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- 1. Exploring the Achievement Gap Carrie Anderson, Amber Aspevig, Kate Bertin As an introduction to our topic we created this video and posted it on youtube. The video is an original creation made for this presentation.
2. What is going on? http://lascobrasvenenosas.blogspot.com/2009/05/la-confusion-por-begona.html 3. Why does the gap exist?
- Andwho is accountable??
- Each person likely has a strong opinion:
- unqualified teachers!
- low expectations!
- inadequate government funding!
- overcrowded classrooms !
- racist curriculum!
- culturally biased tests!
- -family background!
- -socioeconomic conditions!
- -emotional and psychological influences!
- -anti-intellectual culture!
- http://stpeterslakemary.org/pathways-to-home http://www.stopthebrainwash.com/?attachment_id=563
6. There is no simple answer. 7. Yet two main, distinctive categories exist:
- Sociocultural factors
- Institutional factors
- Factors related to:
- -students' socioeconomic status
- -family background
- -cultural environment
- Factors related to:
- -institutional racism
Institutional 10. Without question, bothelements influence and perpetuate an academic achievement gap - a startlingly wide gap...
- which has not narrowed significantly since 1954'sBrown vs. Board of Education
- and whose under-performing group is comprised ofminority students of color and from low socioeconomic conditions.
- In this presentation we will look atWHYthere is an achievement gap between students of color and white students,and also between students from higher socioeconomic conditions and those from lower socioeconomic conditions.
- But first, let's have some perspective from professionals on the front lines.
http://education.umkc.edu/images/fetch/42/default 13. This short clip provides a first look, from California- (youtube, "Who is accountable?", Langerston & Lee) 14. Jonathon Kozol (1991) "Savage Inequalities"
- "Anyone who visits in the schools of East St. Louis, [Illinois] even for a short time, comes away profoundly shaken. These are innocent children, after all. They have done nothing wrong. They have committed no crime. They are too young to have offended us in any way at all. One searches for some way to understand why a society as rich and, frequently, as generous as ours would leave these children in their penury and squalor for so long -- and with so little public indignation. Is this just a strange mistake of history? Is it unusual? Is it an American anomaly?"(p.40).
15. East St. Louis is but one of many communities in the country held hostage to abject poverty.
- -demographic 98% black
- -"poor and devastated city"
- -high poverty
- -crumbling school facilities and shortage of teachers, resources and morale:
- "Trapped within the parameters of their world, many children gradually lose hope. Their learning potential slowly erodes. Their aspirations slip away. Fewer and fewer opportunities remain open to them"(Kozol, 1991).
photo from: http://www.american-pictures.com/gallery/usa/book230t-a.jpg 16.
- 20 years later... and equally pertinent .
17. Thus we wonder:
- Howhas it become so dire?
- Whyhas our society allowed it?
- http://dailycensored.com/2011/03/09/the-%E2%80%9Ccritical%E2%80%9D-crisis-of-public-education-in-america/ http://wallpaperstock.net/american-flag-wallpapers_w6121.html
18. Disadvantaged students:
- The experience of students in East St. Louis is repeated throughout the country.
- Demographics of the achievement gap: urban minorities, Indianreservations, poverty and economically depressed communities, English language learners .
http://fixingtheworld.wikispaces.com/file/view/PineRidge054.jpg/183815397/PineRidge054.jpg http://www.american-pictures.com/gallery/usa/thumbnails/usa-00188.jpg 19. FACTS:
- -According to the National Assessment on Academic Progress in 2009, White students had higher scores than Black students, on average, on all assessments. While the nationwide gaps in 2007 were narrower than in previous assessments at both grades 4 and 8 in mathematics and at grade 4 in reading, White students had average scores at least 26 points higher than Black students in each subject, on a 0-500 scale.
- -The United States has "one of the most unequal education systems in the industrialized world" (Darling Hammond, 2007,1).
20. Mathematics: Figure 13-1: Average mathematics scale scores of 4th- and 8th-grade students, by school poverty level: Selected years, 2000-09 NOTE: The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics scores range from 0 to 500 for grades 4 and 8. The percentage of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch ranges between 025 percent in low-poverty schools and between 76100 percent in high-poverty schools. For more information on NAEP, see supplemental note 4 and for more information on free or reduced-price lunch, see supplemental note 1 . SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), selected years, 20002009 Mathematics Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. 21. Figure 13-2: Average mathematics scale scores of 12th-grade students, by race/ethnicity: 2005 and 2009 NOTE: The framework for the 12th-grade mathematics assessment was revised in 2005; as a result, the 2005 and 2009 results cannot be compared with those from previous years. At grade 12, mathematics scores on the revised assessment range from 0 to 300. For more information on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), see supplemental note 4 . Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. For more information on race/ethnicity, see supplemental note 1 . SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), selected years, 2005 and 2009 Mathematics Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. 22. Reading: Figure 11-1: Average reading scale scores of 12th-grade students, by race/ethnicity: Selected years, 1992-2009 NOTE: The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scale ranges from 0 to 500. Testing accommodations (e.g., extended time, small group testing) for children with disabilities and English language learners were not permitted in 1992 and 1994; students were tested with and without accommodations in 1998. For more information on NAEP, see supplemental note4 . Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. For more information on race/ethnicity, see supplemental note1 . SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), selected years, 19922009 Reading Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. 23. Drop-out Rates:
- High School Drop-out Rates, 2009:
- Total- 8.1%
- White- 5.2%
- Black- 9.3%
- Hispanic- 17.6%
- American Indian/Alaska Native- 13.2%
taken from: http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=16 http://www.futurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/ADHD-1.jpg 24. This begs the question:
- To what extent do external and internal factors influence these results?
- Canmoneyfix the problem?
- http://www.chacmv.org/ http://www.marcandangel.com/2010/09/13/18-things-you-are-wasting-money-on/
- Or are social, cultural and family factors beyond the scope of an institutional, financial resolution?
26. Institutional : school-related factors
- -quality of schools
27. Institutional :Inequitable funding
- -10% of federal monies for education
- - state responsibility, flexibility with federal $$ use
- -% state tax spending on education:Vermont 5.5%, Delaware 2.5%, South Dakota 2.8%, Montana 3.8% ("Education Counts" cited in Epstein, 2011, p. 6)
- -local property taxes = a primary butd