suliraning pangkapaligiran sa asya
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DESCRIPTIONMGA SULIRANING PANGKAPALIGIRAN SA ASYA
MGA SULIRANING PANGKAPALIGIRAN SA
MAHALAGANG MAPANATILI NATIN ANG EKOLOHIKAL NA BALANSE NG ATING MUNDO.MALAKING PAGBABAGO ANG MANGYAYARI SA LAHAT NG MGA URI NG BUHAY SA MUNDO KUNG MANGYARING ITO’Y HINDI BALANSE.
Ang pagkakaiba-iba at pagiging katangi-tangi ng lahat ng anyo ng buhay na bumubuo sa natural na kalikasan ay tinatawag na biodiversity. Ang Asya, bilang pinakamalaking kontinente sa buong mundo, ay itinuturing na pangunahing pinag-mumulan ng global biodiversity.
Ngunit habang ang mga bansa sa Asya ay patuloy na papunta sa kaunlaran, kasabay din nito ay ang pagsulpot ng mga su-liraning ekolohikal at pangkapaligiran bunsod ng hindi mapigilang pag-unlad ng ekonomiya at ang patuloy na paglaki ng populasyon.
Ang mga bansang Asyano sa ngayon ay humaharap sa masalimuot na interaksyon ng mga isyung panlipuan, pulitikal, ekonomiya, at pangkapaligiran. Ang masusing ugnayan at pagbabalika-tan ng bawat isa sa loob ng isang bansa, at sa pag-itan ng bawat bansa ay maha-laga upang makapagbalangkas at makapagpatupad ng akmang solusyon sa mga suliraning ito.
Desertification – ito ay tumutukoy sa pagkasira ng lupain sa mga rehiyong bahagyang tuyo o lubhang tuyo. Salinization – pagiging maalat ng tubig Habitat – tirahan ng mga hayop at iba pang mga bagay Hinterlands – malayong lugar, malayo sa mga urbanisadong lugar
Ecological Balance – balanseng ugnayan sa pagitan ng mga bagay na may buhay at ang kanilang kapaligi-ran Deforestation – pagkaubos at pagkawala ng mga punungkahoy sa mga gubat Siltation – parami at padagdag na deposito ng banlik na dala ng umaagos na tubig sa isang lugar. Red Tide – sanhi ng dinoflagellates na lumulutang sa ibabaw ng dagat
1. PAGKASIRA NG LUPA
DESERTIFICATION-TUMUTUKOY ITO SA PAGKASIRA NG LUPAIN SA MGA REHIYONG BAHAGYANG TUYO O LUBHANG TUYO NA KAPAG LUMAON AY HAHANTONG SA PERMANENTENG PAGKAWALA NG KAPAKINABANGAN O PRODUCTIVITY NITO TULAD NG NARARANASAN SA ILANG BAHAGI NG CHINA, JORDAN, IRAQ,LEBANON, SYRIA,YEMEN, INDIA AT PAKISTAN.
MGA DAHILAN NG PAGKASIRA NG LUPA
A. SALINIZATION- NANUNUOT ANG TUBIG ALAT SA
MGA ILOGB. ALKALINIZATION-TUMUTUKOY SA PORSIYENTO NG
“ALKALI” SA LUPA
NAGAGANAP KAPAG MALI ANG PROSESO NG IRIGASYON (PAGSUSUPLAY NG TUBIG SA MGA LUGAR NA TUYO O WALANG TUBIG)
-PAGKASIRA NG HALAMAN O VEGETATION NG ISANG LUGAR –DAHIL DITO ANG KAPASIDAD NG DAMUHAN AY HINDI SAPAT SA LAKI NG KAWAN NG MGA HAYOP (HAL. ANG NAGYAR SA HILAGANG IRAQ, SAUDI ARABIA, OMAN)
URBANIZATIONDAHILAN-MIGRASYON-PAGNANAIS NG KAUNLARAN
EPEKTO-NAKAKAAPEKTO SA KAPALIGIRAN-NAGDUDULOT NG KAUGNAY NA PROBLEMA GAYA NG KAHIRAPAN-PAGDAMI NG MAHIHIRAP NA LUGAR-PANGANIB SA KALUSUGAN
-KRIMEN-POLUSYONA.NOISE POLLUTION-STRESS-NAKAKADAGDAG NG PAGOD-NAKAKABINGIB. POLUSYON SA TUBIGC. POLUSYON SA LUPAD. POLUSYON SA HANGIN
PROBLEMA SA SOLID WASTE
DAHILAN-PAGLAKAS NG INDUSTRIYA-WALANG MAAYOS NA PASILIDAD PARA SA MGA BASURA(HINDI MAAYOS NA PANGANGASIWA NG BASURA)
EPEKTO-PAGKONTAMINA O PAGKADUMI NG HANGIN,
-PAGKONTAMINA SA LUPA(KAPAG NANUOT SA LUPA ANG MGA MAASIDO AT DI-ORGANIKONG MATERYAL NITO)-PROBLEMANG PANGKALUSUGAN-PROBLEMANG EKOHOLIKAL SA KALIKASAN
POLUSYONDAHILANURBANISASYON NA NAGDUDUDLOT NG(PAGDAMI NG POPULASYON, PAGGAMIT NG MGA KEMIKALS,PABRIKA,SASAKYAN AT IBA PA.
EPEKTOPOLUSYON SA HANGIN(PINAKAMALALANG POLUSYON)-KALUSUGAN SA MGA TAO-ACID RAIN-OZONE DEPLETION-CLIMATE CHANGE-ANG PAGGAMIT NG PETROLYO AY NAGDUDULOT NG SULFUR DIOXIDEHAL. BEIJING, TOKYO, SEOUL, TAIPEI, JAKARTA AT BANGKOK
POLUSYON SA TUBIG-KONTAMINASYON MULA SA BASURA,MARUMING TUBIG GALING SA MGA INDUSTRIYA,OIL SPILL, LATAK O RESIDUES NG MGA PESTECIDES-PROBLEMANG PANGKALUSUGAN DAHIL SA URBANISASYON
HAL. HUANG HO, GANGES, AMU AT SYR DARYA-ANG MGA RADIO ACTIVE WASTES MULA SA MGA PLANTA(URANIUM PLANT) AY NANGANGANIB NA DUMALOY SA MGA ILOG SA KARATIG BANSA NA MAGDUDULOT NG PAGKASIRA NG BUHAY NG MGA ORGANISMO-ANG MGA DUMI MULA SA PAGMIMINA NA MAAARING DUMALOY SA MGA ILOG AT MGA IRIGASYON
PAGKAWALA NG BIODIVERSITYANG ASYA ANG MAY PINAKAMAYAMANG BIODIVERSITY SA BUONG MUNDO DAHIL SA LAWAK NITO.MAKIKITA ANG MGA MAYAYAMANG BIODIVERSITY SA CHINA, INDIA, THAILAND, INDONESIA, AT MALAYSIA NA MAY PINAKAMARAMING SPECIES NG ISDA, AMPHIBIANS, REPTILE, IBON AT MAMMAL
-PAGTAAS NG POPULASYON-WALANG HABAS NA PAGKUHA NG LIKAS NA YAMAN-PANG-AABUSO SA LUPA-DEFORESTATION/PAG-KALBO AT PAGKASIRA NG KAGUBATAN
-POLUSYON SA KAPALIGIRAN-INTRODUKSIYON NG MGA SPECIES NA HINDI LIKAS SA ISANG LUGAR
PAGKASIRA NG KAGUBATANDAHILAN-KOMERSYAL NA PAGTOTROSO-PAGKAKAINGIN/SLASH AND BURN METHOD-PAGPUTOL NG PUNO-PAGKASUNOG NG MGA KAGUBATAN/FOREST FIRES
EPEKTO-NAKAKASAMA SA NATURAL ECOSYSTEM -NANGANGANIB ANG MGA SPECIES NG HAYOP AT HALAMAN (MAAARING MAWALAN NG NATURAL NA TIRAHAN)-NAGDUDULOT NG PAGBAHA, EROSYON NG LUPA, PAGGUHO NG LUPA,SILTASYON AT SEDIMENTASYON.
HAL. ANG MGA BANSANG BANGLADESHINDONESIAPAKISTANPILIPINAS
AY MAY MATAAS NA ANTAS NG DEFORESTATION KAYA NAMAN NAKAKARANAS ANG MGA BANSANG ITO NG PAGBAHA
Red tides result from a massive buildup of certain species of the microscopic sea organisms known as phytoplankton. Some of
these tiny plankton organisms produce
compounds that are toxic to fish that feed on them. In
addition, the toxins accumulate in filter-feeding
shellfish, such as clams, mussels, and oysters.
The shellfish themselves are rarely affected by the toxins, but the poison can persist in their tissue for years and can be passed along to people who eat the contaminated shellfish. Of the more than one thousand species of phytoplankton, only about two dozen are toxic
. Heavy concentrations of both toxic and
nontoxic phytoplankton blooms
can lend a reddish-brown tint to the
surrounding water, but contamination can occur even without
STEPPE GRASSLAND IN KAZAKHSTAN SHORT, DRY GRASSES COVER THE SEMIARID STEPPE GRASSLANDS OF INTERIOR EURASIA. THESE FLAT, MIDLATITUDE GRASSLANDS STRETCH EASTWARD FROM THE BLACK SEA INTO KAZAKHSTAN, MONGOLIA, AND NORTHERN CHINA. A SIMILAR LANDSCAPE CAN BE FOUND IN THE GREAT PLAINS OF NORTH AMERICA BETWEEN THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS AND THE PRAIRIES OF ALBERTA, SASKATCHEWAN, AND THE MIDWEST UNITED STATES.
Savanna BiomeHerds of large grazing animals, such as the zebra grazing. Grazing animals and fire keep vegetation to a minimum in savanna areas with high rainfall. Occasional fires burn back old grass and stimulate growth of new grass.
Arctic Tundra Tundra, or low-growing vegetation including shrubs, grasses, mosses, and herbs, covers the plains and coastal regions of the Arctic.
Mongolian Steppe Grassy plains called steppes make up an important transition zone between forest and desert in Mongolia. The steppe region has a dry climate that is ideal for grassland.
Mongolian Pastoralists Horses and sheep graze on the Mongolian steppe (grassy plains) near traditional Mongol dwellings called ger. Livestock herders in modern Mongolia continue to follow a nomadic way of life, moving across the seemingly endless steppe in their portable dwellings.
Protecting China's Wildlife This lush frost-covered forest is part of the Wolong panda preserve, situated in a remote area of Sichuan province in south central China. Because much of China's land has been cleared for agriculture and industry, the country has lost a great deal of natural habitat. But China has also established more than 450 nature reserves to protect distinct ecological environments and endangered plants and animals. Wolong is one of 13 protected areas for the delightful giant panda.
Rural Japan The small, terraced rice fields and tightly clustered homes of this agricultural village in the Chūgoku region of Honshū Island are typical of rural Japan. Traditionally, most Japanese lived in villages like this one, but today most live in cities.
Car Factory, Ulsan
Hyundai automobiles await export in Ulsan, South Korea. The Hyundai factory in Ulsan was the world’s largest automobile manufacturing complex in 2004, when the factory celebrated the export of its 10 millionth car. The city’s other leading industries include oil refining, shipbuilding, and the production of fertilizers.
Marble Quarry, Tajikistan Tajikistan’s mountainous terrain contains many rich mineral deposits. This small village produces marble from a large quarry.
Iran’s Eastern Oil Fields
Petroleum is Iran’s most important natural resource, and the nation is one of the world’s leading oil producers. Its main oil fields, which have been estimated to contain 48 billion barrels of crude oil, are located in the eastern province of Khūzestān, with smaller fields offshore in the Persian Gulf. Oil refineries have been built in the cities of Shīrāz, Kermānshāh, and Eşfahān.
Iran’s Petroleum Industry From this facility on Kharg Island in the Persian Gulf, Iran’s oil is exported to countries around the world. Linked to mainland oilfields by pipelines, the terminal has an export capacity of about 5 million barrels per day. More than three-fourths of Iran’s export revenues come from foreign sales of oil.
Tigris River, Iraq The Tigris River as it flows through Iraq. Present-day Iraq occupies the greater part of the ancient land of Mesopotamia, the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Euphrates River, Syria The rivers in Syria, southwestern Asia, are essential to the country’s agricultural communities. Here, Syria’s longest river, the Euphrates, runs through Karkemish. The river, because of its size, supplies much of the water needed to irrigate the country’s large land tracts.
A Logging in Borneo Cut from the thick forests of Borneo, this timber is being transported by water in the Sabah region of Malaysia. Most Malaysian lumber is produced in Sabah and Sarawak, and it is an important export. But worldwide concern about destruction of the rain forest has slowed the expansion of the country's wood-products industry.
A Precious Sap of Malaysian Rubber Trees Though rubber trees first grew in Brazil, seedlings were brought to Malaysia from Great Britain in the late 1800s. Today, Malaysia is the world's largest rubber producer. Early in the day, tree tappers cut V-shaped incisions into tree trunks and attach cups to the trees to catch the flowing latex. Hours later, the latex is collected and sent to a factory for processing.
Pinang, Malaysia Malaysia’s tropical vegetation provides an ideal habitat for a diverse population of animal life, including large mammals, primates, crocodiles, and hundreds of species of birds, snakes, lizards, and insects. Along with a burgeoning industrial economy that employs the majority of Pinang’s workforce, tourist attractions such as this butterfly farm have flourished.