siemens_viraj agnihotri - internship report
Embed Size (px)
Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics
SUMMER INTERNSHIP REPORT
HEALTHCARE IMAGING AND DIAGNOSTIC
METHODS AND MACHINES
Supervised By: Mr. Sunil Kumar Garg
Under Guidance of: Mr. Girish Sadana
Submitted By: Viraj Agnihotri
HEALTHCARE IMAGING AND
DIAGNOSTIC METHODS AND
I take this opportunity to express my profound sense of
gratitude and appreciation to all those who have helped me
throughout the duration of this internship.
Firstly, I would like to thank Mr. Sunil Kumar Garg and
Mr. Girish Sadana for providing guidance and expert
supervision during this internship and sharing their
experience in their field of work which helped me gain an
insight of the Healthcare industry in India.
I would also like to thank Mr. Saumay Kumar and Mr.
Tauseef Siddiqui for providing me with my study material
and helping me by clarifying my doubts whenever
I would especially like to thank Mr. Madan Bharti from
Siemens Healthcare for providing moral support whenever
A well planned, properly executed industrial training helps a
lot in inducing good work culture. It provides a linkage
between the students and industry in order to develop
awareness of industrial approach to problem solving based
on broad understanding of processes and operations in an
AIM: To see the application
of bioengineering in
1. To understand various
2. To understand various
principle involved in
working of medical
3. To learn about the
application of diagnostic
tools in medical research
4. To understand the
operating of Healthcare
The report is based on the various products of SIEMENS which are dedicated towards
diagnosing and to analyze its utilization by generating different types of critical and
specific reports as per the needs of the management.
The system being diversified in nature demanded a 5 weeks period for understanding
the principles, concepts, operations of the various instruments and familiarizing with
the platform of their development for the completion of the project.
The training undertaken in such an indigenous company gave me an opportunity to
gain practical experience increasing my horizon of knowledge. I have tried to share
some of my knowledge by way of this project report.
ABOUT THE COMPANY
Werner Von Siemens in Berlin, Germany incepted Siemens on 1st October 1647.
Initially there were three units in different areas of operation: SRW-Siemens Reiniger
werke (Medical Engineering), SSW-Siemens Schukert Werke (energy) and SH_Siemens
Halske (Communication). They finally merged into Siemens AG (Aktiengesellschaft) in
Ever since its evolution Siemens had been at the forefront of developing leading
edge .It has a strong global presence having sales and service facilities in more than 190
countries and with 339 production facilities outside Germany with worldwide
manpower strength of about four lakhs.
To continue with its pioneering research and to stay ahead in the field of
electrical and electronic technology, Siemens put strong emphasis on research and
development with over 4500 employees engaged in this key activity of approximately
8% of the turnover. On an average Siemens spends DM 35 million a day on R&D and
has its R&D centres in Europe and USA apart from Germany.
Siemens in India:
Siemens ltd is a leading electrical and electronics engineering company in India.
Established in 1922, it was incorporated as a company in 1957 and in 1962 was
converted into a public limited company with 51 % of its equity held by Siemens AG
and the remaining 49 % held by Indian shareholders. It operates in the energy,
industry, healthcare, transportation, information, communications and components
business segments. It also operates joint ventures in the fields of communication and
In addition Siemens group in India has presence in the field of power design,
renovation and modernization of existing power plant, lighting, and household goods.
The Siemens group in India has a widespread marketing and distribution
network in addition to multiple manufacturing processes in India. It also has a well-
organized up-market value addition in engineering, software, system integration,
erection, and commissioning and customer services.
Siemens long association with India begins in the year 1867 when Werner Von
Siemens personally supervised the laying of the first transcontinental telegraphic line
between Calcutta and London.
Siemens has played an active role in the technological progress experienced in the
last three decades. In the 60’s the nations expanding investments in power generation
called for a range of high quality electrical and auxiliary equipment. Siemens grew out
of response to this need.
First in a small way assembling switchboards at workshop in Bombay and
Calcutta. With products as varied as Switchgears, Motors, Drives and Automation,
Power systems automation, Railway signaling systems, Medical engineering and
Siemens extensive network in India includes 10 manufacturing units, 12 sales
offices, 30 representatives, 350 dealers, and system houses. Being closely related to
Siemens AG, Germany gives Siemens India access to the world’s latest developments in
every field. Siemens technology has been made available to the reputed Indian
organizations in the form of collaboration agreements with BHEL, BEL, HMT, ECIL
and Mafatlal industries to name a few.
Medical engineering is constantly enhancing the
effectiveness of the diagnostic and therapeutic
modalities now available to the medical
profession. The rapid advances in electronics
have resulted in phenomenal benefits accruing
to modern medicine. Non-invasive, imaging,
faster and accurate diagnosis and paper free
documentation of patient data are just a few of
“At Siemens, we play a unique role, supporting healthcare professionals to do their job the best they can by providing medical technologies that help deliver a better quality of healthcare and enable ever-improving degrees of individual care through
advanced imaging, diagnostics, therapy, and healthcare IT solutions. We thereby help ensure the next generation of breakthroughs becomes a reality.”
- Hermann Requardt, Member of the Managing Board of Siemens AG and CEO of the Healthcare Sector
• SPECT & Gamma Camera
• NMR & fMRI
• main branches: optical, electron and scanning probe microscopy. (+ less used X-ray
• Optical and electron microscopy involves the diffraction, reflection, or refraction of radiation
incident upon the subject of study, and the subsequent collection of this scattered radiation in
order to build up an image.
• Scanning probe microscopy involves the interaction of a scanning probe with the surface or
object of interest.
• Optical or light microscopy involves passing visible light transmitted
through or reflected from the sample through a single or multiple lenses to
allow a magnified view of the sample.
• The resulting image can be detected directly by the eye, imaged on a
photographic plate or captured digitally.
• OM can only image dark or strongly refracting objects effectively. Out of
focus light from points outside the focal plane reduces image clarity.
• developed in the 1930s that use electron beams instead of light.
• because of the much lower wavelength of the electron beam than of light, resolution is far
• Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is principally quite similar to the compound light
microscope, by sending an electron beam through a very thin slice of the specimen. The
resolution limit (in 2005) is around 0.05 nanometer.
House Fly Black Ant
Human RBCs Neurons CNS
• Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) visualizes details on the surfaces of cells and
particles and gives a very nice 3D view. The magnification is in the lower range than that of the
transmission electron microscope.
• It is used to visualize muscles, tendons, and many internal organs, their size, structure and
any pathological lesions with real time tomographic images. They are also used to visualize a
fetus during routine and emergency prenatal care.
• The technology is relatively inexpensive and portable, especially when compared with
modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT).
• It poses no known risks to the patient; it is generally
described as a "safe test" because it does not use
ionizing radiation, which imposes hazards (e.g.
cancer production and chromosome breakage).
• However, it has two potential physiological effects:
it enhances inflammatory response; and it can heat
• It uses the same principles involved in the sonar
used by bats, ships and fishermen.
• When a sound wave (frequency 2.0 to 10.0
megahertz ) strikes an object, it bounces backward
or echoes. By measuring these echo waves it is
possible to determine how far away the object is and
its size, shape, consistency (solid, filled with fluid, or
both) and uniformity.
• A transducer both sends the sound waves and
records the echoing waves. When the transducer is
pressed against the skin, it directs a stream of
inaudible, high-frequency sound waves into the body.
As the sound waves bounce off of internal organs,
fluids and tissues, the sensitive microphone in the
transducer records tiny changes in the sound's
pitch and direction. These signature waves are
instantly measured and displayed by a computer,
which in turn creates a real-time picture on the
• Ultrasound waves are reflected by air or gas;
therefore ultrasound is not an ideal imaging
technique for the bowel.
• Ultrasound waves do not pass through air;
therefore an evaluation of the stomach, small
intestine and large intestine may be limited.
The ACUSON X300™ ultrasound
system, premium edition (PE) is a
compact, portable imaging solution
that delivers exceptional clinical
performance across a wide variety
of applications. This
comprehensive, fully featured
system incorporates high-end
image optimization techniques and
enhanced workflow features to
meet the challenges of the most
demanding care environments.
Intestinal gas may also prevent visualization of deeper structures such as the pancreas and
• Patients who are obese are more difficult to image because tissue attenuates (weakens) the
sound waves as they pass deeper into the body.
• Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and therefore can only see the outer surface of
bony structures and not what lies within.
ULTRASOUND - BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
• heart and blood vessels, incl. the abdominal aorta and its major branches
• uterus, ovaries, and unborn child (fetus) in pregnant patients
• thyroid and parathyroid glands
• scrotum (testicles)
X-RAYS AND X-RAY BASED PRODUCTS
The creation of images by exposing an object to X-rays or
other high-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation and
capturing the resulting remnant beam (or "shadow") as a
latent image is known as "projection radiography." The
"shadow" may be converted to light using a fluorescent
screen, which is then captured on photographic film, it may be
captured by a phosphor screen to be "read" later by a laser
(CR), or it may directly activate a matrix of solid-
state detectors (DR—similar to a very large version of
a CCD in a digital camera). Bone and some organs (such
as lungs) especially lend themselves to projection
radiography. It is a relatively low-cost investigation with a
high diagnostic yield.
Projection radiography uses X-rays in different amounts and
strengths depending on what body part is being imaged:
Hard tissues such as bone require a relatively high energy
photon source, and typically a tungsten anode is used
with a high voltage (50-150 kVp) on a 3-phase or high-
frequency machine to generate braking radiation. Bony
tissue and metals are denser than the surrounding tissue,
and thus by absorbing more of the X-ray photons they
prevent the film from getting exposed as much. Wherever
dense tissue absorbs or stops the X-rays, the resulting X-
ray film is unexposed, and appears translucent blue,
whereas the black parts of the film represent lower-
density tissues such as fat, skin, and internal organs,
which could not stop the X-rays. This is usually used to
see bony fractures, foreign objects (such as ingested
coins), and used for finding bony pathology such
as osteoarthritis, infection (osteomyelitis), cancer
(osteosarcoma), as well as growth studies (leg
length, achondroplasia, scoliosis, etc.).
Soft tissues are seen with the same machine as for hard
tissues, but a "softer" or less-penetrating X-ray beam is
used. Tissues commonly imaged include the lungs and
heart shadow in a chest X-ray, the air pattern of the bowel
in abdominal X-rays, the soft tissues of the neck, the
orbits by a skull X-ray before an MRI to check for
radiopaque foreign bodies (especially metal), and of
course the soft tissue shadows in X-rays of bony injuries
are looked at by the radiologist for signs of hidden trauma
(for example, the famous "fat pad" sign on a fractured
Multix Fusion is designed for
routine radiography and can be
tailored to your requirements, today
and in the future. Analog or digital,
with an upgrade path to digitize
whenever you decide.
In short, it's an investment that
MULTIMOBIL provides thoughtful
design and high quality. They are
designed as entry-level systems
with basic system features for all
mobile X-ray applications.
If you ask for the economical
solution without compromises our
MULTIMOBIL is the number one
choice for mobile X-ray imaging in
the ICU, neonatal or pediatric
departments, or in the ward.
Dental radiography uses a small radiation dose with high
penetration to view teeth, which are relatively dense.
A dentist may examine a painful tooth and gum using X-
ray equipment. The machines used are typically single-
phase pulsating DC, the oldest and simplest sort. Dental
technicians or the dentist may run these machines—
radiologic technologists are not required by law to be
Mammography is an X-ray examination of breasts and
other soft tissues. This has been used mostly on women
to screen for breast cancer, but is also used to view male
breasts, and used in conjunction with a radiologist or a
surgeon to localize suspicious tissues before a biopsy or
a lumpectomy. Breast implants designed to enlarge the
breasts reduce the viewing ability of mammography, and
require more time for imaging as more views need to be
taken. This is because the material used in the implant is
very dense compared to breast tissue, and looks white
(clear) on the film. The radiation used for mammography
tends to be softer (has a lower photon energy) than that
used for the harder tissues. Often a tube with
a molybdenum anode is used with about 30 000 volts (30
kV), giving a range of X-ray energies of about 15-30 keV.
Many of these photons are "characteristic radiation" of a
specific energy determined by the atomic structure of the
target material (Mo-K radiation).
Fluoroscopy is a term invented by Thomas Edison during his
early X-ray studies. The name refers to the fluorescence he
saw while looking at a glowing plate bombarded with X-rays.
This is a technique that provides moving projection
radiographs of lower quality. Fluoroscopy is mainly performed
to view movement (of tissue or a contrast agent), or to guide a
medical intervention, such as angioplasty, pacemaker
insertion, or joint repair/replacement. The latter are often
carried out in the operating theatre, using a portable
fluoroscopy machine called a C-arm. It can move around the
surgery table and make digital images for the surgeon.
Angiography is the use of fluoroscopy to view the
cardiovascular system. An iodine-based contrast is injected
into the bloodstream and watched as it travels around. Since
liquid blood and the vessels are not very dense, a contrast
with high density (like the large iodine atoms) is used to view
MAMMOMAT 1000 is our mid-tier
analog screening mammography
system for high patient volumes.
The system provides excellent
image quality combined with a
range of features that inspire
comfort and confidence. A
radiation shield with control panel
allows you to operate the system
from a protected area.
Luminos Select is our fluoroscopy
system that provides economical
access to select technologies from
our proven Luminos fluoroscopy
systems. It offers imaging with up
to 90% less dose, the efficiency of
a fully digital workflow, and proven
reliability. The result is improved
productivity and diagnostic quality
with an investment you can make
the vessels under X-ray. Angiography is used to
find aneurysms, leaks, blockages (thromboses), new vessel
growth, and placement of catheters and stents. Balloon
angioplasty is often done with angiography.
Fluoroscopy can be used to examine the digestive system
using a substance which is opaque to X-rays, (usually
barium sulfate or gastrografin), which is introduced into the
digestive system either by swallowing or as
an enema. This is normally as part of a double contrast
technique, using positive and negative contrast. Barium
sulfate coats the walls of the digestive tract (positive contrast),
which allows the shape of the digestive tract to be outlined as
white or clear on an X-ray. Air may then be introduced
(negative contrast), which looks black on the film. The barium
meal is an example of a contrast agent swallowed to examine
the upper digestive tract. Note that while
soluble barium compounds are very toxic, the
insoluble barium sulfate is non-toxic because its low solubility
prevents the body from absorbing it.
A number of substances have been used as positive
agents: silver, bismuth, caesium, thorium, tin, zirconium, t
antalum, tungsten and lanthanide compounds have been
used as contrast agents. The use of thoria (thorium
dioxide) as an agent was rapidly stopped as thorium
causes liver cancer.
Most modern injected radiographic positive contrast media
are iodine-based. Patients who suffer
from allergy to shellfish may be allergic to iodine, and should
consult their physician regarding pre-medication to lessen risk
of allergic reaction. Iodinated contrast comes in two forms:
ionic and non-ionic compounds. Non-ionic contrast is
significantly more expensive than ionic (approximately three
to five times the cost), however, non-ionic contrast tends to be
safer for the patient, causing fewer allergic reactions and
uncomfortable side effects such as hot sensations or flushing.
Most imaging centres now use non-ionic contrast exclusively,
finding that the benefits to patients outweigh the expense.
The mobile C-arm MULTIMOBIL
5C provides the optimum
solution of today's clinical
requirements. It is ideally suited
for entry level surgery in many
application fields such as
orthopedics, trauma surgery,
Negative radiographic contrast agents are air and carbon
dioxide (CO2). The latter is easily absorbed by the body
and causes less spasm. It can also be injected into the
blood, where air absolutely cannot.
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY SCAN (CT)
• CT scans use a series of X-ray beams
• It creates cross-sectional images, e.g. of the brain and
shows the structure of the brain, but not its function.
• Digital geometry processing is used to generate a three-
dimensional image of the internals of an object from a
large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken
around a single axis of rotation
• CT's primary benefit is the ability to separate anatomical
structures at different depths within the body.
• A form of tomography can be performed by moving the
X-ray source and detector during an exposure.
• Anatomy at the target level remains sharp, while
structures at different levels are blurred.
• By varying the extent and path of motion, a variety of
effects can be obtained, with variable depth of field and
different degrees of blurring of 'out of plane'
• Because contemporary CT scanners offer isotropic, or
near isotropic, resolution, display of images does not
need to be restricted to the conventional axial
SOMATOM® Definition is the
latest revolution in CT. Its new
Dual Source CT technology
promotes pioneering new
clinical opportunities at the
highest level, making it the
ideal choice for bigger hospitals
and research facilities.
• Instead, it is possible for a software program to build a volume by 'stacking' the individual
slices one on top of the other. The program may then display the volume in an alternative
1. 2. 3. 4.
CT - DIAGNOSTIC USE
• diagnosis of cerebrovascular accidents and intracranial hemorrhage
• CT generally does not exclude infarct in the acute stage of a stroke. For detection of tumors, CT
scanning with IV contrast is occasionally used but is less sensitive than magnetic resonance
• CT is excellent for detecting both acute and chronic changes in the lung parenchyma.
• A variety of different techniques are used depending on the suspected abnormality.
• For evaluation of chronic interstitial processes (emphysema, fibrosis, and so forth), thin sections
with high spatial frequency reconstructions are used - often scans are performed both in
inspiration and expiration. This special technique is called High resolution CT (HRCT).
• For detection of airspace disease (such as pneumonia) or cancer, relatively thick sections and
general Purpose image reconstruction techniques may be adequate.
• With the advent of subsecond rotation combined with multi-slice CT (up to 64-slice), high
resolution and high speed can be obtained at the same time, allowing excellent imaging of the
coronary arteries (cardiac CT angiography).
• Images with an even higher temporal resolution can be formed using retrospective ECG gating.
In this technique, each portion of the heart is imaged more than once while an ECG trace is
recorded. The ECG is then used to correlate the CT data with their corresponding phases of
cardiac contraction. Once this correlation is complete, all data that were recorded while the
heart was in motion (systole) can be ignored and images can be made from the remaining data
that happened to be acquired while the heart was at rest (diastole). In this way, individual
frames in a cardiac CT investigation have a better temporal resolution than the shortest tube
Abdominal and pelvic
• CT is a sensitive method for diagnosis of abdominal diseases. It is used frequently to determine
stage of cancer and to follow progress. It is also a useful test to investigate acute abdominal
• Renal/urinary stones, appendicitis, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and
bowel obstruction are conditions that are readily diagnosed and assessed with CT.
• CT is also the first line for detecting solid organ injury after trauma.
SINGLE POSITRON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY(SPECT)
• gamma ray emissions are the source of information
(contrary to X-ray transmissions used in conventional CT)
• allows to visualize functional information about a
patient's specific organ or body system (similarly to X-ray
Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance
• Internal radiation is administered by means of a
pharmaceutical which is labeled with a radioactive
isotope / tracer / radiopharmaceutical, is either
injected, ingested, or inhaled.
• The radioactive isotope decays, resulting in the emission
of gamma rays. These gamma rays give us a picture of
what's happening inside the patient's body.
• The Gamma camera collects gamma rays that are
emitted from within the patient, enabling us to
reconstruct a picture of where the gamma rays originated.
From this, we can determine how a particular organ or
system is functioning.
• The gamma camera can be used in planar imaging to
acquire 2-dimensional images, or in SPECT imaging to
acquire 3-dimensional images.
• Once a radiopharmaceutical has been administered, it is
necessary to detect the gamma ray emissions in order to
attain the functional information.
• The instrument used in Nuclear Medicine for the detection
of gamma rays is known as the Gamma camera. The
components making up the gamma camera are the
collimator, detector crystal, photomultiplier tube array,
position logic circuits, and the data analysis
• Since the camera remains at a fixed position in a planar
study, it is possible to observe the motion of a
radiotracer through the body by acquiring a series of
planar images of the patient over time.
The Inveon SPECT module is
part of the Inveon multimodal
platform and is available as a
SPECT•CT or a
PET•SPECT•CT system. With
large pixelated detector heads
mounted on a rotating stage,
the Inveon SPECT system
offers automated zoom
options and upgradeability
features – making it a very
versatile system for all
SPECT imaging applications.
• Each image is a result of summing data over a short time interval, typically 1-10 seconds.
• If one rotates the camera around the patient, the camera will acquire views of the tracer
distribution at a variety of angles.
• After all these angles have been observed, it is possible to reconstruct a three dimensional
view of the radiotracer distribution within the body.
SPECT – APPLICATIONS
• Heart Imaging
• Brain Imaging
• Kidney/Renal Imaging
• Bone Scans
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)
• An MRI uses powerful magnets to excite hydrogen nuclei in water molecules in human tissue,
producing a detectable signal. Like a CT scan, an MRI traditionally creates a 2D image of a thin
"slice" of the body.
• The difference between a CT image and an MRI image is in the details. X-rays must be
blocked by some form of dense tissue to create an image, therefore the image quality when
looking at soft tissues will be poor.
• An MRI can ONLY "see" hydrogen based objects, so
bone, which is calcium based, will be a void in the
image, and will not affect soft tissue views. This makes
it excellent for peering into joints.
• As an MRI does not use ionizing radiation, it is the
preferred imaging method for children and pregnant
• Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), formerly referred
to as magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) and, in
scientific circles and as originally marketed by
companies such as General Electric, nuclear magnetic
resonance imaging (NMRI) or NMR zeugmatography
imaging, is a non-invasive method using nuclear
magnetic resonance to render images of the inside of
• It is primarily used in medical imaging to demonstrate
pathological or other physiological alterations of living
• MRI also has uses outside of the medical field, such as
detecting rock permeability to hydrocarbons and as a
non-destructive testing method to characterize the
quality of products such as produce and timber.
MAGNETOM Trio, A Tim System
offers you a unique 3T platform
to tackle today’s and tomorrow’s
most demanding MRI-research
challenges. With its unmatched
hardware performance and rich
advanced application portfolio
MAGNETOM Trio, A Tim System
is the choice of the world’s
largest and most active 3T MR
• The scanners used in medicine have a typical magnetic
field strength of 0.2 to 3 Teslas. Construction costs
approximately US$ 1 million per Tesla and
maintenance an additional several hundred thousand dollars per year.
• Medical Imaging MRI, or "NMR" as it was originally known, has only been in use since the
1980's. Effects from long term, or repeated exposure, to the intense magnetic field is not
• Functional MRI detects changes in blood flow to particular areas of the brain. It provides both
an anatomical and a functional view of the brain.
• MRI uses the detection of radio frequency signals
produced by displaced radio waves in a magnetic field.
It provides an anatomical view of the brain.
• A fMRI scan showing regions of activation in orange,
including the primary visual cortex (V1, BA17).
• Functional MRI (fMRI) measures signal changes in the
brain that are due to changing neural activity. The brain
is scanned at low resolution but at a rapid rate (typically
once every 2-3 seconds). Increases in neural activity
cause changes in the MR signal via T2* changes; this
mechanism is referred to as the BOLD (blood-oxygen-
level dependent) effect. Increased neural activity
causes an increased demand for oxygen, and the
vascular system actually overcompensates for this,
increasing the amount of oxygenated hemoglobin
(haemoglobin) relative to deoxygenated hemoglobin.
APPLICATIONS • Clinical practice, MRI is used to distinguish pathologic
tissue (such as a brain tumor) from normal tissue. One
advantage of an MRI scan is that it is thought to be
harmless to the patient. It uses strong magnetic fields
and non-ionizing radiation in the radio frequency range.
Compare this to CT scans and traditional X-rays which
involve doses of ionizing radiation and may increase the
risk of malignancy, especially in a fetus
Biograph mMR brings a
revolution in diagnostic imaging
to life. For the first time, state-of-
the-art 3T MRI and cutting-edge
molecular imaging are fully
integrated as one. Only Siemens
makes the simultaneous
acquisition of whole-body MR
and PET possible.
Molecular MR supports our joint
vision for healthcare - to advance
disease management and
improve care for all patients.
Biograph mMR represents a bold
move forward in making this
vision a reality.
• While CT provides good spatial resolution (the ability to distinguish two structures an arbitrarily
small distance from each other as separate), MRI provides comparable resolution with far better
contrast resolution (the ability to distinguish the differences between two arbitrarily similar but
not identical tissues). The basis of this ability is the complex library of pulse sequences that the
modern medical MRI scanner includes, each of which is optimized to provide image contrast
based on the chemical sensitivity of MRI.
• The typical MRI examination consists of 5-20 sequences, each of which are chosen to provide a
particular type of information about the subject tissues. This information is then synthesized by
the interpreting physician
POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY
• A scanner detects radioactive material that is injected or
inhaled to produce an image of the brain.
• Commonly used radioactively-labeled material includes
oxygen, fluorine, carbon and nitrogen.
• When this material gets into the bloodstream, it goes to
areas of the brain that use it. So, oxygen and glucose
accumulate in brain areas that are metabolically active.
• When the radioactive material breaks down, it gives off a
neutron and a positron.
• When a positron hits an electron, both are destroyed and
two gamma rays are released.
• Gamma ray detectors record the brain area where the
gamma rays are emitted. This method provides a
functional view of the brain.
• Provides an image of brain activity. Disadvantages:
• Expensive to use.
• Radioactive material used.
TruePoint is a flexible, high-
powered medical imaging
platform. It offers an wide
range of performance options
to enhance image resolution
and quality, improve patient
satisfaction as well as
throughput. Customize the
Biograph solution to meet
your specific needs by
various resolution and clinical
DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL IMAGING
WHAT CAN BE TESTED?
Body is made up of many different types of cells and fluids.
Almost all of these cells and fluids may be tested, though the most common specimens are
blood and urine.
Materials such as sweat, spinal fluid, joint fluid, sputum, hair, feces, bone marrow, tissues and
body scrapings are also analyzed.
SPECIMEN PROCESSING • Pre Centrifugation
• Post Centrifugation
SECTORS FOR TESTING
• Hematology – Study of Blood cells
• Biochemistry –Study of Biochemicals in the body
• Immunology –Study of Antibodies and Antigen
• Microbiology –Study of Microorganisms
• Immunohematology – Deals with Blood Grouping
• Cytology & Histopathology– Study of cells and tissues of the body
• Molecular Biology –Study of Molecules like DNA and RNA
Revolutionize the way your lab functions with the new Dimension Vista® 1500 Intelligent Lab
System. This new class of analyzer incorporates customer-driven design, ultra-integration of
four technologies, including state-of-the-art LOCI® technology, and onboard automation.
TYPES OF TESTS
• RBC - the number of red blood cells to
• WBC - the number of white blood cells to
• Differential Count - the proportions of the
different types of white blood cells varies in
infection, allergies, etc.
• Platelet Count - the count of the number of
these cells which participate in blood
• Coagulation (clotting) studies - bleeding
time, prothrombin time and other tests
determine the clotting process in the blood
• Hemoglobin - a measure of the oxygen-
carrying capacity of the blood
The ADVIA 2120i System with Autoslide*
streamlines workflow by eliminating the
majority of manual steps commonly performed
to maximize productivity. It delivers the gold
standard in testing methodology for optimum
results while offering the simplicity and
flexibility you need for easy integration into
TYPES OF TESTS
• Blood Sugar - Sugar in the blood is a
measurement for diabetes mellitus
• Electrolytes (Na, K, Cl & CO2) - substances
maintain fluid and blood pressure balance
(essential for the function of most body
• Enzymes (CK, LD, AST, ALT) - help to
diagnose heart and liver diseases
• Cholesterol - high amounts are associated
with heart and blood vessel diseases
• Urea Nitrogen - test for kidney function
• Uric Acid - may indicate gout
The ADVIA 1800 Clinical Chemistry System
pushes the limit of productivity Its extensive
menu allows integration of testing for clinical
chemistry, drugs-of-abuse, therapeutic drug
monitoring (TDM) and specific proteins like
Cystatin C and CardioPhase® hsCRP.
TYPES OF TESTS
• Culture - growth of bacteria for the
purpose of identification
• Smear/Stain - preliminary evaluation of
• Sensitivity test - testing bacteria with
antibiotics to determine which drug is
TYPES OF TESTS
• AIDS test - positive when a person has
the AIDS virus
• Pregnancy test - to confirm pregnancy
• Rubella test - for measles
TYPES OF TESTS
Blood type and Rh - to identify a person's blood
type which can be O, A, B or AB and Rh which
can be either positive or negative
The autoSCAN®-4 System processes panels in
seconds, simplifying ID/AST testing while
standardizing results. Over 25 years of
exceptional instrument reliability and our
conventional panel technology – with the
fewest FDA limitations in automated ID/AST -
make the autoSCAN®-4 an excellent
supplemental system for difficult organisms or
as a primary instrument for low volume usage.
Can your lab handle both routine and
specialized testing without sacrificing
efficiency? Can you maintain speed and
accuracy for an increasingly diverse patient
population? The high-performance ADVIA
Centaur XP system has more onboard reagents
and dedicated STAT capabilities to maximize
productivity, regardless of volume or types of
TYPES OF TESTS
• Pap smear - microscopic examination of cells to determine abnormal conditions or malignancy
• Sputum - microscopic evaluation for malignancy or other disorders such as asbestosis
TYPES OF TESTS Biopsy - the removal of a small section of tissue to be studied. The type of cells and their chemical
reactions are evaluated.
TYPES OF TESTS
• Detection of major infectious diseases
• Monitoring of treatment efficiancy
• Diagnosis and monitoring of HIV and
Hepatitis Employing proprietary extraction technology that supports multiple sample types, our
VERSANT kPCR Molecular System delivers
accurate, reliable results with maximum
productivity. System flexibility in combination
with an expanding menu will support
quantitative and qualitative detection across
many molecular diagnostic applications.
DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS HELPING IN
THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE, IN LIVING COLOR
AT THE BASQUE CENTRE ON COGNITION, BRAIN AND
LANGUAGE IN SAN SEBASTIAN, SPAIN, RESEARCH
SCIENTISTS ARE USING HIGH-END MEDICAL IMAGING
DEVICES FROM SIEMENS THAT GATHER DATA ON THE
INNER WORKINGS OF THE BRAIN TO EXPLORE THE HUMAN
MECHANISMS RELATED TO THE LEARNING, UNDERSTANDING
AND PRODUCTION OF LANGUAGE. -BY PETER SERGIO ALLEGRETTI
This graphic highlights the areas of the brain used when speaking in your native language. But what would the graphic look like when learning a new language?
Things that seem the simplest can often be the most complex.
Take for example the basic transmission of information. As you
read this article, you are most likely able to understand each of
the individual words as well as the meaning that the collection
of words together are intended to convey. Yet as you do that,
what is happening now in your brain and your body is an
extraordinarily complex and precisely choreographed series of
neurological and physical events. Now, imagine you were
reading this in another language – perhaps a second language
you had spoken since birth or one you acquired later. Would
you understand it in the same way? More specifically, would
your brain process the words and turn them into
“understanding” in the same way?
Finding answers to these questions is a key focus of the work
being carried out at the Basque Centre on Cognition, Brain and
Language (BCBL) in Spain. The Centre is situated in San
Sebastian, an elegant coastal city and an ideal place to study
the bilingual brain. San Sebastian is located at the heart of the
Basque Country where inhabitants speak both Spanish and
Basque, two languages that are completely unrelated, yet are
used side by side in daily life.
The BCBL’s key aim is to unravel the mysteries and explore
the mechanisms in the brain related to the learning,
understanding, and production of language. In essence,
scientists are working to understand what happens on a neuro-
cognitive level when we speak, listen, and learn, and to
understand how the brain takes on a second or third language.
The centre gets its answers with the help of advanced medical
devices that gather data on the inner workings of the brain. The
BCBL employs a wide array of technology, including high-end
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) equipment from
Siemens as well as electroencephalogram (EEG) and
magnetoencephalogram (MEG) equipment.
“It’s all about posing the right questions.” Manuel Carreiras, Scientific Director, Basque Centre on Cognition, Brain and Language, San Sebastian, Spain
“As I watch one volunteer slide into the Siemens MAGNETOM® Trio™, a Tim (total imaging matrix) system, 3 Tesla fMRI unit, I am taken around to see how video information is fed onto a small screen above the volunteer and how audio is piped into the headphones. As a language test gets underway, I watch the results being recorded and displayed on a bank of computer screens. It is extraordinary to see images of such clarity and to watch different parts of the brain “light up” as challenges are posed to the volunteers. In this case, the woman in the MR system is given a series of words that are totally or partially contradictory together with some that are not. Researchers want to know more about which parts of the brain are activated when things make sense and which parts are activated when it is confused. The enormous benefit of actually being able to see this neuro-cognitive activity means researchers can make what they call “neuro-correlates” or matches between brain activity and behavioural activity. The benefit of using the MAGNETOM system is that it is excellent at producing 3D spatial results – images that can be seen and interpreted visually. “The MAGNETOM with 3 Tesla has great spatial resolution,” says BCBL Research Scientist Pedro Paz Alonso. “Compared to other neuroscientific imaging techniques, with this system we get to look not only into the gray matter in the brain surface, but also to white matter anatomical pathways inside the brain. Naturally, this gives us quite useful information. We also use EEG and MEG equipment that offers better temporal resolution.” Coupled together, researchers have an extraordinary amount of data available to them. The process of putting it all together can take months.”
- Peter Sergio Allegretti
“With Siemens’ 3 Tesla system, we get to look deep inside the brain instead of just at the surface.” Pedro Paz Alonso, Research Scientist, Basque Centre on Cognition, Brain and Language, San Sebastian, Spain
BCBL uses a MAGNETOM Trio on a study participant to measure her neuro-cognitive activity.
fMRI Technology: A New Way of Looking at Language
Siemens fMRI technology makes it possible for researchers to get extraordinary pictures of brain
activity with excellent 3D spatial resolution. Identifying language and speech disorders is now more
advanced thanks to fMRI, which means treatment plans are more efficient and suitable to patients.
But fMRI is also being used in life-saving clinical applications. One of the most common uses is to carry
out pre-surgical mapping of a brain with a tumor. Before an operation and within a matter of minutes, an
fMRI scan can give doctors critical data and clear pictures about the location of the tumor and pinpoint
functional areas of the brain with great accuracy, so that the surgeon can precisely remove all
malignant tumoral tissue without damaging critical functional areas, such as those responsible for
speech. This gives the surgeon crucial information about how best to operate. With a magnetic field of
3 Tesla, MAGNETOM® Trio™, a Tim system, has twice the power of the standard scanner, which
means greater speed, accuracy, and image clarity in fMRI studies. What is extraordinary about fMRI technology is that researchers can peer deep into the in vivo brain
while it is functioning, without any invasiveness. That is what makes this “currently the most exciting
technology for the functional mapping of the brain,” according to Siemens MR Neurology Global
Segment Manager Ignacio Vallines. “The benefits for patients, surgeons, and researchers alike are
Vallines also highlights the important work being done with stroke sufferers. The ability to see the
locally affected areas of the damaged brain and to track the hemispheric functioning post-stroke means
that doctors can give a more accurate diagnosis and better treatment.
In all its uses, fMRI technology gives startlingly accurate images and information, which are already
leading to great advances in medical practice and research, saving costs for hospitals and, most
importantly, may significantly improve patient outcomes.
Siemens fMRI technology (here with the use of a MAGNETOM Trio
3 Tesla system) enables researchers to better understand human brain activities, not only for language research, but also for stroke patients.
HEALTHCARE – FUTURE
INTERNATIONAL REFERENCE CENTRE TO
RESEARCH INTEGRATED DIAGNOSTICS
Last year, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona began what
promises to be a ground-breaking initiative to functionally
integrate their laboratory diagnostics (in vitro), medical
imaging (in vivo), and healthcare information technology.
Their goal in bringing the disciplines together is to give
their clinicians access to the most comprehensive patient
information possible, and allow for quicker and safer
decision making in all stages of the healthcare continuum.
Since Hospital Clinic de Barcelona is one of the first
hospitals in the world to initiate clinical research programs
on integrated diagnostics, they’ve become an
international reference centre, enhancing our ability to
truly improve the standards of care at the institution.
Many aspects of this initiative break new ground for them.
One of the most exciting is the cross-functional clinical
and management team they have assembled within the
hospital, another step ahead in their organizational model
focused on the patient and translational research. Some
of these disciplines have not collaborated before in
research and process improvement. Now, they’re fully
aligned as a team, ready to embark on rigorously
designed research protocols – pioneers in a collaboration
that has the potential to transform the way their patients
Their research team, together with Siemens experts, is
working to develop specific diagnostic practices, starting
in three principal areas: hepatology, gastroenterology,
and foetal medicine. As an example, in liver fibrosis, they
will study how to reduce or replace the number of biopsies
by a comprehensive integrated diagnostic practice that
can be used in the pre-symptomatic stages of disease. With this new research project, the goal is to find a new
non-invasive approach for the precise assessment of liver
cirrhosis. This could be developed by combining
biochemical markers with diagnostic imaging analysis.
“It is my belief that the integration of technology will be the factor that transforms healthcare.” Don Rucker, MD, Chief Medical Officer
Siemens Healthcare USA
“Molecular diagnostics integrated with therapeutics represents a major new opportunity in the era of personalized medicine.” Jared Schwartz, MD, PhD Pathology and Lab Medicine
The current method for determination of the level of liver
fibrosis is to undergo a liver biopsy, which is uncomfortable
and can be unsafe for the patient.
In the area of foetal medicine, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona
hopes to combine its knowledge of diagnostic methods
with the technological skills of Siemens to improve quality
of life for the mother and the fetus. Biomarkers, new IT
algorithms, and the development of new imaging methods
for analyzing the fetal brain and heart are the areas of
greatest joint development potential.
In many fields, not just healthcare, complex challenges
demand an interdisciplinary solution. When multiple
disciplines can be leveraged simultaneously with the
adequate technology, the possibilities for real
breakthroughs multiply. This is the case with integrated
diagnostics: the convergence of imaging technology and in
vitro diagnostics – enabled by advanced healthcare
information technology. This will not only mean earlier and
presumably better diagnoses and outcomes; it will also
move the patient through the healthcare system with
increasing efficiency, and help to reduce costs. Three
disciplines, working as one, could radically change
diagnosis and treatment for many chronic diseases.
At Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, this is the vision for the
future of diagnostics.
• Receive the most specific and necessary tests, procedures and therapies according to their health and disease state.
• Have enhanced dialogue with their healthcare provider.
• Play a more active role in their own well-being by gaining easier and earlier access to their diagnostic picture.
• Receive the right information, at the right time, to produce the best patient outcome.
• Make the optimal treatment decision sooner based on a complete diagnostic picture.
• Proactively manage patient care, rather than simply treat disease.
Working at Siemens gave me a whole new perspective to both biomedical engineering and the
healthcare industry. I learnt a lot of things that I think would be useful for me in future. Firstly I
witnessed the working of a big MNC like Siemens which provided me with knowledge about the
hierarchy of a big company, its marketing and sales strategies, its contribution and assistance
in research and development to stay as the pioneer in the field. How one needs to merge
different fields like electrical engineering, IT, biomedical engineering, etc. to make revolutionary
technologies. And how important it is to provide solutions to the simplest problems and hence
keep on innovating. Secondly I also gained a lot in the field of biomedical imaging, which I think
certainly added value to my current education.
Working here also inspired me to start up a company of my own someday in the field of
VIRAJ AGNIHOTRI Second Year Undergraduate,
Biological Sciences and Bioengineering
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Contains content from
• Healthcare Learning Academy, India