of room, it isnot possible to provide 1 in 12 turn-outs. Sharpercrossings may also be used when the turn-out istaken off from outside of a curve, keeping the radiusof lead curve within the following limits :–

Gauge Minimum radius oflead curve

Broad Gauge 350 M.

Metre Gauge 220 M.

Narrow Gauge(762 mm.) 165 M.

Where it is not practicable to achieve theradius of curvature of turn in curves as specifiedabove on account of existing track centres for theturn-out taking off from curves, the turn in curves maybe allowed upto a minimum radius of 220m for B.G.and 120m for M.G.subject to the following :–

(a) Such turn in curves should be provided eitheron PSC or steel trough sleepers only, with sleeperspacing same as for the main line.

(b) Full ballast profile should be provided asfor track for main line

Emergency cross overs between double ormultiple lines which are laid only in the trailing directionmay be laid with 1 in 8-1/2 crossings.

In the case of 1 in 8-1/2 turn-outs with straightswitches laid on passenger running lines, the speedshall be restricted to 10 km.p.h. However, on 1 in8-1/2 turn-outs on non passenger running lines,speed of 15 km.p.h. may be permitted.

(3) Speed over interlocked turnouts - Speed inexcess of 15 kmph may be permitted for straights ofinterlocked turnouts only under approved special in-structions in terms of GR 4.10.

In the case of 1 in 8.5, 1 in 12 and flatter turn-outs provided with curved switches, higher speedsas permitted under approved special instructionsmay be allowed on the turnout side, provided the turn-in curve is of a standard suitable for such higherspeeds. While permitting speed beyond 15 kmph,provisions of Para 410 (4) may be kept in view.

The permissible speed on turnouts taking offon the inside of the curve should be determined bytaking into consideration the resultant radius of leadcurve which will be sharper than the lead curve forturnouts taking off from the straight. 1 in 8.5 turnoutsshould not be laid on inside of curves.

(4) Upgradation of speeds on Turnouts andLoops to 30 kmph - (a) Length of Section -Upgradation of speeds on turnout should cover anumber of contiguous stations at a time so as toderive a perceptible advantage of the higher speedin train operation. The works described below, shouldcover all the running loops on the stretch of line takenup.

(i) Turnouts - Speed, in excess of 15 kmph,should be permitted on turnouts laid with ST or PRCsleepers only. All turnouts on the running loops shallbe laid with curved switches, with minimum rail sec-tion being 52 Kg. All rail joints on these turnoutsshould also be welded to the extent possible.

Page 151: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

138

For different type of curved switches permissiblespeed are as under:-

S. Type of PermissibleNo. Turnout (BG) speed

1. 1 In 8.5 curved switch 15 kmph

2. 1 in 8.5 symmetrical 30 kmphsplit with curved switches

3. 1 in 12 curved switch 30 kmph

(ii) Track on running loops - Speed in excessof 15 kmph, should not be permitted on running loopslaid with wooden sleepers. The minimum track struc-ture on the running loops should be 90R rails laid asShort Welded Panels, M+4 density on PRC, ST, CST-9 sleepers and 150 mm ballast cushion. Out of 150mm total cushion, clean cushion of 75 mm at leastshould be available. Proper drainage of the areashould also be ensured.

(iii) Turn-in curves - Speed in excess of 15kmph, should not be permitted on Turn-in curves laidwith wooden sleepers. Turn-in curves should be laidwith the same rail section as on the turn-out withPRC, ST or CST-9 sleepers with sleeper spacingbeing 65 cm centre to center (maximum).

Turn-in curve should conform to Para 410 (2)of IRPWM and especially so in respect of curvatureof the lead curve.

Extra shoulder ballast of 150 mm should beprovided on outside of the turn-in curve.

The frequency of inspection of turn-in curvesshould be same as that for main line turn-outs.

(b) The following should be ensured, if CST-9sleepers are used in running loops or turn-in curves :-

(i) There is no crack or fracture at rail seat intwo consecutive sleepers.

(ii) There is no excessive wear of lug and railseat.

(iii) All the fittings, keys, cotters and tie barsare fitted properly. Rail is held firmly with sleepers.

(iv) Tie bars should not be broken or damagedby falling brake gear, wagon parts etc. and they shouldnot have excessive corrosion or elongated holes. Thecorrosion of tie-bars inside the CST-9 plate shouldbe especially checked as this results in their removaland adjustment becoming difficult.

(c) The following should be ensured, if STsleepers are used in Turnouts, Turn-in curves or run-ning loops:-

(i) There is no crack or fracture at rail seat in

two consecutive sleepers.(ii) There is no excessive wear of lug, MLJ and

rail seat.(iii) All the fittings are effective and rail is held

with sleepers properly.(iv) The sleepers and fittings do not have ex-

cessive corrosion, elongated holes etc.

411. Permissible Speed over curved Mainline at Turn-outs – Subject to the permissible runthrough speed governed by the interlocking standard,speed over the main line will be determined takinginto consideration the maximum cant which can beprovided on the main line and the permissible amountof cant deficiency. In the case of turn-out of similarflexure, the maximum cant that can be provided, onthe main line will be the sum of equlibrium cant forthe turn-out and permissible cant excess. In the caseof turn-outs of contrary flexure, the maximum canton the main line (negative superelevation on turn-out) will be the difference between the maximumpermissible cant deficiency and cant determined forturn-out from the formula given in Schedule ofDimensions as indicated in para 413. Thepermissible speed on the main line will be workedout by the formula as given in para 405(1)

412. No change of superelevation overturn-outs– There should be no change of cantbetween points 20 metres on B. G.,15 metres on M.G., and 12 metres on N. G. outside the toe of theswitch and the nose of the crossing respectively,except in cases where points and crossings have tobe taken off from the transitioned portion of a curve.Normally, turn-outs should not be taken off thetransitioned portion of a main line curve. However, inexceptional cases, when such a course isunavoidable a specific relaxation may be given bythe Chief Engineer of the Railway. In such caseschange of cant and/or curvature may be permittedat the rates specified in para 407 or such lesser ratesas may be prescribed.

413. Curves of contrary flexure – On themain line curve from which a curve of contrary flexuretakes off, the cant of the main line (which is thenegative superelevation on the turn-out) should becalculated from the formula given in the Schedule ofDimension and the permissible speed on the mainline determined from the allowable cant deficiencyand cant on the main line. The speed so determinedshall be subject to limitations governed by thestandard of interlocking and the sectional speed.

Page 152: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

139

414. Curves of similar flexure – (1) Notfollowed by reverse curves-On a main line curve fromwhich a curve of similar flexure takes off, not followedimmediately by a reverse curve, the turn-out curveshall have the same cant as the main line curve.

(2) Followed by reverse curves – A change ofcant on the turn-out may be permitted starting behindthe crossing and being run out at a rate not steeperthan 2.8 mm. per metre and subject to the maximumcant on the main line turn-out being limited to 65 mm.on Broad Gauge, 35 mm. on Metre Gauge and 25mm. on Narrow Gauge (762 mm.)

The permissible speed on the main line is thendetermined from the allowable cant-deficiency andsubject to limitations governed by the standard ofinterlocking and the safe speed limit.

415. Curves with cross overs – On curveson double line connected by cross over road, thespeed and the cant for both roads are governed bythe inner road to which the cross over road is a curveof contrary flexure. On the outer road, it is a curve ofsimilar flexure. The permissible speed and thenecessary cant on the inner road shall be calculatedin accordance with para 413. The same speed andthe same cant shall be allowed on the outer road.

The outer track shall be raised so that bothroads lie in the same inclined plane in order to avoidchange in cross-level on the cross over road. Wherethis is not possible, both main line and the turn-outshould be laid without cant and suitable speedrestriction imposed.

416. Curves with diamond crossing –Normally straight diamond crossings should not beprovided in curves as these produce kinks in the curveand uniform curvature cannot be obtained. However,where provision of such diamonds cannot be avoidedor in case where such diamonds already exists inthe track, the approach curves of these diamondsshould be laid without cant for a distance of at least20 metres on either side of the diamond crossings.Cant should be uniformly runout at the rate specifiedin para 407 beyond 20 metres. The speed restrictionson the approach curve shall be decided in each case

70R 52.5

R

35R

by the Chief Engineer taking into consideration thecurvature, cant deficiency and lack of transition butshall in no case be more than 65 km.p.h. in the caseof Broad Gauge, 50 km.p.h. in the case of MetreGauge and 40 km.p.h. in the case of Narrow Gauge(762 mm.) No speed restriction shall, however beimposed on the straight track on which the diamondis located. In the case of diamond crossings on astraight track located in the approach of a curve, astraight length of minimum 50 M. between the curveand the heel of acute crossing of diamond isnecessary for permitting unrestricted speed over thediamond, subject to maximum permissible speedover the curve from consi-derations of cant deficiency,transition length etc.

417. Extra clearance on curves – On curves,additional lateral clearances, in excess of the fixeddimensions should be provided as laid down in theSchedule of Dimensions –

(a) between adjacent tracks and(b) between curved track and fixed structure.

418. Compensation for curvature ongradient– Compensation for curvature should begiven in all cases where the existing gradient whenadded to the curve compensation exceeds the rulinggradient. The compensation to be allowed shouldordinarily be percent.(0.04 percent per degreeof curvature) for Broad Gauge, per cent (0.03percent per degree of curvature) for Metre Gaugeand per cent (0.02 per cent per degree ofcurvature) for Narrow Gauge(762 mm.) where R isthe radius of curvature in metres.

Thus for a ruling gradient of 0.5 per cent or 1in 200, the gradient for 583 metre radius of curvatureon Broad Gauge should be flattened to –

700.5 – _____ or 0.5 X 0.04 = 0.38 per cent or 1 in 264.

583

419. Vertical curve :– A vertical curve shall beprovided only at the junction of the grade when thealgebraic difference between the grades is equal toor more than 4 mm. per metre or 0.4 per cent.

The minimum radius of the vertical curve shall be kept as under –

Broad Gauge Metre Gauge

Group Minimum Radius Group Minimum Radius

A 4000 metres

B 3000 metres All Routes 2500 metres

C ,D & E 2500 metres

Page 153: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

140

PART ‘ B’

Realignment of Curve

420. Running on curves – (1) For smooth and satisfactory running on curves –

(a) there should be no abrupt alteration of curvature and/or superelevation (cant), and

(b) the superelevation should be appropriate to the curvature, at each point.

(2) On Group ‘A’ and ‘B’ routes, gauge, versines and superelevation on each curve must be checkedonce in every four months and on other routes every six months. such checks should also be carried outwhenever the running over curves is found to be unsatisfactory. The versines, superelevation and gaugeshould be recorded by the Permanent Way Inspector in the curve register as per the pro forma given asAnnexure 4/5. Curve registers of groups ‘A’ and ‘B’ routes should also be provided with cumulative frequencydiagrams for each curve to get a graphic idea about the condition of geometry of curve. The A.E.N shall checkat least one curve of each Permanent way Inspector every quarter by taking its versine and superelevation aswell as gauge from end to end. The decision to realign should be taken by the Permanent Way Inspector-in-charge or Assistant Engineer. The realignment of curve should be carried out in dry season and not duringrainy season except when this is unavoidable.

421 - Criteria for realignment of a curve:(1) When as a result of inspection by trolley or from the foot plate of locomotive or by carriage or as a

result of Track Recording carried out, the running on a curve is found to be unsatisfactory the curve shouldbe realigned.

(2) The running over a curve depends not only on the difference between the actual versine and thedesigned versine but also on the station-to-station variation of the actual versine values. This is because it isthe station to station variation of versine which determines the rate of change of lateral acceleration, on whichdepends the riding comfort.

Service limit for station to station versine variation for 3 speed group viz. 120 Km/h and above,below 120 Km/h and upto 80 Km/h and below 80 Km/h and upto 50 Km/h, should be considered astabulated below:

Speed Range Limits of station to station Variation (mm)

120 Kmph and above 10 mm or 25% of the average versine oncircular curve whichever is more

Below 120 Kmph and upto 80 Kmph 15 mm or 25% of the average versine oncircular curve whichever is more

Below 80 Kmph and upto 50 Kmph 40 mm or 25% of the average versine oncircular curve whichever is more

In case exceedence of the above limit is observed during an inspection, local adjustments may beresorted to in cases where the variation of versines between adjacent stations is only at few isolated locations,at the earliest possible. If more than 20% of the stations are having versine variation above the limitsprescribed, complete realignment of the curve should be planned within a month.

Page 154: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

141

422. Stringlining operations :– (1) The workof realigning and transitioning curves consist of thefollowing three main operations :–

(a) Survey of the existing curve bymeasurement of versines.

(b) Determination of the revised alignment andcomputation of slews, including provision of correctsuperelevation.

(c) Slewing of the curve to the revisedalignment.

(2) Chord Length – Chord length of 20 metresshould be used for recording versine. The stationsshould be at 10 metres intervals and versines shouldbe recorded at these stations with overlapping chordof 20 metres.

(3) Versine survey of curve – OperationNo. 1 :– Versine readings shall be taken along thegauge face of the outer rail.

To ensure inclusion of the point ofcommencement of the curve, a mark is made onthe gauge face of the outer rail at a distance of aboutthree half-chord lengths behind the apparent tangent

point and numbered zero. From this point, half-chorddistances are measured with steel tape along thegauge face of the outer rail over the whole length ofthe curve and numbered serially 1, 2, 3, 4 and so onand carried upto about three half-chord lengthsbeyond the apparent tangent point at the other end.These “stations” should be marked and numberedin white paint on the rail. With a fishing cord or wirestretched out over the full length of the chord,versines are measured to 1 mm. accuracy seriallyat each station from one end of the curve to the otherwith the rule held normal to the line and recorded.

Features which restrict slewing of the trackeither inwards or outwards should be recorded,mentioning the maximum extent inwards andoutwards to which slewing is possible (i) in existingcircumstances and (ii) if a moderate expenditure beincurred in removing the “restriction”. The existingsuperelevation should also be measured andrecorded against each “Station”.

For purposes of check, this process shouldbe repeated in the reverse direction with the personsrecording and measuring versines interchanging theirduties.

The record obtained would be in the following form

Curve from km.........................................................................................to km.............…….....

Between station...............................................…….....................…and station.........................

Date of survey...............................................................……......................................................

Jurisdiction of Assistant Engineer/Permanent Way Inspector……..............................................

Station at Half-chord Versine in Cant existing Remarks regardingintervals (mm) restrictions to slewing

0 0 Zero1 2 5 mm2 4 10 mm

3 4 20 mm4 10 25 mm.

5 11 .. 1.6 metres.

6 23 .. G. B. obligatory point

7 30 .. Low or high bank, moorumetc., etc. or rock cutting etc.

Page 155: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

142

Where there are two or more lines, trackcentres at intervals should be recorded. After theversine-survey, the curve alignment shall not bedisturbed until the realignment is commenced. Thisinterval should be the least possible.

In the case of reverse curves, the versinesurvey should be continuous, but transferred to theouter rail at points where the curvature changes sign.It is probable that the exact point will not be definite;it is therefore, desirable to keep the original rail faceas the base until the change is certain to enable plusor minus versines to be read from the same rail, it isonly necessary to hold the fishing cord or wire 20mm. clear of the rail edge at each end by usingspecial gadget and substracting 20 mm. from thereading at the centre.

(4) Determination of revised alignment andcomputation of slews :–

Operation No. 2 :–

(a) The basic principles of string lining are asfollows :–

(i) The chord length being identical, the sumtotal of the existing versines should be equal to thesum total of the proposed versines.

(ii) The slew in any direction at a station affectsthe versines at the adjacent stations by half theamount in the opposite direction, when the track isnot disturbed at the adjacent stations.

(iii) The second summation of versinedifference represents half the slew at any station.

(iv) At the first and at the last station, the slewsshould be zero.

(b) Success in obtaining the most suitablealignment depends on the proper selection ofversines.

(c) In actual practice the calculations arecarried out in the following manner :–

(i) After recording the versines in mm.,proposed versines are selected in such a way as toobtain uniform rate of change of versines over thetransition curve and uniform versines over thecircular portion of the curves.

(ii) The difference between the proposed andthe existing versines are worked out for each station,the positive sign being used, if the proposed versineis greater than the existing versine and negative signif it is less (Ref.Col. 4 -Table 1, at the end of thissub- para (4), wherein a solution to a realignment of

curve is worked out).

(iii) First and second summations of thedifferences of proposed and existing versines arethen worked out (Ref. Cols. 5 & 6).

(iv) The first summation at any station, givesthe cumulative versine difference at each station. Tobegin with this value for station ‘ 0 ’ is the same asthe versine difference (Col. 4). To obtain thecorresponding value for station No. 1 the cumulativeversine difference of station ‘0’ (Col. 5) is added tothe versine difference of station No. 1 (Col. 4)diagonally downward as shown by the arrowindication and the resultant value is written againstStation No.1(Col. 5) Similarly the cumulative versinedifference is calculated at each station till the laststation is reached. Since the sum total of the existingand the proposed versines is the same, the figureagainst the last station will be ‘0’ (Col. 5).

(v) The second summation at any station givesthe cumulative effect of the figures of firstsummations upto the previous station. It can beproved theoretically that this represents half the slewrequired at each station to obtain the proposedversine. To start with, this value for station‘0’ is takenas zero.To obtain the corresponding value of StationNo.1, the second summation value of thestation‘0’(i.e., the previous station ) is added to thefirst summation value of the same station ‘0’,asshown by horizontal arrow. This value is shownagainst Station No. 1(Col. 6). Similarly the secondsummation for Station No. 2 is the sum of the figuresof the first summation and second summation ofStation No.1(Col.5 and 6). The second summationis obtained against each station till the last station isreached. The slew at the last station should be zero.Otherwise the track beyond the last station will beaffected by the slew at the last station. Normally thisfigure at the last station will not be zero. To bring thisto zero correcting couples are applied.

(vi) Method of applying correcting couples -For correcting the half-throws to zero the procedureshall be as follows :–

Page 156: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

143

When the final half-throw is negative, add tothe versines having the lower station numbers andsubstract an equal amount from the versines havingthe higher station numbers, selecting “station” in pairssuch that the sum of the products of the differenceof the “station” numbers taken in pairs and theamount added to the versines, equals the numericalamount of the negative half-throw to be cleared.

When the final half -throw is positive, substractfrom the versines having the lower station numbersand add an equal amount to the versiness havingthe higher station numbers, selecting the stations inpairs such that the sum of the product of differencesof the station numbers in pairs and the amountsubstracted from the versines, equals the numericalamount of the positive half throw to be cleared.

(vii) For computing slews when realigning and/or transitioning a complete curve the followingprocedure should be adopted :–

Calculate the length of transition from Para407(1). This determines the versine gradient on thetransition.

Work out versine difference, first and secondsummations as discussed above at the initial stationswith a view to foreseeing and exercising due controlover the slews(col. 4, 5 and 6). Review the figuresof proposed versines (col 8) if necessary andcontinue the process until the transition at the otherend on which the specific versine gradient shouldbe observed. In the process it must be ensured thatdifference of versines(col. 4) should sum up to zero.

Apply correcting couples to control the slew atobligatory points and to close the slew at the end tozero. The slews must be limited to the minimumpossible.

Determine correct cant to be provided, pointsof zero and maximum cant and the cant run-off.

Curve realignment can be worked out bygraphical method. Mechanical and electronic deviceswhere available may be used to determine the finalvalues of slew, thus avoiding the lengthy process offirst and second summation and application ofcorrecting couples.

(viii) Maximum Slew – Maximum slew at anystation is usually limited by practical considerations.The distance between tracks and adequateclearance to existing structures must be maintainedand track must not be slewed too near the edge ofthe formation. At certain locations like bridges, it may

not be possible to slew the curve at all .

(ix) In carrying out the calculations for therealignment of a long curve of more than 50 stationsit is best to write down values of about 10 proposedversines at a time and see that the sum isapproximately the same as that of the correspondingold versines and then workout the second summationto ensure that slews are minimum. A final adjustmentto ensure that the sum of the existing and proposedversines is equal and that the slew at last station iszero can then be made.

A numerical example is given in table 1 on thenext page which will illustrate the method of workingout the solution for realignment of a curve.

(See Table No. 1)(5) Slewing the curve to revised alignment :–Operation No. 3 :– The revised alignment of

the curve should be staked out with a steel tape byusing the pegs cut from the bars (or wooden stakeswith tack marks) which should be fixed on the cesson the inner side of the curve square to the trackand at such a distance according to the value of theslews, so that the final alignment of the track is atone gauge distance from the face of the pegs or thetacks on wooden pegs to the outer edges of the innerrail. In narrow cuttings with sharp curves or in tunnelsit may not not be possible to measure versines onthe pegs driven on the inner cess of the curve due tothe face of the cutting fouling the fishing cord. In suchcases, the pegs may be driven on the outer cess.Their correctness should be checked by measuringthe versines on these pegs and verifying that theycorrespond with the final versines of the alignment.The curve should then be correctly slewed to therealignment of pegs.

Whether or not permanent pegs should befixed is left entirely to the discretion of DivisionalEngineer. In no case should these be fixed onformation that is not firm or at locations where theyare liable to the disturbed or tampered with.

Where it is considered more expedient, thestaking of the realigned curve may be done by drivingtie-bar pegs of about 750 mm. in length against eachstation down to rail level along the centre line of therevised alignment and slewing the track to thesepegs.

It is important that the slewing is done to 2 mm.accuracy and actual versines again taken to ensurethat they accord with the calculated versines of therealigned curve.

Page 157: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

144

Along with slewing of the curve to the revisedalignment correct superelevation should be providedat each station to accord with the curvature,particular attention being paid to the run-off on thetransition. Repositioning of posts on the cess toindicate zero and maximum superelevation andremarking of cant values on the inside web of theinner rail should be done.

423. Realigning curves on double ormultiple lines :– On double or multiple tracks eachcurve should be stringlined independently. Noattempt should be made to realign any curve byslewing it to a uniform centre to centre distance fromthe realigned curve as –

(a) The existing track centres may not beuniform and relatively small throw on one may entaila much larger (even prohibitively large) throw on theadjacent track

(b) It is nearly impossible to measure thecentre to centre distance of curved tracks along thetrue radial lines and a small error in angular directionof measurement would mean an appreciable errorin true radial distance.

(c) The transitions at the entry and exit maybe of different lengths which make it impracticableto maintain uniform centres on them even thoughthe degree of the circular curves may be nearly thesame.

424. Cuttings of rails on curves :– Railsare usually laid with square joints on curve. On curvedtrack the inner rail joints gradually lead over the outerrail joints. When the inner rail of the curve is aheadof the outer rail by an amount equal to half the pitchof bolt holes, cut rails should be provided to obtainsquare joints. Cut rail is a rail which is shorter thanthe standard length of rail by an amount equal to thepitch of the bolt holes. The excess length ‘d’ by whichthe inner rail gains over the outer rail is calculatedby the formula –

LGd = _______

R

where ‘d’ is the length in mm. by which theinner rail joint is ahead of the outer rail joint over theentire length of the curve, if cut rails are not provided.

L = length of the curve in meters

R= radius of the curve in meters

G= the gauge + width of the rail head in mm.

The number of cut rails for a particular curveis worked out by the formula –

dN = ————————————————

pitch of the bolt holes in mm.

It must be ensured that rail joints are square atbeginning and at the end of the curve.

425. Joints on curves :– Rails joints oncurves normally be laid square. On the sharp curvesless than 400 meters on the Broad Gauge and 300meters on the Metre Gauge the rail joints may bestaggered, where elbows and kinks are likely todevelop if rail joints are laid square.

426. Check rails on curves :– Check railsshould be provided on the inside of the inner rail ofthe curve as stipulated in the schedule of dimensions.

Appropriate clearances should be providedbetween the check rail and the running rail asstipulated in the schedule of dimensions. Check railsreduce the risk of derailment on the sharp curves.

Location where check rails should be providedshall be decided by the Chief Engineer taking intoconsidration the negotiability of the rolling stock andthe curve geometry.

427. Wear on outer rail of curves :– (1)This can be reduced effectively

(a) by lubricating the gauge face of outer rails onthe curves.

(b) by maintaining correct curve geometry andsuperelevation.

(c) Provision of the suitable check rail.

(2) Rail flange lubricators should be providedon curves of radius 600 meters and less on BroadGauge and of radius 300 meters and less at MeterGauge to avoid rail face wear, the first lubricator beingprovided a little ahead of the curve.

428. Measurement of rail wear on sharpcurves:– The wear of rails of curves having radiusof 600 M. or less on B. G. and 300 M. or less onM. G. shall be periodically recorded. Railways shouldprescribe the periodicity of measurement of wear onthose sharp curves. The lateral, vertical and total lossof section should be recorded. Proper record of themeasurements should also be maintained.

Page 158: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

145

Table 1

Realignment of curve by stringlining method

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

0 2 2 0 0 0 -1 -1 -0 0 1

1 0 8 +8 +8 0 -1 -2 -1 -1 -2 7

2 14 16 +2 +10 +8 -1 -3 -3 +5 +10 15

3 28 24 -4 +6 +18 -1 -4 -6 +12 +24 23

4 30 32 +2 +8 +24 -1 -5 -10 +14 +28 31

5 36 32 -4 +4 +32 -1 -6 -15 +17 +34 31

6 36 32 -4 0 +36 -1 -7 -21 +15 +30 31

7 24 32 +8 +8 +36 -1 -8 -28 +8 +16 31

8 32 32 0 +8 +44 -8 -36 +8 +16 32

9 28 32 +4 +12 +52 -8 -44 +8 +16 32

10 36 32 -4 +8 +64 -8 -52 +12 +24 32

11 34 32 -2 +6 +72 -8 -60 +12 +24 32

12 32 32 0 +6 +78 -8 -68 +10 +20 32

13 34 32 -2 +4 +84 +1 -7 -76 +8 +16 33

14 36 32 -4 0 +88 +1 -6 -83 +5 +10 33

15 24 32 +8 +8 +88 +1 -5 -89 -1 -2 33

16 24 24 0 +8 +96 +1 -4 -94 +2 +4 25

17 28 16 -12 -4 +104 +1 -3 -98 +6 +12 17

18 0 8 +8 +4 +100 +1 -2 -101 -1 -2 9

19 6 2 -4 0 +104 +1 -1 -103 +1 +2 3

20 0 0 0 0 +104 +1 0 -104 0 0 1

+ Slew inside. – Slew Outside

Sta

tion

num

ber.

Exi

stin

g ve

rsin

es in

mm

on

20 M

cho

rd

Pro

pose

d ve

rsin

e in

mm

.

Ver

sine

diff

eren

ceco

lum

n 3

-co

lum

n 2

1st s

umm

atio

n of

ver

sine

diffe

rnce

2nd s

umm

atin

on o

f ve

rsin

edi

ffere

nece

or

half

thro

w in

mm

.

Cor

rect

ing

vers

ine

in m

m

1st

sum

mat

ion

ofco

rrec

ting

vers

ine

2nd s

umm

atio

n of

corr

ectin

g v

ersi

ne

Res

ulta

nt h

alf s

lew

col

9 +

col.6

in m

m

Res

ulta

nt fu

ll sl

ew in

mm

Res

ulta

nt v

ersi

ne in

mm

col 3

+co

l 7

Correcting couple

→ →

→→→

→→ →

→→

Page 159: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

146

AN

NE

XU

RE

-4/1

PA

RA

40

5(1

)

Page 160: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

147

AN

NE

XU

RE

-4/2

PA

RA

40

5(1

)

Page 161: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

148

AN

NE

XU

RE

-4/3

PA

RA

40

5(2

)

CA

NT

LIM

ITE

D T

O 4

0 m

m. T

O M

AIN

TAIN

CA

NT

GR

AD

IEN

T O

F I

IN 3

60

120

100 80 60 40 20 0

Ca

V

BR

OA

D G

UA

GE

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

3200

3400

360060 50 40 30 20 10 0

RA

DIU

S IN

ME

TR

ES

CANT IN MILLIMETRES

'V' MAX SPEED IN KILOMETRES/HOUR

NO

N T

RA

NS

ITIO

NE

D C

UR

VE

S W

ITH

CA

NT

ON

VIR

TU

AL

TR

AN

SIT

ION

MA

XIM

UM

SP

EE

D A

ND

CA

NT

FO

R A

NY

RA

DIU

S O

F C

UR

VE

BR

OA

D G

AU

GE

Page 162: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

149

AN

NE

XU

RE

-4/3

PA

RA

40

5(2

)

ME

TR

E G

AU

GE

120

100 80 60 40 20 0

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO

N T

RA

NS

ITIO

NE

D C

UR

VE

S W

ITH

CA

NT

ON

VIR

TU

AL

TR

AN

SIT

ION

MA

XIM

UM

SP

EE

D A

ND

CA

NT

FO

R A

NY

RA

DIU

S O

F C

UR

VE

V

CANT IN MILLIMETRES

RA

DIU

S IN

ME

TR

ES

'V' MAX. SPEED IN KILOMETRES/HOUR

Ca

ME

TR

E G

AU

GE

Page 163: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

150

AN

NE

XU

RE

-4/4

PA

RA

40

5(2

)

BR

OA

D G

AU

GE

Page 164: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

151

AN

NE

XU

RE

-4/4

PA

RA

40

5(2

)

ME

TR

E G

AU

GE

120

100 80 60 40 20 0

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

NO

N T

RA

NS

ITIO

NE

D C

UR

VE

WIT

HO

UT

CA

NT

MA

XIM

UM

SP

EE

D F

OR

AN

Y R

AD

IUS

OF

CU

RV

E

V

CANT IN MILLIMETRES

RA

DIU

S IN

ME

TR

ES

'V' MAX. SPEED IN KILOMETRES/HOUR

ME

TR

E G

AU

GE

Page 165: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

152

ANNEXURE-4/5 PARA 420 (2)

PRO FORMA OF CURVE REGISTER

ABSTRACT OF CURVES

.................................RAILWAY .....................................Section

SI. Curve Between Kilometres R.H.or Degree ofNo. No. Stations From To L.H. curve(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

Radius of S.E. Length of Total Length Whether joints Whether referencecurve Transition Circular of curve are square or pillars have

curve staggered been provided(8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14)

Page 166: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

CURVED TRACK AND REALIGNMENT OF CURVES

153

ANNEXURE4/5 Para420(2) ...contd.

PRO FORMA OF CURVE REGISTERDETAILS OF INSPECTION

................RAILWAY

Curve No.................. Degree of curve.................From Km. ........... To Km. ........... ....................... .Section.

Station Prescribed (Ideal) Date of check Measurements recordedNo. V SE G V SE G(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Action to be Date of string- Measurements recorded aftertaken lining or local adjustment with date of check

adjustment V SE G(9) (10) (11) (12) (13)

Note - No. of pages to be allotted for each curve.

Page 167: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

154

WELDING OF RAILS : LAYING AND MAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDED RAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS AND CONTINUOUS WELDED RAILS

CHAPTER VCHAPTER VCHAPTER VCHAPTER VCHAPTER V

WELDING OF RAILS :WELDING OF RAILS :WELDING OF RAILS :WELDING OF RAILS :WELDING OF RAILS : LA LA LA LA LAYING YING YING YING YING ANDANDANDANDANDMAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDEDMAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDEDMAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDEDMAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDEDMAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDEDRAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS ANDRAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS ANDRAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS ANDRAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS ANDRAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS AND

CONTINUOUS WELDED RAILSCONTINUOUS WELDED RAILSCONTINUOUS WELDED RAILSCONTINUOUS WELDED RAILSCONTINUOUS WELDED RAILS

PART ‘A’Welding of rails

501. General – The welding of rails is carriedout in a depot by the “Flash butt welding processand at site by the “Thermit Welding” process. Thelength to which the rails can be welded in a depotdepends on the transport facilities available.

502. Alumino thermit Welding of rails: -

Alumino Thermit Welding of rails may be carried outin accordance with the detailed procedure laid downin the “Manual for Fusion Welding of Rails by AluminoThermit Process, September,1996". A thermit welddone in situ shall be joggle fish plated with two clampstill tested as good by USFD.

503. Tolerances allowed in the case of flashbutt welds —The tolerances allowed in the case offlash butt welds are the same as allowed in the caseof Alumino-thermit welds (para 502). In addition tothe tolerances mentioned for thermit weld, thefollowing additional item of tolerance is specified–

Web zone : + 3.0 mm of parent contour – 0.0 mm }

In the case of old rails welded together thetolerances can not exceed double the above valuesstipulated for new rails, keeping the tolerances to theminimum.

504.Short pre-heat welding process –(1)General – The conventional thermit welding processtakes about 60 minutes for welding of a joint. Toreduce this time in view of non availability of longertime interval between trains this method with shorterpreheating time is used.

The principle of this process is essentially thesame as thermit process except that –

(i) Prefabricated mould is used in place of greensand, to reduce the time due to drying of sand.

(ii) Larger gap of 22 to 24 mm. is provided at therail ends.

(iii) Rail ends are heated only to 600o C against950oC.

(iv)Preheatin time is reduced to 10 to 12 minutes.

(v) Thermit portion is double the quantity for thisprocess .

(vi) A stronger burner with larger fuel flow is used.

In this case also, the traffic can be allowed onlyafter 30 minutes have elapsed after welding of thejoint. The code of practice for welding of rail jointsAlumino thermic process issued by R. D. S. O.should be refered for complete details regardingselection of rails for welding, preliminary work priorto welding, the actual details of work of execution ofwelding, and inspection of welds.

Page 168: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

WELDING OF RAILS : LAYING AND MAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDED RAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS AND CONTINUOUS WELDED RAILS

155

PART B

Short Welded Rails (SWR)

505. Definitions – (1)Short Welded Rail(SWR) is a welded rail which contracts and expandsthroughout its length.

Note – Normally the length of SWR is 3X 13 M.forBroad gauge and 3X12 M. for Metre gauge.

(2) Rail temperature is the temperature of therail as recorded by an approved type of railthermometer at site.

This differs from the ambient temperaturewhich is the temperature of air in shade at that place,as reported by the meterological department.

The Indian Railways have been divided intofour rail temperature zones. Annexure 5/1 is a mapshowing the four temperature zones and the annualmean rail temperatures at all important places areshown in the map.

(3) Mean annual rail temperature {tm} is theaverage of the maximum and minimum railtemperature recorded during the year. tm. will befixed locally wherever rail temperature records areavilable for a reasonable period of five years. Whererail temperature records are not avilable tm. canbe read from the rail temperature map(Annexure 5/1)

(4) Installation temperature (ti) is the averagerail temperature during the process of fastening therails to the sleepers at the time of installation of SWR.

506. Track structure for SWR –

(1) Formation – SWR shall be laid generallyon stable and efficiently drained formation.

(2) Rails – The minimum section of rail shallbe 90-R for Broad Gauge and 60-R for Metre Gauge.Only new rails and second hand rails conforming tothe standards laid down in relevant cause of the Codeof practice for welding of Rail Joints by the Aluminothermit process and the Code of Practice for FlashButt Welding of rails shall be welded into SWR.

(3) Sleepers – The sleepers approved for usewith SWR shall be as under –

(a) Wooden sleepers with anti-creep or elasticfastenings.

(b) Cast iron sleepers and steel trough sleeperswith key type or elastic fastenings.

Wooden sleepers with mild steel bearing platesand rail free fastenings may preferably be used at allfish plated joints when SWR is laid on metal sleepers.Concrete sleepers should be used in cases whereSWR is likely to be converted to LWR/CWRimmediately. In such cases the fish-plated joints shallhave wooden sleepers at the joints.

(4) Sleeper Density – Reference may be madeto Para 244 (4) of the Manual for the details.

(5) Ballast :– Only stone ballast shall be used.The recommended depth of ballast below the bottomof sleepers is as indicated in Para 263 (2), theminimum in no case being less than 200 mm. bothfor Broad Gauge and Metre Gauge. 100 mm. extrawidth of shoulder ballast over and above the standardballast section on tangent track shall be provided onoutside of curves upto 875 metres radius in BroadGauge, 600 metres radius in Metre Gauge. In thecase of sharper curves, the extra width shall be150mm. On existing SWR lengths, where this widthis not available, this may be provided on aprogrammed basis. In the case of 60 kg. Rails LWRprofile shall be adopted.

507. Condition of laying : (1) Alignment -SWR shall not be laid on curves sharper that 500meters radius in both Broad Gauge and MetreGauge. However, on PSC Sleepers, SWR may belaid on curves with radius not less than 440 meters.

Existing SWR laid on sharper curves may,however, be allowed to continue if there is no difficultyexperienced in maintaining these lengths. ChiefEngineer’s approval should be taken in such cases.

(2) Junction with insulated joints and points andcrossings – SWR shall not butt againist insulatedjoints, heel of crossing and stock rail joints. Twostandard length rails (13M./12M.) shall be interposedto isolate the SWR from such locations. Thesestandard length rails shall be anchored effectively toarrest movement in either direction.

(3) Junction with standard length rails onwooden sleepers – When SWR track butts againsttrack laid with standard length rail (13M. for BroadGauge and 12 M. for Metre Gauge) on woodensleepers, the latter shall be adequately anchored forat least six rail lengths to check the creep of rails.These six rail lengths shall have a sleeper density ofM+7. Additional shoulder ballast should also beprovided.

Page 169: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

156

WELDING OF RAILS : LAYING AND MAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDED RAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS AND CONTINUOUS WELDED RAILS

(4) Regarding laying of SWR in Level Crossings and Bridges, Para 921 of Chapter on Level Crossings,Para 272(4) of Chapter on Permament Way Maintenance-Track Structure on Bridges may be referred to.

508. Laying of short welded rails (SWR) – The gaps to be provided for SWR at the time of laying shallbe in accordance with Table 1 depending on the installation temperature (ti) and the Zone in which the rails arelaid –

TABLE 1

Initial laying gaps for SWR for various installation temperatures

For Zones 1 and IIRail temperature at the time of installation (ti) (in centigrade) –

tm-17.5 tm-12.5 tm-7.5 tm-2.5 tm+2.6 tm+7.6

to to to to to to

tm-12.6 tm-7.6 tm-2.6 tm+2.5 tm+7.5 tm+12.5

Initial laying gaps in mm –

12mm 10mm 8mm 6mm 4mm 2mm

For Zones III and IV

Rail temperature at the time of installation (ti) (in centigrade) –

tm-22.5 tm-17.5 tm-12.5 tm-7.5 tm-2.4 tm+2.6

to to to to to to

tm-17.6 tm-12.6 tm-7.6 tm-2.5 tm+2.5 tm+7.5

Initial laying gaps in mm –

12mm 10mm 8mm 6mm 4mm 2mm

Note – Values are for three rail panels.

If the laying has to be done outside thetemperature range given in table above, or whereverjoint gaps could not be provided as per the table, re-adjustment of gap shall be carried out within two daysof laying before the track consolidates. Along withthe gap adjustment, any respacing of sleepers, ifrequired, must be carried out.

509. Maintenance of short welded rails –Regular maintenance operation –

(1) Regular track maintenance including alloperations involving packing, lifting, aligning, localadjustment of curves, screening of ballast other than

deep screening, and scattered renewal of sleepersmay be carried out without restriction when the railtemperature is below tm. +25o C in the case of zoneI & II and tm + 20o C in the zone III and IV. Howeveron curves of less than 875 metres radius BroadGauge,and less than 600 meteres radius in MetreGauge or yielding formation, the above temperaturelimit shall be restricted to tm. +15o C in the case ofZone I and II and tm. + 10oC in the case of Zone IIIand IV.

Page 170: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

WELDING OF RAILS : LAYING AND MAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDED RAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS AND CONTINUOUS WELDED RAILS

157

(2) If the maintenance operations have to beundertaken at temperature higher than thatmentioned above in Para 509 (1), not more than30 sleeper spaces in one continuous stretch shallbe opened, leaving at least 30 fully boxed sleeperspacer between adjacent lengths which are openedout. Before the end of the days work it shall beensured that the ballast is boxed up.

(3) As an additional precaution, during summermonths, to be specified by the Chief Engineer, forattention to run down track, even if temperature isless the temperature specified in Para 509 (1) notmore than 30 sleepers in one continuous stretch shallbe opened, leaving at least 30 boxed sleeper spacesbetween adjacent lengths which are opened up.Further, if joint gaps are not available at the time ofopening of the track even when rail temperature areless than those specified in clause Para 509 (1). notmore than 30 sleepers in one continuous stretchshould be opened leaving at least 30 boxed sleeperspaces between adjacent lenghts which are openedup.

(4) Major lifting, major alignment of track, deepscreening and renewal of sleepers in continuouslength. - Each of these operations shall be doneunder suitable precautions and normally when therail temperature is below tm. +15

0 C in the case of

Zones I and II, and tm. +100 C in the case of Zones

III and IV. If it becomes necessary to undertake suchworks at rail temperature exceeding the above valuesadequate speed restrictions shall be imposed.

(5) Adequate number of joggled fish-plates withspecial clamps shall be provided to the gangs foruse in emergencies.

(6) In the case of any fracture in the weld or inthe rail, the portion of rail with fracture is cut, andremoved for a length of not less than 4 M. to carryout the rewelding duly introducing a rail piece ofequivalent length, also ensuring that no weld liescloser than 4M. from the fish-plated joint.

(7) Conversion of 10 rail/5 rail panels intoshorter panels – It will be desirable to convert theexisting 10 rail panels and 5 rail panels into 2-1/2 railpanels wherever maintenance problems cannot besolved otherwise. Whereever conditions permit,conversion of SWR into LWR may also beconsidered.

510. Gap survey and adjustment of gap –

(1) General - Gap survey and rectification ofgaps is to be carried out, in stretches where trackdevelops excessive creep jammed joints, sun kinks,buckling, wide gaps, battered and hogged joints,fractures at joints and bending of bolts etc. In SWRthe gap survey and adjustment should normally bedone before the end of February once a year (i.e.,before onset of Summer).

(2) Gap Survey – (a) The gap survey shall beconducted on a clear and sunny day in the cool hoursof the day.

(b) The length over which gap survey is to bedone should, whereever possible, be divided intosuitable sub-sections, each bounded by fixed pointssuch as level crossings, points and crossings etc.The survey should be completed during as short atime as possible, by employing adequate number ofparties so that the rail temperature is not likely tovary appreciably.

(c) The joint gaps shall be measured by tapergauge in mm. (shown below) and the readingsentered in the pro forma as shown inAnnexure 5/2.

6

25

24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 64

240

2 1

10 1010

LETTERS TO BE STAMPED

TAPER GAUGE

Page 171: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

158

WELDING OF RAILS : LAYING AND MAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDED RAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS AND CONTINUOUS WELDED RAILS

(3) Recommended range of value of gaps – The recommended range of value of gaps (in mm.)during service for various ranges of rail temperature is indicated in the table given below :–

TABLE II

For Zones 1 and II

Temperature during gap survey –

tm-12.5 tm-7.5 tm-2.5 tm+2.6 tm+7.6 tm+12.6

to to to to to to

tm-7.6 tm-2.6 tm+2.5 tm+7.5 tm+12.5 tm+17.5

Permissible values of gap –

11 to14mm 9 to 13mm 7 to 11mm 5 to 9 mm 3 to 7mm 1 to 5mm

For Zones III and IV

Temperature during gap survey –

tm-17.5 tm-12.5 tm-7.5 tm-2.4 tm+2.6 tm+7.6

to to to to to to

tm-12.6 tm-7.6 tm-2.5 tm+2.5 tm+7.5 tm+12.5

Permissible values of gap –

11 to14mm 9 to 13mm 7 to 11mm 5 to 9mm 3 to 7mm 1 to 5mm

Note : – (i) The values given above are for 3 rail panels.

(ii) The gaps given above are to be distinguished from the values given in Para 508 (Table I) whichare intended to be provided at the time of initial laying of SWR.

(iii) Gap survey should be carried out when rail temperature is in rising trend only.

Case 3 – Average gap as well individual gapsfall within the range.

(5) Action to be taken – The action to be takenis as follows :–

Case 1 – Rectification work should berestricted to correcting the individual gaps, which fallsoutside the recommended range. Rectificationshould be done by pulling the minimum number ofrails. Under no circumstances shall the adjustmentbe done by cutting a rail or introducing a longer rail.

(4) Calculations for adjustment – The averageof the measured gaps is worked out as shown in thepro forma for gap survey (Annexure 5/2). Acomparison of the results of the gap measurementsrecorded and the permissible values of gap(concerned range for gap) given above will lead toone of the following cases :–

Case 1 – Average gap is within therecommended range, but some of the individual gapsfall outside the range.

Case 2 – Average gap falls outside therecommended range.

Page 172: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

WELDING OF RAILS : LAYING AND MAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDED RAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS AND CONTINUOUS WELDED RAILS

159

Case 2 – The joint gaps shall be systematicallyadjusted from one end to the other end of the sub-section. The rails shall be unfastened over convenientlenghts, the gaps adjusted to the initial laying gapsas per Para 508 and rails fastened. In this caseintroduction of a longer or shorter rail will be involved.Efforts should be made to see that only the minimumnumber of joint sleepers are disturbed.

Case 3 – No action is to be taken.

As far as possible, the day chosen forrectification should be a day on which the railtemperature is not likely to vary much duringrectification period.

511. Conversion of SWR into LWR – Thefollowing additional precuations should be observedwhen converting SWR into LWR :–

(1) The anticipated residual life shall be at least10 years.

(2) The rails shall be tested ultrasonically andall defective rails replaced before conversion intoLWR.

(3) Rail ends which are hogged or battered orhave a history of cracks in bolt hole region, shall becropped before conversion into LWR.

Page 173: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

160

WELDING OF RAILS : LAYING AND MAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDED RAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS AND CONTINUOUS WELDED RAILS

PART ‘C’

Long welded rails/Continuous welded rails

512.Referenceto LWR/CWR Manual - Detailed instructions for laying and maintenance of long weldedrails/continuous welded rails are contained in the “Manual of Instructions on long welded rails 1996”.It is very important that instructions contained thereon are carefully studied by all Permanent Way officialsconnected with the laying and maintenance of long welded rails/ continuous welded rails.

Page 174: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

WELDING OF RAILS : LAYING AND MAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDED RAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS AND CONTINUOUS WELDED RAILS

161

ANNEXURE-5/1 PARA 505

MAP OF INDIA SHOWING RAIL TEMPERATURE ZONES

(1) The range of rail temperature obtainingat a station and the annual mean railtemperature have been indicatedoutside and inside the bracketsrespectively.

(2) The above stated values are based oncivil engineering research report,‘‘Investigations on welded track,progress report No. 2-Study of RailTemperatures in India’’, R.D.S.O.

(3) This sketch is based on R.D.S.O. Drg.No. EDO/T-1430.

LEGEND -

Z O N E RANGE OF TEMPI 40 TO 50OCII 51 TO 60OCIII 61 TO 70OCIV 71 TO 76OC

Page 175: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

WELDING OF RAILS : LAYING AND MAINTENANCE OF SHORT WELDED RAILS, LONG WELDED RAILS AND CONTINUOUS WELDED RAILS

162

ANNEXURE 5/2 Para 510 (4)

PROFORMA FOR GAP SURVEY AND RECTIFICATION OF GAPSBetween stations Nawabpalem and Survey details Rail temperature — Adjustment details —

Nidadavole/Down Line. Date : 28th February 1981 Date: 2nd March 1981. Time: 4-30 hrs. –

Between Kms. 551/13 - 551/0. Time : 12-00 hrs. At start .. 44oC.

Rails 52 kgs. on S.T. sleeper M + 7 Rail temperature —

density. At close .. 46oC. At start .. 40

oC. At close .. 45

oC.

Mean annual rail temperature tm. Average temperature: 42.5oC.(tm.+4.5

oC.)

tm .= 38oC Zone II. Recommended range of gap for

Average rail temperature 45oC 45

oC. noted at the time of survey To be adjusted to the gap as shown in

(tm+7) during gap survey. as per Table II: 5 to 9 mm. Table I = 4 mm.

Location and descripton of Serial No. Gap in mm. Action taken with P. W. l.’s initials and date Adjusted gaps in mm.immovable point of points

Left Right Left Right

Girder Bridge at km. 551/13 1 15 11 Gaps systematically adjusted from one end to the 4 4(first Fixed point). 2 14 9 other end and by providing a longer rail on 2nd 4 4

3 17 14 March 1981 and gap adjusted to 4 mm. 4 44 14 15 4 45 10 15 (Sd.) 4 46 15 15 P. W. I. 4 47 17 14 4 48 17 12 4 49 15 10 4 410 14 9 4 411 11 6 4 412 8 10 4 413 11 12 4 414 5 9 4 415 13 12 4 416 8 13 4 417 15 15 4 418 12 14 4 419 14 14 4 420 15 14 4 421 13 16 4 422 14 14 4 423 15 17 4 4

Km. 551/0 Level crossing 24 18 20(Second fixed point). 25 19 10 4 4

26 20 20 4 4Total .. 359 340 4 4Average 13.8 13.1 104 104

This falls in case II.

Page 176: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

163

CHAPTER VICHAPTER VICHAPTER VICHAPTER VICHAPTER VITRATRATRATRATRACK RECORDINGCK RECORDINGCK RECORDINGCK RECORDINGCK RECORDING,,,,, ANANANANANALALALALALYYYYYSISSISSISSISSIS

AND MONITAND MONITAND MONITAND MONITAND MONITORINGORINGORINGORINGORING

601. Introduction – Inspection by foot, trollies,locomotives and rear vehicles enable the PermanentWay staff to carry out assessment of the quality oftrack. These inspections, though important, arequalitative and enable assessment based onindividual experience. Objective assessment of trackis done by track recording cars, Oscillograph carsand portable accelerometers.

602. Track Recording by Mechanical /Electronic Equipment – The following trackrecording equipments are in use in Indian Railwaysat present :–

(1) Track recording cars.

(2) Hallade track recorder.

(3) Oscillograph car.

(4) Portable accelerometers.

603. Track Recording Car – There are twotypes of track recording cars currently in use in IndianRailways, one mechanical and the other electronic.With these track recording cars, it is possible to havea continuous record of the track geometry underloaded conditions, by running the cars at nominatedintervals.

604. Mechanical Track Recording Car(B.G.)– (1) It has two bogies one of two axles andthe other of three axles. The measuring bogie has abase of 3.6 metres, and is three axled with an axleload of 7.0 tons. It gives a continuous record of –

(a) Unevenness - Left rail.

(b) unevenness - Right rail.

(c) Gauge.

(d) Twist.

(e) Curvature/alignment - Left rail.

(f) Curvature/alignment - Right rail.

(g) Speed

(2) The manner of recording of each parameteris indicated below :–

(a) Unevenness – The longitudinal unevennessof rails is measured as a deviation in the vertical plane(depression or rise) of the middle axle of themeasuring bogie with reference to the average

position of the two outer axles. The outer axles arespaced 3.6 metres apart and unevenness isrecorded to scale of 1:1 on a base of 3.6 M. for leftand right rail separately.

(b) Gauge – The changes in gauge are pickedup by spring loaded gauge feelers which are incontact with the gauge faces at about 18 mm. belowthe rail table. The recording is done to a scale of 1:1.The feelers are so made that they can pass over thepoints and crossings and through check rails at levelcrossings without difficulty.

(c) Twist – Twist is measured as the relativeout of planeness of one of the four wheels withrespect to the plane formed by the other threewheels, of the outer axles of the measuring bogie. If,a, b, are the movements of the axle boxes of theleading axle and c, d, are the relative movements ofthe axle boxes of the rear axle then (a+d) - (b+c)gives the twist over a base of 3.6 M. The points fromwhere these movements are picked up from theframe connected to the outer axles are so locatedas to compensate for the frame spacing being widerthan the gauge. The twist is also recorded to full scaleof 1:1.

(d) Curvature/Alignment – Curvature isdeduced from the angle between the tangent and achord of known length at any point of the rail,assumed to be circular. Two spring loaded feelerspress against the rails from the tangents. The linejoining the centres of the pivots of the two bogiesforms the chord. By arrangement of cables attachedto these feelers, the differential movement of thefeelers with respect to the chord is transmitted to therecording table. The curvature is recorded asversines in mm. on a 7.2 M. chord. This measurement,however, is somewhat vitiated due to transverse playexisting between the various parts of the vehicle suchas between wheels and rails, between axles andbogie and between bogie and the vehicle. Themagnitude of inaccuracy on this account is of a smallorder and the recording gives general guidanceregarding the condition of alignment.

605. Electronic Track Recording Car – (1)Broad Gauge – (a) The construction features of thiscar are the same as those of the mechanical carexcepting that the sensing elements of various trackparameters transmit impulses electrically. Electricaltrack recorder gives out the various track parametersin analogue form on a graph paper.

Page 177: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

164

(b) Details of the items of measurement - Withthe indigenously modified electronic track recordingcars, it is possible to get a continuous record ofalignment of each rail on a 7.2 M. chord in addition tothe parameters described in Para 604 (1) above.

(c) Manner of Recording – In the electroniccar, alignment is measured by versines on a chordlength of 3.6 M. The mid-chord processor facilitatesthe conversion of the versines measured on 3.6 Mbase to 7.2 M base, electronically. This is accordingto formula V = V1 + 2V2 + V3 where V = Versine on7.2 M. chord. V1, V2, V3 are the versines on 3.6 M.chord.

(2) Metre Gauge - (a) Construction features -The Metre Gauge track recording car is equippedwith a measuring frame similar to the one providedin B.G. Track recording car. The transmission iselectronic and the recording is done on a six channelB.N.L. recorder. The vertical and lateral accelerationare measured by an accelerometer fitted on the floorof the coach.

(b) Items of measurements – For Metre Gaugean indigenous track recording car is in use forrecording the following parameters :

(i) Gauge.

(ii) Twist.

(iii) Unevenness - Left rail.

(iv) Unevenness - Right rail.

(v) Speed.

(c)(i) Gauge – The gauge is recorded at 14mm. below the rail surface to a scale of 1:1. Feelersare pressed against the rail surfaces by spring loadedarrangement. The relative movements of the feelersare picked up by L.V.D. Ts. (Linear VariableDifferential Transducer) and transferred to therecording table electrically.

(ii) Twist – It is recorded to a base of 2.74metres, the distance between the two outer axles ofa three axle bogie. The relative movements of theouter wheels with respect to carriage frames ispicked up by L.V.D. Ts. In recording the twist someamplification is made to give appreciable record onthe chart. A record of 5 mm. on chart is equivalent to1 mm. / metre.

(iii) Unevenness is recorded over a base of2.74 M. The relative movements of central axle withrespect to the outer axles connected by a longitudinalbeam is picked up with the help of suitable L.V.D.Ts.

606. Frequency of Track Recording - Track geometry monitoring of Metre Gauge routes is not to be doneby track recording car. The Broad Gauge routes should be mointored by TRC as per the following frequencies(except for the routes where track recording is to be dispensd with):-

i) Routes with existing speeds above 130 kmph - Once in 2 months

ii) Routes with existing speeds above 110 kmph and - Once in 3 monthsupto 130 kmph.

iii) Other Group ‘A’ and ‘B’ routes - Once in 4 months

iv) Group ‘C’, ‘D’ and ‘D Spl.’ routes - Once in 6 months

v) Group ‘E’ and ‘E Spl.’ routes - Once in 12 months

607. (1) Track categories for various Parameters – The track charts record - Imperfections in the formof peaks and the magnitude of the peaks is an indication of the extent of the defect. For each track parameter,track should be classified kilometre-wise based on the number of peaks and their magnitude occurring in thatkilometre. The specified values for different categories for various parameters are given on next page –

Page 178: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

165

sretemaraP yrogetaC seitiralugerrifotnetxE

eguaGdaorB

)drohc.M6.3(ssennevenU)1(

)esab.M6.3(tsiwT)2(

trahcno.mm6.3=.M/.mm1–etoN

eguaG)3(

)drohc.M2.7(tnemngilA)4(

A

B

C

D

A

B

C

D

A

B

C

A

B

C

)evisulcni(.mm6-0

)evisulcni(.mm01ot)evisulcxe(.mm6

)evisulcni(.mm51ot)evisulcxe(.mm01

.mm51evobA

93.1foevisulcnidnaotpu(trahcno.mm0.5-0)M/.mm

80.2otM/.mm93.1(trahcno.mm5.7-5)evisulcni.M/.mm

87.2otM/.mm80.2(trahcno.mm0.01-5.7)evisulcni.M/.mm

87.2evoba(trahcno.mm00.01evobA

.M/.mm )dnaotpU + )evisulcni(.mm3

±+ &ot.mm3 + )evisulcni(.mm6

evobA ±+ .mm6

)evisulcni(enisrev.mm3otpU

.mm5nahtsseldna.mm3nahteroM.enisrev

evobadnaenisrev.mm5

eguaGerteM

)drohc.M47.2(ssennevenU)1(

)esab.M47.2(tsiwT)2(

trahcno.mm5=M/mm1:etoN

eguaG)3(

)esab.M2.7(tnemngilA)4(

A

B

C

D

A

B

C

D

A

B

C

A

B

C

)evisulcni(.mm3ot0

)evisulcni(.mm5ot.mm3

)evisulcni(.mm8ot.mm5

.mm8evobA

0 1dnaotputrahcno)evisulcni(mm5ot)evisulcni(.M/.mm

ot.mm1-trahcno)evisulcni(mm01ot5)evisulcni(.M/.mm2

ot.mm2trahcno)evisulcni(.mm51ot01)evisulcni(.M/.mm3

)M/.mm3evoba(trahcno.mm51evobA

dnaotpU + )evisulcni(.mm3

+ ot.mm3 + .mm6

evobA + .mm6

)evisulcni(.mm3-0

)evisulcni(.mm5-3

.mm5evobA

Page 179: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

166

Note : (i) 10 points exceeding the outer limit ofan irregularity under each category is allowed in 1Km. length of track. If more than 10 peaks in oneKm. cross the outer limits of ‘A’ category thekilometer is classified ‘B’ and so on. Based on thenumber of peaks and extent of irregularity the trackis classified into ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, and ‘D’ categoriesseparately for each parameter-gauge twist,unevenness and alignment.

(ii) The number of peaks in each kilometerexceeding the outer limit for the ‘B’ category isindicated as a suffix.

607(2) The following limits of track tolerancesare prescribed for the guidance of the Engineeringofficials on the suitability* of standard of maintenanceof track for sanctioned speeds above 100 Km/hr.and upto 140 km/hr on BG track.

(i) Alignment defects - (versine measured ona chord of 7.5 metres under floating conditions)

a) On Straight Track - 5mm; values upto10mm could be tolerated at few isolated locations**.

b) On Curves- E5mm over the averageversine, Values up to E7mm could be tolerated atfew isolated locations**.

Total change of versine from chord to chordshould not exceed 10mm.

(ii) Cross Level Defects - No special tolerancelimits. As regards cross levels, the track should bemaintained, to standards generally superior to thatat present available on main line track on which un-restricted speeds upto 100 Km/hr. are permitted.

(iii) Twist- (to be measured on a base of 3.5 m)

(a) On straight and curve track, other than ontransitions - 2mm/metre except that at isolated lo-cations**, this may go upto 3.5mm/metre.

(b) On transitions of curves - Local defectsshould not exceed 1mm/metres, except that at iso-lated locations** this may go upto 2.1 mm per metre.

(iv) Unevenness rail joint depressions (versinemeasured on a chord of 3.5m) - 10mm in generaland 15mm for isolated locations**.

(v) Gauge variations - No special specifica-tions. The maximum limits for tight and slack gaugeshould be as indicated in Para 224(2) (e).

(*) Suitability - Suitability refers to good ridingquality for passenger comfort and not from stabilitypoint of view.

(**)In above `few isolated locations' has beentaken as not exceeding 10 per km.

607(3). The stability of trains againstderailment, depends upon several factors such astrack geometry, vehicle characteristics & state of theirmaintenance and speed of the particular vehicle atrelevant point of time etc. Rail wheel interaction isthus, a complex phenomenon and therefore, safetytolerances for track alone cannot be prescribed inisolation. With this in view, safety tolerances formaintenance of track, have not been prescribed onIndian Railways. Each derailment case, therefore,needs careful examination of all available evidence,in respect of Track, Rolling Stock, speed and otherfactors considered relevant, to arrive at the cause.

The provision and tolerances mentioned in Para607(2) and elsewhere in this Manual are with a viewto maintain track geometry for good riding comfort.

608. Analysis of track recording Car Charts–Prompt analysis of Track Recording Charts shouldbe carried out in the track cell of Chief Engineer’sOffice. Analysis is done kilometre-wise for eachparameter i.e., unevenness, twist, gauge andalignment and is classified into categories A, B, Cand D for each parameter. The peaks on the pointsand crossings need not be counted in the number ofpeaks for categorisation. However, the quality ofmaintenance on points and crossings is judged solelyon the basis of the peaks recorded. Statements areprepared, giving the results of the analysis of variousparameters, P.W.I. - wise and A.E.N. - wise. Typicalstatements 1 to 9 as prepared for a Broad GaugeSection are enclosed as Statements 1 to 9. Similarstatements are prepared for Metre Gauge sectionswith variations as necessary and the correspondingpeak values adopted in categorisation.

Page 180: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

167

STATEMENT No. 1Analysis of Amsler Track Recording (Para 608)

Location-wise AnalysisUnevenness above 10mm.

P.W.I/PDPL. Section: BPQ-KZJ (Down)A.E.N./RDM. Date of run : May 1982

.mK liaRthgiRssennevenU liaRtfeLssennevenU

morF oT skaeP skaeP

mm51ot11 mm51dna

evoba

mm51ot11 mm51dna

evobafo.oNskaep

dnanoitacoLeulav

fo.oNskaep

noitacoLeulavdna

492 592 2 8-7/492).mm11(

21-11/492).mm21(

...

...

...

....

...

....

...

....

592 692 2 2-1/592)mm21(

0/692-51/592)mm31(

....

....

2

....

1-0/592).mm21(

4-3/592)mm11(

....

.... osdnA.no

Page 181: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

168

STATEMENT No.2Analysis of Amsler Track Recording (Para 608)

Location-wise AnalysisTwist above 10 mm

P.W.I./PDPL Section: BPQ—KZJ (Down)A.E.N./RDM Date of run : May 1982

.mK tsiwT)eulavhtiwmm01gnideecxeskaepfo.oNdnanoitacoL(

morF oT

492

592

692

592

692

792

----

).mm31(31-21/5921

).mm11(41-31/6921

.noosdna

STATEMENT No. 3Analysis of Amsler Track Recording (Para 608)

Location-wise Analysis—Gauge + 6mm

P.W.I./PDL Section:BPQ—KZJ(Down Line)A.E.N./RDM Date of run :May 1982

.mK eguaGgnideecxeskaepfo.oNdnanoitacoL + .mm6

morF oT

492

592

692

592

692

792

----

1 )mm9+(9-8/592

.mm7-(,)mm7+(7-6/6924 )).mm8-(41-31/692)mm8+(51-41/692

.noosdna

Page 182: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

169

STATEMENT No.4Analysis of Amsler Track Recording (Para 608)

Location-wise Analysis

P.W.I./PDPL. Section: BPQ—KZJ (Down Line)A.E.N./RDM Date of run : May 1982

.mK ssennevenU tsiwT eguaG skrameR

morF oT liaRtfeL liaRthgiR

492

592

692

592

692

792

2B

2B

0A

0B

2B

0AnoosdnA

5B

2A

3B

0A

0A

0A

STATEMENT No. 5A.E.N.-wise Comparative Statement—Category (Para 608)

Section

noitceS.N.E.Afo

etaDfotseT

htgneL-drocer

de

%ssennevenU %tsiwT %eguaG

A B C D A B C D A B C

MDR yaM2891

.mK37 09 01 .. .. 65 83 6 .. 29 8 ..

noosdnA

Page 183: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

170

STATEMENT NO. 6A.E.N-wise Comparative Statement (Para 608)

No. of peaks—Unevenness

noitceS.N.E.Afo

foetaDtseT

.smKdedroceR

eniLnwoD

sgnissorC&stnioPgnidulcniskaepfo.oNlatoT

noitcesehtniskaepfo.oNlatoT fo.oN.C&.P-rocer

ded

.C.&.Pfo.oNhcihw

eromdedrocer.mm01naht

01nahteroM.mm

nahteroM.mm51

nahteroM.mm02

..MDR 2891yaM .smK37 87 liN liN 23 23.noosdna

STATEMENT NO. 7A.E.N-wise Comparative Statement (Para 608)

No. of peaks—Twist

noitceS.N.E.Afo

foetaDtseT

.smKdedroceR

eniLnwoD

sgnissorC&stnioPgnidulcniskaepfo.oNlatoT

nahteroM.mm01

nahteroM.mm51

nahteroM.mm02

.C&.Pfo.oNdedrocer

fo.oN.C.&.P

hcihwdedrocernahterom

.mm01

..MDR 2891yaM .smK37 69 22 1 23 23noosdna

STATEMENT NO. 8

A.E.N-wise Comparative Statement (Para 608)No. of peaks—Gauge

noitceS.N.E.Afo

foetaDtseT

.smKdedroceR

eniLnwoD

fo.oN6+skaep

dna.mmevoba

rep.oN.mK

fo.oNskaep.mm6

dnaevoba

rep.oN.mK

fo.oNskaep

± .mm6dna

evoba

rep.oN.mK

/.N.E.A.MDR

2891yaM 37 .. .. .. .. 05 96.0osdna

no

Page 184: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

171

609. Arrangements for running trackrecording car – On receipt of track recording carprogramme from the R.D.S.O., the Zonal Railwaysshould arrange for suitable power and path for thespecial along with telecommunication arrangementbetween the track recording car and the locomotive.The Headquarters should advise the Divisionsconcerned for making necessary arrangements toensure that the Track Recording Car has anuninterrupted run.

610. Actual running of Track RecordingCar – The Divisional Engineer, Assistant Engineerand Permanent Way Inspector of the section andnominated officer/staff of Headquarters office shouldaccompany the Track Recording run. The TrackRecording Car results vary appreciably with speed.The Divisional/Headquarters Officers accompanyingthe special should therefore ensure that the TrackRecording Cars are run at the specified recordingspeed range of the particular car. The recording speedrange of a Broad Gauge car is 70 km. p. h. - 80 km.p. h. and a Metre Gauge car 50 km. p. h. - 65 km. p.h. The recording done below these speeds are takenas “Non-recorded”. For obtaining comparable resultsbetween successive recordings, it is necessary torun the special at uniform speed. The track recordingcar specials must run on through lines of all stations.

Recording should be done during day light hours.Before start of any run it should be ensured that thecalibration of the car has been done satisfactorily.The charts should be taken out and sent toHeadquarters Office for obtaining copies after therun - samples of charts obtained by (i) Broad GaugeMechanical track recording car, (ii) Broad Gaugeelectronic track recording car, and (iii) Meter Gaugeelectronic track recording car are at Annexures 6/1, 6/2 and 6/3 respectively.

611. Action to be taken on TrackRecording Charts – Spots (km.) requiringimmediate attention, indicated by large peaks shouldbe noted down by the Assistant Engineer/PermanentWay Inspector accompanying the car and immediateattention should be given to these kms. without lossof time. The charts should be analysed as detailedin Para 608 above and track classified into variouscategories as detailed in Para 607. A comparison ofthe records of each section with the previous runshould be made and details of locations needingattention sent to the Division for onward transmissionto maintenance units. Special attention should bepaid by the maintenance units to the places whereirregularities are high and where the defects arereappearing in successive recording runs.

STATEMENT NO. 9

Abstract of Amsler Results

Section : Ballarshah - Kazipet (Up and Down)

Date of Run : May 1982

.sN.E.AfonoitceS)noisiviD-buS(

ssennevenU tsiwT eguaG

pUfo.oN01skaepdna.mmrepevoba

.mkgnidulcni

C&P

nwoDfo.oN01skaepdna.mmrepevoba

.mkgnidulcni

C&P

nwoDdnapUskaepfo.oNdna.mm01repevoba

gnidulcni.mkC&P

pUfo.oN01skaepdna.mmrepevoba

.mkgnidulcni

C&P

nwoDskaepfo.oNdna.mm01repevoba

gnidulcni.mkC&P

nwoDdnapUskaepfo.oN

dna.mm01.mkrepevoba

gnidulcniC&P

pUskaepfo.oN

± dna.mm6repevoba

.mkgnidulcni

C&P

nwoDfo.oN

skaep ± 6dna.mmrepevoba

.mkgnidulcni

C&P

nwoDdnapUskaepfo.oN

± dna.mm6.mkrepevoba

gnidulcniC&P

.MDR/.N.E.A )29.0(97.051.1)21.1(

79.0)20.1(

%9.4=I

10.1)22.1(

57.1)73.2(

83.1)97.1(%9.22=I

63.1)57.0(

21.1)03.1(

42.1)30.1(%4.02=D

Note : Figures in brackets pertains to February, 1982.

I - Improvement. % D -Deterioration. %

± ± ±

Page 185: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

172

612. Brief explanation of recordings –Explanation of the important parameters viz., twist,gauge, alignment and unevenness is given below –

(1)Twist – When the recording car follows astraight path where both the rails are in one plane,the track of the twist line follows the datum line. Oncurves, however, the record will be as shown insketch below (sketch ‘A’)

Sketch ‘A’

The portions AB and CD indicate thetransitions and BC the circular portion. For the circularportion the trace follows the datum line because thereis no change of cross levels over the circular portion.The shift of the trace from the datum indicates thecant gradient.

A record as shown below will indicate thefollowing defects (sketch ‘B’) :-

Sketch ‘B’

(a) At the entry and exit of transitions there issudden change indicating shock at entry and exit;smoothening is necessary.

(b) In the case of transitions, particularly AB,cant gradient is not uniform.

(c) Peaks in the circular portion indicatedefective cross levels.

(2) Gauge – The trace indicates threeconditions viz., correct gauge, tight gauge or slackgauge as shown in Sketch ‘C’ below –

Sketch ‘C’

The shift of the mean above the datum lineindicates slack gauge as at BC. If the mean followsthe datum, it indicates correct gauge as at AB. Theshift of the mean below the datum line indicates tightgauge as at D. Uniform, tight or slack gauge isindicted by parallel shift of the track. In such casesgauge adjustment is not necessary provided thevariation is within permissible limits. Isolated peaksindicate the necessity of spot-gauging.

(3) Alignment – The trace on a truly straightportion will follow the datum line as at AB in sketch‘D’ below. On a curve the indication will be as atBCDE. The trace shows the versine diagram, BCand DE being the transitions.

Sketch ‘D’

If isolated peaks are observed, localadjustment will serve the purpose. If the cant gradientover transition portion is non-uniform and there iswide variation of versines between adjacent chords,such curves call for realignment. By calculating thevariation of versines over the mean line of the trace,cumulative frequency can be determined to decidethe need for realigning.

Page 186: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

173

On B.G. On M.G. On N.G.

On C & D routes 6 months On Q routes 4 months

On E routes Every year On R routes 6 months Every year

On S routes Every year

(4) Unevenness – Unevenness is recorded byvariation in the top level of each rail. It is normallynoticed at joints either low or high. It is necessary tocompare the records of both the rails. A peak onone of the rails only indicates twist which should beverified from the trace of the twist line.

The twist record should also be co-related tothe cross-level record. Change in cross-levels overshort length will indicate twist.

613. Monitoring of the riding quality oftrack– While the track recording cars can recordthe track geometry (i) the Hallade track recorders,(ii) the Oscillograph car, and (iii) the portableaccelerometers record vertical and lateralaccelerations, on which depends, the riding quality.

614. Hallade track recorder – (1) General–The Hallade track recorder is an instrument whichproduces a graphic record of defects in alignmentand surface of the track over which it is carried. Themain parts of the instrument are –

(a) a drum rotated at a fixed speed by a clockwork mechanism which carries a strip of paper100 mm. wide covered over a carbon on which thechart is plotted,

(b) four sets of pendulums sensitive tomovement in different directions which records theoscillations in those directions of the vehicle andtrack.

(2) Hallade Chart – Annexure 6/4 shows

sample section of the Hallade chart. The top line,marked Line 1, is a record of the features of theroute, on which telegraph posts, kilometre postsfacing and trailing points in station yards, long bridgesand tunnels are recorded by the Operator who makesthe needle point producing this line move side-waysas the train passes any of the features, so making asmall ‘tick’ in the line. A suitable convention for ‘ticks’should be adopted to distinguish the physicalfeatures of the section.

Line 2 represents the alignment and is drawnafter the test is carried out.

Line 3 represents the fore and aft “rolling” ofthe vehicle and registers sudden sags or humps andthe acceleration of deceleration.

Line 4 represents lateral oscillations of thevehicle. Side to side motion of the vehicle causesthe style to oscillate about the “medial line”. Theamount the style travels from the “medial line” is acomparative measure of the amount the vehiclediverges from its true path. Irregularities in alignment,uneven or incorrect superelevation on curves anduneven cross-levels are indicated.

Line 5 is a record of the vertical disturbanceto the coach. Low or high joints, a bad top generally,or “hanging sleepers” are indicated.

(3) Frequency of testing with Hallade - Onroutes where Hallade track recorder is exclusivelyused for the track monitoring the following frequenciesmay be adopted :-

Page 187: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

174

(4) Testing of track with Hallade –

(a) The Hallade track recorder should beplaced on the leading bogie of the trailing vehicle oron the last but one vehicle, but the position of thevehicle must be the same in every run on a particularsection.

(b) The Permanent Way Inspector shouldaccompany the Hallade run.

(c) The same vehicle should be there everytime preferably.

(d) Proper adjustment of the dampingmechanism (critical damping) should be done.

(e) After completing the test, the chart shouldbe completed in the following respects :-

(i) Heading the chart with particulars of date oftest, train no., from station .................. to station.................., vehicle no., speed of the paper roll, anddetails of damping.

(ii) Checking up markings of kilometre posts,telegraph posts (electric masts) and filling in thespeed of the train in km. p. h., km. by km.

(iii) Drawing line No. 2 indicating the right handand left hand curve with the radius of each curve.

(iv) Drawing the medial line on line No. 4.(v) Scrutinizing and marking track defects on

the chart.

Blue prints of the chart should be then takenand 3 copies sent to the Assistant Engineer within aweek of the test.

(5) Interpretation of the Charts – The chartsare then analysed in the track cell of Chief Engineer’sOffice Kilometre-wise and the actual kilometreswhere alignment and packing defects have beenrecorded are listed out and given to the AssistantEngineer and Permanent Way Inspector for attention.The number of defects per km. are also worked outto enable the assessment of the track condition. Theinterpretation of the various types of typical defectsnoticed in a track are shown in Annexure 6/4. Atypical analysis of an Hallade run in a P.W.I.’s/A.E.N.’s section may be seen in the Statements 1and 2, shown below.

Result of H.T.R. Test STATEMENT No. 1 (Para 614)

Comparative Statement of Defects Sub-Division, P.W.I.-wise Analysis

Date of Test : January 1981 Division : GuntakalA.E.N. Sub-Division : Guntakal/M.G.

noitceS .I.W.P

dedrocerstcefedfo.oNfo.oNegarevA.mkrepstcefed

elbarapmocfotseTsuoiverP0891yraurbeFdoirep

1891yraunaJtseTtnerruC suoiverPtseT

yraurbeF0891

tnerruCtseT

yraunaJ1891tnemngilA gnikcaP latoT tnemngilA gnikcaP

latoT

.MMD-LTGoD

KAP-MMD

LTG/.N.E.A

G.M/LTGPTA

YRK

1

7

01

02

13

13

12

83

14

3

7

9

31

63

62

61

34

53

56.0

45.0

35.0

05.0

16.0

44.0

.. 81 28 001 91 57 49 55.0 25.0

Page 188: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

175

STATEMENT NO. 2Detailed Notes

Date of Test : 12th January, 1981. Section : GTL-DMM-PAKTrain No. 86 Express Direction : UpFrom : GTL Km. 279/0To : KDT Km. 246/15 P.W.I. Section : GTL (M.G.)

gnikcaP deepS tnemngilA deepS

9-8/94241-51/752

8-7/85221-11/852

5-4/9624-3/072

11-01/27261-51/372

11-11/47231-21/472

8-7/572

6-5/672

0656

56

0707

0707

0707

5656

1-9/052 061-51/072

41-31/772

etoN -

stcefedtnemngilA 3

stcefedgnikcaP 31___

latoT 61___

5607

06

(6) Attention to track defects recorded : – ThePermanent Way Inspector should verify track defectsindicated by chart at site, take expeditious action andreport to the Assistant Engineer within a month.

On receipt of the Assistant Engineer’s reportthe Divisional Engineer should get the chart examinedwith previous records and issue any orders he mayconsider necessary.

615. Oscillograph Car (1) Brief descriptionof the car :– The main equipment in this car is anaccelerometer, which consists essentially of a massattached to one end of thin flexible plate, the otherend of the plate being fixed firmly to the casing of theaccelerometer. The space within the accelerometercasing is filled with a damping fluid (usually siliconliquid). The cantilever plate is strain gauged so thatthe deflection of the mass ‘m’ is sensed. This iscalibrated to indicate the acceleration to which themass is subjected. This acceleration is recorded inthe form of an accelerogram. Thus the vertical andlateral acceleration on any part of the vehicle wherethe accelerometer is installed can be recorded. Intrack monitoring runs the accelerations at the loco

cab floor are recorded by keeping the accelerometeras close to bogie pivot as possible.

(2) Details of recording : – the followingparameters are recorded in the oscillograph carruns:–

(a) Vertical acceleration of loco cab.(b) Lateral acceleration of loco cab.

In addition to the above, timing marks-one forevery second-telegraph and km. marks and evenmarks such as station buildings,bridges etc., are alsorecorded on the chart. The primary spring deflectionsleft and right are also recorded.

The chart obtained in an oscillograph car runcan be seen at Annexure 6/5.

(3) Frequency of recording – These cars areused to monitor high speed routes where thesectional speed exceeds 100km./h. on B.G. and75km./h. on M.G.These cars are run once in sixmonths to assess the riding quality of the track asdistinct from actual track geometry recorded by theTrack Recording Cars. Recording is done at themaximum sanctioned speed of the section.On Rajdhani routes recording is done once in 4months.

Page 189: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

176

616. Analysis of oscillograms andinterpretation of results –

(1) The Oscillograms obtained from theoscillograph car are analysed for the vertical andlateral acceleration.

(2) The analysis of records is done on thefollowing lines :–

(a) All peaks are to be measured from the baseor zero line i.e.,no allowance is to be given when thetrace shifts because of cant deficiency on curves.However, for the purpose of “ride index” calculations,lateral acceleration peaks are to be measured fromthe shifted base line on curves.

(b) The vertical and lateral accelerations abovethe threshold values are separately counted:

Threshold value of acceleration may be takenas follows :–

(i) In Loco Cab floor – The threshold value ofacceleration in vertical mode is taken as 0.20 g. forall locos (Diesel and Eletric).

The threshold value of acceleration in lateralmode is taken as 0.20g. for diesel and electric locoswith double stage suspension (i.e., for WDM-3,

WDM-4, WDM-1, WDM-2/3 and WAG-2) with theexception of WDM-2 modified with single stagesuspension.

In case of other locos, with single stagesuspension (i.e.,WDM-2 std., WAM-1, WAM-4,WAG-1,WAG-3,WAG-4,WCG-2, WCAM, WCM,WCM-2, WCM-4 and WCM-5) the threshold valuemay be taken as 0.30g.

(ii) On Passenger Coach Floor :– The thresholdvalue of acceleration for both vertical and lateralmodes shall be taken as 0.15g.

(iii) The analysis is done kilometer-wise andresults are given under the following heads, aftercounting the peaks above threshold value for theparticular locomotive –

Station Yards,

Other than Station Yards(Isolated locations),

Active continuous stretches,

Speed grouping table is also prepared.

Typical Statement prepared in connection withan Oscillograph run are given below (Statement‘A’ to ‘C’) –

STATEMENT ‘ A ’

Oscillograph Results (Para 616)

Total length of Section : 232 Kms. Section : BBQ—KZJ.Length recorded : 185 Kms. Loco No.......................Date of recording : 22nd March 1982 Type of Loco................

Station Yards (Peaks above Threshold values)

.oN.IS draYfoemaNnoitacoLdna

nideepS.h.p.mK

lacitreVnoitarelecca

laretaLnoitarelecca

skrameR

1 RURS2-PF

001 .. 62.0

2 ICM1-PT2-PT

001001

22.022.0

..

3 ZPP1-PF2-PF

001501

02.002.0

..

..

4 FSGB11-01/423

011 .. 22.0

5 LPO6-5/343

001 62.0 ..

6 PSH1-PT

001 02.0 ..

Page 190: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

177

STATEMENT ‘ B ’

Date of recording : 22nd March 1982. Section : BPQ—KZJ (K.m. 367-K.m. 135)

Loco No............................. Length recorded: 185 Km.

Type of Loco....................... Total length: 232 Kin.

Oscillograph Results in Places other than Station Yards

Isolaled Locations (Peaks above Threshold value)

.oN.IS noitacoL .m.KnideepS.h.p

lacitreVnoitarelecca

laretaLnoitarelecca

skrameR

12

34

56

78

901

...2-1/64161-51/841

...8-7/941

...8-7/941

...9-8/151

...9-8/151

...21-11/151...8-7/061

...01-9/461...2-1/861

001011

011011

011011

501011

011001

..

..

82.053.0

..

..

..

..

42.0.noosdna

82.082.0

..

..

42.023.0

42.022.0

..03.0

.evruC.rB

.rB

evruC

STATEMENT ‘ C ’Date of recording : 22nd March 1982. Section : BPQ—KZJ (Km. 135-Km. 367)

Loco No. :................................. Length recorded : 185Km.

Type of Loco :.......................... Total lenth :232Km.

OSCILLOGRAPH RESULTSActive Continuous Stretches

.oN.IS

.smKecnatsiD.mKni

deepSni

.h.p.mK

nievitcAedom

oNlatoTskaepfo

evoba.g’02.0

mumixaMeulav

fo.oNskaepneewteb.g02.0.g53.0

fo.oNskaepevoba.g52.0

skrameR

morF oT

liN

Note – If there are on an average more than 10 peaks above the threshold value per km., the length may beincluded in this statement.

Page 191: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

178

617. Use of Oscillograph Car recordings:–

(1) Threshold values of acceleration are givenin Para 616(2)/b. For ensuring good riding, trackshould be attended to at such locations where peaksabove threshold values are noticed.

(2) Efforts should be made not only to checkthe extent of defect but also to find out whether it isoccurring in an active patch; as such condition maylead to excessive oscillations.

618 Portable Accelerometers-

(1) General- OMS-2000 equipment’s areportable accelerometers used for Oscillationmonitoring using a portable accelerometer andtransducers converting the oscillations to electricalsignals which can be recorded electronically andprocessed on PC.

(2) Operation- The OMS Accelerometer is keptin the cabin of locomotive or on the coach floor, asclose to the bogie pivot as possible. It is preferablethat same coach and the same vehicular positionare used in successive runs. The accelerationsrecorded are transferred to electronic recorder andare readable on the LCD display on real time basis.The stored data can be downloaded on TMSComputer for maintenance planning.

This equipment measures the TrackPerformance by measurement of vehicle responsein terms of vertical and lateral accelerations. Thereal time output of the equipment is in the form ofvalue of peaks exceeding the limiting value, theirlocation and Ride Index. These values are availablefor both vertical and lateral accelerations.

(3) Frequency of Recording:

(A) Broad Gauge :

Speed above 100 Kmph Once every month.

Others Once in two months

(B) Meter Gauge :

Speed above 75 Kmph Once every month

Others Once in two months

The above schedule is only a guideline. ChiefEngineers may vary it, depending upon theavailability of instrument and its use. For the timebeing A, B and C routes are to be covered once amonth and other routes can be covered as percapacity and need.

(4) Recording of Defects: To assess the trackquality, vertical and lateral acceleration peaksexceeding the values as below are to be considered:

Broad Gauge:

High Speed Routes above greater than 0.15 g.110 Kmph On A & B routes

Other Routes upto greater than 0.2 g110 Kmph

Meter Gauge : greater than 0.2 g

(5) Classification of Track Quality - To classify acontinuous section's (PWI's jurisdiction/sub-division/division) track quality, the following criteria is to beused (average total number of peaks per km.):

Very Good Good Average

High Speed Less than 1.0 1 - 2 Greater than 2

Others Less than 1.5 1.5-3.0 Greater than 3

The above criteria are for judging the quality of track. However, if the average number of peaks of verticaland lateral accelerations exceeding 0.30g is more than 0.25 per km or more than one in any particular kilometer,the track will need attention : At locations where peaks of lateral and vertical accelerations exceed 0.35g, thetrack will have to be attended to urgently.

Page 192: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

179

AN

NE

XU

RE

- 6

/1 P

AR

A 6

07

SA

MP

LE

CH

AR

T O

F T

RC

ME

CH

AN

ICA

L/B

.G.

15

Page 193: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

180

AN

NE

XU

RE

- 6

/2 P

AR

A 6

07

SA

MP

LE

CH

AR

T O

F T

RC

EL

EC

TR

ON

IC/B

.G.

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

Page 194: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

181

AN

NE

XU

RE

- 6

/3 P

AR

A 6

07

SA

MP

LE

CH

AR

T O

F T

RC

EL

EC

TR

ON

IC/M

.G.

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

Page 195: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

182

AN

NE

XU

RE

- 6

/4 P

AR

A 6

14

SA

MP

LE

HA

LL

AD

E C

HA

RT

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

Page 196: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

183

AN

NE

XU

RE

- 6

/5 P

AR

A 6

15

TY

PIC

AL

CH

AR

T O

F A

N O

SC

ILL

OG

RA

PH

CA

R/B

.G.

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

Page 197: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

184

AN

NE

XU

RE

- 6

/6 P

AR

A 6

18

SA

MP

LE

CH

AR

T O

F P

OR

TAB

LE

AC

CE

LE

RO

ME

TE

R

TRACK RECORDING, ANALYSIS AND MONITORING

Page 198: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

185

CHAPTER VIICHAPTER VIICHAPTER VIICHAPTER VIICHAPTER VII

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTSACTION DURING ACCIDENTSACTION DURING ACCIDENTSACTION DURING ACCIDENTSACTION DURING ACCIDENTSINCLUDING BREACHES ANDINCLUDING BREACHES ANDINCLUDING BREACHES ANDINCLUDING BREACHES ANDINCLUDING BREACHES AND

PRE-MONSOON PRECAPRE-MONSOON PRECAPRE-MONSOON PRECAPRE-MONSOON PRECAPRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONUTIONUTIONUTIONUTIONARARARARARYYYYYMEASURESMEASURESMEASURESMEASURESMEASURES

PART ‘A’

Action during Accidents including Breaches

701. Observance of Rules – (1) Anyoccurrence which does or may affect the safety ofthe Railways, its engines, rolling stock, permanentway, works, passengers or servants which affectsthe safety of others or which does or may causedelays to trains or loss to the Railway, is termed anaccident.

Occurrence outside the Railway limitsthreatening the safety of the line or trains should alsobe reported as accidents. For instance a flood outsideRailway limits may seriously threaten the safety ofthe line and should be treated as an accident.

(2) Rules for reporting and joint enquiries intothe accidents are contained in the Accident Manualissued by Railways and in the Railway (Notices ofand Enquiries into Accident ) Rules, 1973, issuedunder Section 84 of Indian Railway Act,1890.

(3) Rule 2.11 of General Rules, 1976 Editionenjoins that –

(a) Every Railway servant shall –

(i) see that every exertion is made for ensuringthe safety of the public ;

(ii) promptly report to his superior anyoccurrence affecting the safe or proper working ofthe railway which may come to his notice; and

(iii) render on demand all possible assistancein the case of an accident or obstruction.

(b) Every Railway servant who observes –

(i) that any signal is defective;

(ii) any obstruction, failure, or threatened failureof any part of the way or works;

(iii) anything wrong with a train; or

(iv) any unusual circumstance likely to interferewith the safe running of trains or the safety of thepublic;

shall take immediate steps, such as thecircumstances of the case may demand, to preventaccident; and where necessary, advise the nearestStation Master by the quickest possible means:

Provided that in the case of a train havingparted, he shall not show a stop hand signal but shallendeavour to attract the attention of the Driver orGuard by shouting, gesticulating or other means.

702. Report of Accident to the StationMaster / Railway servant in-charge of Block Hut–(1) Engineering representative (if he is the first toreach the site of the accident ) while reporting anaccident to the nearest Station Master/Railwayservant in charge should furnish the followinginformation to enable the Station Master/Railwayservant in-charge to issue an all concernedmessage:

• Station at or stations between which theaccident has occurred.

• Kilometrage at which the accident hasoccurred.

• Number and description of the train or trainsinvolved.

• Date and time of the accident.

• Particulars of loss of life and injuries topassengers and staff.

• Nature and cause, if known, of accident.

• Damage to Permanent Way, Works, Bridges,Overhead equipment (in case of electrifiedsection), signal and interlocking gear, enginesor vehicles.

• Probable duration the line may be blocked.

• Whether transhipment is required and if sowhether it is feasible.

• Assistance ( if any required) such as Medicalassistance, break-down train etc.

(2) Acknowledgment of the receipt of messageshould invariably be taken from the Station Master.

Page 199: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

186

703. Accidents impairing through traffic–(1) Engineers and Inspectors to proceed to site –

(a) On receipt of intimation of the occurrenceof an accident resulting in damage to any part of theWay/ Works /Bridges and affecting the free passageof trains, the concerned Permanent Way Inspector /Works or Bridge Inspector and the AssistantEngineer shall proceed to the site of accident, bythe quickest available means. On their way, theyshould collect information about the extent of damageto Permanent Way / Works / Bridges and arrangefor movement of materials required for restoration.They should also collect additional staff and tools asrequired; the engineering tool van should be sent tothe site, if so considered necessary, by the quickestmeans.

(b) On receipt of intimation of an accident, theDivisional Engineer shall contact the section controland the Assistant Engineer in-charge and get theinformation regarding the extent of damage toPermanent Way and Works, check on thearrangements made for labour and materials, etc.,supplement them if necessary and proceed to thesite of the accident by the quickest available means,if the seriousness of the accident requires hispersonal supervision and direction.

(2) Accident in an adjacent division-In the eventof an accident taking place on a division, whereassistance could be more expeditiously rendered byofficials of an adjacent division, such officials andthe Assistant Engineer/ Divisional Engineer of theconcerned adjacent division should be advised;these officials should proceed at once to the site ofaccident with their Inspectors and render everypossible assistance.

704. Action at site – (1) By Permanent Wayand other Engineering Inspectors –

(a) Protect Train – Any engineering staffavailable at the site of the accident shall assist theGuard and Driver to protect the train in accordancewith the General Rules 6.03 and 9.10 (1976). TheInspector should ensure that protection has beenafforded to the train in front and in the rear, inaccordance with the rules. In the case of double line,if the other line is also affected by the accident, stepsshall be taken to protect both the lines. If noinfringement exists, trains must be controlled andpassed cautiously on the unaffected track.

(b) First aid and Rescue – The Inspectorshould arrange for first aid to injured passengers and

Railway staff and rescue of trapped persons. If thereis any Medical Practitioner on the train, hisassistance should be obtained.

(c) Advice to nearest Station Master – After arapid survey of the position, particulars should besent to the nearest Station Master as in (Para 702)above. In case of controlled sections, a fieldtelephone should be got commissioned at once.

(d) Line Clear examination - If the Engineeringofficial has reached the site and no traffic official isavailable he should carefully secure the line cleartoken or ticket and any caution order, wherenecessary. If the accident has occurred in a stationyard, the train register book must be seized and ifnecessary, statement of staff concerned recorded;if line badges are in use, it should be recorded as toin whose possession each line badge was. Theposition of block instruments, signals, points, pointlevers, indicators, keys, etc. should be noted andrecorded, jointly with the Inspectors of the otherconcerned departments, available at site.

(e) Preliminary clearing operation andpreservation of clues –

(i) In all instances in which the means takenfor the restoration of communication are likely toobliterate marks on the road and other evidenceneeded at a joint enquiry, the senior official whoarrives first on the spot should carefully examine thetrack, train or vehicle and as soon as possible makenotes, sketches etc. and hand over the same to hissuperior or produce them at the enquiry. He will, whenthe nature of the accident is such as will involve thequestion of eye-sight of any of the staff, verify ( incase of those permitted to wear glasses) that theyhad worn glasses at the time of the accident andhad carried a spare pair of glasses with them.

(ii) In all cases of accidents, the cause of whichmight possibly due to sabotage, it is essential thatthe clearance and restoration operations are notcommenced till the Police officials arrive at the siteand intimate their agreement to the commencementof clearance and restoration work, after, makingthorough investigations.

A factual note of the conditions obtaining at thesite prior to restoration work should be prepared andsigned jointly by the senior-most Police and Railwayofficials at the site. In the event of any difference ofopinion between the Police and the Railway officials,such difference of opinion may be recorded on thejoint factual note.

Page 200: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

187

This should not, however, be allowed tointerfere with rendering of first aid to the injured, whichis the first essential in all accidents.

(iii) In other cases, clearance and restorationoperations can commence even before the arrival ofthe Police and it is not necessary that all the rails,sleepers and fastenings involved in an accidentshould be preserved, but only those, whetherserviceable or otherwise, which bear wheel marks,etc., specially between the points of mount and drop.In all cases of serious derailments, these areessential for a later reconstruction of the scene andshould be preserved and/or recorded by the firstresponsible official to reach the site of the accident,as these would be valuable evidence to ascertainthe cause of the accident.

(iv) After the injured persons have beenattended to and arrangements made for the onwardjourney of the stranded passengers, the Railwayofficers at the site of the accident should arrange torecord the preliminary statements of the staffconcerned, as any delay in doing so, might result insome facts being suppressed or some evidencebeing fabricated during subsequent enquiries.

(v) In case sabotage is suspected, theprocedure as outlined in clause (ii) above should befollowed. In addition it should be ascertained promptlyfrom the C.R.S. if he would like to inspect the site,etc. before the commencement of clearance andrestoration work and then action should be taken inaccordance with his wishes. Before clearance andrestoration operations are commenced all relevantclues, materials and damages and the deficiencieson Rolling Stock, etc. must be noted and preserved.In other serious accidents, however, the sameprocedure as outlined in Clause (iii) above shouldbe strictly followed.

(f) Contacting higher officials – The inspectorshould get in touch with the Assistant Engineer orDivisional Engineer, explain the position on telephone,wherever possible ; if not, he should himself organisethe restoration of through running including orderingof ballast trains, requisitioning of required materialsand tools and send information to Assistant Engineerand Divisional Engineer of the preliminary measuresundertaken, by the quickest possible means.

(g) Recording of details and advice regardingrestoration time – He should arrange to record thedetails of the accident and prepare notes on anyspecial features bearing on its cause, which may be

of help in the enquiry. He should send by any meansavailable and relay a concise report of the accidentas per (Para 702) to the nearest Station Master toenable him to issue all concerned message.

(h) Preservation of clues – He should arrangeto preserve all clues to enable reconstruction of thescene of the accident as detailed vide (Para 704 )

(i) Photographs showing the details of damageto Permanent Way and Rolling Stock at the site ofaccident should be taken wherever necessary; incase of suspected sabotage, the photographs of thesite of the accident showing the damage and possibleclues should invariably be taken.

(2) By Assistant Engineer –

(a) He should ensure that action specifiedunder sub-para 704 (1) has been taken by theInspector. If he is the first to arrive at site, theAssistant Engineer should take action as specifiedin the case of the Inspector.

(b) He should get in touch with the DivisionalEngineer and the Controller / Chief Controller andfurnish complete information advising the details ofaction being taken and the probable time for restoringthrough running.

(c) He should arrange to organise the measurefor expeditious restoration of through running andensure incessant working until this is effected.

(d) A preliminary report should be prepared.

(3) By Divisional Engineer –

(a) He should examine the adequacy ofmeasures taken for restoration of through runningand ensure expeditious work.

(b) He should assess and advise the positionto the Divisional Railway Manager and ChiefEngineer, with brief particulars (over the fieldtelephones on Controlled Sections) and probabletime of restoration. The Chief Engineer / Addl. ChiefEngineer may proceed to site in case of very seriousaccidents.

(c) A report should be prepared and submittedto the Chief Engineer and Divisional RailwayManager.

(d)The Divisional Engineer shall ensure thatthe fractured pieces of rail/weld are preserved andsent to RDSO for detailed investigations, at theearliest possible, in all cases of accidents, whererail/weld is a prima facie cause of the train accident.

Page 201: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

188

(4) The senior-most Railway Officer at thescene of accident shall be responsible for the generalappraisal of the situation and co-ordination of allworks.

705. Report to the Chief Engineer –(1) Report – (a) the Senior Engineer at the site of theaccident shall after initiating measures for restoringtraffic, submit a brief report to the Chief Engineerwith a copy to the Divisional Railway Manager whichwill include the following particulars:

(i) Nature of the accident,(ii) Cause, if known.(iii) Particulars of loss of life and injuries

to passengers and staff.(iv) Extent of damage to Way, Works and

Bridges.(v) Particulars of rainfall and patrolling,

in the case of damage by floods.(vi) Steps taken for resumption of traffic.(vii) Probable time, when normal working

is likely to be resumed.(viii) Whether transhipment is necessary

and if so, for how long.(ix) Whether a diversion is necessary

and if so, when it is likely to be opened.(x) Details of any assistance required,

such as additional staff, labour, ballasttrains and other Permanent Way andBridging materials.

(b) A sketch showing important dimensions,positions of vehicles, tracks made by derailedvehicles, marks on rails, particulars of condition oftrack for an adequate distance in the rear of the pointof derailment and any other information likely to beof use in elucidating the cause of accident shouldaccompany the report.

(2) Remedial measures – In the case ofdamages caused by floods, the Divisional Engineershould initiate necessary investigation and submit atechnical report with drawings, to the Chief Engineer,detailing the remedial measures required, with thepast history, if any, of the kilometrage affected, withina month of the occurrence.

706. Attendance of Police at site –Arrangements should be made for the police toattend the scene of accident in the case of derailmentof a train carrying passengers (or of any other trainwhen it is considered necessary) in order that they

may observe the extent of disturbances caused tothe line, keeping guard over loose materials layingabout and over any evidence affecting the cause ofthe accident and safeguard passengers’ luggage andmail as required.

707. Examination of site and preparationof sketches – The first Engineering representativeto arrive at site shall attend to the following :–

(1) He should examine the entire site inclusiveof track over which the train has passed immediatelybefore derailing, noting down any unusual featuresobserved, especially any parts of vehicles or othermaterial lying on or near the track.

(2) A dimensioned sketch should be preparedcovering the entire site of accident, showing allrelevant features inclusive of track leading up to pointof derailment, showing position of derailed vehicles,point of mount and drop and other relevant details.All the details given in Annexure 7/1 should beincorporated in the sketch.

(3) He should record the particulars as detailedin Para 708(1).

(4) An examination of the derailed vehicle/vehicles for defects not caused by the derailmentbut which may have been the cause of the derailmentshould be made. He should make out notes forinclusion in the joint report.

(5) He should examine the gang-charts/diarybooks to ascertain the date when track was lastattended.

(6) Details of Engineering works in progress, ifany, at the site of accident, caution orders in forceand nature of protection should be noted.

708. Recording particulars at site ofaccident – (1) Permanent Way particulars –Permanent Way particulars shall be recorded jointlywith the Inspectors of the other concerneddepartments as per Annexure 7/2. These recordswill inter alia include particulars of the trackstructures, the condition of the track components,track geometry and other relevant details.

(2) Particulars with respect to Rolling Stockand signalling – Engineering representative shouldassociate himself with the concerned representativeof the other departments in recording measurementsof –

Page 202: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

189

(a) The locomotive and tender;

(b) Carriages and Wagons; and

(c) Signalling and Telecommunicationequipment.

(3) Operating particulars – The followingoperating particulars should also be recordedwherever relevant :–

(a) Speed – The actual speed at the time ofderailment, from the speedometer graph or if thelocomotive is not provided with the speedometergraph, by referring to inter-station timings.

(b) The direction of the locomotive i.e.,shorthood or longhood leading.

(c ) The brake power of the train.

(d) The marshalling of the train with referenceto orders applicable on the section.

(e) Whether there has been sudden applicationof brakes.

(f) Whether there was sudden opening ofregulators.

(g) Condition of loading in wagons, speciallyunequal loading, light loading, empties betweenloaded vehicles, over loading, moving loads and anyinfringement to standard dimensions.

(h) Particulars of Caution Orders issued to theDriver/Guard.

709. Use of Recorded Data – The object ofrecording all available data at site and of evidence isto ascertain the cause of the accident with a view toprevent its recurrence, and where the cause is dueto negligence, to fix responsibility.

Restoration of Through Running

710. Repairs to damaged track :– Repairs tothe track should in the first instance, be kept to theminimum necessary to restore traffic with the leastpossible delay, the required materials beingexpeditiously arranged for. Soon after, the trackshould be brought to its proper standard.

711. Procurement and Arrangement ofLabour – (1) Adequate labour is the very firstessential for restoration of through running. Engineersand Inspectors should acquaint themselves with allpossible sources from which labour could be readilyobtainable in the event of a breach or a seriousderailment on their section. Labour should, as far as

practicable, be conveyed to the site of accident bytrain.

(2) Labour should be obtained in one or moreof the following ways :

(a)By ordering temporary gangs such asrelaying gangs, special gangs, construction gangs,remodelling gangs, yard gangs, within a reasonabledistance to proceed to the site.

(b)By ordering two or more men from eachpermanent gangs to proceed to the site.

(c)By obtaining labour from adjoining divisions,of considered necessary and possible.

(d)By calling on the Revenue authorities tosupply labour.

(e)By recruiting temporary labour locally orfrom known sources.

(f)By arranging labour through reliableContractors (wages should be fixed prior to theirengagement).

(3) In case contractor’s labour is engaged, it ispreferable to allot work in such a way that thedepartmental labour and contractor’s labour do notget mixed up. Settlement of claims should be prompt.Labour should be organised in batches under thecharge of Inspectors. Proper muster sheets shouldbe maintained.

(4) In emergencies, Assistant Engineers/Permanent Way Inspectors may authorise StationMasters by telegram/memo to issue proceed orderfor the journey of Gangman/Labour required for thework along with their tools and equipment fromspecified station to the nearest station from the siteof accident. As far as possible, all departmentallabour shall move with complete tools and equipment.

(5) Adequate arrangements should be madefor food, shelter, water and lighting.

712. Diversion – (1) General – Should adiversion be decided upon, the work should becommenced as quickly as possible.

(2) Classification of diversions – These maybe classified as –

(a) Temporary

(b) Semi-permanent

A temporary diversion is one which is not likelyto be in use, for more than 10 days. All trains must“Stop-dead” before entering a temporary diversionand proceed at 10 Km./h. speed.

Page 203: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

190

A semi–permanent diversion, is oneconstructed for the special purpose of facilitating thereconstruction of the line and/or bridges likely to bein use for a period of more than ten days. On a semi-permanent diversion, trains may proceed at a nonstop reduced speed after adequate period ofconsolidation.

(3) Curvature and Gradients – As far aspossible the radius of curve should not be less than450 meter, 300 meteres and 45 meters for B.G.,M.G., and N.G., respectively. Gradient should notbe steeper than 1 in 100, 1 in 80 and 1 in 40 on theB.G., M.G. and N.G. respectively, compensated forcurvature.

In difficult terrain it may be necessary to laycurves of radius not less than 225 meters and 125meters on B.G. and M.G. respectively and adoptgrades up to the ruling gradient on the section. Thereshould be no superelevation, in case of temporarydiversions.

(4) Calculation for setting out diversion –

While setting out diversion, the followingformula will be found handy :–

______________SL = √√√√√ C

2 + 4RD – D

2 + ____

2RD

T = _________________________ SL – ____ + C 2

All measurements to be taken in same units,

where

AB = Portion of existing line to be diverted.

L = Length of half the diversion,measured along the originalalignment.

D = Maximum distance of diversion fromoriginal alignment.

S = Straight portion of diversion.

C = Length of straight between reversecurves.

R = Radius of curves.

T = Length of tangent.

(5) Opening for traffic – The diversion trackshould be adequately consolidated and tested bylocomotive/ wagons before opening for traffic.

The most vulnerable portion of the diversion isat the junction of the old bank with the new bank.Care should, therefore, be taken to provide benchingof slopes at the junction. Cross levels should bechecked after passage of every train and rectified tillthe track gets stabilised.

(6) Issue of safety certificate – In an emergencythe line may be opened to traffic on the safetycertificate issued by the Engineer-in-charge, withoutthe prior sanction of the C. R. S. However if the useof temporary diversion is likely to be extended tomore than three days, the Commissioner of RailwaySafety, may if he considers it necessary, take theearliest opportunity of inspecting it.

713. Transhipment – The decision, as towhether transhipment is to be done, is taken byTransportation/Commercial Department. If it isdecided to provide gangways, footpath etc., purelyfor the purpose of transhipment, these should, asfar as possible, be laid away from the site of repairs,so that the progress of restoration is not interferedwith.

ST

L

T

T

A

L

T

B

CR

D

Page 204: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

191

714. Funds required during Emergencies– (1) The divisional Engineer or the AssistantEngineer on his behalf may draw upon the stationearnings according to the instructions prescribed bythe Administration under note to (Para 1405-G) forthe following purposes :–

(a) Payment to daily labour employment atthe site of breach or accident.

(b) Purchase of tools or materials requiredin connection with accident which cannot be suppliedin time by the Store Department.

(c) To provide food to engineering labour atthe site of breach or accident with the assistance ofStation Master or Inspectors of the CommercialDepartment.

(Supply of food free of charge is permitted inspecial circumstances at the discretion of theadministration to facilitate expeditious restoration oftraffic.

When food is supplied free at the site of anaccident to engineering and other labour, theexpenditure per head per day shall not exceed theprescribed limit).

(2) The Accounts Officer should be advisedimmediately by telegram of each sum taken fromstation earnings.

In all cases, Engineers obtaining advancesfrom Station earnings should do so under a clearreceipt. The purpose for which the money has beendrawn should be clearly stated on the receipt.

A complete account should be submitted atthe earliest possible date to the Accounts Departmentsupported by pay sheets and vouchers.

(3) All payment to labour should be witnessedby the Assistant Engineer at site.

715. Obstructions found on track – Whenobstructions are found on the track those should becleared after protecting the line and informing thenearest Station Master. Where sabotage issuspected, the Police should be advised immediately.The Permanent Way Inspector should, if so required,arrange to meet the Police Official at the place ofoccurrence. A detailed report should be submittedby Permanent Way Inspector to the Assistant/Divisional Engineer. The Divisional Engineer shouldin turn report such occurrences whether or notsabotage is suspected to the Divisional RailwayManager and Chief Engineer.

716. Flooded Causeways / Dips –(1) Permissible depth of water for passage of

trains – In the case of causeways that are floodedand the velocity of current is insignificant, trains maybe permitted to pass when the depth of water aboverail-level does not exceed the following values,provided in each case Permanent Way Inspector hassatisfied himself by walking over and probing thatPermanent Way is intact and in a fit condition :–

Gauge Passenger andMixed trains Goods train

B.G. 300mm. 450mm.

M.G. 230mm. 300mm.

N.G. 230mm. 230mm.

(2)(a) Indication posts – Indication posts about1200 mm. in height shall be fixed at each dip, one ateach end of the level portion, with flat bar attachedto them to indicate level mentioned in Para 716(1).

(b) The posts should be painted black andwhite in 300 mm. length so arranged that the flatbars which shall be painted white, show up against300 mm. length of black colour.

(c) The posts shall be fixed 3 metres from thecentre of the track in the case of Broad Gauge and2.5 metres from the centre of track in the case ofMetre and Narrow Gauge.

(3) In the section where electric locos/stockand or diesel locos ply, special gauges may beprovided by the administration at the place liable toflooding, indicating the depth at which these locos/stock have to be stopped from the operation. Thesedepths should be specified for each type of locos/stock by the administration.

717. Special precautions when track issubmerged – (1) The following precautions shallbe observed when the track is submerged :

(a) In all cases train shall be stopped deadand allowed to proceed at a speed not exceeding10 km. p. h.

(b) If water rises over the top of the ballast butis below rail level, the track should be checked beforeeach train, by two men walking abreast one at eitherend of the sleepers, and only if the track has notbeen disturbed, should the train be allowed over thetrack.

Page 205: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

192

(c) When water overtops the rails, thePermanent Way Inspector shall pilot the train, afterensuring that the track is safe, by walking over thetrack and checking by means of probing, subject todepths specified in Para 716 not being exceeded.

(2) Telegraphic advise should be sent by thePermanent Way Inspector to the Assistant andDivisional Engineer, Divisional Railway Manager andChief Engineer when water rises above ballast leveland again when it subsides. This should be followedup by special reports to the Assistant Engineer andDivisional Engineer. Records of such occurrencesshould be entered in the Permanent Way Inspector’ssection register.

718. Driver’s Report on Defects in Track– (1) Intimation of defects – (a) When a driver reportsto a Station Master that the track over which his trainhas passed is unsafe for the passage of any furthertrain, with particulars of location, the Station Masterwill block the section concerned and issue a wire tothe Permanent Way Inspector, copying it to theAssistant Engineer, Divisional Engineer and Control.No train will be admitted on the section concerned,until the Permanent Way Inspector has inspectedthe kilometrage and certifies to the Station Masterthat the section is safe for the passage of trains,specifying the speed restriction, if necessary.

(b) When a Driver reports to a Station Masterthat the track over which his train has passedrequires a restriction of speed, with particulars oflocation, the Station Master will impose the speedrestriction over the section concerned and issue awire to the Permanent Way Inspector copying it tothe Assistant Engineer, Divisional Engineer andControl. Caution orders will continue to be issued onthe section concerned until the Permanent WayInspector has inspected the kilometrage and certifiesto the Station Master that the section is safe forpassage of trains specifying the revised speedrestriction, if necessary.

(2) Action on receipt of reports of defectivetrack – (a) By Permanent Way Inspector –

The Permanent Way Inspector shall –

(i) Proceed as quickly as possible to site,inspect the length of track reported on and recordparticulars in detail. Then arrange to rectify the trackand remove or modify the restriction imposed, asfound necessary.

(ii) Submit a detailed report to the AssistantEngineer and copy the same to the DivisionalEngineer.

(b) By Assistant Engineer – Wheneverpossible, the Assistant Engineer should personallyexamine the track reported on for defects and makea detailed report to the Divisional Engineer.

719. Abnormal occurrences attributable toLocomotives and other Rolling Stock –

(1) Whenever distortion of track or any otherabnormal occurrence attributable to locomotives orany other rolling-stock is noticed, the PermanentWay Inspector shall –

(a) Immediately impose speed restriction asnecessary and arrange protection of the line as perrules.

(b) Report the occurrence by wire to the LocoForeman concerned copying the message to theAssistant Engineer/Divisional Engineer andDivisional Mechanical Engineer, Control and StationMaster on either side of the block section. Wheneverpossible, the number of engine/rolling-stockconsidered to be responsible for distorting the trackshould be given.

(c) Make a careful examination of the affectedtrack with a view to finding out if any inherentweakness or defect in the track has contributed inbringing about the “abnormal occurrences”,Particulars of defects should be noted in detail.

(d) Attend to defects as necessary and havingdone this, remove or modify the restriction asnecessary.

(e) Submit a detailed report to the AssistantEngineer and copy the same to the DivisionalEngineer.

(2) On receipt of intimation of any abnormaloccurrence attributable to locomotive/Rolling-stock,Assistant Engineer should proceed to the site,examine the track minutely with reference to thereport made by Permanent Way Inspector and submita special report to the Divisional Engineer on thepossible cause of damage with suggestion to preventrecurrence.

720. Accident not affecting through traffic–(1) The Permanent Way Inspector shouldimmediately proceed to the site of the accident andtake such measures, as necessary, to clear theobstruction and restore the line.

Page 206: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

193

(2) The accident report in the prescribed formtogether with a sketch and statements of trackparticulars taken over sufficient length should besubmitted in duplicate by the Permanent WayInspector to the Assistant Engineer who will forwardone copy of the report to the Divisional Engineer withremarks.

Accident reports should be scrutinised by theDivisional Engineer in all respects with particularreference to the time taken in restoring the line. Suchinstructions may be issued by the Divisional Engineerto the Assistant Engineers and Permanent WayInspectors and to other departments, as may bedeemed necessary.

The accident report form shall includeparticulars of date and time, kilometerage,description of accident, cause if known, number andtype of train, engine, vehicles involved, names ofDrivers and Guards, extent and cost of damage tothe permanent way and rolling stock, time ofrestoration and the Permanent Way Inspector’sspecial remarks. Accidents such as damage to thegate leaves/barriers by road vehicles, cattle run overand fire in which track is not affected, should bereported separately.

(3) As far as possible the Assistant Engineershould proceed to the site of accident of sufficientimportance, such as derailments on running lines,gathering lines and of locomotives.

721. Records of accidents – (1) Apart fromindividual files, all important accidents, breaches,washouts and subsidence of track should becarefully recorded with complete particulars in thesection register by Permanent Way Inspector.

(2) In the case of damage by flood at importantbridges, detailed particulars with remedial measuresadopted should be entered by Assistant Engineer inthe Rivers and Floods Register and reference madethereto in the Bridge Inspection Register.

(3) Records of all the accidents should bemaintained systematically in the offices of PermanentWay Inspectors, Assistant Engineer and DivisionalEngineer so as to facilitate supply of statistical andother information as may be required.

722. Accident statements to the RailwayBoard – (1) Returns of the accidents under specifiedcategories are compiled by the OperatingDepartments for submission to the Railway Board.Relevant particulars should be promptly furnishedby the Divisional Engineer and Works Manager/Deputy Chief Engineer of Engineering Workshopsto the proper authority on such forms as may beprescribed.

(2) Workshop accident fall under Factories Actand should be reported according to the rules in forceand to such local authority as may be specified.

Page 207: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

194

PART ‘B’

Pre-Monsoon Precautionary Measures

723. General precautions to be takenbefore monsoon – It is necessary to take certainprecautions, and carry out certain essential worksbefore the commencement of monsoon, such as

(1) All catch water drains and side drains mustbe cleared of silt, vegetation and other obstructionsto ensure free flow and quick drainage of storm water.

The waterways of bridges must be cleared ofvegetation and other obstructions. If silting is noticedin some spans, it should be removed to ensure thatthe full waterways is available for the discharge offlood water. During desilting, care should be takento remove the silt only upto the bed level.

(2) Protective and river training works mustbe maintained in good condition and repairs carriedout wherever necessary. Scour holes should be filledwith boulders.

(3) The High Flood Level (HFL), Full SupplyLevel (FSL) in the case of canals, and Danger Level(DL) must be painted. The danger level mark shallbe painted with bright red band across each pieradjacent to the abutment so as to be clearly visibleto the Patrolmen, Special Watchmen and Drivers.Flood gauges shall be painted on important bridgesas specified.

(4) Water shall not be allowed to stagnate onthe track. For this purpose, cross drains should beprovided at regular intervals. In yards, cross drainsand longitudinal drains should be cleared/providedto proper grades.

(5) In hilly areas, where there is incidence offalling boulders, a survey should be carried out tolocate loose boulders. Such loose boulders shouldbe dropped in a systematic manner.

(6) Selection of Patrolman and Watchmanshould be made in accordance with Para 1008 andthey must be trained and tested for their knowledgeof rules. The duties to be performed by them shouldbe clearly explained to them.

The equipment of Patrolmen and otherwatchman shall be complete in all respects.

(7) Spare trollies should be kept in readinessat the headquarters of the Permanent Way Inspectorand at other stations in the proximity of vulnerable

locations. Motor Trollies must be overhauled and keptin fit condition.

(8) Rivers in the upstream reaches should beinspected for guarding against possible change inwater course.

(9) The prescribed reserve stock of boulders,empty cement bags, wire netting and sand/quarrydust should be kept at specified locations for rushingto site, in case of emergency and should be madegood, in case of deficiency.

(10) Action should be taken as envisaged inPara 726(3) in the case of Railway affecting works.

(11) The temporary Engineering indicatorsmust be painted and kept ready for use.

(12) The rain gauges should be inspectedbefore the monsoon and it should be ensured thatthey are in perfect working condition.

(13) Vulnerable locations/kilometrages shouldbe reviewed jointly by the Assistant Engineers andDivisional Engineers and on the basis of past historyand pre-monsoon inspections and the register ofvulnerable locations should be brought up-to-date.

724. Materials for Emergencies – (1)Arrangements should be made to stock sufficientquantities of rails, sleepers, materials for cribs,ballast, sand/quarry dust and boulders at suitablepoints near vulnerable locations, so that the materialsmay be rushed to site as required.

(2) Before the onset of monsoon, specifiednumber of wagons loaded with sand/quarry dust,ballast and boulders should be kept at appropriatestations for quick movement to vulnerable locations.”

(3) During monsoon, as far as possible, ballasttrain should be programmed to work in the vicinity ofthe vulnerable zones so that they may be utilisedwithout delay in emergency.

(4) Locations and quantities of reserve stocksshould be made known to all Divisional Engineersand Assistant Engineers by the Chief Engineer.Reserve stock should not be used except in anemergency. When it is used, it should be recouped.

Divisional Engineer should send a certificateto the Chief Engineer to the effect that monsoonreserve stock is in order and to the scale laid down,by the prescribed date.

Page 208: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

195

(5) Bridge Engineer/ Divisional Engineer shouldarrange to keep equipment like service spans,trestles, cribs, derricks, compressor, equipment andmaterials required for blasting, pavement breakers,welding sets etc., ready for use in emergencies.These should be stocked at convenient places sothat they can be despatched to the site of breacheswithout delay.

725. Service Spans and Rail Clusters

(1) Service spans – details of temporaryservice spans available on each railway should belisted and circulated for the guidance of AssistantEngineers and Divisional Engineers before themonsoon.

(2) Rail Clusters- It is some times necessaryto provide rail clusters to pass traffic in emergencies.Rail cluster may be used as a temporary measure inemergency subject to following conditions :–

(i) Speed restriction shall be 10 km. p. h.

(ii) Rails forming clusters must be clampedtogether with head and foot alternatively.

(iii) Rail cluster must extend over the fulldimension of the sleeper crib and mustbe spiked to the top sleepers.

Drawings showing details of section of rail/No. of rails/clear span to be used under each runningrail, shall be issued by the Chief Engineer of therailway for the guidance of Permanent WayInspectors and Assistant Engineers, who should bein the possession of the same.

726. Railway Affecting Works (includingRailway Affecting Tanks) – (1) Definition – The term“Railway affecting Work” may broadly be taken tomean any work which if not constructed andmaintained properly, or not operated properly mayresult in danger to Railway Line (Bridge/embankment). This may include tanks, storageworks, canals, bunds, etc.

(2) Register of Railway affecting works – TheDivisional Engineer/ Assistant Engineer will maintainan up-to-date list of Railway affecting works as jointlyapproved by the Railway and the state Government.The list shall invariably show the particulars of stateAuthority responsible for maintenance of eachrailway affecting work.

(3) Inspection of Railway affecting tanks –Where as per current practice the Public Works or

Revenue Department forwards to the DivisionalEngineer every year, their inspection reports on thecondition of these tanks which are classified asRailway affecting, action should be taken as follows:–

(a) The Divisional Engineer should peruse thereports carefully and mark those tanks which heconsiders are not in satisfactory state of repair. Heshould then forward the reports to the AssistantEngineer with instructions that the tanks so markedshould be inspected and reported on.

(b) The Assistant Engineer should inspectthose tanks and report to the Divisional Engineerdetails of the action being taken by the Public Worksor Revenue Department. The Divisional Engineershould prevail on the authorities concerned to carryout all necessary repairs before the ensuingmonsoon.

(c) Copies of the inspection notes of ‘RailwayAffecting’ tanks as received from the Public Worksor Revenue Department with particulars of date ofinspection and notes of action taken or proposed byhim should be included in the Register of RailwayAffecting Works maintained by the AssistantEngineer.

727. Vigilance over Railway Affectingtanks during heavy rains – (1) the DivisionalEngineer and the Assistant Engineer should arrangewith the local authorities/village headman in whosejurisdiction ‘Railway Affecting’ tanks are situated towatch them during periods of heavy rain and givetimely intimation to the nearest Station Master, if thereis likelihood of any tank failing. The Station Masterwill telephone/ telegraph reports received from villageHeadman to the Permanent Way Inspector,Assistant Engineer and Divisional Engineer.

(2) When the railway line is threatened, theAssistant Engineer and Permanent Way Inspectorshall take adequate steps to ensure the safety ofRailway property and staff and arrange patrolling ofthe line and or post watchmen with necessaryequipment at the place or places threatened andadvise the Divisional Engineer accordingly.

(3) All the Bridges which are likely to beaffected by Railway affecting tanks or other storageworks should be provided with a tablet on top of oneof the parapets, with the letters RAW engraved on it,followed by an arrow mark pointing in the directionof the railway affecting storage work in question.

Page 209: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

196

A typical sketch of R.A.W. tablet is shownbelow–

(4) If the bridge in whose catchment a Railwayaffecting tank is located is classified as a vulnerablelocation, stationary watchmen should be postedduring monsoon. If for any reason, repairs asenvisaged during the inspection, as per para 726(3)is not carried out, the section of the Railway line likelyto be affected should be considered as vulnerableand watchman as considered necessary posted.

728. Weather warnings and action to betaken – (1) General – (a) Arrangement should bemade with the concerned Meteorological Centre forreceipt of bad weather warnings.

(b) The bad weather warnings to be receivedshould cover both high velocity winds and cyclonesas well as heavy rainfall and arrangement should bemade for receipt of the same throughout the year.

(c) The list of Officers who should receive thebad weather warnings and their addresses shouldbe discussed at personal level with theMeteorological Department. The list should bereviewed and updated every year.

(d)Detailed instructions and full-proofarrangement should exist for prompt communicationof bad weather warnings on receipt to the line staff.

(e) Anemometer should be installed at one ofthe adjacent stations of specially selected bridgeswhere very high velocity winds are experienced andwhere there is a danger of vehicles capsizing.

(f) Suitable working rules should be framedprescribing for each location the danger level of windvelocity and enjoining upon the Station Master tocontrol (stop) the traffic on the section concernedwhen the wind velocity exceeds the danger level andalso to inform the Station Master on the other sideand the Section Controller of the need to control thetraffic.

(2) Precautions to be taken by Station Master,Driver and Guard – Regarding controlling of trains –(a) When a weather warning message has beenreceived forecasting heavy or cyclonic storm andthere is reasonable doubt that a severe storm andhigh winds are going to break through, that mayendanger the safety of passengers/ train, the StationMaster may, in consultation with the Guard andDriver, detain the train until the storm and high windsabate and it is considered safe to allow the train toproceed from his station.

(b) In spite of the action outlined above shouldthe Driver be still caught on run in a storm and highwinds of an intensity which in his opinion are likely toendanger the safety of passengers/ train, he shouldbring his train with the least delay to a halt, avoidingsuch stoppage at places like sharp curves, highembankments, cuttings and bridges. The train couldbe restarted in consultation with the Guard only afterthe storm and high winds abate and it is consideredsafe to proceed.

(3) Action by the P.W.I – (a) The PermanentWay Inspector on receipt of weather/cyclone warning,should arrange to advise monsoon patrolmen/watchmen and Gang Mates to be extra vigilant.

During the fair season, he should introducemonsoon patrolling as soon as possible and alsopost watchman as required at all vulnerable locationsand bridges by day as well as by night for a periodextending upto 48 hours beyond the period specifiedin the weather/ cyclone warning message.

(b) The Permanent Way Inspector should beout in his section as far as possible by trolley duringthe period of warning and 48 hours beyond.

(4) Action by the Gang Mates – On receipt ofadvice from the Station Master the Gang Mate shouldtake the following action :– (a) During the fair season,the Mate of station yard gang should depute tworeliable gangmen provided with patrolmen’sequipment for patrolling the block sections on eitherside and for alerting the intermediate Gangmates.

450 mm.

300

mm

.

R. A. W.

1. Km.

R. A. W. TABLET

BRIDGE TABLET

DIR

EC

TIO

NO

F F

LOW

RAILWAY LINE

R. A. W. TABLETSIMILAR TO BRIDGETABLET

BRIDGE TABLET

NOTE:

1) R.A.W. TABLET TO BE PAINTED IN WHITE.2) LETTERS AND ARROWS TO BE PAINTED IN RED.

DETAILS OF "RAILWAY AFFECTING WORKS" TABLET(R. A. W.)

Page 210: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

197

(b) During monsoon period also the Mate ofthe station yard gang should send two gangmen inopposite directions to alert intermediate Gangmates,patrolmen and watchmen.

(c) Should there be very heavy rain or a severestorm weather during the monsoon or fair season,the Mate and Gangmen of all gangs on their owninitiative should commence monsoon patrolling byday as well as night. Similar action to carry out

patrolling should be taken on receipt of bad weatherwarning for the duration of warning and 48 hoursbeyond.

(5) The individual Railway may issueinstructions in the form of joint circular to suit thelocal requirements.

(6) Inspecting officials should test theknowledge of Gang Mates and Gangmen aboutthese instructions issued.

Page 211: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

198

The following details are to be shown on thedimensioned sketch to be prepared in the case ofaccidents :

(1) The train number, the date and kilometerageof site of accident should be furnished.

(2) The North point should be indicated.

(3) It should indicate prominently the directionof movement, and also the names of stations in rearand advance of the accident site.

(4) It should a cover a length of about 300meters behind the point of mount an almost an equaldistance in front.

(5) Each track of the Permanent Way must bedenoted by a pair of lines.

(6) The position of level crossings, Telegraphposts/ Electrical posts, Bridges, Tunnels, Gradientposts with Gradient symbols, curves, demarcatingthe beginning and end, giving details of degree ofcurvature, prescribed super elevation and length oftransitions should be indicated.

(7) It should also indicate the position :

(a) of all derailed vehicles and the marks leftby them either on sleepers, rails or ballast,

(b) of the point of mount with position of railjoint on either side,

(c) of the point of drop,

(d) of the pair of wheels of the first derailedvehicle,

(e) in which every displaced rail/ wagon or partof a rail/wagon and detachable components werefound.

Note – In all cases, dimension from nearestkilometre post and centre line of track should begiven.

(8) In case of accidents within station limits,sufficient details about the station layout should beshown in order to fully explain the movement of theaffected train in relation to the topography of the place.The signal aspects at the time of accident should becorrectly depicted.

ANNEXURE 7/1 (Para 707)

(9) The distance of the site of accident from apermanent structure to fix the site of accidentprecisely should be indicated.

(10) The distance should be indicated to showthe extent of the disturbance caused in the PermanentWay or train composition on account of the accident.

(11) Any marks on sleepers or other trackfittings should be clearly indicated in their exactposition in relation to the track or vehicles.

(12) Broken parts of other extraneous material,if found on the site of accident, should be shown inthe sketch, with details giving their precise positionin relation to track.

(13) If necessary, more than one sketch shouldbe enclosed one clarifying the yard layout and thesystem of working it and the other giving details, suchas, position of wheels, wheel marks etc. In the former,one line should be used to represent both rails oftrack and such position of the station yard (in caseof accidents within station limits) should be coveredas may be necessary. All necessary details relevantto the issue must be embodied in the sketch. Theterminal station on the down side should be mentionedon the right extremity of the sketch, the terminalstation on the up side being mentioned on the leftextremity. If the accidents take place within stationlimits the shorter sketch should be based on thestation working diagram.

(14) Details of track structure should be shownin the sketch.

(15) Details of damages to bridges involved,spanwise should be shown.

(16) In the case of accidents to and near levelcrossings, full details of the level crossings shouldbe furnished.

(17) Any other details as may be considerednecessary to reconstruct the scene of the accidentshould also be shown.

Page 212: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

199

ANNEXURE-7/2 PARA 708 (1)

PART - A

Pro forma showing the detailed particulars to be collected in the case of Permanent Way during an Accident

lioS

foepyTnoitamroF

llaFniaR

tsallaB

.lS.oN

,ydnaS.g.eepyT,yalcymaol

kcalB,murooM.ctenottoc

,mrif-noitidnoC.cteyhsuls,tew

,enots/epyT,dnaS,murooM

.ctehsA

wolebhtpeDmottobrepeelsgnitatS.smcni

ronaelcrehtehwdekac

eganiarD

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

foedistuomorf.mcnisredluohsfohtdiWsrepeelS

liaR

tfeL thgiR tfeL thgiRTSCnedooW-epyT.ctehguortleets9-

weN-noitidnoC,dnahdnoces

-civresnu,degamad.cteelbae

ytisneDtonroerauqS

roesoolgnikcaPdnuos

9 01 11 21 3141

51 61 71

Page 213: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

200

sliaR sgninetsafliaR stniojliaR

/.gK25thgieW.cteR57/R09

raewfonoitidnoCfieliforpliarhcatta(

)yvaehsiraew

,srettoc,srabeit,syek,sekipswercs/goD.cteswajesool

deggoH:noitidnoC.ctewol,derettab

erauqsrodereggatS

dnanoitceriD-peerCfoepyt,peercfotnetxehtiwdesusrohcnapeerc

ehtniliarrepsrebmunnoitcesdetceffa

reprebmuNtaesrepeels

rothgiT:noitidnoCni(gnissimroesool

)repeelshcae

81 91 02 12 22 3242

skramerlareneGroskcarctuoba-hsiffoerutcarf

dnastlobhsif,setalpstnenopmocrehto

-itnafonoitpircseDserusaemegatobas

swajesreverekil.ctesliardedlew

tnuomfostniopfonoitacoL tnemliaredfostniopfonoitacoL

norehtehWroevruc,thgiarts

noitisnart

gnillafanorehtehWgnisirrolevel,edarggasnorodnaedarg

,thgiartsnorehtehWnoitisnartroevruc

gnillafanorehtehWgnisirrolevel,edarggasnorodnaedarg

52 62 72 82 92 03

Note –

(1) Left and right are with respect to direction of Train movement.

(2) The data in Col. 2 to 25 need not be collected when the defect is obviously and indisputably on account of sabotageand/or obstruction on track.

(3) Only broken track material which is not indisputably to be broken after the accident should be included in Col. 25 andshould be preserved.

(4) Col. 26 need be filled in only when there is a suspicion about sabotage being the cause of derailment.

(5) Sag extends 90 metres on either side of theoretical junction of the grade lines Col. 28 and 30.

ANNEXURE-7/2 Contd...

Page 214: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ACTION DURING ACCIDENTS INCLUDING BREACHES AND PRE-MONSOON PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES

201

ANNEXURE-7/2 Contd... PARA 708 (1)

PART - B

Track Measurements

noitatS.oN

nitrapaecnatsiDsertem

rokcalseguaGehtmorfthgit

tcaxe).mm(

).mm(leveLssorC

rosrepeelsnoskraMpotliar

rognidnirGnoskramgnibbur

sliardaolonrednUnoitidnoc

ebotnoitidnocdaolrednUahtiwderusaem

dedaolylluf/evitomocoleigobkcotsgnihcaoc/nogaw

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

tnemngilafonoitanimaxEkcartfosdnikelbitpecreprof

foytinicivehtninoitrotsidtnemliaredfotniopeht

foecnedisbuSkcart

.mmnienisreV

drohc.M01ro.M02nOecitcarpnognidneped

yawliaRehtnotnelaverpnahteromsevructalfrof

suidar.M006

retrohshcusro.M01nOderedisnocsasdrohc

prahsrofyrassecen.M006nahtssel(sevruc

dna.G.Bnosuidar).G.M

gnidragerskrameR,noitisnartfohtgneldnaevrucfoeerged

deificepsnoitavelerepus

tnemngilalareneg.cte

ebotlevellanidutignoLfoesacehtnidedrocer

ni.G.Ndna.G.Mdnasgasfoesac

sevruc

8 9 01 11 21 31

Note –

(1) The point of mount should be marked station No. 0 and the stations numbered serially as (+) for measurements aheadof site of derailment and (—) for measurements in rear.

(2) The cross level will be measured on the left rail only as determined from the direction of movement.

(3) Normally measurement will be taken at station 3 M. apart for a distance of 45 metres on either side of 0 station if thecause of derailment is indisputably known, otherwise they will be taken for a distance of 90 metres in rear and 45metres ahead of zero station.

(4) Where necessary measurements for Col. 3, 4 and 5 may in addition be taken at individual sleepers.

(5) This proforma need not be filled when the cause of derailment is obviously established as due to sabotage, obstructionon track, broken axle, and/or spring having fallen off prior to point of derailment.

(6) Longitudinal levels should be recorded for 300 metres on rear and 100 metres in front, in case of straights at the middleof each rail and at versine recording points on curves @ 20/10 M intervals.

Page 215: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

202

CHAPTER VIIICHAPTER VIIICHAPTER VIIICHAPTER VIIICHAPTER VIII

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONSENGINEERING RESTRICTIONSENGINEERING RESTRICTIONSENGINEERING RESTRICTIONSENGINEERING RESTRICTIONSAND INDICAAND INDICAAND INDICAAND INDICAAND INDICATTTTTORSORSORSORSORS

AND USE OFAND USE OFAND USE OFAND USE OFAND USE OF DETDETDETDETDETONONONONONAAAAATING TING TING TING TING ANDANDANDANDANDFLARE SIGNALSFLARE SIGNALSFLARE SIGNALSFLARE SIGNALSFLARE SIGNALS

801. Work involving Danger to Train orTraffic– A gang shall not commence or carry onany work which will involve danger to trains or totraffic without the previous permission of theInspector of Way and Works or of some competentRailway servant appointed on this behalf by specialinstructions. The Railway servant who has given thepermission should be himself present at the site tosupervise the work.

802. Carrying out of Works, in case ofEmergency – In the case of emergency, when therequirements of safety warrant the commencementof the work by the gangmate, before the arrival ofthe railway servant, the gangmate shall himselfensure that Engineering signals are exhibited atspecified distances according to rules and flagmenare posted with necessary equipment to man them,before commencing the work.

803. Responsibility of the Railwayservant in-charge of the work – The Railwayservant in-charge of the work, who is present at thesite work, shall ensure that Engineering signals areexhibited at the specified distance according to rulesand flagmen are posted with necessary equipmentto man them. Trains shall be permitted over the trackunder repair at such restricted speed as is specified,only after the track is rendered safe for the traffic.He should ensure that the provisions of Para 804are fulfilled before commencing the work.

804. Precautions before commencingoperations which would obstruct the line – Noperson employed on the way, works or bridges shallchange or turn a rail, disconnect points or signals orcommence any other operation which would obstructthe line without obtaining the written permission ofthe Station Master who shall ensure that allnecessary signals have been placed at ‘ON’. Inaddition, the employee mentioned above shall alsoensure that the necessary stop signals like bannerflags and detonators and hand signal flags have alsobeen placed/exhibited at the prescribed locations asper para 806.

Provided further that in emergent cases thepersons undertaking such operations shall first bringthe train to stop as stipulated in para 812 and advisethe driver of the train about the need to stop the trainthrough a written memo. The railway servant shallsimultaneously arrange to send a message to theStation Master for the need to block the track as perpara 810 and obtain written confirmation of the same.The work which may lead to obstruction to the trackshall however be done only during the traffic block,the written confirmation for which shall be obtainedfrom the concerned Station Master. On completionof the work again the authorised railway servant shalladvise the driver through a written memo to proceedat the prescribed speed.

805. Categories of Engineering Works –Engineering works can be broadly divided into threecategories –

(1) Category 1 – Works of routine maintenance,requiring no speed restriction, not necessitatingexhibition of hand signals and involving no dangerto trains or traffic.

These include works of routine maintenancesuch as through packing, picking up slacks andoverhauling of track etc.

(2) Category 2 – Works of short duration –

(a) Works such as casual renewals of rails andsleepers, adjustment of creep and lubrication of railjoints which are completed by sunset of the day ofcommencement and no restriction of speedthereafter is required, are termed “works of shortduration”.

(b) Hand-signal and banner flags and fog-signals shall be used at specified distances to affordprotection to trains.

(3) Category 3 – Works of long duration –

(a) Works such as relaying, bridgeconstruction, diversions which extend over a fewdays, or weeks during which period a continuousrestriction of speed is to be in force, are termed as“works of long duration”.

(b) Temporary Engineering fixed signals shallbe used at specified distances to afford protection totrains. These works should be carried out to aprogramme, about which all concerned will beadvised in advance.

Page 216: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

203

806. Works of short duration – Protectionin block section and procedure for passing of trains– Before commencing any work of such categorythe Permanent Way Inspector or authorised Railwayservant should issue a notice to the Station Master/Block hut in-charge at each end of the Block sectionand obtain their acknowledgment. Depending as towhether the train is to be passed through the worksite, after stopping or at a restricted speed, the lineshould be protected in the following manner :–

(1) When the train is required to stop at thesite of work ( in Block section) –

(a) Post a flagman with hand signals at adistance of 30 metres in rear of the place ofobstruction, to show stop hand signals.

(b) Post a flagman with hand signals and placea banner flag across the track at a distance of 600metres on Broad Gauge and 400 metres on MetreGauge and Narrow Gauge in rear of the work. Theflag man will show stop hand signals

(c) Post a flagman with hand signals anddetonators at a distance of 1200 metres in the caseof Broad Gauge and 800 metres in the case of Metreand Narrow Gauge in rear of the work. The flagmanshall fix three detonators on the line 10 metres apartand take stand at a place not less than 45 metresfrom the three detonators, from where he can obtaina clear view of the approaching train. He will showstop hand signals.

Note – In M.G. Sections with trains runningat a maximum speed of more than 75 km.p.h. thedistances (b) and (c ) shall be as specified underapproved special instructions.

(d) The man at the site of obstruction shall giveproceed hand signal to indicate to the Driver, whenhe may resume normal speed after the train hasbeen hand signalled past the obstruction (Annexure8/1).

(2) When the train can pass over the workspotat restricted speed in Block section – Keeping in viewthe provisions in para 1501.1(C) /GR.1976 thefollowing protections should be adopted in the abovecases :–

(a) Post a flagman exhibiting caution handsignals at a distance of 30 metres from the place ofobstruction.

(b) Post a flagman exhibiting caution handsignals at a distance of 1200 metres for BroadGauge and 800 metres for Metre Gauge and NarrowGauge from the place of obstruction.

(c ) Post a intermediate flagman with handsignals at a distance of 600 metres for Broad Gaugeand 400 metres for Metre Gauge and Narrow Gaugefrom the place of obstruction. He will also place abanner flag across the track. The intermediate bannerflag must be kept across the line until the speed ofthe train has been reduced, after which the bannerflag shall be removed and the train hand signalledforward.

In Metre Gauge sections with trains running ata maximum speed of more than 75 km.p.h. thedistance in (b) & (c) shall be increased as specifiedunder approved special instructions.

(d) The railway servant at the site of workshould give proceed hand signals to indicate to theDriver, that he may resume normal speed after thetrain has been signalled past the site of work-(Annexure 8/2).

(3) The following points should be kept in view,while protecting the track in the cases mentioned insub-para (1) and (2) above :–

(a) On single line, the line must be so protectedon both sides of the work.

(b) At places where there are curves or fallinggradients and at times of poor visibility the distanceslaid down in sub-paras (1) and (2) above may besuitably increased wherever necessary andintermediate flagman posted to relay hand signals.

(c ) The location of the banner flag, detonatorsand hand signals should be so selected as to avoidstopping of trains, as far as possible, on continuoussteep rising gradients.

(d) If in an emergency, it becomes necessaryto carry out such works at night, the provisions forprotection of line as detailed in sub-pares (1) and (2)must be complied with except that red light must beexhibited in the direction of approaching trains inplace of red hand signaling flags and banner flags.

(e) In an Emergency, when it is necessary onconsiderations of safety, the Permanent WayInspector, or authorised railway servant maycommence such work after protecting the line beforeissuing notice to the Signalman. If the work is likelyto be prolonged he should notify the Signalman assoon as possible.

(4) Works to be carried out in station limits –(a) No work should be commenced on running

line at a station without the written permission of theStation Master and until the relevant signals havebeen placed at ‘ON’.

Page 217: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

204

(b) Before commencing a work on a line whichcan be isolated from the other running lines, thePermanent Way Inspector should ensure that the linehas been isolated and retain the keys of lockingdevice in his possession. Where isolation is effectedby the setting of points, they must be locked bymeans of clamps or bolts and cotters.

(c ) Before commencing work on a line whichcannot be isolated from other running lines thePermanent Way Inspector should provide theprescribed hand signals, detonators and banner flagsas detailed in para 806.

(5) Works in Automatic Territory – In automaticterritory, if the distance from the place of works/obstruction to the automatic signal controlling entryof a train into the signalling section is less than 1200metres on Broad Gauge and 800 metres on MetreGauge/Narrow Gauge and the automatic signal issecured at ‘ON’ the banner flag and three detonatorsmay be provided at 90 and 180 metres respectively.

807. Works of long duration –(1) Preliminary arrangements –(a) For doing such works the Engineering

Department will arrange with the OperatingDepartment for the issue of the circular notice asper extant instructions.

(b)The concerned Divisional Engineer will beresponsible for obtaining the sanction ofCommissioner of Railway Safety wherevernecessary and sending Safety Certificate oncompletion of such works.

(c ) The Permanent Way Inspector shouldobtain permission to commence work from D.E.N./A.E.N. and should arrange to block the line whenwork is proposed to be done under block with thepermission of the Controller/Chief Controller on theday of block and issue a notice to the Station Masteron either side.

(d) Caution orders will be issued by the StationMasters concerned as necessary.

(e) The necessary temporary Engineeringfixed signals as prescribed should be provided.

(f) In an emergency, when it is necessary onconsiderations of safety, the Permanent WayInspector, or Authorised Railway servant maycommence such work before issuing the notice,under the protection of hand signals and banner flags.As soon as possible, he should issue the notice andreplace the hand signals and banner flags bytemporary engineering fixed signals.

(2) Protection of line in block section –

(a) In case where stop dead restriction is to beimposed when restriction is to last for more than aday, the following temporary Engineering indicatorsshould be exhibited at the appropriate distance :–

(i) Caution indicator.(ii) Stop indicator.(iii) Termination indicators. (b) In case where the train is not required to

stop ( non-stop restriction) and the restriction is likelyto last for more than a day the following temporaryEngineering indicators should be exhibited at theappropriate distances :–

(i) Caution indicator.(ii) Speed indicator.(iii) Termination indicators.Note — (i) Annexure 8/3 and 8/3 A indicate

the distances at which these are to be fixed.

(ii) When during the course of the work, onconsideration of safety it is not desirable to pass trainsover the site of work for the time being, the trackshould be further protected by hand signals andbanner flags, by the authorised Railway servant.

(3) Protection of line in station limits – Specialinstructions will be issued by the Divisional RailwayManager (Operating) after consultations withDivisional Engineer and Divisional Signal andTelecommunication Engineer in regard to the use oftemporary Engineering signals in conjunction withstation fixed signals. In urgent cases these will beissued by the Station Master at the request ofPermanent Way Inspector.

808. Temporary Engineering FixedSignals-Location and details – (1) These consistsof :

(a) Caution indicator.(b) Speed indicator.(c ) Stop indicator.(d) Termination indicators ( T/P & T/G).(2)(a) Multi Speed Restriction (i.e. existence

of two or more than two speed restrictions incontinuation): When work of deep screening orsleeper renewal is in progress, there is situation ofhaving two or more than two speed restrictions incontinuation. In such situation, placement of speedboards for following speed restriction shall be asunder:

Page 218: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

205

(i) In case of following speed restriction beingmore restrictive, a minimum of 200m track shouldbe under earlier speed restriction zone. If not, thenonly one SR board should be provided, consideringthat the previous speed restriction is at par with thefollowing SR, which is more restrictive.

(ii) In case of following speed restriction beingless restrictive, corresponding speed indicator boardfor following speed restriction shall be placed at adistance equal to the length of the longest goods trainoperating on the section after termination point ofprevious speed restriction zone.

(2) (b)The details and position of fixing eachindicator are detailed in Annexures 8/4, 8/3 and

8/3 A.

(3) During the hours of night, the lamps of thetemporary indicators which are not reflective typeshould be lit at sunset and kept burning till sunrise,where trains run at night. Reflective type temporaryindicators need not be lit.

(4) For intermediate tracks on triple or multiplelines, Engineering indicators should be fixed betweentracks to within 300 mm. from rail-level, to avoidinfringements of standard dimensions.

(5) All indicators should be placed on the lefthand side as seen by the Drivers except on CTCsections (single line) where they should be placedon Right hand side.

(6) Each Permanent Way Inspector shouldhave in his possession at least one complete set ofsignals consisting of 2 caution indicators, 2 speedindicators, 2 stop indicators and two sets oftermination indicators (2 Nos T/P & T/G indicators).

(7) One termination indicator bearing letters T/G should be located at a distance equal to the lengthof the longest goods trains operating on the sectionfrom the place of work. Another Termination indicatorbearing the letters T/P should be located at adistance equal to the length of the longest passengertrain operating on the section from the place of workwhich will help the passenger trains to pick up speedafter reaching T/P indicator, without losing time. TheGuard of a passenger train shorter than the longestpassenger train will exhibit an “all-clear” signal to hisDriver when the rearmost vehicle has cleared therestricted length and the Driver will resume normalspeed. In the case of light-engines or single unit railcars, the Drivers will resume normal speed afterclearing the restricted length.

809. Procedure for Passing Trains atstop dead Restrictions – The flagman at the stopindicators shall present his restriction book to theDriver who should stop in the rear of the stopindicator.

The “restriction book” should be to the following form:

Engineering indicator at km…………………

etaD .oNniarT emiTfoerutangiS

revirDeht

After the flagman has obtained the signatureof the Driver at the indicator, he should exhibitproceed with caution signal to the Driver. The Driverwill then be authorised to pass the stop indicator andcontinue at this speed until his train has cleared therestricted length, after which he will resume normalspeed.

810. Procedure for blocking line forEngineering purposes – (1) Arrangements forblock–

(a) Except in very urgent cases arrangementsfor Blocking the lines between stations shall be madeby the Divisional Engineer in consultation with theDivisional Operating Manager, sometime before theblock is imposed.

(b) The Divisional Operating Manager will issueinstructions to the Station Masters on either side ofthe section to be blocked and Station Masters/YardMasters of train ordering stations concerned aboutthe last train to pass over the section before the blockis imposed, the trains to be cancelled because ofthe block and any other particulars and will concludeby stating which official of the EngineeringDepartment will impose and remove the block. Theinstructions will be acknowledged by those to whomissued.

(c ) In an emergency when there is no time torefer to Divisional Operating Manager or where blockwill not interfere appreciably with the traffic the StationMaster ( after consulting control on controlled section)will arrange directly with the Engineering Officialrequiring the block.

Page 219: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

206

(2) Imposition of Engineering Block – (a)TheInspector or authorised railway servant who blocksthe line should transmit a message to the StationMaster on either side of the block section to beblocked, copy to the Divisional Engineer, AssistantEngineer, Loco Foreman, Controller on controlledsections and Divisional Operating Manager, advisingthem of the time from which the block is to beimposed and the kilometrage and asking foracknowledgement from the concerned StationMasters.

(b) The Station Master receiving the messagefor transmission will sign for it, noting the time ofreceipt and shall transmit the message to the StationMaster on the other side of the block section, whichis to be blocked, and to the Controller.The StationMaster on the other side will acknowledge receiptby a message addressed to Permanent WayInspector or authorised railway servant and theStation Master of the transmitting station.

(c ) On receipt of this message the StationMaster of the station from which the message wastransmitted will block the line in the mannerprescribed and hand over a signed copy to theInspector.

(d) Field telephone should be used for liaisonwith the Control during the block.

(3) Removal of Engineering Block – (a) Whenremoving a block the Inspector or authorised railwayservant responsible will transmit a message to theStation Master on either side of the block sectionblocked, copy to the Divisional Engineer, AssistantEngineer, Loco Foreman, Controller, DivisionalOperating Manager etc., advising them that the blockhas been removed and asking for acknowledgementfrom Station Masters. Particulars of kilometrage,restriction of speed and position of EngineeringIndicators should be given in the telegram.

(b) The Station Master who receives themessage for transmission will sign for it, noting thetime of receipt and transmit the message to theStation Master of the other station. The messagemust be acknowledged by the latter, addressed tothe Inspector and Station Master of the transmittingstation.

On receipt of this acknowledgement the StationMaster who originally imposed the block, will removeit in the manner prescribed. The Control or theDivisional Operating Manager, will advise the StationMasters on the train ordering stations when a blockis finally removed.

(4) Issue of Caution Orders to Drivers –Caution order to Drivers of all trains will be issuedby the Station Masters for temporary engineeringrestrictions. Caution order will indicate the exactkilometrage, speed restrictions, stops, as the casemay be, but will not include permanent restrictionsthat are notified in the working time-table.

811. Works at times of poor visibility –In thick foggy or tempestuous weather impairingvisibility, no rail shall be displaced and no other workwhich is likely to cause obstruction to the passageof trains shall be performed except in case ofemergency.

When such work has to be undertaken andthe site is protected by temporary engineering fixedsignals, 2 detonators on the line 10 metres apartshould be fixed not less than 270 metres in rear ofthe caution indicator and a caution hand signalexhibited to approaching trains.

812. Temporary Signals in Emergency –

(1) Whenever in consequence of anobstruction of a line or for any other reason it isnecessary for a railway servant to stop approachingtrain he shall plant a danger signal at the spot andproceed with all haste in the direction of anapproaching train with a danger signal (red flag byday and red light by night) to a point 600 metres forBroad Gauge and 400 metres for Metre Gauge andNarrow Gauge from the obstruction and place onedetonator on the line after which he shall proceedfurther for not less than 1200 metres for BroadGauge and 800 metres for Metre Gauge and NarrowGauge from the obstruction and place threedetonators on the line 10 metres apart. He shouldthen take a stand at a place not less than 45 metresfrom there from where he can obtain a good view ofan approaching train and continue to exhibit thedanger signal, until recalled. If recalled, he shall leaveon the line three detonators and on his way backpick up the intermediate detonator continuing to showthe danger signal. In case of those Metre Gaugesections where the maximum speed is more than75 km.p.h. these distances will be as per approvedspecial instructions.

(2) On single line the line must be protectedon each side of obstruction.

Page 220: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

207

(3) Where there are adjacent lines and it isnecessary to protect such lines, action should betaken on each such line in a similar manner.

813. Periodical notice of EngineeringRestrictions – For works involving restriction ofspeeds of trains the Divisional Engineer will arrangepublication in the periodical gazette of the railwayfurnishing following details :–

(1) The names of the block stations on eitherside of the site where the engineering work will beundertaken in order that caution orders may beissued.

(2) Kilometrage of site of work.

(3) Restricted speed and stop dead restrictionto be observed by the Driver.

(4) Nature of work being undertaken or reasonsfor restriction.

(5) Probable duration.

814. Permanent speed restrictionindicators– (1) Permanent speed restrictionboards–

(a) Permanent speed restrictions in force arenotified in working time-tables. The speed indicatorsare erected to indicate to the Drivers the speedrestrictions to be observed e.g., between stations,and at stations due to weaker/non standard track/bridges, restrictions on curves, grades and pointsand crossings etc.

(b) The indicators to be used are similar tothose used for temporary restrictions, namely,caution indicator, speed/stop indicators andtermination indicators (T/P&T/G). The details of theindicators and the distance at which they are to befixed are the same in both the cases (Annexure 8/3& 8/4 ).

(c) The permanent indicators need not be floodlit at night as in the case of temporary indicators/signals.

(2) Siding Boards.- When speed restriction hasbeen imposed on account of facing points of anoutlying siding an ‘S’ marker (a circular board of 1metre dia. painted yellow, with 300 mm. letter ‘S’painted in black on it ) should be fixed at the points inaddition to the speed and caution boards fixed in rearof the points. Where however, the sanctioned speedof the section does not exceed 50 km.p.h. the speed

indicator and the ‘S’ board need not be providedexcept where the speed over the points is less thansanctioned speed of the section. ‘S’ marker shouldbe so fixed that the centre of the board is 2 metresabove the rail level.

(3) Board indicating speed over points – Wherethe speed over the points at a station is less than thespeed sanctioned at other stations on the samesection, a permanent speed indicator should be fixedon the first approach signal of the station.

(4)The posts of permanent speed indicatormarker boards should be painted with 300 mm. highbands in white and black.

(5) Where a permanent speed restriction is inforce on any intermediate track on triple or multiplelines, the engineering indicators should be fixedbetween tracks to within 300 mm. from rail-level toavoid infringement of standard dimensions.

815. Indicators (General) – (1) Whereindicators are provided under special instructions tofurnish information to Drivers, these should be inblack letters or figures on yellow back ground.

(2) Whistle indicator – (a) Whistle boardsshould be provided in rear of all places where theview of the Drivers is obstructed by cuttings or tunnelsor curves and where it is necessary to give audiblewarnings of the approach of a train to those workingon the track. The whistle boards are fixed at adistance of 600 metres.

(b) Whistle indicator for level crossings –Whistle boards are also provided on the approachof all unmanned level crossings and in case ofmanned level crossings, where a clear view is notobtained. These bear the letters W/L. The details ofthese whistle boards are described in Para 916(1)/Chapter on Level Crossings and Gateman.

(3) Shunting limit Boards – They are providedat an adequate distance in advance of the trailingpoints. This shall consist of 600 mm. x 1000 mm.rectangular board painted yellow with a black crosson the top and words “shunting limit” written in blackbelow it. Its height should be 2 metres from the raillevel to the underside of the portion containing thecross and the post on which it is fixed, painted with300 mm. high bands in white and black. It should befitted with a lamp showing white light in bothdirections.

Page 221: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

208

816. Detonating signals – Detonatingsignals otherwise known as detonators or fog signalsare appliances which are fixed on the rails, and whenan Engine (or vehicle) passes over them, theyexplode with a loud report so as to attract theattention of the Driver.

817. Care and Custody – (1) Detonatorsshould be protected against damp. They should bestored in tin cases with papers wrapped over them,a layer of waste cotton must be kept at bottom andtop of the tin cases to avoid contact with the metal.

(2) In one tin case not more than twelvedetonators should be kept.

(3) The tin cases should be stored in woodenboxes which should be kept in dry places and notleft in contact with the brick walls, damp wood,chloride of lime or other disinfectants; these shouldnot be exposed to steam or other vapours.

(4) Unexploded detonators should not be asfar as possible sent from place to place byconsignment; they should be conveyed personallyor by a messenger.

818. Stock with Engineering Staff – (1) Eachway, Works and Bridge Inspector shall have a stockof detonators sufficient to recoup the numberannually tested and any which may be exploded forworks and emergency. The Permanent Way Inspectorshall ensure that all Gangs, Gatemen, Keymen,Patrolmen and Watchmen are equipped with thespecified number of detonators.

(2) Every Assistant Engineer, Gangmate,Keyman, Gateman, Patrolman and Watchman,whose duties include protection of track shall carrythe specified stock of detonators with him on duty,for use during an emergency.

(3) The month and year of manufacture areshown on the label outside each case and alsostamped on each detonator. Detonators should beused in the order of the dates stamped on them, theoldest being used first. To facilitate ready withdrawalin this sequence, they should be stored alsoaccordingly.

819. Use of Detonators – (1) The staff inpossession of detonators shall not make anyimproper use of them. Engineers and Inspectors areresponsible to ensure that the staff working underthem know how and when to use detonators.

(2) A detonator when required to be used shallbe placed on the rail with the label or brand facingupwards and shall be fixed to the rail by bending theclasps around the head of the rail.

(3)In the case of a mixed gauge, detonatorsshall be placed on the common rail or on the rail ofeach gauge.

820. Testing – (1) Once a year, one detonatorshall be taken by the Permanent Way Inspector fromhis own stock and from Gangmate, Keyman,Gateman, Patrolman and Watchman for testing, onealso from each of the lots in the personal custody ofDivisional Engineer, Bridge Engineer, AssistantEngineer, works and relieving Permanent WayInspector where the headquarters of these officialsfalls within the P.W.I.’s jurisdiction. The oldestdetonators should be selected for the test.

(2) The testing of detonators should be doneunder an empty 4-wheeled B.G./M.G./N.G. wagonpropelled by an engine and moving at walking speedunder the direct supervision of the Permanent WayInspector, who shall ensure safety range duringtesting. Results of tests should be entered in aRegister.

(3) The P.W.I. shall submit by the end of theyear (31st December) a certificate in duplicate to theAssistant Engineer to the effect. “I certify that I havetested the detonators from stocks mentioned belowin accordance with standing orders for the yearending ….. and append a list of those that failed toexplode.” The Assistant Engineer shall countersignand forward one copy of the certificate to theDivisional Engineer with remarks, if any. Ordersregarding the return or destruction of those lots, thesamples from which failed to explode, shall be issuedby the Divisional Engineer.

821. Life of detonators – The normal life ofdetonators is seven years. The life of the detonatorscan be extended to ten years on an yearly basissubject to the condition that two detonators from eachlot of over 7 year old ones are tested for the explosivecontent and the results being found satisfactory. Suchtime extended detonators can be used on all sectionsafter satisfactory testing. In case the results are notsatisfactory, they should be destroyed as envisagedin Para 822. In any case no detonator should bekept in use after ten years.

Page 222: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

209

822. Disposal of time-barred Detonators –No detonator that bears any sign of rust and is time-barred shall be held in stock. Such detonators shallbe destroyed by one of the following methods

(1) By soaking them in light mineral oil for 48hours and then throwing them one by one into firewith due precautions.

(2) By burning them in incinerator.

(3) By detonating them under wagon duringshunting operations.

(4) By throwing them in deep sea.

The destruction of time-barred detonatorsshould be done in the presence of a Permanent WayInspector who should ensure that every care is takento see that splinters of detonators do not cause anyinjury to life and property. They should not be buriedor thrown in places from where they could berecovered.

823. Safety Range – When detonators arebeing tested, no person should be allowed within aradius of 50 metres from the detonators to beexploded; the engine crew shall remain well withinthe cab. In practice, splinters from detonators whenexploded seldom fly in a direction to the rear of thewheel which detonates them. Staff should therefore,when observing the safety radius, place themselves,as far as possible on the rear side.

824. Flare Signals- Descriptions – A flaresignal which includes a fusee emits a bright redflame, when lighted and is used for warning the Driverof an approaching train of any obstruction. The fuseenormally used burns for about seven minutes.

825. Use of flare signals – When it becomesnecessary to protect an obstruction in a Blocksection, a flare signal may be used, while the railwayservant proceeds to place detonators. A fusee is tobe lit to give timely warning to the Driver of anapproaching train of any obstruction such as derailedtrain obstructing adjacent lines, breaches, wash awayfloods, landslides etc., when the Railway servantdoes not have adequate time to do the protection inthe normal manner with detonators as envisagedunder rules; besides fusees detonators should alsobe placed on the line. Fusees are effective only innight time. In day time it can be used in foggy weather.

826. Safeworking of contractors - A largenumber of men and machinery are deployed by thecontractors for track renewals, gauge conversions,doublings, bridge rebuilding etc. It is therefore

essential that adequate safety measures are takenfor safety of the trains as well as the work force. Thefollowing measures should invariably be adopted:

(i) The contractor shall not start any workwithout the presence of railway supervisor or hisrepresentative and contractors supervisor at site.

(ii) Wherever the road vehicles and/ormachinery are required to work in the close vicinityof railway line, the work shall be so carried out thatthere is no infringement to the railway’s schedule ofdimensions. For this purpose the area where roadvehicles and/or machinery are required to ply, shallbe demarcated and acknowledged by the contractor.Special care shall be taken for turning/reversal of roadvehicles/machinery without infringing the runningtrack. Barricading shall be provided wherever justifiedand feasible as per site conditions.

(iii) The look out and whistle caution orders shallbe issued to the trains and speed restrictionsimposed where considered necessary. Suitableflagmen/detonators shall be provided wherenecessary for protection of trains.

(iv) The supervisor/workmen should becounselled about safety measures. A competencycertificate to the contractor’s supervisor as perproforma annexed shall be issued by AEN which willbe valid only for the work for which it has been issued.(Annexure 8/5).

(v) The unloaded ballast/rails/sleepers/otherP.Way materials after unloading along track shouldbe kept clear off moving dimensions and stacked asper the specified heights and distance from therunning track.

(vi) Supplementary site specific instructions,wherever considered necessary, shall be issued bythe Engineer in Charge.

(vii) The Engineer in-charge shall approve themethodology proposed to be adopted by thecontractor, with a view to ensure safety of trains,passengers and workers and he shall also ensurethat the methods and arrangements are actuallyavailable at site before start of the work and thecontractor’s supervisors and the workers haveclearly understood the safety aspects andrequirements to be adopted/ followed while executingthe work.

There shall be an assurance register kept ateach site, which will have to be signed by both, i.e.Railway Supervisor or his representative as well asthe contractor’s supervisor as a token of their havingunderstood the safety precautions to be observed atsite.

Page 223: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

210

ANNEXURE 8/1 - PARA 806(1)

NOTE:

Page 224: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

211

ANNEXURE 8/2 - PARA 806(2)

NOTE:

(1)

(2)

Page 225: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

212

ANNEXURE 8/3 - PARA 807 & 808

TG

10

TP

TG

TP

Note :When, during the course of the work, on consideration of safety, it is not desirable topass trains over the site of work for the time being, the track should be further protectedby hand signals and banner flags, by the authorized Railway servant.

Page 226: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

213

ANNEXURE 8/3A-PARA 807 & 808

30M

S

T P

S1

LINE UNDER REPAIRS. BE PREPARED TO REDUCE THE SPEED.

SPEED TO BE REDUCED TO S1

KMPH

SPEED TO BE INCREASED TO S2 KMPH

800M

SPEED RESTRICTION ZONE OF S1 KMPH

SPEED RESTRICTION ZONE OF S2 KMPH

TO BE LOCATED AT A DISTANCE EQUAL TO THE LENGTH OF THE LONGEST PASSENGER TRAIN OPERATING ON THE SECTION CONCERNED

TO BE LOCATED AT A DISTANCE EQUAL TO THE LENGTH OF THE LONGEST GOODS TRAIN OPERATING ON THE SECTION CONCERNED

TRACK

CASE-II: S2 > S1

T T

P Gs1

s2

30M 30M S

2

T P

S

LINE UNDER REPAIRS. BE PREPARED TO REDUCE THE SPEED.

SPEED TO BE REDUCED TO S1

KMPH

SPEED TO BE REDUCED TO S2

KMPH

1200M

SPEED RESTRICTION ZONE OF S1 KMPH

SPEED RESTRICTION ZONE OF S2 KMPH

TO BE LOCATED AT A DISTANCE EQUAL TO THE LENGTH OF THE LONGEST PASSENGER TRAIN OPERATING ON THE SECTION CONCERNED

TO BE LOCATED AT A DISTANCE EQUAL TO THE LENGTH OF THE LONGEST GOODS TRAIN OPERATING ON THE SECTION CONCERNED

TRACK

CASE-I: S2 < S1

T T

P

Gs2

s1

POSITION OF ENGINEERING INDICATORSIN CASE OF MULTI SPEED RESTRICTIONS

CASE-I:S2<S

1

CASE-II:S2>S

1

NOTE : MIN LENGTH OF SPEED RESTRICTION ZONE OF S1 KMPH SHOULD BE 200M.OTHERWISE SPEED INDICATOR BOARD S2 SHALL BE PROVIDED AT THE PLACE OF S1

Page 227: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

214

ANNEXURE 8/4 - PARA 807 & 808

TP

TG

10

ENGINEERING INDICATORSFOR TEMPORARY RESTRICTIONS

1400

1.0 m. DIA.

LETTER250 mm. HIGH40 mm. THICK

LIT UPAT NIGHT

LETTER250 mm. HIGH40 mm. THICK

25 mm.BLACKBAND

25 mm.BLACKBAND

U/S RAIL POST TOBE PAINTED WITH 300 mm. HIGH BANDSOF WHITE & BLACK

U/S RAIL POST TOBE PAINTED WITH 300 mm. HIGH BANDSOF WHITE & BLACK

TERMINATIONINDICATOR FOR

PASSENGER TRAINS

TERMINATIONINDICATOR FOR GOODS TRAINS

1.0 m. DIA.

CAUTIONINDICATOR

STOPINDICATOR

SPEEDINDICATOR

R. L.

R. L. R. L.1650

mm

.AB

OV

ER

.L.

1650

mm

.AB

OV

ER

.L.

R. L.

LIT UP AT NIGHT.

STEEL FLAT400 mm. x 10 mm.

U/S RAIL POST TO BEPAINTED WITH 300 mm.HIGH BANDS OF WHITE AND BLACK.

700

700400

400

2.0

m.

2.0

m.

AB

OV

ER

.L.

AB

OV

ER

.L.

400

700

1400 1 m.EQUILATERAL

FIGURES300 mm. HIGH40 mm. THICK.

470

LIT UPAT NIGHT

Page 228: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

ENGINEERING RESTRICTIONS AND INDICATORS AND USE OF DETONATING AND FLARE SIGNALS

215

ANNEXURE 8/5 - PARA 826 (iv)

COMPETENCY CERTIFICATE

Certified that shri......................................................................................................... P.way supervisor of M/s.

.................................................................................................................. has been examined regarding P.Way

working on .......................................... work. His knowledge has been found satisfactory and he is capable of

supervising the work safely.

Assistant Engineer

Page 229: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

216

CHAPTER IX

LEVEL CROSSING AND

GATEMAN

901 General Location : As far as possible,new Level Crossings may not be located in busystation yards where heavy detention to the road trafficand other operational problems are likely to beencountered. If provision of Level Crossing isinescapable, it may be located outside the outermostfacing points. For Level Crossings already locatedwithin busy station yards affecting Railway operationsand causing heavy detention to the road traffic, effortsshould be made to replace them by Road Over/Under Bridges as per extant rules or shift themoutside the outer most facing points, especiallyduring planning of gauge conversions, yard re-modeling and doublings and its operation from thecabin should be possible.

902. Classification of Level Crossings –

(1) The classification of level crossings shallbe based on the volume of rail and road traffic andvisibility conditions.

(2) The classification of level crossings shallbe as under:

Class Criteria(a) ‘Special .. for roads TVUs greater than 50,000(b) ‘A’ class .. for roads TVUs between 50,000 &

30,000OrLine capacity utilization80% (on single line) andnumber of road vehiclesgreater than 1000

(c) ‘B’ class…for roads TVUs between 30,000and 20,000 and numberof road vehicles greaterthan 750

‘B’ Class is further subdivided as following :B1 class…for roads TVUs between 30,000

and 25,000B2 class…for roads TVUs between 25,000

and 20,000(d) ‘C’ class…for roads All other level crossings

for road not covered inabove classes

(e) ‘D’ class … for cattle crossings.

(3) Level crossings over colliery, factory andother similar sidings where Railway traffic is light mayhowever be dealt with according to local conditions,subject to the approval of the Commissioner ofRailway Safety concerned being obtained in eachcase to the measures adopted for the safe workingof trains over the crossing.

903. Categories of Roads – (1) For thepurpose of this standard, Roads shall be categorisedas under –

(a) Class I roads –(i) National Highways,(ii) State Highways,(iii) Important roads within municipal towns, and(iv) Roads in and around towns where road

and rail traffic is heavy.

(b) Class II roads –(i) Major and other District roads,(ii) Unimportant roads within municipal towns,(iii) Roads within non-Municipal towns including

those within shunting limits of Railway stations, and(iv) Other surfaced roads.

(c) Class III roads –(i) Earth roads, and(ii) Cart tracks.

(d) Class IV roads –Cattle crossings and foot-path.

904. Standards for different classes oflevel crossings – The standards to be follow2ed(within the Railway limits ) for the various parametersin respect of different classes of level crossings willbe as shown in Annexure 9/1. These standardsare applicable to all new constructions and also inthe case of upgradation of the existing level crossings.The existing level crossings which are of a lowerstandards than those prescribed in Annexure 9/1need not be altered or modified merely to suit thesestandards.

905. Gates and Locking Arrangements –(1) Gates –(a) The gates may be in the form of chains,

lifting barriers or movable gates of approved design.(b) At new manned level crossings or when

existing unmanned level crossings are upgraded tomanned level crossings, lifting barriers shouldnormally be provided which should be coupled so

Page 230: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

217

as to operate simultaneously. Chains or swing gatesat existing manned level crossings should bereplaced by lifting barriers on a programmed basis,giving priority to the important and busy levelcrossings.

(2) Locking arrangements –(a) Lifting type barriers, swing gates or chains

when closed against road traffic shall be securelylocked.

When the locking arrangement is of the haspand staple type with padlocks, two spare chains withloops at both ends should be provided for lockingthe gates when the locking arrangement goes out oforder.

(b) Stops should be provided to prevent levelcrossing gates from swinging towards the track andcausing infringement. Catches should be providedto secure gates when in the open position to avoidobstruction to road traffic.

(c) In the case of all manned level crossings,two long spare chains with loops at both ends, shouldbe kept as reserve for use as an alternate to thebarrier/gate, in case of damage to them. Two discspainted red with the words “stop” with arrangementsfor fixing them on the ground should also form partof the spare equipment. Separate rail posts shouldbe erected near the gate, so that the chains can befixed on them ( Annexure 9/2).

906. Skew Level Crossings –

(1) All roads should preferably cross therailway line at right angles. In special cases, whenmodification is required to suit the road approachesthe angle of crossing should not be less than 450.

(2) At all level crossings the gate posts shallbe fixed square to the road.

907. Normal Position of Gates –

(1) General – Subject to such SpecialInstructions in that behalf as are permitted by theserules, all gates at level crossings shall be keptconstantly closed and securely fastened across thethrough fare on both sides of the railway and shallonly be opened when it is necessary and safe toopen them for the passage of road traffic; providedthat any Railway Administration may from time totime issue special instructions for any particular levelcrossing or class of level crossing and may by suchspecial instructions permit the gates at any level

crossing or class of level crossings to be normallykept open to road traffic and may therein prescribethe conditions under which gates are to be keptclosed against road traffic for the passage of a trainor trains or for the purposes of any other railwayoperation.

(2) At all level crossings over which trains arerequired to pass, the normal position of gates maybe as under –

(a) All level crossings in Special, A, and B1classes will be interlocked and protected by Signalsand kept ‘Normally open to Road traffic, and mayonly be closed against the road traffic for the passageof trains or for any other Railway operation by takingoff the signals.

(i) The gates must normally be kept open toroad traffic and may only be closed against the roadtraffic for the passage of trains or for any other railwayoperation by taking off the signals.

(ii) The signals must be interlocked with thegates.

(b) Level crossings provided with gates andnot protected by signals – The gates must normallybe kept closed and securely fastened against roadtraffic and may only be opened for the passage ofroad traffic when it is necessary and safe to do so.The Railway Administration may under specialinstructions permit gates of level crossings notprotected by signals to be normally kept open to roadtraffic prescribing the conditions under which theymay be kept closed against road traffic for passageof trains or any other railway operation.

(c) The normal position of gates at levelcrossings between station limits shall be as sub-para(a) and (b) above, fixed station signals not beingregarded as affording any protection unless the gatesare interlocked with signals.

(d) Level crossings having heavy seasonaltraffic – In case of level crossings having heavyseasonal road traffic with normal position of gatesclosed to road traffic, the Railway Administration maypermit gates of such level crossings, to be kept opento the road traffic during the busy season, when roadtraffic is heavy, by issuing special instructions andprescribing the conditions, under which they may bekept closed to road traffic for passage of trains orany other railway operation. The special instructionsshould be incorporated in the working rules for thegates and stations concerned.

Page 231: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

218

(3) Gateman, where provided, shall at all levelcrossings other than those controlled by gatesdesigned to close across the line, be prepared,wherever such level crossings be open to road traffic,to show a danger signal to any approaching train andfor this purpose invariably keep a hand signal litduring night to show Red throughout the period thelevel crossing is open to Road traffic.

908.Gate Lamps and Blinders –

(1) Fixture of gate lamps and indicators to roadusers – Gate lamp should be mounted preferably inrectangular sockets over gates so as to give correctindication to road users vide item 6 ofAnnexure 9/1. The lamp should be lighted by theGateman at sunset and remain lighted till sunrise.

(2) Provision of Blinders to Gate lamps –

(a) All gate lamps should be provided withblinders to conform with item 6 of Annexure 9/1.

(b) Drivers of trains shall get no light indicationfrom the gate lamp except at “Special Class” levelcrossings where they will observe red lights whenthe gates are closed across the railway line and areopen for road traffic.

909. Traffic and Engineering Gates – (1) Traffic Gates –(a) The manning and operation of the gates at

level crossings located between the outermost stopsignals shall be under the control of OperatingDepartment. The level crossings and structurespertaining thereto shall be maintained by theEngineering Department.

(b) When protected by signals the equipmentshall be governed by the signals of the station/blockhut and the operation as per the station working rules.

(2) Engineering Gates –

(a) Level crossings beyond the outermost stopsignals shall be under the control of the PermanentPay Inspectors both as regards to their operationand maintenance.

(b) Where the level crossing is protected bySignals, fixed signals shall be provided in eachdirection in accordance with the relevant generalrules(G.R.3.34 New Rules)/approved specialinstructions.

(3) The maintenance of signals, interlockingand communication equipment will rest with theSignal Department in the case of all level crossing

gates, whether located within or outside theoutermost stop signals.

(4) (a) The working instructions including thesignalling diagram of level crossings equipped withgate signals and situated beyond the outermost stopsignals in either direction of a block station and/orprovided with telephone connections with the nearestadjacent station on either side, shall be kept at thegate-lodge. A copy of the working instructions shallalso be kept at the station concerned.

(b) The working instructions in English and locallanguage of every level crossing within outermoststop signals of a block station, and also of levelcrossing beyond the outermost stop signals whichare provided with telephone connections and whoseoperation is governed by the system of exchange ofprivate numbers under special instructions, shouldbe incorporated as an appendix to the StationWorking Rules of the station concerned and kept atthe gate-lodge.

910. Equipment At Level Crossings – (1)The equipment for a manned level crossing shall beas follows; in addition to such others as may beprescribed by special instructions :–

(a) 2 hand signal lamps, tri-colour providedwith bright reflectors,

(b) 1 hand signal flag, green.(c) 2 hand signal flags, red.(d) 1 staff suitable for exhibition of red lamp

or red flag.(e) 2 long spare chains with “stop” marked

disc attachment at the center to cover thefull width of the gate, for use in case thegates/barriers are damaged (Annexure9/2).

(f) 2 spare small chains and padlocks forlocking gates, in case lockingarrangements of gates becomedefective.

(g) 12 detonators.(h) 1 tin case for flags.(i) 1 tin case for detonators.(j) 1 canister for muster sheet.(k) 1 can for oil.(l) 1 tommy bar.(m)1 water pot or bucket.(n) 1 mortar pan.

Page 232: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

219

(o) 1 powrah.(p) 1 rammer.(q) 1 pick-axe.(r) 1 tool list (with columns drawn for

checking of tools).(s) 1 book of safety rules in Hindi or regional

language.(t) Duty roster.(u) Complaint book for road users.(v) Inspection register.(w) Level crossing working instructions (in

local language) where applicable.(x) Two gate lamps.(y) Gatemen working on double line/multiple

lines, ghats, suburban and automaticblock territories shall be provided withthree fusees. Gatemen working on singleline sections shall be supplied with onefusee.

(z) Diagram indicating the method ofprotection to be adopted, in case ofobstruction in the level crossing.

z(i) Wall clocks in gate-lodges at all mannedlevel crossings to enable the gateman tocorrectly record the time of exchange ofprivate number, expected and actual timeof passage of train, time for opening andclosing of level crossing, etc

Note : In the case of level crossings inmultiple lines the hand signal flags/lamps, detonatorsshall be increased suitably.

(2) There should be sufficient supply ofkerosene oil, wicks and matches at the gate-lodge.The Gateman should always keep their hand signallamps trimmed and ready for lighting and use at amoment’s notice. During night, one of the hand signallamps should be kept lit throughout to show dangerstop signal to an approaching train. When the levelcrossing is closed to road traffic, the hand signallamps should be kept lit dimly only.

(3) At every manned level crossing thereshould be distinct indication at 600 meters and 1200meters on Broad Gauge and 400 meters and 800meters on Meter Gauge and Narrow Gauge and atspecified distances suitably increased on M. G. highspeed routes where trains run at speeds above 75km.p.h.,on either side to guide the Gateman for

placing the detonators in case of obstruction at thelevel crossing. Indicator posts should be providedwith one dot and three dots at these distances toindicate the number of detonators to be placed.Arrangements for exhibiting the danger signal at adistance of 5 meters during emergency should bemade at each level crossing.

(4) Height Gauges on Electrified Sections.-(a) Adequate arrangements shall be made to erectheight gauges on either side of the overheadequipment or other equipment at every level crossingso as to ensure that all vehicles and movingstructures passing under the height gauge also passunder the overhead equipment or other equipmentwith adequate clearance.

(b) The adequate clearance referred to in sub-rule (a) shall be sanctioned under approved specialinstructions.

(c) Height Gauges should be located at aminimum distance of 8 metre from gate posts. Inexceptional circumstances where site condition donot permit, Chief Engineer can give exemption inthese standards subject to a minimum of 8 metredistance from the centre line of the track. Roadsurface upto this point may be at the same level asthe road surface inside the gate posts.

(d) Vehicles and moving structures, whichcan not pass under the height gauge without strikingor touching it, shall not be permitted to pass theoverhead equipment or other equipment except inaccordance with special instructions.

911. Siting of Gate-Lodges –

(1) Gate-Lodges shall be so sited that a clearand unobstructed view is obtained of all approachingtrains and road vehicles, care being taken thatallowance is made for all future extensions, e.g.,doubling of line or widening of roadway.

(2) Where the level crossing is on a curve, thegate-lodge should be built on the outside of the curve.

(3) Level crossing at cuttings or near cuttingsshould be avoided as far as possible.

912. Appointment of Gatemen, Rostersand Medical fitness Certificates –

(1) Before appointment, the Permanent WayInspector should ensure that competent menselected as gatemen have obtained Certificates offitness for class A3 from the Medical Department and

Page 233: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

220

that they are examined thereafter at periods stipulatedby the rules in force. In all level crossings providedwith telephone connections literate Gateman capableof exchanging private numbers, should be posted.

(2) The hours of duty for the Gateman shouldbe laid down and must confirm to the regulations inforce. The rosters detailing the hours of duty and restfor each Gateman shall be maintained at the gate-lodge. The roster should indicate clearly as to whichgateman is required to be on duty at any particulartime. No Gateman shall change his hours of dutywithout the order of the Permanent Way Inspector.

(3) Full particulars regarding the periodicalmedical examination and vision test of each Gatemanshall be maintained at the gate-lodge.

(4) When handing or taking over charge, theGateman and their relievers should jointly check allthe equipment and test all the gears to see that theyare in order.

(5) Every Gateman shall be fully conversantwith the use of hand signals, detonators, fusees andprotection rules.

913. Duties of Gateman –(1) Alertness – The Gateman should be on the

alert and be prepared to take immediate action,should danger be apprehended. The keys of the gatesshall be on his person.

(2) Position during passage of trains – TheGatemen should stand facing the track on the gate-lodge side of the approaching train. He shouldobserve all passing trains and be prepared to takesuch action as may be necessary to ensure safetyof trains.

(3) Action in emergency – In case of anobstruction at the level crossing the Gateman shouldmaintain the gate signals, if any, in the “ON” positionand if unable to remove it, protect the line as under-

(a) On double line, if both lines are obstructedduring day, he shall plant a red banner flag at adistance of 5 metres from the end of check rails onthe line on which a train is expected to arrive first,then plant another red banner flag on the other line atthe site of obstruction. He shall then pick up redhand signal and showing it, proceed on that linetowards the direction of an approaching train to apoint 600 metres on Broad Gauge and 400 metreson Metre Gauge and Narrow Gauge from the levelcrossing and place one detonator on the line, after

which proceed further to not less than 1200 metresfrom the level crossing on Broad Gauge and 800metres on Metre Gauge and Narrow Gauge andplace 3 detonators on the line about 10 metres apart.Having thus protected the line on which a train isexpected to approach first, he should return to thelevel crossing, picking up the intermediate detonatorson his way back. He shall then proceed on the otherline showing red hand signal, place detonatorssimilarly and return to the site of obstruction to warnthe Driver of an approaching train.

Provided that on those Metre Gauge sectionswhere trains run at more than 75 Km/h, thedetonators shall be placed at distance to be specifiedunder special instructions by the Administration(Annexure 9/3).

(b) On single line, if the line is obstructed duringday, he shall plant a red banner flag at a distance of5 metres from the end of check rails towards thedirection from which a train is expected to arrive first,then plant another banner flag towards the oppositedirection at the site of obstruction. He shall then pickup red hand signal and as in sub-para (a) above,protect the line in the direction from which a train isexpected to approach first, return to the site ofobstruction, and proceed with all haste in the otherdirection to protect the line. Having protected theline on both sides, he should station himself at theplace of obstruction to warn the Driver of anapproaching train (Annexure 9/3).

(c) At night the Gateman should light the twohand signal lamps and take action to exhibit red lightand protect the lines as in sub-paras (a) and (b)above.

(d) Gateman should take immediate action toinform the Mate, P.W.I. and the nearest StationMaster about the obstruction at the level crossingthrough messenger or other means available.

(4) Parting of a Train -If a Gateman noticesthat a train has parted he shall not show a stop handsignal to the Driver, but shall endeavour to attractthe attention of the Driver and the Guard by shouting,gesticulating or other means.

(5) The Gateman should ensure that the gatelamps and lamps of all gate signals are lighted andkept burning continuously from sunset to sunrise.

(6) No Gateman shall leave his gate unlessother Gateman has taken charge of it. If it is

Page 234: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

221

necessary to leave his gate in an emergency, beforedoing so, he should close and lock the gates againstthe public road.

(7) The Gateman should see that the channelfor the flange of the wheel is kept clear.

(8) The Gateman should keep the road surfacewell watered and rammed.

(9) At level crossings, if any gate or barriergets damaged / out of order the Gateman should usethe spare chain and disc, for closing against the roadtraffic.

(10) As soon as possible, the Gateman shouldreport to the nearest Station Master, Gang Mate orPermanent Way Inspector any defect in his gate orthe apparatus pertaining to it.

(11) At gates the signal or signals of whichhave become defective, the Gateman should closeand lock the gates on sighting of train and hand signalor pilot the train past the defective signal. In suchcase he should inform the Driver to report about thedefective signal or signals to the Station Master atthe next station.

(12) In the event of a gate signal becomingdefective the Gateman should maintain the signal inthe ‘ON’ position by disconnecting the signal or thewire if necessary.

(13) The Gateman should ensure that theequipment supplied to the gate is in good order andready for immediate use.

(14) Every Gateman shall as for as possibleprevent trespassing by persons or cattle.

914. Maintenance of Level Crossing,Examination of Gate equipment and Gatemanin Rules – (1) By Permanent Way Inspectors –

(a) Obstruction of view – All trees, bushes orundergrowth that interfere or tend to interfere withthe view from the Railway or road way whenapproaching level crossings, should be cut downtaking care to comply with the procedure laid downin para 222.

(b) Inspection and Maintenance – (i) Each levelcrossing except those laid with PSC sleepers mustbe opened out and the condition of sleepers andfittings, rails and fastenings inspected at least oncea year or more frequently, as warranted byconditions. However, level crossings laid with PSCsleepers should be overhauled with each cycle ofmachine packing or more frequently as warranted

by conditions and in no case shall opening be delayedby more than two years. In all cases, rails andfastenings in contact with the road shall be thoroughlycleaned with wire brush and a coat of coaltar/anti-corrosive paint applied. Flange way clearances,cross level, gauge and alignment should be checkedand corrected as necessary, and the track packedthoroughly before reopening the level crossing forroad traffic.(ii) The painting of gates and discs should be doneat regular intervals.(iii) The Permanent Way Inspector should keep amanuscript register of repairs for all level crossingson his section. This register should show the date ofopening, the condition of sleepers with their age andtime, the date and type of each sleeper changed andother requisite particulars.

(iv) The Permanent Way Inspector will beresponsible for the proper upkeep and maintenanceof whistle boards and ‘STOP’ boards provided onthe approaches to level crossings.

(v) Check rails of level crossing are required tobe removed for tamping operations, overhauling oflevel crossings, distressing of LWR or track renewalsetc. Check rails should be re-fixed as quickly aspossible and preferably before leaving site.

Should a situation arise where check railscannot be re-fixed for any reason and trains have tobe passed, a speed restriction of 30 kmph shouldbe imposed besides ensuring that road traffic isdiverted till the check rails are put in place. In casesuch diversion is not possible, temporaryarrangements should be made for passage of roadtraffic till the check rails areput in place. However, inboth these cases, the check rails should necessarilybe provided latest by close of next day. In suchcases, a stationary watchman shall be posted toensure safety.

(c) Checking equipment and examination ofGateman in rules – (i) The equipment with theGateman shall be checked by Permanent WayInspector once in a month.

(ii) The Permanent Way Inspector shall ensure thatthe Gateman have a correct knowledge of rules byexamining them periodically during his trollyinspection and on appointment, promotion or transfer.He should not only educate them in rules, but alsoconduct practical demonstration of protection of levelcrossing in case of emergency.

Page 235: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

222

(d) Surprise day/night inspection of levelcrossing should be carried out to ensure presenceand alertness of Gateman.

(2) By Assistant Engineer –

The Assistant Engineer should inspect theequipment at every manned level crossing on thesub-division once in six months, and examine theGateman in rules during his inspection.

The Assistant Engineer should scrutinise themanuscript register of level crossings maintained bythe Permanent Way Inspectors and inspect as manylevel crossings as possible, when they are completelyopened out during the year.

915. Level Crossing Registers – In the officeof the Divisional Engineer, Assistant Engineer andPermanent Way Inspector, complete particulars oflevel crossings in serial order should be maintainedin a register as shown in Annexure 9/4.

Whenever additions and alterations orimprovement to level crossings are made, the levelcrossing registers should be amended and wherenecessary a copy of the new or revised workinginstructions with the revised signal and interlockingdiagram posted at the gate-lodge.

916. Level Crossing indicators –

(1) Whistle indicator – (i) At the approaches toall unmanned ‘C’ class level crossings or mannedlevel crossings where the view is not clear on eitherside for a distance of 600 meters and those whichhave normal position open to road traffic, withoutinterlocking and protection by signals, under specialconditions, bilingual whistle boards as per design(Annexure 9/5) should be erected at 600 metersalong the track from the level crossing to enjoin theDrivers of approaching trains to give audible warningof the approach of a train to the road users. TheDrivers of approaching trains should whistlecontinuously from the time they pass whistle boardsto the time they cross the level crossing. However,the distance of W/L boards for unmanned levelcrossings on single line section where visibility isclear, should be reduced to 350m.

(ii) The whistle indicator shall consist of two600 mm. square boards painted yellow and bearingletter W/L in black. Its height shall be 2100 mm. fromthe rail level to the underside and the post on whichit is fixed, painted with 300 mm. high bands in whiteand black. It shall not be lighted at night.

(2) ‘Stop’ Boards – (a) On the road approachesto all unmanned ‘C’ class level crossings ‘Stop’boards should be provided on the road at either sideof the level crossings at suitable points, within therailway boundary.

(b) This shall consist of a board 675 mm.X525mm. on a suitable post bearing the indication of anengine and the legend “Stop, look out for trainsbefore crossing” in English, Hindi and Regionallanguage. The paint used shall preferably be ofluminous variety. The distance of the “Stop” boardfrom the track on the approaches of the unmannedlevel crossings shall be 5 meters from centre line ofthe nearest track, within the Railway boundary.

(c) The vertical post shall be painted black andwhite, each strip to be 300 mm. in height startingwith black paint at the bottom.

917. Visibility Requirements for unmannedLevel Crossings – For new unmanned levelcrossings the visibility requirements for road usersalong the track shall be 600 M. with single or doubleline track. Where this is not feasible, the distancemay be reduced suitably with the approval of the ChiefEngineer provided the maximum permissible speedis less than 100 km.p.h. and/or there is only a singletrack to be crossed on the level crossing. Visibilityof trains for road users at unmanned level crossingmay be assessed, from a distance of 5 meters fromthe centre of the track.

918. Provision of speed breakers on theapproaches of level crossing –

Provision of rumble strips on approaches oflevel crossings as per the standard design is theresponsibility of Road authorities. Matter may bepersued with all State Governments/Roadauthorities to ensure that rumble strips are providedon all level crossings as per standard design overthe total width of the road i.e. edge of the berm toedge of berm with proper road warning signs as perthe standard design. However, it is incumbent uponRailways to provide speed breakers as per thestandard design on both manned as well as unmannedlevel crossing irrespective of whether the approachroad are metalled or un-metalled, as a temporarysafety measure, till such time these are replaced withrumble strips of proper design by the Roadauthorities. While providing speed breakers,following guidelines may be observed:-

Page 236: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

223

(1) One speed breaker should be provided oneither approach of level crossings located within theRailway land boundary at a distance maximumfeasible but not exceeding 20m covering full width ofthe road including berms as per Annexure - 9/6.For safety reasons, the paint marking should beprovided and their maintenance ensured.

(2) Standard warning signs for speed breakersas per Annexure - 9/7 should be invariably providedat a prescribed distance as indicated in item 19 ofAnnexure 9/1 to Para 904.

(3) Speed breakers should be constructed withhot pre-mix bituminous material, well compactedafter laying on well prepared surface. Enough timeis to be allowed for the bituminous material to hardenbefore opening it to the traffic. On berms andunmetalled roads, the speed breakers should besupported on proper base of compacted road metal.

919. Census of Traffic at Level Crossings,Unmanned/Manned – (1) Periodical census of trafficat all level crossings, unmanned/manned shall betaken once every three years. This shall be carriedout for 7 days and total Train vehicle Units (TVUs)/day (train units x Road vehicle units) are workedout. Train, Road vehicle, Bullock carts and Tongasbeing considered as one unit; cycle rickshaw/Autorickshaw being considered as half unit. The censusshall be carried out by a multi-disciplinary inspectorialteam consisting of representatives of CE, S&T andTraffic Departments. The mechanism shall be setup by the Divisional Railway Manager to ensure thatthe representatives are present for the census bylaying down advance time table for carrying out ofcensus of level crossings.

(2) In the case of unmanned level crossinginvolved in an accident, census should be conductedimmediately, to determine whether manning isrequired.

(3) In the case of manned level crossings, thequinquennial census should be substituted by acensus-cum-job analysis so as to avail of theopportunity of checking up the adequacy of men onconsideration of Hours of Employment Regulations.

920. Unmanned ‘C’ class Level Crossings– The upkeep of all unmanned ‘C’ class levelcrossings should be to the same standard ofmaintenance as that of manned level crossings. Theposts at such unmanned level crossings may beeither of unserviceable steel sleepers or

unserviceable rail pieces, painted white.

The keyman during his daily beat should payrequisite attention to the general condition of suchlevel crossings and keep the flange ways clear andfree from obstruction.

921. Track Structure in Level Crossings

(1) In level crossings ‘U’ category sleepers(durable) should preferably be used.

(2) All sleepers used in level crossings shouldbe provided with suitable bearing plates.

(3) Rail joints should be avoided in check railsand on the running rails, within the level crossingsand three meters on either side.

(4) In each rail seat, four spikes should beprovided.

(5) In the case of S.W.R., the short weldedpanel may be continued through the level crossing,avoiding fish plated joint on the level crossing andwithin six meters from the end of level crossing.

(6) The level crossing should not fall within thebreathing length of L.W.R., as per the provisionscontained in L.W.R. Manual.

922. Manning of the unmanned Levelcrossings through Member of ParliamentLocal Area Development Scheme (MPLADS) :

(1) The manning of unmanned Level Crossingshas been included in the list of works covered underMember of Parliament Local Area DevelopmentScheme (MPLADS). The funds for capital cost ofconstruction covering the cost of road, provision oflifting barrier, arrangement of water and electricity,quarters for the gatemen, duty hut etc. will beprovided by Member of Parliament from MPLADSFund and recurring maintenance and operation costwill be borne by the Railways.

(2) Unmanned level crossings equal to numberof level crossings manned through Member ofParliament Local Area Development Scheme, willbe converted into manned level crossing atRailway's cost as selected in consultation withMember of Parliament concerned.

(3) Preferably, selected unmanned LevelCrossings, should fall in the category I-V with prioritygiven to Level Crossings falling in Category-I followedby Category-II, III, IV, V. For Level crossings fallingin the same category on different routes, priority shall

Page 237: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

224

be given to A route followed by B, C, D-Spl., E-Spl,D and E-routes.

(4) Divisional Railway Managers will liaisonwith the District Authorities and the Hon'ble Memberof Parliaments in selecting the Level Crossings formanning. On identification of the Level Crossings,Member of Parliament will send his recommendationsto the District Magistrate/ Dy. Commissioner forreleasing the funds. Railway will provide an estimatefor the work and any other details to the DistrictAdministration as required. Departmental chargesshall not be levied on these works and supervisionand establishment charges will be kept to theminimum as provided in the case of similar Railwayworks. Separate accounts shall be maintained foreach work and `Utilisation Certificate' will besubmitted to the District Administration on completionof the work.

923. Level Crossings on NationalHighways/State Highways and Other Importantroads.

(1) In case of National Highway/StateHighways or their bypasses and important cityroads, no new Level Crossing to be provided andonly grade separators agreed to be provided.

(2) In case of other important roads, it ispreferable to provide grade separators. However,depending upon the traffic density envisaged,manned Level Crossings can also be considered.

(3) Relaxation of the above (1) will requireBoard's prior approval.

924. Provision of New Level Crossings/Manning/Demanning/Elimination:-

(a) Provision of the new level crossings: If,provision of new level crossing is inescapable, thenonly manned level crossing is to be provided. Thisis applicable to all existing lines, new constructionsand gauge conversions. However, these instructionsare not applicable in case of private sidings.

(b) Manning of Unmanned Level Crossing :

(i) Based on traffic density, visibility and regularplying of buses etc. unmanned level crossings havebeen categories into I-III for manning at Railwayscost in a phased manner on a programmed basisas per following priority:Category I - Level crossing where TVUsexceed 6000, number of road vehicles exceed 180and where visibility is clear.

Category II - Level crossing where TVUsexceed 6000, number of road vehicles exceed 120and where visibility is restricted.Category III - Level crossing where TVUs isbetween 3000 and 6000 and where visibility isrestricted.

Further, manning of any unamanned levelcrossing shall not be done if motor vehicles do notply regularly. Manning of category –III level crossingsshould be considered once manning of first twocategories is over. Further, if any unmanned levelcrossings gets involved in more than 3 accidents in3 years, it should be manned immediately irrespectiveof the category to which it belongs.

All proposals for manning of unmanned levelcrossings should be processed inconsultation/association with the Chief Safety Officerof the Railway.

(ii) All unmanned level crossings on Rajdhaniand Shatabdi routes where maximum permissiblespeed is 120 Kmph or more should be manned onpriority.

Further train route wise priority to be followedfor manning will be ‘A’ route followed by ‘B’ ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘DSpl” ‘E Spl’ and ‘E’

(iii) For manning of unmanned level crossingswith traffic density more than 10000 TVUs, Board'sapproval is not required. However, in all other casesBoard's sanction is required.

(c) De-Manning/Elimination of the LevelCrossing: The existing manned level crossingsshould not be demanned. However, the detailedreview/survey of the existing level crossings bothmanned and unmanned to be carried out with a viewto eliminate them by either passing the road throughan existing bridge or by constructing link roads tocombine two or more level crossings etc.

However Railways may de-man an existinglevel crossing gate in case the TVU level falls below80% of the value of the criteria laid down for manningin sub-para (b) (i) above.

925. Criteria for replacement of existinglevel crossings (other than those provided ondeposit terms') with Road Over/Under Bridgeson cost sharing basis:

(1) Minimum Train Vehicle Units on a LevelCrossing should be 1 lakh per day to become eligible

Page 238: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

225

for replacement with Road Over/Under Bridges on`Cost Sharing' basis. However, this could be relaxedin the following cases:-

(a) Suburban sections having high frequencyof train services; and

(b) Near stations where detentions to roadtraffic are very high on account of either shuntingoperations or multi-directional receipt/despatch oftrains or stabling of trains etc.

(2) Preference should be given to the LevelCrossings located on trunk routes vis-à-vis thoselocated on branch lines. In any case, minimumnumber of times the level crossing is required to beclosed against the road traffic should at least be 12times per day.

(3) Subject to (1) and (2) above, priority shouldgenerally be accorded by the concerned StateGovernment giving preference to Level crossings onNational Highways.

(4) In case of Road Over/Under Bridgesconstructed in replacement of busy level crossingssituated in Municipal/ Corporation/ Metropolitan areaswhere Light Vehicular traffic is considerable andwhere the Railways are satisfied that closure of thelevel crossings would cause hardship, additionalprovision may be made for construction of the sub-way or a light Over Bridge with ramps for the use oflight vehicular traffic at the time of framing the proposalfor the construction of Road Over/Under Bridges.The proposals for providing the ramps/sub-wayshould be examined critically and should be providedfor only in the case of genuine hardships and not asa matter of course. The cost of these ramps/subwaywill be shared equally with the Sponsoring Authorityon 50:50 basis.

(5) Closure of the Level Crossings should beensured before commissioning of the Road Over/Under Bridges. All such cases where State/LocalAuthorities do not agree to abide by this should bereported to the Railway Board promptly.

Page 239: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATE MAN

226

ANNEXURE-9/1 Para 904

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA – RAILWAY DEPARTMENT (RAILWAY BOARD)

CLASSIFICATlON AND STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR LEVEL CROSSINGS(Within Railway Limits)

(No. IRS (M) 2 of May 28 Revised June, 31 and corrected upto September 1982)

Note – (1) The revised specification apply only when any new level crossings constructed or old one altered.(2) Wherever the new standards differ from the old standards, the old standards have been given below the new standards for reference.

ln other cases the old standards and new standards are the same.

Item Details Dimensions and details for Various classes of crossingsRemarks

Special ‘A’ Class ‘B’ Class 'C' Class 'D' class

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 Minimum width of gates at The minimum width of gates will be governed by the class of roads on which the level Where X = width of Carriage way. Gates shall beright angles to the centre line crossing is situated and will be as under— provided at special 'A' and 'B' class crossings.of the road. Across Class I roads – 9 metres or X+2.5M. whichever is more. Gates or chains shall be provided at 'C' and 'D' class

Across Class II roads –7.5 metres or X+2 M, whichever is more. level crossings only in the following cases :–Across Class III roads – 5.0 metres or X+ 1.25 M. whichever is more. (i) When the line is on curve and the road and railAcross Class IV roads – suitable width subject to 2 M. being the minimum. view is not clear.

(ii) When speed of trains and volume of traffic are great.(iii)When the level crossing is within those limits at

Old Standards : – 7.5 metres (24') 5.5 metres (18') . . 5.5 metres (18') . . 3.0 m. (9') if un- 2.0m. (6') a station between which shunting is normallyor 9.0 metre (30'). manned likely to be carried out.

5.5m (18') if (iv) On portions of the line which are fenced throughmanned. out on one or both sides, except when efficient

cattle guards are provided.

2 Minimum length of guard rail 2 metres more than 2 metres more than 2 metres more than 2 metres more than Not to be provided .. In the case of skew crossing the length of the guard(for a square crossing) width of gate. width of gate. width of gate. width of gate. rail must be increased in accordance with the

Lformula : = X = ——— where

sin AX = required length,L = Minimum length measured

at right angles to the centre line of the road,A = Angle between the centre line of the

Road and Railway.

3 Angle of crossing between gates. Not less than 45° Not less than 45° Not less than 45° Not less than 45° At right angle tobetween centre line between centre line between centre line between centre line the centre line of ....................................of road and Railway, of road and Railway, of road and Railway, of road and Railway, the Railway.

Page 240: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATE MAN

227

4 Provision of Wicket gates To be provided To be provided To be provided Not to be provided . . Not to be Design of Wicket gate should be such that trespassingfor foot passengers. except where foot except where foot except where foot provided . . by cattle is prevented.

over bridges are over bridges are over bridges areprovided. provided. provided.

5 Position of gates when Across or towards Away from or Away from or Away from or towards Same as ‘ C ‘ (i) At new manned level crossing or when existingopen to road traffic. the line. towards but not towards but not but not across the line class but stakes unmanned level crossings are upgraded to manned

across the line. across the line. if gates are provided. shall be fixed level crossings, lifting barriers should normally bebetween the gate provided, which should be coupled, so as toposts to prevent operate simultaneously Chain and Swing gates atpassage of Road existing manned level crossings should be replaced

by lifting barriers on a programmed baste, givingpriority to the important and busy level crossings.

(ii) Where lifting barriers are provided, the beams willbe in vertical position.

6 Provision of lights on Red when either Red when either Red when either Red when either gate Not to be (iii) At all important level crossing gates wheregates at nights. gate is closed to the gate is closed to the gate is closed to the is closed to the road, provided . . electric power supply is available flashing lights to(a) Light as observed Road, white when Road, white when Road, white when white when both gates give indication to the road users about lowering orby road users. both gates open to both gates open to both gates open to are open to the Road. raising of lifting barriers should be provided.

the Road. the Road. the Road. But provision of gate An economical arrangement would be to fit thelamps is not obligatory gate lamp to the revolving hinge post and to fit theand should normally fixed gate post a cowl to mask the lamp in bothbe provided at only directions along the track. If local conditions make itthose level crossings expedient to fit the lamp in the centre of the gate,where there is Motor a suitable rod operated cowl must be provided.Traffic. Where there isno Motor Traffic thegate should be paintedwhite and red discprovided. If posts andchains are provided theposts should be paintedwhite with red discprovided on the chainsat the centre andreflectors, luminous

Item Details Dimensions and details for Various classes of crossingsRemarks

Special ‘A’ Class ‘B’ Class 'C' Class 'D' class

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Page 241: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATE MAN

228

paint or scotchlite tapemay be provided onthe red disc as analternative to lamps.

(b) Light as observed Red when gates Nil. Nil. Nil. Nil.by Drivers of approaching trains. are closed across

track.7 Minimum distance of gate For B.G. 3 metres 3 metres 3 metres 3 metres 3 metres

posts from centre line of track. For M.G. } 2.5 M. 2.5 metres 2.5 metres 2.5 metres 2.5 metresand N.G. }

8 Minimum distance of gatelogde from –(a) Centre line of nearest track. 6 metres 6 metres 6 metres 6 metres 6 metres If the line of approach road is on a curve at or near a

level crossing, the gate lodge must be built on the outside of curve.

(b) Edge of Road metalling. 6 metres 6 metres 6 metres 6 metres 6 metres

Old Standards – 6 metres 4.5 metres 4.5 metres 3 metres 3 metres

9 Interlocking and CommunicationDevices to be provided

(a) Normal Position of gate Open to road traffic Open to road traffic Closed to road traffic. Closed to road traffic.Can be kept open to Can be kept open toroad traffic provided road traffic providedeither gates are either gates areinterlocked with signals interlocked withand provided telephone signals and providedcommunication with telephone communicationadjacent stations/ with adjacent stations/cabins or when the cabins or when thefollowing conditions are following conditions aresatisfied: satisfied:

Item Details Dimensions and details for Various classes of crossingsRemarks

Special ‘A’ Class ‘B’ Class 'C' Class 'D' class

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Page 242: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATE MAN

229

Item Details Dimensions and details for Various classes of crossingsRemarks

Special ‘A’ Class ‘B’ Class 'C' Class 'D' class

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

(i) L.C. should not be (i) L.C. should not belocated in a Suburban located in a SuburbanSection. Section.(ii) L.C. should not be (ii) L.C. should not bein Automatic Block in Automatic BlockSignallling or Automatic Signallling or Automaticpermissible block permissible blocksignallling territories. signallling territories.(iii) Should have a (iii) Should have atelephone connection telephone connectionwith the nearest station with the nearest stationwith exchange of with exchange ofprivate numbers. private numbers.(iv) Visibility at the (iv) Visibility at thelevel crossing level crossingshould be good. should be good.(v) Should be provided (v) Should be providedwith whistle boards on with whistle boards oneither side at adequate either side at adequatedistance to enjoin the distance to enjoin theDrivers of approaching Drivers of approachingtrains to give audible trains to give audiblewarning of the warning of theapproach of a train approach of a trainto the road users. to the road users.(vi) As long as the (vi) As long as thelevel crossing gate is level crossing gate iskept open to road kept open to roadtraffic a red flag by day traffic a red flag by daytime and red light (by time and red light (byusing hand signal using hand signallamp) during night, lamp) during night,should be displayed should be displayedtowards the towards theapproaching trains on approaching trains oneither side of level either side of levelcrossing. crossing.

Note*: The above decision should be takenPersonally by D. R. Ms. approved by C. E.and C. T. S. S. and position reviewed everytwo years.

Page 243: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATE MAN

230

(b) Interlocking of gates with Should be Should be Should be interlocked Should be interlocked (i) The level crossing inside station limits should besignals – interlocked with interlocked with with signals. with signals. beyond the limits upto which shunting is normally

station signals. station signals. (i) In Suburban (i) Within station limits carried out or at an adequate distance of at least(i) If within station limits. Sections. where operated from 250 metres ahead of the starters and trailing points of

(ii) In non-Suburban cabin, (ii) in automatic the station where Advanced Starters/Shuntingsections where signalling and Limit Boards are not provided.operated from cabins. Automatic permissive(iii) In Automatic block terriories. (ii) In case of level crossings falling on SuburbanSignalling and Sections they may be considered for upgradationautomatic permissive to 'B' class in the event of their not qualifyingblock territories. for upgradation to "Special" or 'A' class and when

so upgraded to ' B ' class the facilities as indicatedin column 5 should be provided.

(ii) If outside station limits. Should be Should be To be interlocked To be interlocked in (i) In the case of level crossings protected byinterlocked with interlocked with (1) In luburban automatic signalling signals where the sighting of the signal by an enginegate signals, gote signals, sections and automatic Driver is inadequate a warning board should be placed

(2) In autoinatic permi-ssive block at not less than the emergency braking distance insignalling and territories. rear of the gate stop signal. The board should beautomatic permissive vertical 2000 mm. by 450 mm. with alternate blackblock territories. and yellow strips 125 mm. wide painted on it at an

angle of 45°. The top of the board should be 4 M.above Rail level. The board need not be lit at nightbut should as far as possible be provided withscotchlite or other effective light reflectors.(ii) Where level crossing is situated outside stationlimits but in close proximity thereof, the cleardistance between the level crossing and an outersignal should not be less than a full train length.

(c) Telephone Communicationfrom gate-lodge –

(i) Within station limits. Telecommunication Telecommunication Telecommunication Telecommunication In cases where communication with A. S. M. iswith A. S. M.’s Office with A. S. M.’s Office with A. S. M.’s Office with A. S. M.’s Office stipulated, the connection may be given to theto be provided. to be provided. to be provided. to be provided in case Switchman in the Cabin as per the local condition.

of manned levelcrossings.

(ii) Outside station limits. Telecommunication Telecommunication Telecommunication Telecommunicationwith A. S. M.’s Office with A. S. M.’s Office with adjoining station with adjoining stationof adjoining station of adjoining station to be provided on— to be provided –should be provided. should be provided.

Item Details Dimensions and details for Various classes of crossingsRemarks

Special ‘A’ Class ‘B’ Class 'C' Class 'D' class

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Page 244: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATE MAN

231

(a) All level crossings (a) On all levelon Rajdhani route; croissings on

Rajdhani route;

(b) On suburban (b) On Suburbansections; and sections; and

(c) On curves (c) On curvesobstructing the view obstructing the viewof the level crossing of the level crossingfrom approaching from approachingtrain and vice versa. train* and vice versa.

(d) warning bell operated by Should be provided Should be provided Shall be provided Shall be provided Provision of warning bells operated by approachingapproaching train. where L.C. is outside where L.C. is outside where L.C. is outside where L.C. is outside trains should be confined to interlocked level

station limits. station limits in all a station limits. In all station limits in all crossings only,suburban sections suburban sections Suburban sectionsand on non-suburban and on non-suburban and non-Suburbansections provided sections provided with sections providedwith automatic automatic signalling with automaticsignalling and in and in APB territories. signalling and inAPB territories. APB territories.

10 Minimum no. of Gate Keepers. Three Two Two Two if manned (one if Two if manned (one if Note.—the gate is closed and the gate is closed and (1) Gate Keepers will not be provided at 'C' and 'D'locked at night in locked at night in class level. crossings where gates/chains are notaccordance with the accordance with the provided.provision of provision of (2) Gate Keepers may be dispensed with at gatesGR.16.03). GR.16.03). within station limits when operated by station staff

in accordance with special instructions.(3) Gate Keepers may be dispensed with at 'C' classlevel crossings on canal roads which are providedwith gates if the following conditons are fulfilled :—(a) The gates are generally closed to the road and locked.(b) The roads are the private property of the Irrigation,Public Works Department and are not public thoroughfares.

Item Details Dimensions and details for Various classes of crossingsRemarks

Special ‘A’ Class ‘B’ Class 'C' Class 'D' class

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Page 245: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATE MAN

232

Item Details Dimensions and details for Various classes of crossingsRemarks

Special ‘A’ Class ‘B’ Class 'C' Class 'D' class

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

(c) The keys of the gates are issued to a fewresponsible Government Officials.

(d) The traffic over the level crossing is very light.(4) One Gate Keeper may be dispensed with if there is

no traffic in the night in accordance with GR. 16.03.

11 Fencing on lines which are not Minimum length of Minimum length of Minimum length of Minimum length of Fencing should befenced throughout • their length. 15 m. from each 15 m. from each 15 m. from each 15 M. for manned provided for level

gate post parallel gate post parallel gate post parallel level crossing outside crossings if mannedto track to track to track station limits and level with gates/chains

crossing within station within station limitslimits provided with for 15 M. length.gates/chains.

12 Width of metalling—(a) Between gates ... Same as that of the Same as that of the Same as that of the same as that of the same as that of the

width of gates. width of gates. width of gates. width of gates or the width of gates or thewidth between gate width between gateposts where gate posts where gateleaves are not provided. leaves are not

provided.

(b) Outside gates ... Minimum width of metalling immediately outside gates (but taperingoff to the existing carriage way width within a distance of 30 M fromthe gate) shall be as follows depending on the class of road overwhich the L. C. is situated :—

Class I road : 7 M Class II Road: 5.5 M Class III road: 3.78 M Class IV road, suitableor the width of or the width of or the width existing width subject to 2Mexisting carriage existing carriage of carriage way being the minimum.way whichever is way whichever whichever is greater.greater. is greater.

Old Strands - Same width as metalling outside the Railway Boundry. If the surface outside is cement concrete, blacktop surface may be provided.

13 (a) Type of pavement between Same standard as that of the road surface outside the Railway Boundary. For class I and II roads, it is desirable to havegates. black topped surface for a distance of at least(b) Outside gates ... Same standard as that of the road surface outside the Railway Boundary. 30 M beyond each gate.

14 Minimum width of road formation Depending on the class of road ove rwhich level crossing is situated the minimum widthoutside the gates for a distance of road formation will be as under –of 30 M beyond the gate.

Class I roads:C+5M. Class II roads:C+5M. Class III roads:C+5M. Class IV roads,suitable width 3 metresbeing the minimum.

Note.—C = width of metalling just outside the gate.

Page 246: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATE MAN

233

Item Details Dimensions and details for Various classes of crossingsRemarks

Special ‘A’ Class ‘B’ Class 'C' Class 'D' class

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Old Standards – ‘Special class' — 'A' Class— ‘B’ Class— C' Class— 'D' Class—Same as rest of the 4 metres 3 metres ' 2 metres 3m.road outside wider than metalling. wider than metalling. wider than metalling.Railway Boundary

15 Level length and gradients –(a) Between gates... Level Level Level Level Level

(b) Outside gates ... Depending upon the class of road over which the level crossing is situated the level lengthand gradient will be as follows:—

Class I roads— Class II roads— Class III roads— Class IV roads— Vertical curves should be-provided at changeLevel upto ... 15 metres beyond. 8 metres beyond. 8 metres beyond. of grades within Railway Boundary according to

Indian Road Congress Standard, beyond theNot steeper than 1 in 40 beyond. ... 1 in 30 beyond. ... 1 in 20 beyond. ... 1 in 15 beyond. ... level portion.Old Standards — Special — ‘A' Class — ‘B' Class — ‘C' Class — ‘D' Class —

Level for ,... 8 metres beyond. 6 metres beyond. 6 metres beyond. 6 metres beyond.

Not steeper than 1 in 40 beyond. 1 in 30 beyond. 1 in 30 beyond. 1 in 20 beyond. 1 in 10 beyond.

16 Minimum radius of centre line of (i) In the case of Level crossings situated on National or State Highways,road on curved approaches. the following minimum radius may be adopted ;— i Plain or rolling country ... 250 metres.

Hilly country ... ... 90 metres.

(ii) In difficult terrain, the radius may he reduced with the concurrence of road authorities.

(iii) The aim should be to provide the greatest possible radius.

(iv) In the case of other roads the best possible radius, having regard to safety of Roadtraffic may be adopted.

Old Standards — Special — ‘A' Class — ‘B' Class — ‘C' Class — ‘D' Class —60 M. (200 ft.) 45 M. (150 ft.) 30 M. (100 ft.) 21 M. (70 ft.) 8 M. (25 ft.)

Page 247: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATE MAN

234

Item Details Dimensions and details for Various classes of crossingsRemarks

Special ‘A’ Class ‘B’ Class 'C' Class 'D' class

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

17 Minimum and desirable straight Depending on the class of road over which the level crossing islength of Road outside the gate. situated the following minimum and desirable length may be adopted:-

Class I — Class II — Class III —

(i) Desirable 30 M. 22.5 M 15 • M.

(ii) Minimum 15 M. 9 M. 4.5 M.

Old Standards — Special — ‘A' Class — ‘B' Class — ‘C' Class — ‘D' Class —12 M. 9 M. 6 M. 3 M. Nil.

18 Minimum sight distance of level Depending on the class of road over which the level crossing iscrossing gate from road in the situated the following sight distances may he adopted :— vicinity of level crossing

Class I — Class II — Class III — At unmanned level crossings sight triangle may hedemarcated in the four corners on the basis ofspeeds of trains and the road vehicles, clear of any

(i) Plain or rolling country. 120 M. 60 to 90 M. 40 M. obstruction to sight.

(ii) Hilly country ... 60 M. 40 to 50 M. 30 M.

19 Warning to road traffic of The distance of road sign posts from level crossing :— 1) Road signs conforming to the standardsproximity of level crossing— prescribed must be erected by the Road Authority

in advance of the level crossing at the specifieddistances.

Class I — Class II — Class III —

2) 'Stop' boards bearing the prescribed legend to(a) Plain country ... 120 M. 60 to 90 M. 40 M. be provided on the road on either side at suitable

points within the Railway Boundary at theapproaches to all unmanned level crossings.

3) Gate posts should be provided invariably. Even(b) Hillycountry ... 60 M. 40 to 50 M. 30 M. in cases where no gates are provided posts should

be painted white. Gates should be painted whitewith a red disc not less than 600 mm. dia. in thecentre of gate.

Page 248: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

235

ANNEXURE 9/2 PARA 905

1m

.

1m

.

40 mm

SEPARATE RAIL POSTINDEPENDENT OF THEGATE POST

8 mm. DIA

STOP BOARDCHAIN TO BE FIXEDON THIS SIDE

ARRANGEMENTS TO BEMADE FOR HANGING THECHAIN IN THE RAIL POSTBY A HOOK

15 cm.

CHAIN HUNG ON ASUITABLE HOOK ATTHE CENTRE

REARELEVATION

FRONTELEVATION

SIDEELEVATION

ROD15 mm.

PIPE EMBEDDEDINTO THECENTREOF ROAD

HOOK (BENT PLATE) FIXEDTO DISC FOR HANGING THE CHAIN

M.S. PLATE15mm. THICK

10 cm.

15cm

60cm

RED BACKGROUNDWITH WHITE LETTERS

DETAILS OF STOP DISC TO BE PROVIDEDALONG WITH SAFETY CHAIN

AT MANNED LEVEL CROSSINGS

HEIGHTNOT LESS THAN

1 METRE

Page 249: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

236

ANNEXURE 9/3 PARA 913 (3)

BANNER

BANNER

END OF CHECK RAIL

BANNER

END OF CHECK RAILS

PROTECTION FOR THE DIRECTION OPPOSITE TO THAT OFAPPROACHING TRAIN TO BE REPEATED ON THE OTHER SIDE ALSO.

Page 250: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

237

ANNEXURE-9/4 PARA 915

.................. RAILWAY

LEVEL CROSSING REGISTER

Division ............................... Sub Division ................................ P. W. I’s Section .............................................

General Details of Level Crossings

Level Crossing No. ....................... Kilometrage ................. Between Stations......................... Inside sta-tion Limits of Station ...............................................................................................................................................

Class of Level Crossing ............................................ Manned / Unmanned / ...............................................If manned No. of Gate keepers .................................................. Roster Classification .......................................

Type of Barrier : Movable/lifting/gates/chains/.................................................. whether located in subur-ban/A. P. B. territory/Automatic block signalling ...................................................................................................

Whether interlocked or not ...................................... Whether Provided with telephone .............................

1. Particulars of Road Across which the Level Crossing is Situated –

a) Name of Road ... ... ... ...........................................................

b) Road connecting village/town ... ... ...........................................................

c) Class of Road (whether Class I, II, III or IV) ... ...........................................................

d) Road authority in-charge of maintenance of road ...........................................................(National Highway/State Highway/Municipality/Panchayat/P. W. D./Others.)

e) Civil District where located ... ... ... ...........................................................

f) State in which located ... ... ... ...........................................................

g) Type of road surface (Kutcha/Moorum/Water ...........................................................Bound Macadam/Bituminous surface/concrete etc.)

2. Width of gates at right angles to centre line of road...........................................................

3. Length of check rails/check flats ... ... ...........................................................

4. Angle of crossing of road way, if skew ... ... ...........................................................

5. Whether wicket gates or stiles have been provided ...........................................................for pedestrians.

6. Position of gates when open to Road traffic Across/ ...........................................................Away from tracks.

7. a) Whether lamps have been provided on the gate ...........................................................on both sides for the road users.

b) In the absence of lamps, whether the gate has ...........................................................been painted white and red disc provided.

c) Whether reflectors have been provided on the ...........................................................stop disc on both sides of the gate.

Page 251: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

238

8. Whether the red light meant for road users has ...........................................................been blanked off towards the approaching trainexcept for special class level crossing wheregates are closed across the track.

9. Distance of gate posts from centre line of track ... ...........................................................

10. a) Whether gate-lodge/bunk has been provided ... ...........................................................

b) Distance of gate-lodge from centre line of nearest ...........................................................track.

c) Distance of gate-lodge from edge of metalling ... ...........................................................

d) If on a curve, whether gate-lodge is located on ...........................................................outside of the curves.

e) Whether quarters have been provided for ...........................................................Gateman ? If so, How many.

11. Type of fencing and length ... ... ... Left side ............. Right side ..............

Prior. Prior.

Left side ............ Right side ..............

after. after.

12. Interlocking and Communication Devices Provided –

a) Normal position of gate (whether closed to road ...........................................................traffic or open to road traffic).

b) Whether barriers/gates are interlocked with ...........................................................separate signals or with the station signals.

c) Distance of gate signals and warning boards from Up Direction ......................................level crossing.

Dn. Direction .....................................

d) Whether there is a telephone (Magneto), ...........................................................connection and facility for exchange of privateNos. and the station to which connected.

e) Whether there is warning bell-operated by ...........................................................approaching train.

f) Whether the gate/barriers can be operated ...........................................................simultaneously.

13. Details of Road and Approaches –

a) Width of road-way at right angle to centre line of ...........................................................Road outside gate.

b) Width of metalling between gates... ... ...........................................................

c) Width of metalling outside gates ... ... ...........................................................

d) Minimum width of road formation outside gates ...........................................................for a distance of 30 M. beyond gate.

e) Whether it is level between gates ... ... ...........................................................

Page 252: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

239

f) Level length outside the gates. Details of L H side ...........................................gradient on approaches

R H side ..........................................

g) Length of straight outside gates. L H side ...........................................R H side ..........................................

h) Whether rumble strip has been provided. ...........................................................(Manned Level Crossing only).

i) Whether speed breaker/bumps has been provided ...........................................................on either approach (unmanned level crossing only).

14. Visibility, Road, Signs, Whistle Boards etc. –

a) Has Whistle boards (W/L.) been provided on the Up Direction ......................................approach of Level Crossing. If so distance ofwhistle boards from the Level Crossing. Down Direction ..................................

b) Distance of clear view of approaching trains from Up Direction ......................................Level Crossing (gate lodge) at manned levelcrossing. Down Direction ..................................

c) Visibility of trains for road users at unmanned Up Direction ......................................level crossings at a distance of 5 metres.

Down Direction ..................................

d) Whether warning boards for road users have L H side ...........................................been provided. If so, the type and the distanceat which it is provided. R H side ...........................................

e) Whether stop boards have been provided on both ...........................................................the approaches at the gate in the case ofunmanned level crossings.

15. a) Dates of taking last Census (for seven days) ... ...........................................................

b) No. of trains per day ... ... ... ...........................................................

c) No. of Trains/Vehicle Units per day ... ... ...........................................................

d) Whether there is motor traffic and No. of motorvehicles per day.

16. Track structure at Level Crossing –

a) Type of Track - Free rail/S W R/L W R/C W R. .............................................................................. lbs./kgs. Rails on .......... sleepers.

b) Date of last overhauling ... ... ... ...........................................................

c) Date of painting gate ... ... ... ...........................................................

Page 253: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

240

17. Safety Items –

a) Whether locking arrngements have been provided ...........................................................for both gates.

b) Whether stops have been provided to prevent gatesfrom swinging towards track.

c) Whether spare chains have been provided for ...........................................................emergencies.

d) Whether working instructions of level crossing in ...........................................................English and Local language are available at thegate.

e) Whether distinct indications are provided for ...........................................................guiding the gateman to place the detonatorsand also the staff/lamp near the gate, to warnthe approaching train in case of emergency.

f) Whether height gauge have been provided on ...........................................................both sides of level crossing, in the case ofelectrical terriory.

g) Whether protection diagram has been exhibited ...........................................................at gate.

Page 254: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

241

ANNEXURE-9/5 PARA 916 (1)

Page 255: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

242

ANNEXURE-9/6 PARA 918 (1)

200 CM

SPEED BREAKER – SECTION –‘AA’

ROAD SURFACE 12.5 CM

R=4M

30 CM 30 CM

50 CM

50 CM

YELLOW

WHITE

ROAD C/LINE

200 CM

AA

30 CM X 50 CM

SPEED BREAKER DESIGN

NOTE - THE HUMP SHOULD EXTEND TO THE FULL ROADWAY WIDTH. APPROPRIATE BASE

COURSEMATERIAL SHOULD BE EXTENDED OVER THE SHOULDERS FOR PLACING THE HUMPSOVER THESE.

Page 256: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

LEVEL CROSSING AND GATEMAN

243

ANNEXURE-9/7 PARA 918 (2)

150

0

70

350

R35 R25

105

20

WARNING SIGN

DIMENSIONS IN mm

RED REFLECTIVE PAINT OR STRIP

900

0

600

0

200

0

SPEED BREAKER

T-Iron (8cmx8cmx0.8cm) Painted white and black in alternate 25cm bands

LOCATION- TO BE SO PLACED ON ROAD FORMATION THAT NO PART OF THE SIGN COMES OF THE VEHICLES

MOUNTING HEIGHT: 2.0m on kerbed roads

1.5m on unkerbed roads Ref: Figure 6 of IRC 99-1988

WARNING SIGN(DIMENSIONS IN mm)

Page 257: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PATROLLING OF THE RAILWAY LINES

244

CHAPTER XCHAPTER XCHAPTER XCHAPTER XCHAPTER XPPPPPAAAAATRTRTRTRTROLLING OF OLLING OF OLLING OF OLLING OF OLLING OF THE RAILTHE RAILTHE RAILTHE RAILTHE RAILWWWWWAAAAAY LINEY LINEY LINEY LINEY LINE

1001. Types of Patrolling : (1) The followingare the types of patrolling in vogue :

( a) Keyman’s daily patrol.

(b) Gang patrol during abnormal rainfall orstorm.

( c) Night patrolling during monsoon.

(d) Security patrolling during civil disturbancesand for movement of VIP specials.

(e) Hot weather patrolling for long welded rails/continuous welded rails.

(f ) Watchmen at vulnerable locations.

(2) Keyman’s Daily Patrol - Every portion ofthe permanent way shall be inspected daily on footby the keyman of the beat in which the portion of thetrack falls. Provided that the interval between suchinspections may, under special instructions, issuedby Chief Engineer be increased to once in two daysin the case of specified section of lines with light andinfrequent traffic.

(3) Gang Patrol during Abnormal Rainfall orStorm – In the event of abnormal rainfall or stormduring day or night, the Mate should, on his owninitiative organise patrolling over the length affected,independently of other patrolling, if any being done.This patrol should, in case of heavy rainfall, confineits inspection to known points of danger, such ascutting or culverts likely to scour, banks affected bytanks likely to breach and bridge approaches. In caseof high winds, the patrolman should inspect the lengthof track likely to be fouled by falling of tree etc.

Arrangements exist with the MeteorologicalDepartment of the Government of India for issuingtelegrams of warning, wherever storms, gales, orheavy rainfall are expected. On receipt of suchinformation from the Control, the Permanent wayInspector will arrange to advise monsoon patrolmen,watchmen and gangmates to be extra vigilant andbe prepared to introduce patrolling, as necessary (fordetailed instructions Para 728 of IRPWM may bereferred to).

(4) Night Patrolling during Monsoon – Duringthe monsoon, certain section of the railway line, asmay be specified, shall be patrolled to detect damageby flood, such as breaches, settlements, slips and

scours and immediate action taken to protect trains,when so warranted.

(5) Security Patrolling during Civil Disturbanceand on Special occasions –

(a) On apprehension of a Civil disturbance, theDivisional authorities should contact the local Civilauthority and arrange, as circumstances maywarrant for security patrolling of the railway line. Thismay be arranged on the pattern of the monsoonpatrolling with modifications, as deemed necessary,in consultation with Civil authorities.

b) Security patrolling on special occasionsshould be carried out according to the specialinstructions issued by the administration.

(c )The primary duty of the patrolmanemployed on Security patrolling shall be to protecttrains against any condition of danger, such astampering with track or obstruction placed on line.

(6) Hot weather Patrolling for LWR/CWR –Hot weather patrol is carried out when the railtemperature reaches td + 20 degree or above.

The patrolling should be done in accordancewith the provisions of Manual of Long Welded Rails.

(7) Watchmen at vulnerable locations. Inaddition to patrolmen, stationary watchmen areposted at known or likely locations of danger ortrouble.

1002. Protection of line in case ofEmergency – Should any patrolman/stationaryWatchman/Gangman/Keyman deputed for thepurpose of patrolling notice any condition likely toaffect the safety of trains, he shall at once protectthe line and report the damage to the nearest StationMaster as laid down in Para 1011.

Monsoon Patrolling

1003. Comencement and Termination – Thesections, which are normally to be patrolled duringmonsoon will be identified and notified by theDivisional Engineer. For every such section, theDivisional Engineer shall prescribe the period of year,when normal monsoon patrolling is to be done;patrolling should be started on these notified sectionson the dates specified. If the local conditions warrant,the Permanent Way Inspector of the sectionconcerned may introduce or continue night patrollingoutside the stipulated dates, duly advising allconcerned.

Page 258: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PATROLLING OF THE RAILWAY LINE

245

1004. Preparation of Patrol Charts – (1)The Divisional Engineer will prepare patrol charts foreach of the sections where monsoon patrolling isrequired to be done, taking into consideration the traintimings of the time table in force during this period.The principles governing the preparation of patrolcharts shall be -

(a) Ordinarily patrolling will be carried out by asingle patrolman, but in regions where danger fromwild animals, dacoits and other risks as in ghatsections exist, patrolling in pairs may be introducedwith the approval of the Chief Engineer.

(b) All trains carrying passengers betweensunset and sunrise get the maximum protectionpossible.

(c ) As far as possible, each block section willbe treated as a unit and the length will be dividedinto equal beats. The length of each patrol beatshould not normally exceed 5 km. Where the blocksection is more than 10 km. an intermediate flagstation, if any, or any other suitable point may befixed as intermediate station, to keep the length ofbeat at about 5 km.

(d) The walking speed of a patrolman may betaken as 3 km. per hour.

(e) The maximum distance covered by apatrolman should not normally exceed 20 km. in aday.

(f) A period of at least half an hour rest isdesirable between consecutive beats.

(g) If the frequency of train services is high,and one set of patrolmen is not able to cover all thetrains in the section, a second set of patrolmen maybe introduced to reduce the interval.

(h) For giving better protection to all passengertrains, between sun-set and sun-rise it would beadvantageous to plot the scheduled paths of allpassenger trains and then plot the patrol movementin such a way, so as to minimise the time intervalbetween patrolling of the beat and passage of train.

(i) Patrol charts should show all vulnerablelocations where stationary watchmen are posted.

(2) Sample patrol charts are appended forguidance, as Annexure 10/1, 10/2, 10/3.

1005. Distribution of Patrol Charts –Before commencement of the monsoon, requisite

number of copies of patrol charts should be suppliedby the Divisional Engineer to the Assistant Engineers,Permanent Way Inspectors, the Divisional OperatingSuperintendent (for distribution to the Control staff),Station Masters and Foremen of running sheds. TheForemen will acquaint Drivers of passenger trains,when they may expect to pass patrolmen, if runningto time. By inviting drivers to lookout for patrolling,an immediate and practical means of supervisingthe patrolmen is introduced. The task of dispatchingpatrolmen at the right time and signing their patrolbook when they arrive at or depart from a stationdevolves upon the Station Master/Block Hut-in-charge.

1006. Patrol books and SystematicPatrolling – A patrol book containing sufficientnumber of pages should be supplied to each patrolwith a tin case.

The books shall be serially numbered tocorrespond with the number of patrol on each section.The first page of the book shall contain the name ofpatrolman, kilometrage of patrol section and itsnumber. The remaining pages will contain columnsfor date, station, time of arrival and departure andsignature of Station Master.

Patrolmen shall be on duty at the time specifiedfor each in the patrol chart.

The patrolman whose beat commences/terminates at a station shall present the patrol-bookin his possession to the Station Master/Block hut-in-charge who will enter therein the time of arrival anddeparture and sign the book. The Station Master/Block hut-in-charge will also record the time of arrivaland departure in his Diary/Train Register Book. Thepatrolman shall then patrol his length at the end ofwhich, he will exchange his patrol book with that ofthe next patrolman and retrace his beat. Theintermediate patrols do likewise. In this way eachpatrol-book will be conveyed from one station to theother and back again. Owing to close proximity ofstations, patrolbooks may be passed through one ormore intermediate stations, before it is returned tothe original station.

If a patrolman on arrival at the end of his beatdoes not find the next patrolman to take over thebook, he must proceed ahead, until he meets him.The patrolman should report the absence of any manfrom his beat to the Mate the next day.

Page 259: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PATROLLING OF THE RAILWAY LINES

246

Station Maters will see that the men come onduty sober and fully equipped, that their lamps aretrimmed and filled with oil and that they leave for theirpatrol duty in time.

If a patrolman who is due to arrive at a stationdoes not turn in time or does not turn up at all, theStation Master/Block hut-in-charge will adviseStation Master/Block hut-in-charge at the other endof the block section of the absence of the patrolmanand both Station Masters/Block hut-in-charges willissue caution orders to all trains entering the sectionuntil the patrolman from the other end of the “patrol-section” arrives at the station and reports that all iswell.

1007. Equipment of Patrolmen – (1) Eachpatrolman shall be provided with the followingequipment and such other, as may be prescribed byspecial instructions:

(a) One staff.

(b) Number plate 15 cm. Square ( to benumbered consecutively from the beginning of eachPermanent Way Inspector’s length in white letterson black background).

( c ) 12 fog signals in a tin case.

(d) Two tricolour hand signal lamps.

(e) Protective clothing according to local dressregulations.

(f) One match box.

(g) Two red flags and one green flag (day patrolonly).

(h) Patrol book in a tin case.

(i) One three cell Electric torch.

(j) Whistle thunderer.

(k) One haversack.

(l) Three flare signals (fusees) on double/multiple lines, ghats, suburban and automatic blockterritories and one fusee on single line sections.

(2) Where patrolling is undertaken in pairs orstationary patrol consists of two men, the equipmentneed not be duplicated but the additional patrolmanwill be provided with an extra hand signal lamp,whistle thunderer and protective clothing.

1008. Selection of Patrolman – Intelligent,experienced and trustworthy men should be selectedfrom the Permanent Gangs by Permanent WayInspectors to work as Patrolmen and Watchmen,

preferably those who can read bridge and telegraphpost numbers. Temporary substitutes should beappointed in their places to work for the gangs. Twicethe number required should be selected to serve asrelief, in case of illness, to provide for rest giverpatrolman etc. The men selected from each gangshould be sent to the Divisional Medical Officer forvision test and shall not be employed as patrolmenunless they have passed the requisite medical test.

1009. Certificate to be submitted byPermanent Way Inspector – The Permanent WayInspector shall submit a certificate to the DivisionalEngineer through Assistant Engineer a month inadvance before the commencement of the monsoonthat he has made all arrangements for monsoonpatrolling and for watching vulnerable locations/bridges and that the patrolmen and the watchmenhave been made conversant with their duties, rulesfor the protections of the line and vulnerable locationsin their beats. He will also submit to the AssistantEngineer a list of names of patrolmen and watchmenwith their duties/locations assigned during thepatrolling season.

1010. Duties of Patrolmen – (1) The duties ofa patrolman shall be as follows :

(a) Walk to and fro over the beat in accordancewith the chart pertaining to his “patrol-section” lookingout for subsidence, slips, signs of erosion, trees blownacross the track during storms or any other causeslikely to endanger the safety of line. Bridges and theirapproaches should be especially watched.

(b) Apprehend damage to line when

(i) the flood exceeds danger level at any of thebridges.

(ii) when there is damage to the protection workor on approaches even before danger level isreached.

(iii) the water on one side of the embankmentis at a much higher level than on the other side.

(iv) when any obstruction such as a fallen treeis blocking the water-way of a bridge.

(v) the track shows signs of a settlement.

(c) Take immediate steps in accordance withPara 1011 to stop trains when any portion of theline is likely to be rendered unsafe due to abnormalrain or flood or any other cause.

Page 260: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PATROLLING OF THE RAILWAY LINE

247

(d) When no danger is apprehended, stand onthe cess on the left hand side facing the train andexhibit his number plate, turning the light of his lampon to it, so that the number can be seen from thepassing train. He should also blow the whistle, whenthe engine and the brake-van of the train pass him.

(e) Obtain the signature of the Station Master/Block Hut-in-charge on duty at the Station/ Block Hutconcerned for his arrival and departure and exchangepatrol books with adjacent patrolmen.

(f) Exchange the reports as to the conditionson their beats with adjacent patrol men and stationarywatchmen on the way.

(g) Heed instructions from drivers who mayreport a condition of danger at a kilometrage andproceed to the place indicated and take necessarymeasures.

(2) It is of supreme importance that patrolmenand watchmen thoroughly understand what theyhave to do in the event of emergency. Every effortshould be made to instruct and drill the men in theirduties. In the event of an emergency the patrolmenshould devote their whole time and energy to theprotection of the line and summoning of assistance.Having protected the line and summoned assistance,they should resume their patrolling.

1011. Action When Damage is Observed– In the event of any portion of the line being breachedor otherwise rendered unsafe for traffic the followingprocedure shall be observed

(A) In the case where two patrolmen areemployed :

(1) Protecting the line – a) The second lampshould be lit and danger signals shown at once inboth the directions.

(b) The two patrolmen shall then proceed inopposite directions showing the danger signals(redflag by day and red light by night) and when at 600M.on Broad Gauge and 400 M. on Metre Gauge andNarrow Gauge from the point of danger, each shouldplace one detonator on to the rail; they shall thenproceed to a distance of 1200 M. on Broad Gaugeand 800 M. on Metre Gauge/Narrow Gauge fromthe point of danger where they should place threedetonators on the rail about 10 metres apart.

On the double line the detonators must beplaced on the line, in the direction on which the trainswill approach. On Metre Gauge sections where

trains run at maximum permissible speed of morethan 75 km.p.h. the distances at which the detonatorsare to be placed shall be specified by theadministration.

(c) Should the nature of obstruction be suchas to render it impossible for either of patrolmen toget across the gap, as for instance a wash awaywith strong flood, one of the men should show thedanger signal and endeavour to stop trainsapproaching the gap from the other side while theother man should proceed towards the station onhis side of the gap, fix the detonators and act as in(b).

(2) Reporting the damage to Station Masterand Gangmate – (a) After protecting the track one ofthe two patrolmen who is nearest to the station andin case mentioned in (c) the patrolmen who hasprotected the track will proceed in all haste, showingthe danger signal, to the station and inform the stationmaster of the danger. On his way back, if he meetswith any gang quarter, he should inform the Mate ofthe occurrence and the gang must immediatelyproceed to the affected kilometrege and takenecessary action to attend to the repairs.

b) After protecting the track the other patrolmanwill proceed to the site of obstruction, and remainthere showing the danger signal, until the firstpatrolmen joins him. In case the other patrolman hasnot been able to locate the gang hut on his way backfrom the station, one of them should proceed to thegang hut and inform the gangmate.

B. In case where one patrol man isemployed–

(1) Protection of line – (a)When damage isdetected on single line –

(i) Place a red lamp during the night and a redflag during the day in a prominent position to warn atrain which may approach from one direction. Thenrun in the opposite direction from which direction trainis likely to come, with a danger signal (red flag byday and red light by night) and place one detonatorat 600 M. on Broad Gauge and 400 M. on MetreGauge and Narrow Gauge and three detonators at10 metres apart at 1200 M. on Broad Gauge and800 M. on Metre Gauge/ Narrow Gauge from thesite of obstruction/damage.

Provided that on those Metre Gauge Sectionswhere trains run at maximum speed of more than75km.p.h., the distances at which the detonators areto be placed shall be specified by the administration.

Page 261: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PATROLLING OF THE RAILWAY LINES

248

(ii) Return to the site of obstruction/ damageand protect the other side with detonators similarly.

(iii) In the event of it being impossible to getthe other side of the obstruction/damage (as in awashaway) place the red lamp so that it can be seenfrom as great distance as possible by a trainapproaching from that direction and protect the otherside with the detonators etc. as detailed in sub-para(a) (i).

(b) When damage is detected on double line –

(i) Place the red flag/ lamp in prominent positionso as to warn an approaching train on one track. Thenrun along the other track on which train is expectedfirst and place the detonators as in sub-para(a) (i)

(ii) Run back and protect with detonators theline on which the lamp/flag was prominently placedearlier.

(2) Reporting the damage to the StationMaster– The patrolman will return to the site ofobstruction after protecting the line in both thedirections and shall remain at the place of obstructionand send word about the danger through the firstrailway employee or other persons he is able tocontact at the spot itself.

1012. Responsibility of EngineeringOfficials in the Matter of Patrolling –

(1) Inspection of Patrol Books – The PermanentWay Inspector must examine the patrol books, initialthe entries each time he trollies and take upirregularities. The Assistant Engineer should examinethe patrol books during his inspection.

(2) Supply of Equipment to Patrolmen andWatchmen – The Permanent Way Inspectors willbe responsible for seeing that each (patrolman) isprovided with the equipment specified, and forperiodical distribution of consumable stores likekerosene oil, match box etc. The Mate will beresponsible for seeing that the patrolman andstationary watchman posses the correct equipmentspecified.

(3) The Permanent way Inspector will beresponsible for instructing the patrolmen in their

duties, in the rules for the protection of the lines andin acquainting them with all vulnerable points on theirbeats. In addition to oral instructions, the PermanentWay Inspector shall by practical demonstrations, drillthe patrolmen in their detailed duties andresponsibilities.

(4) Inspection Of Equipment- The permanentway Inspector should check the equipment of allpatrolmen and watchmen once a month, record theresults in patrolbook and take steps to recoupdeficiencies.

(5) Check over Patrolling at Nights – (a) ByPermanent Way Inspectors- The following are theschedule of inspection of night patrolling for theinspector Grade III/ II and the Permanent WayInspectors- in - charge; by train/trolly :

(b) The Assistant Engineer shall cover hisentire sub-division once in a month by train/pushtrolly/ Motor trolley in the night and check thepatrolmen.

1013. Action by Assistant Engineer andPermanent Way Inspectors On Receipt ofInformation Regarding Damage to the line –On the receipt of information of any damage to theline, the Assistant Engineer and the Permanent WayInspector -in-charge and Permanent Way Inspector(Grade III/II) concerned should proceed to site bythe quickest possible means and take necessaryaction for restoration.

1014 Vulnerable locations (points)–(1)Definition – Vulnerable locations (points) are those,where conditions unsafe for the passage of trainsare apprehended and there is need for stopping oftrains in time in case such conditions develop e.g.-

(a) Bridges, having inadequate water-way,liable to scour in foundations, oblique/ parallel flow ofwater to the approaches, rise of flood above dangerlevel frequently.

(b) Bad banks liable to slips and subsidence.

(c) Bridges located across river courses fedby Railway affecting tanks.

Official By train By trolly

P.W.I. Gr. III/II Once a fortnight Frequency to be prescribed by the ChiefP.W.I. in- charge Once a month Engineer depending on the local condition

Page 262: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PATROLLING OF THE RAILWAY LINE

249

(d) Cuttings and Hill slopes frequently affectedby the landslides and boulder-falls.

(e) Water over flowing over the track.

(f) And any other condition likely to affect thesafety of the track.

(2) List of Vulnerable locations – A list ofvulnerable locations should be maintained by eachAssistant Engineer/Divisional Engineer in a registerform and should be reviewed and brought up-to-date.

(3) Guarding of vulnerable locations – (a)Stationary watchman should be posted round theclock at every nominated location during themonsoon period.

(b)He should keep a watch on vulnerablelocation and in case he apprehends danger he shouldtake action to protect the line in accordance withPara 1011.

( c ) The equipment for the watchman shouldbe on the same scale as patrolman except that awatch man will not be provided with –

(i) Number plate.

(ii) Haversack.

(iii) Patrol book in tin case.

A notebook should however be provided to thewatch man.

Page 263: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PATROLLING OF THE RAILWAY LINES

250

ANNEXURE-10/1 PARA 1004

2

21

19.41

23.44

3.51

18.22

21.00

18.22

21.00

22.25 22.25

5.10 5.10

1

2

21404 DN. 20.18 (a)

21.18 (a)

23.50 (a)

406 DN. 5.13 (d) 5.23 (a)

8.45 Km.0

18.23

HOURS

5

4

3

2

1

24

23

22

20

19

18

17

5

4

3

2

1

24

23

22

20

19

18

17

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8.45

HANWANT

1. INDICATES PETROL MEN.

2. INDICATES TIME OF ARRIVAL & DEPARTURE OF PETROL MEN..

REFERENCE :

SALAWAS

20.28 (a)

21.02 (D) TRAIN 241 UP

23.39 (d) TRAIN 405 UP

HOURS

1

BK No.1

BK No.

BK No.2

BK No.2

BK No.2

1

BK No.1

BK No.1

BK No.2

SPECIMEN PATROLLING CHART

MAIN LINE & BRANCH LINE DENSITY TRAFFIC

2 BEATS LENGTH 8.45 Kms.JODHPUR - MARWAR SECTION

Page 264: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PATROLLING OF THE RAILWAY LINE

251

ANNEXURE-10/2 PARA 1004

17.11

19.17

21.55

0.33

2.59

3.32

2.13

20.36

23.14

2.13

4.18

20.36

23.14

2.13

17.11

HOURS

BK No.1

BK No.1

BK No.2

BK No.3

BK No.2

BK No.4

BK No.3

BK No.2

BK No.1

BK No.3BK No.1

BK No.2

BK No.4

HOURS

17 17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

1

2

3

4

5

3.35 (a)

PITAMBERPUR TEISUE

1) INDICATES PETROL MEN

2) INDICATES TIME OF ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE OF PETROL MEN.

REFERENCE:

5.02 (d)

18.20 (a) 18.38 (a)

18.07 (d) TRAIN 15 UP18.32 (d) TRAIN 73 UP

20.43 (d) TRAIN 317 UP

23.17 (d) TRAIN 75 UP

0.31 (d) TRAIN 303 UP

4.56 (d) TRAIN 351 UP

22.02 (d)

20.51 (d) 352 DN21.49 (d)

23.23 (d)

0.37 (a)

304 DN3.29 (d)

76 DN 4.18 (d)318 DN 4.52 (d)

5.07 (d)

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

1

2

0 1 2 3 4

8.45 Kms.

5 6 7 8 8.4

3

4

5

2

2

2

4

4

4

2

4

1

1

1 2

1

3

3

3

3

18.30

BK No.4

BK No.4

SPECIMEN PATROLLING CHART

MAIN LINE HEAVY DENSITY TRAFFIC2 BEATS LENGTH 8.45 Kms.

ROSA - BAREILLY SECTION ( DOUBLE LINE)

Page 265: INDIAN RAILWAYS irpwm-2004.pdf · The Railway Board will be glad to consider any comments and suggestion from Railway Administrations. Any errors or omissions found in this Edition

PATROLLING OF THE RAILWAY LINES

252

ANNEXURE-10/3 PARA 1004

17.30 17.30

16.25

18.35

21.01

0.480.53

3.50

5.22

18.35 18.35

19.40 19.40

19.56

21.01

21.0622.11